AVIATION MAINTENANCE TRAINING CENTRE

MT.147.02

M5 DIGITAL TECHNIQUES ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT
SYSTEMS

EASA PART-66
CAT B1
ISSUE: 1AUG2007

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EASA PART 66
M5

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

Lufthansa Technical Training

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES
ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS

HAM US/F4 KrA

11/2006

Page 1

S Necessary parameters are fed − via display data busses to CPU−controlled CRT− or LCD− displays. S Less Components needed: all Monitors for EIS are same type in an aircraft. − in digital form to a radio transmitter. S Data is transmitted digitally by the ARINC 429 bus. S Data is filtered: Important Data is accentuated. which sends data to ground. The names may vary between manufacturers but the advantages that make them superior to analogue meters are the same: S Variability and Variety S Coloured Displays All modern aircraft uses digital technology in a number of ways : S Pilot operation of a push button on a cockpit control panel will be acted on by the processor and transmitted via the data bus to the receiver systems. EASA PART 66 M5 Electronic Instrument Systems All modern aircraft use electronic display devices (Electronic Instrument Display Systems: EIDS). S Calculations in the system are made by CPUs (central processing units). S If one monitor fails its information can be transferred to an other monitor. − via digital data busses to a printer for a hardcopy printout. S The interconnection between the electronic units is realized by digital data busses.Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. temporarily unimportant is supressed.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS 1. HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Page 2 . S Error Messages or Maintainance Data can be retrieved via MCDU or as a Print Report.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 1 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Cockpit Layout Page 3 .

which is a look from above Aircraft surveillance consists of Surface Indicators like S Position indication S Pressure indication and Engine surveillance like S RPM indicators S EGT indicators S Fuel indicators FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. which in general represents the look ahead S and Information on the ND.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Page 4 .1 Classification of the Indicators Despite the massive amount of indicators in the cockpit the indicators could be assigned to two groups: S Flight surveillance and S Aircraft surveillance Flight surveillance is: S Artificial Horizon S Heading Indicator S Altimeter S Speed Indicator S Machmeter S Variometer S Rate of Turn Indicator S Magnetic Compass The EFIS Indicators display the most important information for flying.EASA PART 66 M5 1. One may derive between: S Informationen on the PFD.

1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 2 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Cockpit Layout Boeing 747−100 Page 5 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 3 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Cockpit Layout Boeing 737−300 (Classic) Page 6 .

1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 4 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Cockpit Layout Airbus A320 Page 7 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

Brightness can be set by rotary knobs. In bright sunlight it may be more difficult to read the indication on glass cockpit sreens than on analogue indicators because of the limitation in brightness of the screens. The position of the brightness control knob usually is besides the displays in a vertical position. In addition brightness is controlled automatically by light sensors attached to the displays. The brightness control for the Navigational Display consists of two knobs A separate control is available for the basic indication on the ND and for the weather radar indication.EASA PART 66 M5 1. If brightness control is set to minimum the displays are still active as long as power supply is available. displays are switched off if set to the extreme left.2 EIS Display Control Please note that indication is called EICAS (Boeing) or ECAM (Airbus). On Boeing aircaft an OFF position is not available.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Page 8 . which is an overlay to the navigation information. On Airbus aircraft the control knobs have a dedicated OFF position. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 5 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 EIS Brightness Control Page 9 .

