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- Classification of Disturbances in Hybrid Power System Using Modular PNN and SVMs

**M. J. González-Redondo1, A. Moreno-Muñoz2, J. J. González de la Rosa3
**

1

**Departamento de Electrotecnia y Electrónica. Área de Tecnología Electrónica.
**

E.P.S. Universidad de Córdoba.

C/ María Virgen y Madre, s/n. 14071 Córdoba. SPAIN.

Tel: +34-957-218423. fax: +34-957-218316. e-mail: el1gorem@uco.es

2

3

**Departamento de Electrotecnia y Electrónica. Área de Electrónica.
**

E.P.S. Universidad de Córdoba.

**Departamento de Ingeniería de Sistemas y Automática, Tecnología Electrónica y Electrónica. Área de Electrónica.
**

E.P.S. de Algeciras. Universidad de Cádiz.

Abstract.

**Nowadays there is an increasing number of
**

electric and electronics equipment that has carried out a

growing number of problems that affect to the power quality.

Several studies on power quality have been made in order to

detect and localise that kind of problems. For such objective it

has been used the Wavelet Transform that allows the detection

and localisation of disturbances in the voltage waveform. At

laboratory level it is possible to use several tools, such as the

Matlab Wavelet Toolbox that includes basic commands and a

graphic environment. To begin with the study of this tool and

its capability in detecting disturbances in the voltage waveform

we need several test signals with known disturbances. This

paper presents two applications developed for the study of

Power Quality based on the Matlab environment.

Key words

Power quality, disturbances detection, wavelet analysis,

wavelet transform, Matlab.

1. Introduction

In recent years, the power quality has been matter of

several studies. But nowadays, the growing amount of

electric and electronics equipment, such as personal

computers [1], has led to an increasing number of

problems that affect power quality [2] [3]. The

disturbances that affect power quality range from

undervoltages to harmonics, and many others, like flicker

or transients [4]. This has led to a growing interest in the

study of power quality.

Recent advances in signal analysis have led to the

development of new methods for characterisation and

identification of several kinds of waveform disturbances.

Most of the effort in the power quality subject has been

made in the detection and localisation of such kind of

problems. The wavelet transform can be used to detect

and localise several types of disturbances of the

waveform. This mathematical tool is useful in the

extraction of very important information from the

distorted waveform.

**Previously to the application of the wavelet transform to
**

real signals we must carry out a study with a variety of

signals, and it highly important that we know everything

about them. So, in this sense, we need to generate several

signals with known parameters like their amplitudes,

frequencies and so on. Moreover, we need to be able to

alter these signals with known disturbances. For such

need we have developed an easy-to-use application.

In order to apply the wavelet transform to our test signals

we can use several tools. One of these is the Matlab

Wavelet Toolbox. This toolbox owns a powerful graphic

environment, but for our purpose it doesn’t fit all of our

necessities, and it has some options that we don’t need.

For that reason we have developed another graphical

environment personalised to apply only those commands

from the wavelet toolbox that we need, and some routines

that we can develop to apply to the signals and to the

output from the wavelet transform.

This paper is organised as follows. In section 2 we

present a brief introduction to the wavelet transform; in

section 3 we explain how the test signal generator has

been developed; section 4 is devoted to the graphical

environment for the wavelet transform application and,

finally, in section 5 we present the conclusions.

