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Volume 2. Number5

Olympiad Corner
25th

United

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Mathematical
Olympiad:

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Part I (9am-noon,May 2, 1996)
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l- ..Mathematical Excalibur. ij. the receiver can similarly arrange the Figure2.~ *1 (angle.f. one would need to transmit an Figure3.#l!im GB -. A code that can correct1 error.Ix I Figure 5.. extra four redundant bits. For every four bits. If there is an error during transmission. the receivermay ~??) decode the message incorrectly. 1001) into a rectangular block and add parity bits to both rows and columns. ~igure 2). One possibleway is to use a table to encodethe message into binary digits.~)m-~:!6'!1.". ~gffl~~~~fiiJ Nav-Dec.'--I-. For the example shown.w-ar PJ.etc..: E-I=P *1 (medians) # I!i' E-~ with a similar table.'..~~: A B c D (/I)~) ~1I:t. f3J~rI1J~irJ~a~~o =-~~(l{j5j-~~::fif-@M. Vol. I I 0 °1 I 1 * I .if 10010000(for the letter H) is receivedas 10010100. BD -=-0 AB DC AC -=-9J-flj ." Figure4.$j..m# I!i. ASCII code sequence(e.g. 1001 would be encodedas 10011111(by fIrst appendingthe row parities and then the columnparities).) 1000011 1000100 1000101 1000110 1000111 1001000 1001001 1001010 1001011 1001100 M 1001101 N 1001110 J 100l1l1. For example. Even parity code ~ Is there an encodingmethod so that the receiver would be able to correct 1010001 transmission errors? Figure 5 showsone 1~10010 such method by arranging the bit Figure 1. Is there a One possibleway to detect transmission better way to do the encoding?In 1950. The abovemethod can be usedto correct one error but rather costly. from one ~Jl:tFWG~ABJ::~IffJ-1!i 0 computerto another./ be receivedas J (1001010)if there is an error at position6.. One such table is (altitudes) # I!i' E.£J'iJ~::iE:JJ.. . the letter H (1001000)would 0 I'I)( I .$t JjX.the American Standard Code for bisectors)~ I!i 0 ~ E. FB =-~. The letter H would be rf'\JWIiI'L'(incentre) 0 encodedas 1001000.f. Hammingfound an ingeniousmethodto append extra bits to the original (continuedon page 4) .ffijm~ ~.fIJ mJa~=-~~ 3Ift~=-~~"'I. the total number of l' s is an odd number.~~~.:g t£ Information Interchange(ASCII) shown m'L' (centroid)' ~ 'L' (orthocentre)~Din Figure 1.the letter E would be encodedas 1000101.a 0 or 1 is appendedso that the total number of 1's is an evennumber. Two computerstalking received sequence 11011111 into a rectangularblock and detectthat there is The receiver will be able to decodethe an error in row 1 and column2.7Jtl .For an evenparity code.i'l1!i $j. Then the receiver :gg-][:iE~fII\]~:iE~~{PJ.e..pjij~~~2:1£J'iJ.§:$ would be able to decode the message . However.the receiverknows that there is at least one error during transmission since the receivedbit sequencehas an odd parity.t87E-~Wfll\]E-i'lm~'~.~~ .tf.J:\~ilio ~ ~ '/1 ijJ m 11}]JJ:t~ (f~. No.m'{tl.:. 96 Pa~e 2 (-) (continued from page 1) Error Correcting Codes (Part I) . i. The letters Hand E would be representedby 10010000 and 10001011 respectively.e.m'rRJ~frj 1000010 m~~o **£-arjfrJffl#jf=-~~ ~OO~~'f*'~m (::I:/L\re~. the receiver can detect one transmission error.2.L~. i. With an even parity code. if there are transmissionerrors. but unable to correctit. E. errors is to add redundant bits.. say "HELLO.~H~~i1!? A 1000001 ~-gg-][::iE:JJ.l:t~ (*):fa (**)"DJ~ AF Tsz-MeiKo AG -=- Supposeone would like to transmit a message. say at position 2. For example. '" 1010000 S 1010011 1100001 1110011 1010100 1100010 1110100 10101011100011 1110101 1010110 1100100 1110110 1010111 11001011110111 1011000 11qO110 l1l1000 1011001 1100111 l1l1001 1011010 1101000 l1l1010 '0110000 1101001 0101110 0110001 11101010 0101100 0110010 Ic 1101011 0ll1111 0110011 1 1101100 0101001 0110100 ' 1101101 l1l1011 0110101 1101110 010l1l1 0110110 110l1l1 0100110 I 011011111110000 I I 0101011 0111000 c:r1110001 0101101 0111001 r 1110010 0l1l101 message. Error at position6.. ft"o =-~#1!i1l:t'~'1fijJ. messagecorrectly if there is no error during transmission..