2 Glass Cockpit Layout In the glass cockpit the PFD (Primary Flight Display) displays all the BASIC T. Safe flying is only possible between these markings. 1. As an example right besides the altimeter the VSI (Vertical Speed Indicator) is located indicating the change in altitude in feet/minute. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 1.3 Basic T Indicators in the cockpit are arranged as a so called BASIC T. It indicates the vertical situation of the aircraft. Limitations from the configuration of the aircraft are no longer displayed by markers but are a part of the indication itself.1 Classic Layout With the classic layout four different inducators from the BASIC T. This comprises: S Pitch (Nose up/down) S Roll (Bank angle) On the left the airspeed indicator is found. It doesn’t always indicate the altitude over ground but the flight level which is based on the air pressure (ambient pressure) of the airport or on standard atmosphere. Attitude Director Indicatior). Limitations of the aircraft due to flaps as an example could be indicated by markings that have to be set by hand. On the speed indication patterns will be displayed from the top/bottom indication unsafe speeds.3. Below the ADI the HSI is found (Horizontal Situation Indicator). Central indicator is the artificial horizon (ADI. But additional information is incorporated in the PDF as well. HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Page 10 . The arrangement of the four analogue indicators is reproduced by computers making it look very similar.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 1. On the right the altimeter is found. Besides indicating the heading also navigation information can be found like direction to ADF (Automatic Directional Finder).Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. It displays the speed in Knots.3.

Speed EASA PART 66 M5 Altitude FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 6 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Basic T Layout Page 11 .

but also on other instruments. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.4 Navigational Displays With the classic layout navigation data was indicated on the HSI.EASA PART 66 M5 1. aircraft traffic as well as weather. In addition weather data could also be displayed.or ground proximity information.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Page 12 . The pilot can read information about the routing. With the glass cockpit all that information is displayed on a common sreen.

1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 7 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Navigational Display Page 13 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

Its application is: S displaying information from the Central Warning Computers S displaying systems synoptics S permanent display of some additional aircraft parameter The upper display is called „Engine and Warning Display“ on Airbus aircraft. These information comprise: S main engine parameter S Fuel on Board (FoB) S Flap Position FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. „Primary EICAS Display“ on Boeing aircraft. Every screen has an area for the Central Warning System Messages and aircaft information to be displayed permanently. The Boeing 747 Primary EICAS Display is on the left as the Airbus 320 Engine and Warning Display is on the right.EASA PART 66 M5 1. Below two examples of such a display can be found indicating the similarity of Airbus and Boeing layout.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Page 14 .5 ECAM/EICAS The Central Warning System consists of an upper and a lower display located in the middle of the instrument panel.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 8 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Upper Display Page 15 .

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. Also permanent data like temperature and weight are displayed here.EASA PART 66 M5 The lower display of the CWS indicates the status of the aircraft systems.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Page 16 . They are called Pages or Display Formats. Airbus calls it „System Display“ while Boeing calls it Secondary or Auxiliary Display. A wide amount of different parameters may be displayed on the lower EICAS/ECAM screen.

1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 9 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Lower Display Page 17 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Page 18 .EASA PART 66 M5 1.6 Indication in case of computer failure If a computer fails the indication changes. On Airbus aircraft a white line is displayed. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. on Boeing aircraft the screen turns dark.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 10 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2009 Display Unit in case of computer failure Page 19 .

S the down loading system. the ECAM displays the abnormal parameter or function and its associated warning and the CMS records the failure information detected by the system BITE.1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 1. S the Flight Data Recording System (FDRS): which is mandatory and records aircraft operational parameters for incident investigation purposes S the Central Maintenance System (CMS): which monitors the BITE data in order to record the system failures.7 On-Board-Maintainance ACQUISITION The acquisition of aircraft system data is performed by 4 major electronic systems : S the Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) system: which monitors the operational data in order to display warnings and system information. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! CONSOLIDATION In normal operation. RETRIEVAL All the information can be retrieved through: S the cockpit Multi−purpose Control Display Unit. ANALYSIS Maintenance operations can be divided into 3 groups : S minor trouble shooting which is performed with the help of the ECAM and the CMS through the MCDUs and the printed or ACARS down−linked reports. S long term maintenance which is performed with the help of the ACMS and the FDRS through printed. S a ground station via ACARS. When an anomaly is detected by an aircraft system. the aircraft performance and to analyze specific aircraft problems. ACARS down−linked and down−loaded reports or recorded tapes. S and the recorders.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. S the ECAM displays. S the Aircraft Condition Monitoring System (ACMS): which records significant operational parameters in order to monitor the engines. HAM US/F-4 KRA 10/2006 Page 20 . the ECAM permanently displays normal aircraft parameters and the ACMS and FDRS permanently record aircraft system parameters. S the cockpit printer. S in−depth trouble shooting which is performed with the help of the CMS and the ACMS through the MCDUs and printed reports.

