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**Fundamentals and applications
**

Sachin Jangam

**Minerals, Metals and Materials Technology Centre (M3TC),
**

ME Department, NUS

**Prof Arun S Mujumdar
**

Minerals, Metals and Materials Technology Centre (M3TC),

Liquid

Gas

ME Department, NUS

Date – January 28, 2011

Humidification

Inter-phase transfer of mass and energy which results when a gas is

brought in to contact with a pure liquid in which the gas is essentially

insoluble

Humidification operation – General term

- Humidification of gas

- Dehumidification of gas

- Cooling of gas

- Cooling of liquid

- Measurement of its vapor content

Liquid

Gas

**The matter transferred between phases – constituent of liquid phase
**

Vaporization or condensation

This mass transfer is accompanied by heat transfer

**Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
**

Vapor Pressure

Every liquid exerts an equilibrium pressure

depends on temperature

Vapor pressure plotted against the temperature

P=1atm

A

Liquid

D

Gas

B

E

C

Tnbp

**Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
**

Interpolation between data

Vapor pressure – temperature data is available for common liquids such as

water, refrigerants…..

For other liquids very few data available

Common methods uses Clausius-Clapeyron equation

Molal latent heat

dp

λ'

=

dT T (υ G − υ L )

Molal specific volumes

Liquid

Gas

Neglecting υL and using ideal gas, the simplified form is

dp λ dT

=

p RT 2

'

ln p = −

λ'

RT

+ constant

Enthalpy Enthalpy (H) = U + pυ Liquid Gas Typical Enthalpy Temperature diagram .

Enthalpy Saturated vapor A’ A Relative Enthalpy H1 Liquid H2 vapor B Critical point H3 Gas H4 C Saturated liquid D t4 t2 H1-H2 = C(t1 –t2) t1 Temperature tcrit .

Basic Terms in Humidification Absolute Humidity moles A pA y A pA Y= = = y B pB pt − pA moles B MA pA M A mass A Y =Y = M B pt − pA M B mass B ' Saturated vapor-gas mixture and its Absolute Humidity Liquid Gas pA YS = p t − pA MA Y = YS MB ' S .

Basic Terms in Humidification Contd. Unsaturated vapor-gas mixture Dry Bulb temperature pA RH = ×100 pA Percentage saturation or percentage absolute humidity Liquid Gas Y ×100 YS Y' ×100 ' YS Absolute humidity Relative saturation or relative humidity Y1’ Y2’ G F H T2 TDP Dew Point (Tdp) Temperature .

41 υ H = + 273 Pt MB MA 1 Y' t G + 273 = 8315 + Pt MB MA Humid Heat (CS) Liquid Gas CS = C B + Y 'C A Q = WBCS ∆t Contd.Basic Terms in Humidification Humid Volume (υH) 1 t G + 273 1.013 ×105 Y' 22. .

Enthalpy (H’) Enthalpy of gas Enthalpy of vapor H ' = C B (t G − t 0 ) + Y ' [C A (t G − t DP ) + λDP + C A.Basic Terms in Humidification Contd.L (t DP − t 0 )] For simplification H ' = C B (t G − t 0 ) + Y ' [C A (t G − t 0 ) + λ0 ] Liquid Gas = CS (t − t 0 ) + Y 'λ0 .

Adiabatic saturation curves Gs’ mass dry gas time-1 area-1 Gs’ Y ’ 2 H ’ 2 t G2 Y ’ Absolute humidity 1 H ’ Enthalpy 1 t Dry bulb temperature G1 L1 mass liquid time-1 area-1 Liquid Gas H Enthalpy L t temperature L Adiabatic Gas-Liquid Contact .

) An enthalpy balance is G H + LHL = G H ' S ' 1 ' ' S ' 2 On Simplification H + (Y .Adiabatic saturation curves Mass balance for substance A ( L' = G S' Y2' .Y1' Contd.Y1' )C A.L (t L − t 0 ) Liquid Gas = CS2 (t G2 − t 0 ) + Y2' λ0 .Y )H L = H ' 1 ' 2 ' 1 ' 2 According to definition of H CS1 (t G1 − t 0 ) + Y1'λ0 + (Y2' .

there will be humidification and cooling of gas till tas . the final form would be (t G1 − t as ) = (Y ' as −Y ' 1 λas )C S1 Using this equation the adiabatic saturation lines can be plotted Liquid Gas For any vapor gas mixture there exist the adiabatic saturation temperature such that if contacted with liquid a this temperature. Simplifying for a special case at saturation temperature.Adiabatic saturation curves Contd.

W PA.Wet bulb temperature Definition Vapor gas mixture Liquid Drop TG PA.G TG TW Liquid Effective Gas Film Sensible heat Gas Latent heat PA.G .

Measurement of Wet bulb temperature Boundary layer Wick Gas Thermometer TW TG PA’ Make up liquid Gas Temperature T Humidity Y Liquid Gas PA TW .

Calculations Heat transfer from the gas to the liquid Q t = h G A(TG − TW ) or Q t = WA λ Mass transfer rate can be written as WA = k G A (YW − YG ) Using above equation Liquid Gas Wet bulb depression (TG − TW ) = λ (YW − Y ) hG kG Psychrometric ratio Use Lewis relation to calculate hG/kG for air – water system Le = hG =1 K G CS .

Air-water system Liquid Gas .

