Introduction to Igneous Petrology

Nicole Lautze, Lis Gallant, (Frank Trusdell, in absentee)

*Primarily as key to understanding geologic & hazard maps

Mapping: key objectives
O  The Key to the future is to understand the Past.
Understanding past volcanic activity will enable better
prediction of potential future activity.
O  Even if your specialty is NOT geology, this module will
give you a much better appreciation for the creation of
geologic and hazard maps.

Mapping: like the work of a detective

000-9.000-8.000 YBP 15.000 YBP 5.000-3.In Hawaii.000 YBP 8.000 YBP 7.000-20.000-10.000-2.000 YBP 6.000 YBP 1.000-15. lava flow identification is key! Mauna Loa Flow Ages 0 10 20 30 40 50km Post AD 1832 118-1.000 YBP 4.000 YBP 10.000-7.000 YBP .000 YBP 3.000-4.000 YBP 2.000 YBP 9.000-5.000-6.000 YBP > 20.

Hazard Zone Map .

Lis Gallant. (Frank Trusdell.Introduction to Igneous Petrology Nicole Lautze. in absentee) Outline for Today: 1) Igneous Rocks Basics: a) Chemical Composition b) Mineralogy c) Textures 2) Identify and Describe Igneous Rocks 3) Overview of Mauna Loa Volcano 4) Preparation for the Tomorrow’s Mapping Exercise .

Igneous Rocks Main point(s): All igneous rocks originate from MAGMA Four main environments Andesite/Diorite Basalt/Gabbro Rhyolite/Granite .

Igneous Rocks Main points: 1) All igneous rocks originate from MAGMA 2) Variation among igneous rocks in terms of: O  Chemical composition O  Minerology O  Emplacement mechanisms (above or below surface) .

Igneous Rocks: Chemical Composition %Na2O + K2O PHONOLITE 16 14 12 Nephelinite Or Melilitite 10 TRACHYTE Tephriphonolite Phonotephrite 8 Tephrite Or Basanite 6 4 2 41 Basaltic Trachyandesite Trachyandesite Trachybasalt BASALT (Gabbro) Picrobasalt 45 RHYOLITE (Granite) 49 Basaltic andesite 53 ANDESITE (Diorite) 57 %SiO2 61 Dacite 65 69 73 .

Igneous Rocks: Chemistry and Minerology Bowen’s reactions series Magma composition Basaltic Gabbro Andesitic Diorite Rhyolitic Granite .

Igneous Rocks Main points: 1) All igneous rocks originate from MAGMA 2) Variation among igneous rocks in terms of: O  Chemical composition O  Minerology O  Emplacement mechanisms (above or below surface) 3)  In field.g. aphanetic v. can classify igneous rocks based on: * Minerology * Groundmass texture (e. +/.vesicles) * Pause and look at rock sample from most recent eruption* . phaneretic.

Igneous Rocks: Minerology Consist of: * Minerals * Glass (+/-) Definition of a MINERAL: l  l  l  l  * Naturally occurring * Solid crystalline structure * Defined chemical composition (inorganic) * Unique set of physical properties .

taste. double refraction.Mineral classification Classification: -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  Hardness Luster Cleavage Color Streak Density Crystal form Special properties: magnetism. solubility in HCl .


Bowen’s reaction series: which minerals in Hawaii? Magma composition Peridotite Basaltic Gabbro Andesitic Diorite Rhyolitic Granite .

green color 2) Plagioclase: most common worldwide. white color 3) Pyroxene: generally black color .Minerals in Hawaiian Lavas 1) Olivine: most common in Hawaii.

conchoidal fracture .32 g/cm3 -  -  6.5 -7 Brittle.Mineral Classification: Olivine Classification: Orthogonal crystal form -  Glassy luster -  Crystal form -  Luster -  Hardness -  Cleavage -  Color -  Streak -  -  Density -  Green White streak -  3.

greenish white) White streak -  2.3 Two good cleavages -  White (gray.68 g/cm3 -  .Mineral Plagioclase Classification: Classification: -  Crystal form -  Luster -  -  Hardness -  -  Cleavage -  -  Color -  Streak -  Density Triclinic crystal form Glassy luster 6. reddish white.