lab- Solution: William CHEUNG Pot-man (STFALeungKauKui College.y) = (S.A. U3.) Othercommendedsolvers: CHAN Ming Chiu (La Salle College.Form 4). ***************** Memorial SecondarySchool. As x ranges over all from A to BC.1 . Show that All numbers on the intergal (-1. Yves Canossian College). U2. How many 3-elemen't + LABC= LMAH + LABC = 90°.A. Lam Woo College. Form 6). Elizabeth School. CHAN Wing Sum 6)2 + 13 = (x + y)2 by algebra. Form 5).A.JX2+ x + 1 -j. Define LA to be the line through A perpendicular to MN and -1 =-BC<AB-. the factors on the (S. lac -bdl.College. 1997.7). 2. Hong (0.Mathematical Excalibur. Problem 47. Solutions should be preceded by the solver's name.A. d are replacedby a -b..~). x + y + z ~ xyz + 2. Form 6).3).F. Please send submissions to Dr.. H. Form 7). LEUNG Wing Lon Ian 31. Leung Kau Kui College. to the problems posed below for 13 = [(x+y) + (xy-6)][(x+y) -(xy-6)]. c. Four integers are marked on a circle. College. Solutions LIU Wai Kwong (Poi Tak Canossian Let LA interSect the circumcircle of ***************** College). .be a Ling (HKU) and YUNG Fai (CUHK). 6). b -c.A. Form 7). Form 7). GIGGS (SKH Lam Woo Memorial YUNG Fai (CUHK). d a). Leung Kau Kui College. Clear Water Bay. 2. TSANG Sai Wing (Valtorta Problem 48. axis and the triangle inequality yields respectively. Leung Kau Kui College.J. Form 4). c=(t. A moves along the real the perpendicularsfrom H to AB.1) are LA.K. similarly define LB and Lc. CHENG Wing Kin (S. 3. Form CHEUNG Pok-man address. William are four possibilities yielding (x. N are concyclii::. CHUI Kong University of Science and Technology. Problem 43.H. Kowloon.O). LMAH = LMNH = 90° -LANM = integers x. Then (xy . Since 13 is prime. So the answer to the problemis 1140 -120 -225 = 795. What are the possible the numbersare either all odd (there are valuesof oJX2+ x + 1 -. (STFA Leung Kau Kui College. let H be the foot of the perpendicular is just AB -AC.T.H. For an acutetriangle ABC. . (3. y are nonnegative integers Solution: CHAN Ming ChiD (La Salle suchthat (xy -7)2 = r + y2.. Yves CHEUNG Yui Ho (S. Nov-Dec. d such that the numbers Ibc -adl. LIU Wai Form 7). Show that 1996 divides infinitely many terms of this sequence. Leung Kau Kui College. CHUI Yuk Man (Queen POON Wing Chi (La Salle College. point O. 96 P~e3 Supposex.4). Let UI. AC. YU Chon Problem 49. Is it possibleafter 1996 suchstepsto have numbers a. z are real numbers Kui College. FOrm 5). Vol. There are C. LIU Wai Kwong (Poi Tak Leung Kau Kui College.T. Dept of Mathematics. Leung Kau Man (STFA Leung Kau Kui