622 pH 2O 1. H 2 O M B = 28.0133 × 10 − pH 2O 5 kg H 2 O kgair kg H 2 O kgair υ H = (0.0133 × 10 − pH 2O 5 0. air Y = 0.02 kg/kmol.97 kg/kmol.Air-water system Psychrometric relations at 1std atm M A = 18.00456 Y ' ) (t G + 273) m 3 mixture/kg air Liquid Gas CS = 1005 + 1884 Y ' J / (kg air) ⋅ °C t 0 = 0°C λ0 = 2502 300 J / kg .622 pH 2O ' Y = ' S 1.00283 + 0.

Using Psychrometric chart j h k n l 100% e o Liquid Humidity Volume m Percentage Sat c b a Gas d f T1 Temperature .

Heating and Humidification Liquid Gas .

Cooling and Dehumidification Liquid Gas .

Applications of Humidification Cooling of liquid (Cooling Towers) Cooling of gases Recovery of vapors from gas mixtures Dehumidification in pharmaceutical industries Application in drying technology Desalination of water using humidification Liquid Gas .

Cooling Towers Main Function Types of Cooling towers Direct evaporative cooling towers Natural Draft Mechanical draft Induced draft Liquid Gas Forced draft Indirect evaporative cooling towers .

Cooling Towers Liquid Gas .

Cooling Towers .subtypes Liquid Gas Induced draft Forced draft .

Cooling Towers .subtypes Liquid Gas .

Cooling Towers Liquid Gas .

Yf Counter current flow of air and water . Y Water film Liquid Gas Air film Water-air interface Tf.Cooling Towers – Calculation of height Bulk water TW Bulk air TG.

Cooling Towers – Calculation of height Water Balance dL' = G S '⋅dY' Enthalpy Balance L'⋅C L ⋅ dt L = G'S ⋅CS ⋅ dTG + G'S ⋅λ0 dY' = G'S dH'G Only small amount of liquid is evaporated H'G = CS (t G − t 0 ) + λ0 Y' H L = C L (t L − t 0 ) G'⋅dH'G = L'⋅dH L Liquid Gas After Integration G'S ⋅(H'G2 -H'G1 ) = L'⋅C L ⋅ (t L2 .t L1 ) .

Cooling Towers – Calculation of height Liquid Gas H’ = Enthalpy per mass of dry gas H’G2* H’G2 O Slope= (LCA/G) H’G1 * H’G1 N tL1 Temperature tL2 .

Cooling Towers – Calculation of height Heat transfer from the body of the liquid to interface h L ⋅ a ⋅ dz ⋅ ( t L − t f ) = L'⋅C L ⋅ dt L Heat transfer from the bulk gas to interface h G ⋅ a ⋅ dz ⋅ ( t f − t G ) = G'S ⋅CS ⋅ dTG Mass transfer from the interface to gas K Y ⋅ a ⋅ dz ⋅ (Y'f −Y' ) = G'S ⋅dY' Liquid Gas Putting all values in following equation L'⋅C L ⋅ dt L = G'S ⋅CS ⋅ dTG + G'S ⋅λ0 dY' = G'S dH'G .

Cooling Towers – Calculation of height G'S dH'G = h G ⋅ a ⋅ dz ⋅ ( t f − t G ) + λ0 ⋅ K Y ⋅ a ⋅ dz ⋅ (Y'f −Y' ) G'S dH'G = K Y ⋅ a [(CS rt f − λ0 Y'f ) − (CS rt G − λ0 Y' ) ]dz r= hGa CS k Y a If the Lewis relation is applied then r =1 Liquid Gas G'S dH'G = K Y ⋅ a [H'Gf -H'G ]dZ hG Le = =1 h D CS .

Cooling Towers – Calculation of height or K Ya dH'G dz = (H'f −H'G ) G'S Integration of this equation G'S z = ∫ dz = KY ⋅ a 1 2 2 dH'G ∫1 (H'f −H'G ) Liquid Gas Assumption is kY is constant z = HTU × NTU .

Y2’ Humidity L2’ = 15kg/s TL2= 45°C L1’ TL2= 29°C Liquid Gas GS’ TG1 TW1 H1’ Y1’ Yas Y2 Y1 tas tG2 tG1 Temperature .Cooling and Dehumidification GS’ TG2.

Cooling and Dehumidification G'S ⋅dY' = K Y ⋅ a ⋅ (Y'as −Y' )dz Y '2 ∫ Y '1 dY' KY ⋅ a = dz ∫ (Y'as −Y' ) G'S 0 z Since Yas is constant (Y'as −Y'1 ) K Y aZ = = NTG ln (Y'as − Y'2 ) G'S Liquid Gas G'S HTG = KY a .

Application in drying Condenser Dryer Compressor Evaporator Liquid Gas .

Air cycle on Psychrometric chart .dehumidifying atmospheric air in evaporator and reheating to a desired temperature in the condenser of heat pump can be used beneficially in drying for better drying rate and product quality Liquid Gas Absolute Humidity 100% RH 2 3 1 4 Temperature Air Cycle in HPD .

Dehumidification using desiccants Types of desiccants Absorbent Liquids or solids (Examples. Liquid Gas (Examples. Lithium and sodium chloride) Adsorbent Solids. Molecular sieves. silica gel) .

Desalination of water using HD operation Liquid Gas .

Lecture on Humidification For Your Attention Liquid Gas .

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