4 g/cm3 .5 Two good cleavages Black (to greenish gray) 3.Minerals Classification: Pyroxene Classification: -  Crystal form -  Luster Monoclinic and othorhombic -  Glassy luster -  Hardness -  -  Cleavage -  -  Color -  Streak -  Density -  -  5-6.

*Pause and look at some rocks & minerals* Today: 1) Igneous Rocks a) Chemical Composition b) Minerology c) Textures 2) Identify and Describe Igneous Rocks 3) Overview of Mauna Loa Volcano 4) Preparation for the Tomorrow’s Mapping Exercise .

and b) chemical composition .Igneous Rock Textures Igneous rock names are based on BOTH: a) texture (grain size).

and light-colored minerals O  Felsic rocks (granite-rhyolite) contain abundant light-colored minerals . 2) Compositional classification O  Mafic rocks (gabbro-basalt) contain abundant dark-colored ferromagnesian minerals O  Intermediate rocks (diorite-andesite) contain roughly equal amounts of dark.Igneous Rock Identification 1) Textural classification O  Plutonic/Intrusive rocks (gabbro-diorite-granite) cooled slowly at depth and are coarse-grained. O  Volcanic/Extrusive rocks (basalt-andesite-rhyolite) are typically cooled rapidly at the Earth’s surface and fine-grained to glassy.

02 EXTRUSIVE (volcanic) (Fast cooling) INTRUSIVE (plutonic) (Slow cooling) .Fig. 6.

Igneous Rock Textures & Emplacement Mechanism VOLCANIC Crystallize on the surface Fast cooling Aphanitic groundmass *Microscopic minerals to glassy* PLUTONIC Slow cooling Crystallize below the surface Phaneritic groundmass *Minerals easily seen* THE GRAIN SIZE OF THE GROUNDMASS IS IMPORTANT FOR CLASSIFICATION OF MAGMATIC ROCKS! .

.Igneous Rock Textures CRYSTALS IN A APHANITIC GROUNDMASS OLIVINE Groundmass minerals not visible to naked eye.

Igneous Rock Textures BIG CRYSTALS IN A PHANERITIC GROUNDMASS Quartz Plagioclase Feldspar Dark Minerals Alkali Feldspar .

Genetic Classification of Igneous Rocks l  Intrusive: crystallized from slowly cooling magma intruded within the Earth’s crust. l  Generally have Phaneretic Groundmass Granite Gabbro .

Genetic Classification of Igneous Rocks l  Extrusive: crystallized from rapidly cooling magma extruded on the surface of the Earth such as lava flows… l  Generally have Aphanetic Groundmass Rhyolite Basalt .

Genetic Classification of Igneous Rocks l  Extrusive: … or erupted as pyroclastic material.e. fragmented pieces of magma ejected explosively. collectively called tephra Ash Pumice Scoria . i.

Coarse-grained igneous rock a.Extrusive A.  “Fast” cooling b. and environment 1. cooling rate. Intrusive B. Fine-grained igneous rock 2.Match rock texture.  “Slow cooling .

Larger crystals (phenocrysts) formed first during slow cooling underground. .Smaller crystals (matrix or groundmass) formed during more rapid cooling on or near the Earth’s surface.Some Other Igneous Rock Textures Porphyritic Rhyolite Porphyritic texture: O  two distinct crystal sizes O  two-stage cooling processes: . phenocryst .

and is formed by extremely rapid cooling (quenching) .Some Other Igneous Textures O  A pegmatite is an extremely coarse-grained igneous rock (most crystals >5 cm) formed when magma cools very slowly at depth O  A glassy texture contains no crystals at all.

Many volcanic rocks have vesicles (holes/voids). O  The vesicles can be filled with later secondary minerals calledAMYGDALES . P decreases.Some Other Igneous Textures: Vesicles O  Under pressure H2O. CO2 and SO2 is dissolved in magma. O  Magma rises. gases exsolve creating bubbles O  If captured/frozen in solidified lava are called VESICLES.

Igneous Rock Textures Coarse-grained Glassy Fine-grained Vesicular Porphyritic Pyroclastic .