1 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Figure 11 HAM US/F-4 KRA 10/2006 On Board Maintenance Facilities Schematic Page 21 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. The standard shorthand form of writing numbers is known as positional notation. For example. and at the left is the thousands position. next the tens.1 General 2.2 Positional Notation A knowledge of numbering systems is essential for understanding computers and their operation. commonly referred to as digits. which indicates the number 101 is a base 2 or binary number.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 2. A subscript is often added to a number to indicate its base. The digit at the far right is called the Least Significant Digit (LSD) and the digit at the far left is called the Most Significant Digit (MSD).1.1. Base Designation Binary 2 B Octal 8 Q (instead of O) Decimal 10 D Hexadecimal 16 H 10 3))(7 102))(3 101))(8 100) 4738 = 4@103 + 7@102 + 3@101 + 8@100 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Numbering System (4 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 22 . The value of a particular digit depends not only on the digit value. Starting at the right is the units position. but also on the position of the digit within the number. the decimal number 4738 is standard shorthand form for the quantity four thousand seven hundred thirty-eight. Each position has a ”value” or “weight”. then hundreds. All numbering systems are used to count objects or perform mathematical calculations and each consists of a set of symbols and characters.1 Base Every numbering system has a base which describes the system and is equal to the number of values a digit can have. The value of the largest digit of a numbering system is one less than the base and the value of the smallest digit of a numbering system is zero. Numbering Systems 2. the decimal number 4738 is equal to 2. For example. Each digit is multiplied by the base raised to the appropriate power for the digit position. An example of this is 1012.

000 + 50.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 2.000 + 8. with 9 beIong the largest digit.03 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! The total result is 600.000 8. This numbering system contains ten digits from 0 to 9.3 0. and is used for everyday counting and mathematical calculations.000 900 10 2 0.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.000 50.2 Decimal Number System The decimal number system (base 10) is the most familiar.3 + 0.03 = 658912. 105 104 103 102 101 100 10−1 10−2 Weighted Value 6 5 8 9 1 2 3 3 Number 600.000 + 900 + 10 + 2 + 0.33 Figure 12 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Decimal Number System Page 23 .

the weighted value of each bit position (20 . The bit at the far right is the Least Significant Digit (LSD) and the bit at the far left is the Most Significant Digit (MSD). the system has a base of 2.. only two distinct states exist..3 Binary Number System The simplest number system employing positional notation is the binary system. 21 . Therefore. Conversion from binary to decimal is straightforward and easily performed using positional notation.)and the base 10 equivalent for each bit position is shown.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. To convert 10111 (base 2) to base 10 add together the base 10 value for each bit position containing a 1. Digit 5th 4rd 3rd 2nd 1st Weighted Value 24 23 22 21 20 Base 10 Value 16 8 4 2 1 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! . Figure 13 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Binary Number System Page 24 . In a digital computer..2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 2. all inputs to a digital computer must be converted to a series of 1’s and 0’s (binary) before the computer can make use of the data. In the example.22 . The two Binary digits (BITS) used are 0 and 1.. As the name implies.

the decimal number is successively divided by the base number 2.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. and the last remainder is the most significant digit (MSD). HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 25 . 1 MSB 105D 1101001 B FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! MSB means: Most Significant Bit LSB means: Least Significant Bit This principle can be used for each and every numbering system. The first remainder obtained is the least significant digIt (LSD). and by keeping track of the remainders.3.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 2. 1 6 : 2 = 3 Rem. Succsessive division by base number: Decimal Number: Equivalent Binary Number LSB 1 0 5 : 2 = 52 Rem. the new numbering base equivalent is obtained. 1 5 2 : 2 = 26 Rem. 0 13 : 2 = 6 Rem. 0 3 : 2 = 1 Rem. 0 2 6 : 2 = 13 Rem. It can easily be used for computer programs. In the case of decimal to binary conversions. 1 1 : 2 = 0 Rem.1 Binary Conversion A mathematical method of conversion is to repeatedly divide the decimal number by the base number.