**2. The wavelet transform
**

The integral wavelet transform of a function f(t) with

respect to an analysing wavelet ψ is defined as

∞

Wψ f (b, a ) = ∫ f (t )ψ b ,a (t )dt

−∞

where

ψ b ,a (t ) =

1

a

ψ

t −b

, a>0

a

The integral shown in the expressions above becomes Wψ f (k 2 − s . in the first level of our laboratory studies. Fig. Transients. The most important of these parameters will be the beginning and duration time. such as the time in which the disturbance begins. and the hypothetical sampling frequency. 1. sags and swells. - n 3. Example of different disturbances Fig. Figure 1 shows the graphical environment that we have named “Perturba”. Dips. 10 seconds and a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz. In this sense. our application allows us to specify this sampling frequency. in this sense. Wψ f (k 2 − s . it is necessary to have several test signals altered with completely known disturbance (type and characteristics).2 − s ) = 2 s / 2 ∫ ∞ −∞ f (t )ψ (2 s t − k )dt Discretizing the function f(t) and assuming a sampling rate of 1. This program work as follows. for example. for simplicity. Disturbed Signal Generator (Perturba). Disturbed signal generator To get some conclusions from the results that give the application of the wavelet transform. Frequency variations. amplitude and duration of the “mother signal”. 220 V. it will be the “mother signal” that will generate the program. Fig. Because we are going to work with the Matlab Wavelet Toolbox we decided to develop our “disturbed signal generator” using Matlab too. its duration. So. The default values are 50 Hz. amplitude. 2. In this sense. but by mean of the proper transformation we can get something like a time-frequency analysis.2 − s ) ≈ 2 s / 2 ∑ f (n)ψ (2 s n − k ) This graphical environment has been designed to apply the most common types of disturbances in power quality. The integral wavelet transform provides a time-scale analysis. due to the wide range of commercial equipment available for test and measurement and their variety of characteristics. Flicker. Slow and fast voltage variations. An advantage of such characteristic of our application is that we could observe the influence of the sampling frequency in the results obtained. because they will be the key data to check if the wavelet transform is able to detect the point in which the disturbance happens. For that. We can see in the detailed figure 2 that the signal duration must be specified in seconds. As happens with the Fourier Transform.The parameters b and a are known as translation and dilation parameters. we must specify the frequency. it is very important to have the possibility specifying the sampling frequency of these test signals. we have the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). In figure 3 and 4 we have specified different disturbance in order to show their characteristic parameters. we have developed an easy to use graphical environment that allows us to generate such signals and apply them disturbances. For each disturbance we must specify several additional parameters. In figure 1 we can see an example in which the pure signal is affected by two different kinds of disturbances. . we have that Since the typical voltage waveform is a sine signal with a frequency of 50 Hz. Harmonics. A later aim of our study will be to validate the conclusions obtained from the application of wavelet transform to real signals. First. Parameters of the “mother signal” Once we have determined the mother signal. we must specify the disturbance or disturbances that affect to this signal. order or frequency. That is: One important characteristic of this expression is that to compute the wavelet transform of a function at some point in the time-scale plane all we need is the function at those values of time at which the wavelet is nonzero [5]. 3. we can apply it up to four different disturbances.

Haar wavelet. More disturbances 0 -50 After that. -100 -150 -200 -250 0 0. In figure 1 and 5 we can see two examples in which we specify a name for the . So. Level. -25 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Fig. for example. Detail coefficients level 1. It is obvious that we could determine the time in which the disturbance appears. To get these detail coefficients we can simply use the correct commands provides by the Matlab wavelet toolbox. 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 4. which we have plotted in figure 8.Variacion de frecuencia 250 200 150 100 50 Fig. We can see the details coefficients of level 1 in figure 8. Apply the different wavelet transforms of the Matlab toolbox to this set of signals. Let us see it with an example. in this sense. Try to identify the location of the disturbance by means of a visual inspection of the wavelet coefficients. we need only three lines of Matlab code to get the detail coefficients vectors.15 0.C. because this is the input format of the program that applies the wavelet transform.45 0. 220 V of amplitude.1 seconds.Transform.2 0.25 0. Finally.mat” format. Trans form ada Haar. For instance. can generate the disturbed signal only by clicking on the button “Generar señal”.L] = wavedec (s. as shows figure 5. For the example we have exposed above. “Peturba” allows us to specify a name for the file in which the generated signal is going to be stored.35 0. at detail level 1 we get something like the graph shown in figure 7.4 0. Detail) In the “Coef” variable we will obtain the mentioned coefficients vector. This action generates the signal and plots it in the figure of the lower part of the window. we will proceed with the generation of the signal. To see the parts of the signal in which we are interested we have a scroll bar below the figure and two buttons to perform a “page scroll” of the figure.3 0. For that purpose we need to use the lower part of the main window of “Perturba”.5 Fig. We can see in the figure 6 that this kind of disturbance is visually imperceptible. Transform) Coef = wrcoef (‘d’. duration of 2 seconds and sampling frequency of 5 kHz. After that we can proceed applying to this signal the different wavelet transforms. we could choose to apply the “Daubechies” wavelet. Signal with frequency variation.L. Here. but not when it ends. we’d conclude that the Haar wavelet at level 1 isn’t good enough in order to detect such kind of disturbance.mat file. To identify this time we could apply the following steps: - Generate a set of test signals with known disturbance beginning and duration times. This signal has the following characteristics: frequency of 50 Hz. These could be something like this: l_s = length (s) [C. we need to export our signal in “. 7. Coefic ientes d1 25 20 Fig. 5. 6.2 seconds with a duration of 0. instead of the Haar wavelet. 4. Clearly we could determine the time in which the disturbance appears and disappears because there are two maxims of the coefficients in such times. Now. Applying wavelet transforms Locating the time in which the disturbances occur is one of the capabilities of the wavelet transform in power quality. once we have specified one or several disturbances. To this signal we have applied a frequency variation of -1% in t=0. Plotting a signal with one disturbance. if we choose the “Haar” wavelet transform.05 0.1 0. Suppose that we have generate a signal with “Perturba”. .