Pause! Questions? Coarse-grained Glassy Fine-grained Vesicular Porphyritic Pyroclastic .

phaneritic . shape .How to Identify an Igneous Rock 1: Determine if the rock is intrusive or extrusive . size. % 2: Determine if the rock is mafic. porphyritic.rock color: dark. or felsic . luster.vesicles: shape.minerals: color.groundmass texture (grain size): aphanitic. intermediate. medium. light .

Example Intrusive or extrusive? .

Extrusive Example Intrusive What minerals can you identify? .

plagioclase .olivine .k-spar .plagioclase Example Intrusive .Extrusive .darker mineral .quartz .

Extrusive .olivine .plagioclase .k-spar .quartz .darker mineral Can you identify these two rocks? .plagioclase Example Intrusive .

Example Basalt Granite .

Example Basalt Granite .

Group Exercise: Rock Identification §  Break into groups of two §  Each group gets one bag of rocks §  Work independently §  Use sheet to (left) for help §  Be as descriptive as possible §  Identify each sample §  Ask questions. we’re here to help .

Enjoy this littoral eruption and take a break .

Mauna Loa: Introduction .

Historical Flows of Mauna Loa Historical period*: 33 eruptions 8 days ~280 days ~3 hrs ~14 hrs ~17 hrs ~18.5 hrs ~4 days ~29 hrs ~3 hrs * ~ last 150 yrs O  NER 24% O  Summit 48% O  SWRZ 21% O  RV 6% .

1942 .

1950 .

1975 .

1984 Photo By D. Little .


000-8.000 YBP 2.000 YBP 9.000 YBP 15.000-9.000-20.000 YBP 3.000 YBP 5.000-10.000-3.000 YBP 8.000-15.000 YBP 4.Lava flows of Mauna Loa Mauna Loa Lava Flows Mauna Loa Flow Ages 0 10 20 30 40 50km Post AD 1832 118-1.000-7.000 YBP .000-5.000-4.000-2.000-6.000 YBP 10.000 YBP 6.000 YBP 1.000 YBP 7.000 YBP > 20.

Radiocarbon sites O  > 300 radiocarbon ages O  > 500 lava flows mapped O  ~35% are dated .

119.000 $12.954.186.900 $155.968.730 $4.450 $1.360 $200.000.707.000. not land values Economic Impact Assessment Modeling Using DEM Lava Recurrence Intervals Hazard Planning .440 Note: Improved value only.Lava Flow Maps Inundation Zones Asset Type Buildings Improved Roads Electrical Substations High Voltage Power Lines Residential Power Lines Hilo Harbor Airport Replacement Value Total: $409.000 ??????? $782.


Recurrence Interval for 3 Active Volcanoes .

Hazard Zone Map .

Field Mapping

Field Notes


Flow color as a proxy for age .

Flow color as a proxy for age .

Hilo HVO .

Field area .

Field work preparations l  l  Study area: 19º37’10N -19º38’10N: 155º32’10W-155º33’0W Go to google earth: -  l  Check “View” à”Historical imagery” for best images in the region Make an overview of number of different units -  Consider where it is important to sample -  Consider age relationship .

Field work preparations Schedule for 31 of May: 8:00 . questions 12:45-15:00 .Lunch.Continue field work 15:00 .Field work 12:00-12:45 .Cover L&L/vegetation/ash/soil 9:30-12:00 .Arrive at Pu’uKoli 9:00-9:30 .sum up and answer any questions What to bring: §  Water §  Lunch §  Clothes for the field (15-25ºC) §  Rain Gear §  Hiking boots §  Hammer §  Gloves §  Hand lens §  Note book §  Maps (aerial) §  Pen .Leave from UHH 9:00 .

unit symbols inked. or defense of a field problem will be required as part of the project. Field notes/ Unit: Description: Field notes should be numbered to correspond with the unit numbers on the map. and lightly colored using appropriate color scheme. inked geologic contacts. Stratigraphic column: The information for the stratigraphic column will come from your field notes. These should include reference to the map and should cite field evidence at specific locations to support your statements. Colors: All geologic maps and structure sections should be colored. Shows age relationships of units Other: Often a short geologic history. description of the map area. Legend: Each map and project should included a legend of all symbols used for that project.Geologic Map: Final Products l  l  l  l  l  l  Geologic map: Each project will require a geologic map. .

Questions? .