frequent binary−to−octal conversions are necessary.. then add together the computed base 10 values.1 General Numerical operations in microcomputers are performed In binary numbers.4.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.. 81.4 Octal Number System 2.) and the base 10 equivalent are shown. therefore.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 2.. To convert 4522 (base 8) to base 10. One popular system is the octal system (base 8).. In the positional notation example. 82. Figure 14 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Octal Number System Page 26 . other systems are often used as a shorthand notation for binary numbers. the weighted value of each BIT position (80. multiply each octal digit by its corresponding base 10 value. Digit 5th 4rd 3rd 2nd 1st Weighted Value 84 83 82 81 80 Base 10 Value 4096 512 64 8 1 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! . when used to represent large quantities many 0’s and 1‘s are needed. As a result. This is cumbersome and time−consuming.

decimal to octal conversions can also be accomplished by successive division.4. The decimal number to be converted to octal is repeatedly divided by the base 8 and again the remainders are used for the decimal to octal equivalent number.2 Octal / Decimal Conversion As in the case of decimal to binary conversions. Succsessive Division by Base Number: Example: Convert 238610 to octal by using successive division. 2386 298 37 4 /8 /8 /8 /8 = = = = 298R 2 37 R 2 4 R5 0 R4 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 238610 = 45228 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 27 .2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 2.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

Therefore. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. In forming the 3−bit groupings. octal numbers can be directly substituted for 3−bit binary numbers.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 28 . 0’s may need to be added to complete the most significant digit (MSD). The binary number is separated into groups of three bits beginning at the right with the least significant digit (LSD) and proceeding to the most significant digit (MSD) at the left. This is easily accomplished by replacing each octal digit by its 3−bit binary equivalent.3 Binary / Octal Conversion In binary.EASA PART 66 M5 2. Octal−to−binary conversion is the reverse of the above procedure. three−bit positions represent exactly eight combinations (000 through 111). Each group of three bits is then replaced by an octal equivalent.4.

2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 BINARY TO OCTAL OCTAL TO BINARY 0111000012 011 100 0012 3 4 18 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 3418 Figure 15 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Binary to Octal / Octal to Binary Page 29 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

EASA PART 66
M5

2.5 Hexadecimal Number System
The hexadecimal number system is another system often used in microcomputers. It has a base of 16 which requires sixteen digits. The digits used
are 0 through 9 and A through F. The symbols A through F represent the
equivalent decimal numbers of 10 through 15, respectively. This system is
called an alphanumeric number system since numbers and letters are used to
represent its digits.
In the positional notation example, the weighted value of each digit’s position
(160,161,162...) and the base 10 equivalent is shown. To convert A8F5 (base
16) to base 10, multiply each hexadecimal digit by its corresponding base 10
value then add together the computed base 10 values.
The largest digit of a numbering system is one less than the base.
Often hexadecimal numbers are written with an “H” following the number to
denote they are hexadecimal numbers.

Hexadecimal Number

Decimal Equivalent

0

0

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

A

10

B

11

C

12

D

13

E

14

F

15

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

Lufthansa Technical Training

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES
M5.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS

HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008

Page 30

Lufthansa Technical Training

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES
M5.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS

EASA PART 66
M5

Digit

...

