SPEAKING

UNIT 4
(WEEK 6)
Resources for Teaching EFL
Enrique Lafuente

1

LECTURE OUTLINE I. The process of speaking • Differences between speaking and writing • Production strategies • Learner communication strategies II. elicitation. etc. Speaking activities • Features of interaction activities • Types of speaking activities (different performance) III. 2 . Corrective feedback on speaking • Effects of affective feedback  • Effects of cognitive feedback Other aspects: incentives.

– Reciprocity conditions in speaking:  • • 3 Speaker obtains corrective feedback The message is adapted (negotiation of meaning) . structures more simple  & grammatical accuracy is reduced. organise  & remember Sentences tend to be shorter. The process of speaking Speaking and writing: differences – Processing conditions affecting speaking: • • Time limitations Æaffects our ability to plan.I.

NS production strategies Even native speakers use different strategies to facilitate production & to compensate for difficulties: • Facilitative strategies: 1.  • Compensation strategies: 4 1. 2. 4. 3. . Rephrasing/ reformulating. False starts/ repetition.  3.  Time fillers/ hesitation devices. Symplifying structure (simple syntax).  Ellipsis: semantic or syntactic Formulaic/ conventional expressions. Self‐corrections. 2.

Learner communication strategies Recap on communicative competence (Canale &  Swain 1983): – Linguistic competence: knows rules & lexis – Sociolinguistic competence: is apropriate to context. participants – Discourse competence: organises a text with coherence. etc. purpose. good paragraphs. – Strategic/ Pragmatic competence: uses  communication strategies 5 . cohesion.

 topic switching – use of synonyms  – using simple sentences 6 .Learner communication strategies STRATEGIC/ PRAGMATIC COMPETENCE: • Achievement strategies:  – Guessing strategies. What do you do if you don’t  know a word/structure in English? – Paraphrase strategies • Reduction strategies: – avoidance.

 etc… 9Task principle: • • 7 L2 is used to achieve an outcome L2 is used for purpose (contextualized) . realistic.II. useful.  • • Information gap Æ sharing information Interaction and negotiation of meaning 9Meaningfulness principle: • L2 related to their interests. Speaking activities:   BASIC COMMUNICATIVE PRINCIPLES (REVISITED):  9Communication principle: SLA takes place by using  language in communication.

 opinions Æ meaningfulness 3.Features of interactive activities Communicative interaction activities:  • When designing and choosing activities we need to  take make sure that (Hedge: 2000) : 1. + feedback) 8 . Practice is contextualised: structures used  must be related to the semantic context 2. Language is personalised: SS express their own  ideas. Language is appropriate to social context 4. Confidence is built in SS (success. feelings.

 correctness) • Communicative activities (Fluency) – Zanón (1999): • Supporting tasks (Linguistic/ pedagogical) • Final tasks (communication) 9 .Types of speaking activities:   Activities in CLT can have two main objectives:  Accuracy Vs Fluency ÆTwo corresponding types of activities:  – Littlewood (1981): • Pre‐communicative (Structural/ quasi‐communic) • Communicative activities (Functional / Social) – Harmer (2001): • Practice activities (accuracy.

 etc. summaries. 10 . Responsive: question‐answer 4.Types of speaking activities: different types of performance Different activities may require different types of  speaking performance (‐/+ communicative) Brown (2001) suggests 6 types of performance: 1. chants. presentations. Extensive: reports. Interpersonal: Information exchange and  maintaining social relations (e. rhymes. Intensive: Focus on specific components 3.g. roleplays) 6. etc. 2. Transactional: Information exchange 5. Imitative: Drills.

 C. Harmer 1983. Sample speaking activities promoting different  types of speaking performance (several  authors)  3. 11 . Read.unizar.Types of speaking activities:   Check selected readings (moodle2. Phillips. Bygate (pp.70‐74) cites activities from several  authors (Ur 1981.) 2. (2007). Drama with children (1999)  4. A selection of activities for  practicing speaking with young learners. etc.es): 1.

When to correct? ‐ Learning is conscious or unconscious? ‐ Immediately or at the end ‐ Accuracy activities Vs Fluency activities 3. What to correct? ‐ Mistakes/lapses Vs systemic errors ‐ Global errors Vs Local errors 2. Possible negative/ positive effects? ‐ Negative reinforcement (Skinner) ‐ Inhibition. lack of confidence ‐ Opportunity to discover for oneself 12 .III Corrective feedback on Speaking Correction of errors: (See Brown 2001: 288/ Harmer 2001) 1.

III Corrective feedback on Speaking Feedback from an AFFECTIVE perspective (Vigil & Oller) ORAL ABORT OUTPUT CONTINUE CONTINUE Explicit negative correction Indirect correction 13 No correction .

monitoring RECYCLE ORAL OUTPUT RECYCLE CONTINUE Explicit correction Indirect correction. revising. recast 14 No correction FOSSILIZATION .III Corrective feedback on Speaking Feedback from a COGNITIVE perspective Å Å Noticing.

15 . Analyse oral scripts of classroom  interactions and answer the questions TASK 3.III Corrective feedback on Speaking TASKS 1 & 2. Moon (2000) Error correction and  feedback. Harmer (2001) Feedback during  accuracy work: Discuss and exemplify  different strategies for providing direct and  indirect feedback during oral activities  focused on accuracy.

IV. matching – Others?  TASK 4. Listen to the recording and identify five  different ways of eliciting a response 16 . and objects – Describing – Guessing – Basic tasks: comparing. classifying. Elicitation techniques A number of techniques may be used to elicit  simple/short answers from students: – Using flashcards. Moon (2000: 48‐49): Eliciting Language.

 Discuss different  techniques/ strategies  you can use to reward the learners that speak 17 .Incentives for Speaking Speaking activities have a several incentives  for the learner: – Intrinsic motivation – Desire to communicate/share experiences – Challenge – Feeling of success – Challenge Task 5.

Incentives for Speaking Other incentives may include (Wilks‐Smith 2012): 18 Marbles in a jar Mascot/doll on the table Pegs on a chart Certificate Money Thermometer Stickers Goodies for tables Rent an item Raffle tickets Award Other .

 Communicative Language Teaching. and WILLIS. SLATTERY. T.  London: Longman. White Plains. 1999. H. LITTLEWOOD. J. HARMER. Cambridge: CUP. M. English for Primary Teachers.  Oxford: Oxford University Press. London: Macmillan. 2001. MOON.). Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to  Language Pedagogy. HEDGE. A Scheme for Teacher Education series. J.: Longman. Children Learning English.References BROWN . The Practice of English Language Teaching (1st ed. Oxford:  OUP.Y. M. J. 2000. 19 . Drama with Children. Oxford:  OUP. W. S. 1987. Oxford: McMillan Heinemann  (Chapter 5: Effective pupil‐teacher interaction) PHILLIPS. 2000. (2007) 500 activities for the Primary Classroom. 2001. READ. 1983.  BYGATE. Speaking. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. N. Oxford: OUP. C. 1981. 2001. D.