Applying a specific algorithm. In case this algorithm would produce a graphical output we could see it in the lower left part of the window. we only have to add its code to .mat format. Figure 9 shows the graphical environment developed for the above procedure. Fig. Although the visual inspection of the detail coefficient vectors obtained from the application of different wavelets was one of the first methods used. it order and the level of the detail coefficients we desire to study. And finally. in . So. This application has been developed using Matlab and its Wavelet Toolbox. choosing the analysis “LocalMax” shown in figure 12. 11. Apply an algorithm to the coefficients vector in order to obtain useful information. Wavelet transform to be applied In figure 11 we see that we can export the detail coefficients vector to a file. 10. Coeficientes d1 allows us to select the test signal and display it in the upper right part of the window. For instance. We specify in this case the transform to be applied. 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Fig. Instead of that. Fig. Fig. Fig. Select a wavelet and obtain the desired coefficients vector. 12. According with that necessity we have developed another easy to use application that allows us to apply the following procedure: - Choose a file with the signal under test. like the inspection of the squared wavelet coefficients (SWC) and the energy curve of the signal given [6]. Detail coefficients form Daubechies wavelet. the lower part of the window allows us to choose some specific algorithm to apply to the vector of coefficients given by the wavelet transform. It consist of three regions in the left part of the window shown in figure 9. we can use several methods proposed by different authors. Parameters of the selected signal The second part on the left side is for selecting and applying of wavelet transforms. Graphical environment for wavelet. If we design another algorithm. it is not very useful. in order to get a tool to rapidly perform a lot of tests to signals.Transformada db4. The first Using this new tool we can easily perform several analysis to all the test signals we generated with “Perturba”. we need to apply some additional treatment to the data obtained from the wavelet transform through a specific algorithm. 8. in this case. This application has been developed trying to make the task as easier as possible. 9. we obtain the beginning and ending time in which the disturbance occurs.

S.218316. June 2001. Goswami J. Estados Unidos. [5].218423. Chan. [6]. 1994. “Identification of power quality disturbances using the Matlab wavelet transform toolbox”. Resende. et al. [2]. International conference on renewable energy and power quality. 2004. C. “Guía sobre la calidad de la onda en las redes eléctricas”. Further Information Questions concerning the functionality and use of the applications described in this paper may be addressed to the following address: Dpto.. The main benefits of both application is the huge time saving in the studies we need to do. Phyladelphia. UNESA. “Fundamentals of Wavelets”. Unesa. 1998. devoted to simplify the above procedure. 1999.957.. what we think is extremely important in the first stage of the study. A. “Electric power quality disturbance detection using wavelet transform analysis”. Huang. Santoso. John Wiley & Sons.. Pp 87-93. USA . J. Rio de Janerio. To simplify that procedure we have developed two simple but efficient applications under Matlab. s/n 14004 Córdoba (Spain) Phone number: 0034. Electric Power Systems Research. 6. “Power Quality in a university campus: the user’s perspective”. Fax number: 0034.the .es References [1]. Example of signal and disturbance. Brasil.. IEEE SP International Syposium on Time-Frequency and TimeScale Analysis. do the different wavelet transforms and finally apply some specific algorithms to the coefficient vectors make it very tedious. K. In figure 13 we see an example of other signal affected by disturbances. .957. Pp 166-169. Electrotecnia yElectrónica Universidad de Córdoba C/María Virgen y Madre. The repetitive procedure of load a signal. The second application. [4]. In the opinion of the authors. A. Fig. International Conference on Power System Transient. 5. 47. S. Moreno-Muñoz. W. et al.. these applications have proved their effectiveness through the first studies accomplished with a set of more than one hundred signals. [3]. 13. is as useful and important as the first. et al. The first one allows us to have a set of signals with known disturbance. et al. and then we can apply the new algorithm to the test signals. e-mails: el1gorem@uco.m file of the application. “Application of wavelets to classify power system disturbances”.. 1996. Conclusion In order to study the usefulness of wavelet transform in power quality we have the possibility of using the Matlab Wavelet Toolbox.

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