5th

4rd

3rd

2nd

1st

Weighted Value

164

163

162

161

160

Base 10 Value

65536

4096

256

16

1

Number to be converted

A

8

F

5

Equivalent Base 10 Number

40960

2048

240

5

40960 + 2048 + 240 + 5 = 4325310

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

A8F516 = 4325310

Figure 16
HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008

Hexadecimal Number System
Page 31

Lufthansa Technical Training

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES
M5.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS

EASA PART 66
M5

2.5.1 Hexadecimal Conversions
Decimal to hexadecimal conversions may be done by successive division. In
this case, the decimal number is divided by the base number of 16. If the
remainder is greater than 9, it should be changed to the hexadecimal
equivalent of the remainder. For example, if the remainder is 10, It should be
changed to ”A”; if the remainder is 11, it should be changed to ”B”, and so on,
up to 15, which is ”F”.
Succsessive Division by Base Number
Example:
Convert 4325810 to hexadecimal by using succsessive division.
43253/ 16
2703 / 16
168 / 16
10
/ 16

= 2703
= 168
= 10
=0

R5
R F (15)
R8
R A (10)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

4325310 = A8F516

HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008

Page 32

This is easily performed by replacing each hexadecimal digit by its 4−bit binary equivalent. The binary number is separated into groups of four bits beginning at the LSD and preceding to the left.5. 0’s may be required to complete the first (MSD) group. In forming the 4−bit groupings. In binary.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS Figure 17 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Binary to Hexadecimal / Hexadecimal to Binary Page 33 . HEXADECIMAL TO BINARY FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.EASA PART 66 M5 2. 4− bit positions are necessary to obtain sixteen combinations (0000 to 1111). As a result of this.2 Binary / Hexadecimal Conversion The hexadecimal number system is used as a shorthand notation for binary numbers. Each group of four bits is then replaced by hexadecimal equivalent. BINARY TO HEXADECIMAL Hexadecimal−to−binary conversion is the inverse of the above procedure. hexadecimal numbers can be directly substituted for 4−bit binary numbers.

This arrangement shows the relation between the numbers from the different numbering systems.Octal.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 04/2005 Page 34 .EASA PART 66 M5 2.6 Overview: Binary. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.Hexadecimal Numbering System In case we count in the binary system a specific arrangement will be the result.

2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal 101 100 24 23 22 21 20 81 80 161 160 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 3 0 3 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 4 0 5 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 0 5 0 6 0 0 1 1 0 0 6 0 6 0 7 0 0 1 1 1 0 7 0 7 0 8 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 9 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 0 A 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 3 0 B 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 4 0 C 1 3 0 1 1 0 1 1 5 0 D 1 4 0 1 1 1 0 1 6 0 E 1 5 0 1 1 1 1 1 7 0 F 1 6 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 7 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 8 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 2 1 9 1 0 0 1 1 2 3 1 3 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 4 1 4 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 2 5 1 5 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 6 1 6 2 3 1 0 1 1 1 2 7 1 7 HAM US/F-4 KrA 04/2005 Page 35 .Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

each decimal digit is represented with its own 4−bit binary equivalent number. In many small computer systems the time spent in executing the conversions may greatly exceed the time spent in data handling. a minimum of four bits must be used to encode each digit. In the BCD system. although straightforward. Since ten digits must be represented.EASA PART 66 M5 2. people are more accustomed to decimal numbers. but the digit is represented by a combination of the binary digits 0 and 1.7 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) 2. In this system the decimal weighting is maintained. requires the use of complex calculations.7.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2005 Page 36 . The conversion from binary to decimal and vice versa. An ideal method is to perform all computer functions on binary data and convert the results to decimal for display to the operator. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.1 BCD-Decimal Conversion The binary number system is the most convenient system for computers. A method of representing decimal numbers in digital computers is known as Binary Coded Decimal (BCD). however.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 BCD to Decimal FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Decimal to BCD Figure 18 HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2005 Decimal to BCD / BCD to Decimal Page 37 .

The binary equivalent is the sum of the weighted bits totaling 479. Therefore.7. the BCD is the 4−bit binary equivalent of each of the decimal digits. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! BCD .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. the BCD 0100 01111011 is not the same as the binary 111011111.2 BCD − Binary Comparison In comparing the BCD and binary equivalents of the decimal number 479.2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 2.Binary Comparison HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2005 Page 38 .

