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AP Statisitcs

Sampling Distributions

Review

1) The National Center for Health Statisitcs reports that the mean systolic blood pressure for males 35-44 years
is 128 and the standard deviation is 15. The medical director of a large company looks at the medical records of72
executives in this age group and finds that the mean systolic blood pressure for these executives is 126.07. Which
of the following is the correct identification for the boldfaced, underlined numbers?
a) paramter, statistic, parameter

b) parameter, parameter, statistic

d) statistic, statistic, parameter

e) all statistics

c) all parameters

2) Which of the following is a true statement?
a) As the sample size increases, the sampling distribution for a statisic becomes more like the parent population.
b)As the sample size increases, the mean of the sampling distribution gets closer to the mean of the population.
c) as the sample size increases, the variance of the sampling distribution increases.
d) As the sample size increases, the standard deviation of the sampling distribution decreases.

3) The distribution of values taken by a statistic in all possible samples of the same size form the same population
is
a) the probability that the statistic is obtained.

b)the sampling distribution of the statistic.

c)the population parameter.

d)the variance of the values.

4) The weight of a healthy female adult deer (doe) is December in Mesa Verde National Park is approximately
normal with a mean of 63 kg and a standard deviation of 7.1 kg. The mean weight of a random sample of five does is
found to be in the top 12%. What is the me
a) 71.34

b) 66.73

mx = \$41, 000, s x = \$1700 an weight of the sample?
c) 54.66

d) 59.27

e) none of these

5)The mean income for 200 teachers at Deer Park High Schooks \$41,000 with a standard deviation of \$1700. A
random sample of 15 teachers is selected and the mean income is computed, Suppose that this sampling was
repeasted 500 times Estimate the mean and standard deviation of these sample means.
a) m = \$41, 000, s = \$1700

b) m = \$41, 000, s = \$439, 94

d) m = \$2,733.33, s = \$113.33

e) cannot be determined

x

x

x

x

x

x

c) m = \$2,733.33, s = \$1700
x

x

6) If you take a random sample of 25 Americans and let ˆ
p = the proportion in the sample who get 30 minutes of
exercise at least five days per week, is the shape of the sampling distribution of ˆ
p approximately Normal?
a) No, because n <30
b) No. because np <10

c)Yes. Because we can reasonably assume that there are more than (10)(25) = 250 invidualts in the population
d) Yes, because we took a random sample.
e)Yes because n(1-p) > 10

7) The grades on the last AP Statistics test were strongly skewed left. (There are at least 150 students in AP
Statistics.) Suppose that 500 samples of size 15 were selected from these grades and the means computed. What
shape would the distribution of these 500 means have?
a) Skewed Left

b) approximately normal

c) skewed right

d) cannot be determined

Use for 8-10.
Below are dot plots of the values taken by three diferent statistics in 39 samples from the same population. The
true value of the population paramter Is marked with an arrow.

8) The statistic that has the largest bias among the three is.
a) Statisitc A

b) Statistic B

c) Statistic C

d) A and B have simlar bias, and it is larger than the bias of C.
e) B and C have simlar bias, and it is larger than the bias of A.

9) The statistic that has the lowest variability among the these three is
a) Statisitc A

b) Statistic B

c) Statistic C

d) A and B have simlar variability, and it is less than the variability of C.
e) B and C have simlar variability, and it is less than the variability of A.

10) Based on the performance of the three statistics in many samples, which is prefered as estimate of the
paramter?
a) Statisitc A
d) either A or B would be equally good.
e) B or C would be equally good.

b) Statistic B

c) Statistic C

11) Suppose that 35% of all business executives are willing to switch companies if offered a higher salary. If a
headhunter randomly contacts a random sample of 100 executives, what is the probability that over 40% will be
willing to switch companies if offered a higher salary
a) 0.1997

b) 0.1469

c) 0.4207

d) 0.8023

e) 0.8531

12) The distance Jonathan can throw a shot put is skewed to the right with a mean of 14.2 meters and a standard
deviation of 3.5 meters. Over the course of a month, Jonathan makes 75 throws during practice. Assume these
throws can be considered a random sample of Jonathan’s shot put throws. What is the probability that Jonathan’s
aveage shot put distance for the month will be over 15.0 meters?
a) 0.4096

b) 0.0239

c) 0.5224

d) 0 .5904

e) 0.9761

Free Response
13) The distribution of scores for persons over 16 years of age on a common IQ test is approximately normal with
mean 100 and standard deviation 15.
a) What is the probability that a randomly chosen adult has an IQ score on this test over 105?
X~N( 100, 15)

z

105  100
 .333
15

P  z  .333  .369

b) What are the mean and standard deviation of the average IQ score on this test for an SRS of 60 people?
Because this a random sample, and the 60 people are not more than 10% of the population taking the test, and
because 60 > 30, by CLT the distribtuion is apprxomiately normal, having the following mean and standard deviation.

15 
X~ N  100,


60 

x  100

x 

15
60

 1.936

c) What is the probability that the average IQ score on this test of an SRS of 60 people is 105 or higher?
Z=

105  100
 2.582
15

P(Z > 2.582) = 0.0049

60
d) Would your method of answering (a) or (c) be affected if the distribution of IQ scores on this test in the adult
population were distinctly non-normal (for example, if they were skewed)? Explain which parts could be answered
the same way, which could not, and how you know.
For method (a) it would change because we are using the z variable because the distribution was stated to be
approximately normal. Therefore we could not use the standard deviation to estimate the distribution’s true
standard deviation. Because of the Central Limit Theorem, part C would not change as we are looking at the sample
mean and regardless of the shape of the parent distribution, the sample mean will follow an approximately normal
distribution when n > 30.
14) According to government data, 22% of American children under the age of 6 live in households with incomes
less than the official poverty level. A study of learning in early childhood chooses an SRS of300 children under the
age of6 living in the United States.
a) Justify the use of a normal approximation for the sampling distribution of the proportion of children in the
sample that live below the poverty level.
It is stated a random sample is chosen, and the 300 children, are not more than 10% of the entire child population
in the US so independence is not violated. Also np > 10 (66 > 10) and nq > 10 (234 > 10) so it is sufficiently large and
the proportions follows an approximately normal distribution.
b) Find the mean and standard deviation of the sampling distribution described in part a.

P~ N  .22

.22.78   .0239
300

c) What is the probability that more than 25% of the children in the sample live in households with incomes less
than the official poverty level?

z

.25  .22
 1.254
0.0239

P(Z > 1.254) = .105

15) Buying a year’s worth of textbooks for college can be expensive! Consider a large population of college studens
for whom the distribution of the annual cost of textbooks is slightly skewed to the left. Here is the five-number
summary for the annual cost of textbooks for this population:
Min

Q1

Median

Q3

Max

80

215

335

380

440

Suppose we take random samples of size 32 from this population and calculate the interquartile range (IQR) for
each of our samples. Below is a dotplot of the IQR from 50 such samples.
a) Briefly explain what the dot at 240 represents.
The dot at 240 represents the IQR of one of the 50 samples taken from this population.
b) Is the sample IQR an unbiased estimator of the population? Justify your answer.
We know from the 5-number summary that the true population value for the IQR is 380-215 = 165. It appears that
the distribution of sample IQR is slightly skewed right, but its median is 165, so it’s safe to say that the center of
the distribution is near 165. Therefore the sample IQR is an unbiased estimator.