College.F.. N be the feet of real numbers. Squares ABDE and BCFG Kwong (pui Tak Canossian College). Kin-Yin li. y satisfying (xy -7Y = x2-+ LNAE = LCBE.AC< BC= 1.O = 1140 3-elementsubsets Problem Corner sequence of integers such that UI = 29. On each step we simultaneouslyreplace each number by the difference betweenthis number and next number on the circle in a given direction (that is. We welcome readers to submit solutions Lam Woo Memorial SecondarySchool. Form 6) and DG is parallel to AC. A.K. 2.T. Form 5).. b. The deadline for submitting solutions is Chin (La Salle College. 3. Lam Woo (STFALeungKauKui College.F0ffil6). but the even one is not divisible by 4 (therc are C~Ox5=225 such subsets). SecondarySchool.F. CHEUNG Cheuk Lun publication consideration.T. Form 5). (This was an unusedproblem problem in the 1996 IMO. FOrm 7). (HKU). So Problem 41. one even. Solution: William CHEUNG Pok-man CHENG Wing Kin (S. YU Chon Ling LANH.T. school affiliation and grade right side can only be :tl or :t13.) proposedby Iceland in a past IMO. the numbersa.F. Form 6).0). b. There 6). So (HKUST). YU Chon Ling POON Wing Chi (La Salle College.T.K. Form 5).H. Problem 42. Leung Kau Kui College.A. So AE is a dianleter of the circumcircle and Solution: Gary NG Ka Wing (STFA subse~of the setX= {I. No. (4. YUEN Chu Ming (Kiangsuare drawn outside of triangle ABC. LB and Lc pass through a common cd I are primes? (Source: unused possible. Since LAMH = 900 = College. c. Let A=(x. Henry NG Ka X2-x +a divide Xl3 + x + 90? CHEUNG Yui Ho(S. Gary NG Ka Wing (STFA such that X2+ y2 + Z2= 2.. 6).F. Other commendedsolvers: CHAN Ming Yuk Man (Queen Elizabeth School. 20} are there such that the product of the 3 Leung Kau Kui College. (continuedon page 4) numbersin the subsetis diVisible by 4? 2- The expression. Form 6). Form 5). CHING Wai Form 6). Form 5). Find all nonnegative (HKU) and YUNG Fai (CUHK). y. Prove that triangle ABC is isosceles if Form 7). M. FUNG Tak K wan (La Salle CHENG Wing Kin (S. (7.Form 6). Memorial SecondarySchool.F. U2= 45 and Un+2= Un+? -Un for n = 1. Form 6). If x. For what integer a does William CHEUNG Pok-man (S.2 ~ as x cjO = 120 such subsets)or two odd and rangesoverall realnumbers? 1986 CanadianMathematical Olympiad with modification) Problem 50. (Source: of X.B=(-t. Let M.~). POON Wing Chi (La Salle MBC at A and E. Form level. then show that Hung (S. Problem 44.2=-. Form Problem 46. Now LABE = LCBE y. c -d. For a 3-element subsetwhose 3 numbers have product not divisible by 4. TING Kwong Chi & David ChekiangCollege (Shatin).