2 NUMBERING SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 EXAMPLE 1 Convert 70910 to BCD. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! EXAMPLE 2 Convert 0111 0010 0100 (BCD) to decimal Figure 19 HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2005 Example: Decimal to BCD / BCD to Decimal Page 39 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 3. not a value or Voltage. the heart of each CPU ( Central Processor Unit ). S logic 0 (also known as logic ’’False‘‘). you can say „it is at will“. This system has the disadvantage that some inverted gates are not available.g.2 Levels Assignment Positive Logic Negative Logic 1»H 1»L 0»L 0»H Usually the H-Level is seen as „1“. Usually we say: the voltage level that is more positive is seen as „“1“.1 General Digital Computers and Central Processor Units must be able to realize arithmetic processes and logical combinations. 3. This ALU needs the inputs in digital form: S logic 1 (also known as logic ’’True’’). Logic Functions 3. This assignment gives us the so called positive Logic and negative Logic.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. which are both made in a so called ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit). or A+B x C) Also Truth Tables. A fulfilled condition is considered to be logic „1“. This is what we call switching function (e. An assignment has to be made in accordance with the hardware requirements. L-Level is to be seen as „0“. otherwise it is logical „0“. H means 1 L means 0 Individual assignments may be used. Impulse Diagrams and Logic Symbols may be used to describe a technical Operation. This is just a logic state. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! A binary signal is a digital signal with only two different values. No voltage applied ³ V = 0. The assignment depends on the technology used. Technical operations can be expressed with the so called „Boolean Algebra“ by using the binary 0 and 1. the voltage level that more negative is to be seen logic „0“. We call them mixed logic. The single item of information (logic 1 or logic 0) is known as a ’’bit’’ (binary digit). HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 Page 40 . A special meaning is assigned to these two values (voltages): Example: Voltage applied ³ V = 1. F = A v B L C.

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M5.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS

EASA PART 66
M5
+V

System A

System B

System C

H

H
L

H
L

L

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

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Figure 20
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Example: Level Assignment
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M5.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS

EASA PART 66
M5

3.3 Definition of Function
With implementing the binary symbols 0 and 1 we can describe technical
processes by means of the so called Boolean Algebra. It only deals with
combinations of logic 0 and logic 1.
The 0−1 −Decisions at Inputs (E1, E2, ..., En) are the independant variables,
the Output (A) is the so called dependant variable as it depends on the input
states.

A depends on the inputs (E1, E2 ..., En). This can be described with a switching
function A = f (E1, E2 En).
With n Variables on the input side there are 2n Variations on the output side
n
and 2 2 possible switching functions.
possible input variations

possible switching functions

1

2

4

2

4

16

3

8

256

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

n

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Contact Plan Switching Function: A=E A is inverse to E FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Truth Table E A 0 1 1 0 Symbol DIN / IEC / ANSI MIL / ANSI Figure 21 HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 INVERTER Page 44 . If the input signal is a logical 1. It is also called a boolean complement. Logic Circuits The illustration with the logic symbols is completely independent from the technology used. Signal Diagramm ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ E1 4.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. For logical combination there are only three basic functions: S INVERTER Function.1 Inverter A The Inverter (NOT-Function) inverts the input signal. It just states the function but not the „contents“. S AND Function and S OR Function. the output signal is a logical 0 and vice versa.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 4.

.2 AND Gate An AND-Gate may have two or more inputs ( E1 to En ) and one output ( A ).... if all inputs have a logic 1.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 4.. the output has a logic 0.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.. If one or more inputs have a logic 0..... and En E2 Truth Table (for two Inputs) E2 E1 A 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 A Contact Plan ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É É É É É É É É É É ÉÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ É É É É É FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Symbol DIN / IEC / ANSI MIL / ANSI Figure 22 HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 AND Gate Page 45 .Λ En A equals E1 and E2 and . x En or A = E1 Λ E2 Λ. The output has only a logical 1... Signal Diagramm E1 Switching Funktion A = E1 x E2 x .