.i ?? C~.H {iiJ--1li. To encode a four.:tt ISOD.t: '04. r}f".. /jl}. Form 7) and YU Chon Ling (HKU). Problem 45. abc = 1. P6. we get For the example shown. 6 ab 0 . Y. 0..). This (7. l<~ fJ L).'Z. equality can occur if and only if a = b = c = I. Hammingcode If there is one error during transmission. p~~ Cir-c.V. (with proof) whether there is a subset X of the integers with the following property: for any integer n there is exactly one solution of a + 2b = n with a. (continuedfrom page 3) LA passesthrough the circumcenter O.A X Yz. b. z ~:fJ f3c. b E X.~~l. ! iJ.umC£l:Itr~ N . So using this and encoded as 1001001. 1m j 1£4t (continuedfrom page 1) £1/fe-c.ti:.&iJ." . . ~ Igo. 1~~lv1'~ ~A8c.. 5.~ AASc.go-. L).) Solution: YUNG Fai (CUHK) . C and put the information dimensional space to obtain a (15. LPBA = 20°. Other commendedsolvers: POON Wing Chi (La Salle College. '\~~ t> ~i~ . Then three parity bits Ps. /r ". --~""c:>C><:5" -~ t>A~'~""j-a ~'~1'f1 G ~ 1/':". f-r. bit.. B.'" ColA'" c. AnC.ABc. XYz.~ A Xyz ~ Problem 4.P4 into the four overlapping Hamming code. Hamming has also regions AnB. ~ £).~ Mathematical Excalibur.! o~::~H = /=2. Triangle ABC has the ~~. PJ. P1 are generated so that the total number of l's in each circle is an even number.~t' . 1. . FOrin 5). 1. S. Other commended solvers: Calvin CHEUNG Cheuk Lon (STFA Leung Kau Kui College. 2. Determine through O. Olympiad Corner Problem 5. .4) means that every4 information bits are encoded add the redundancy. 0 in that order.N ~ "of/v' "!1~A. In fact.. one For example.. LB and Lc will pass Problem 6.4) (continued from page 2) Hammingcode(the notation (7. one may draw 4 would first draw three intersecting intersecting spheres in a threecircles A. 1001 would be a5 + b5 ~ a2b2(a+b). Let a. xn) in which each term is either 0 or 1 is called a binary sequenceof lengthn.May 2. LPCA = 30°. optimum for single error correction. Prove that triangle ABC is isosceles.-'I@~ A )( Y z. sequence PIP1P3P4(say 1001). -iff) h :JtJ"~~ ~ FtBc.1~ ~ Co. ". we get ab as + b5 + ab ~ : (. Let anbe the numberof binary sequences of length n containing no three consecutiveterms equal to 0.t. Vol. say 1001001 received as 1011001... to be continued) R~h ~ IJ'1-e-!&\ x-C22 c. . 1996) following property: there is an interior . BnC and AnBnC proved that his coding method is (Figure 6). 0.... No. ~).. Let bn be the number of binary sequencesof length n that contain no four consecutiveterms equal to 0. the ~'""DC><::5~-receiver can check the parities of the three circles to find that the error is in Error Correcting Codes(part I) circles B and C but not in A. An n-term sequence(Xl' X2.as a 7 bit sequence)can be generalized.11) bits Pl. Expanding (a3-b3)(a2 -b1 ~ 0. )CY z. Co )( Figure6.' 9~A'f ~ .. LIU Wai Kwong (Pui Tak Canossian College). we get the desiredinequality. Nov-Dec.~A o!.96 Problem Corner PMe4 point P such that LPAB = 10°.~nt. Foml 7) and YU Chon Ling (HKU). ~~ (HA.'. 0 Part n (lpm-4pm.-:s: ~'f!1 .t:J:.R8 "~1'D'~. Pl. 1. I N t.-" ~t yotl.-:1ji.. POON Wing Chi (La Salle College. Prove that bn+l=2an for all positive integersn. c> 0 and abc=l Showthat ab bc + as+bs+ab ca"" +~ bs+cs+bc l cs+as+ca (This was an unused problem in IMO96.. 1-18. ~'ft. ~~ ." o.tt3) C ()f') a+b+c Adding 3 such inequalities. Similarly.!j: I~~ 50 Yo ."e point . 0 in that order. 1 or 1. LPAC = 40°. 11c. ~ T "" '1'.. ~ GN : 0& --= : GrH 1 ~ 2.~ .