5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 4. Signal Diagramm E1 Switching Funktion A = E1 + E2 + .... v En A equals E1 or E2 or... if one or more inputs have a logic 1. if all inputs have a logic 0.....3 OR Gate An OR-Gate may have two or more inputs ( E1 to En ) and one output ( A ). or En E2 Truth Table (for two Inputs) E2 E1 A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 A Contact Plan ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É É É ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ É É É ÉÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Symbol DIN / IEC / ANSI MIL / ANSI Figure 23 HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 OR Gate Page 46 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. + En or A = E1 v E2 v . The output has only a logical 1. The out put has only a logic 0.

5 LOGIC CIRCUITS Figure 24 HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 Example: Landing Gear Challenger 604 Page 47 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

. Switching Function A = E1 x E2 x . and En not A NOT spoken at the end of a term means that the complete term ist to be inverted...1 NAND Gate Logic Symbol A NAND-Gate ( Not-AND-Gate ) may have two or more inputs ( E1 to En ) and one output ( A ). if all inputs ( E1 to En ) have a logic 1. if one input (one of E1 to En ) has a logic 0. DIN / IEC / ANSI Signal diagramm MIL / ANSI ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É É ÉÉÉ É É ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ E1 Truth Table (two inputs) E1 A 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 E2 A FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! E2 HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Page 48 ....4 Gates with several Basic Functions 4.. x En or A = E1 Λ E2 Λ ... The output has a logic 0. Λ En To be read as: A = E1 and E2 and. The output has only a logic 1....Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 4.4.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 Inverter with NAND−Gates In case all inputs but one are connected to „1“ an Inverter is formed. HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Page 49 . FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! AND-Function with NAND−Gates An Inverter connected to a NAND will result in an AND Gate. OR-Function with NAND−Gate If we invert all Inputs of a NAND-Gate the result will be an OR-Gate.

4.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5..... + En or A = E1 v E2 v .. or En not A NOT spoken at the end of a term means that the complete term ist to be inverted.... v En To be read as: A = E1 or E2 or.. if all inputs ( E1 to En ) have a logic 0. Truth Table Logic Symbol 1 DIN / IEC / ANSI Signal diagramm MIL / ANSI ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É É ÉÉÉ É É ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ E1 E2 E1 A 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 E2 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! A HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Page 50 . The output has a logic 0.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 4.... if one or more inputs have a logic 1 Switching Function A = E1 + E2 + . The output has only a logic 1.2 NOR Gate A NOR-Gate ( Not-OR ) may have two or more inputs ( E1 to En ) and one output ( A ).

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Page 51 .

4. The output has a logic 0. if input E1 has a logic 1 and input E2 a logic 0 or vice versa.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 4. if input E1 has a logic 1 and input E2 a logic 0 or vice versa. The output has a logic 1.3 Exclusive OR An Exclusive OR has two inputs ( E1 and E2 ) and one output A. Logic Symbol DIN / IEC / ANSI Switching Funktion A = E1 x E2 + E1 x E2 Signal diagramm Truth table E2 E1 A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 E1 E2 É É É É ÉÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! A ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É É ÉÉ É É ÉÉÉ ÉÉ É ÉÉÉ MIL / ANSI HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Page 52 .

or E1 and E2 have a logic 0.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 4. or both inputs have a logic 0.4. The output has a logic 1.4 Exclusive NOR An Exclusive NOR has two inputs ( E1 and E2 ) and one output A. The output has a logic 0.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. if inputs E1 and E2 have a logic 1. if both inputs ( E1 and E2 ) have a logic 1. Logic Symbol Switching Funktion A = E1 x E2 + E1 x E2 DIN / IEC / ANSI Signal diagramm Truth table E2 E1 A 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 MIL / ANSI ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É É ÉÉÉ É É ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉ É ÉÉÉ É ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ ÉÉÉÉ E1 E2 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! A HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Page 53 .

EASA PART 66 M5 4. Number of possible switching functions: SF = 2 2 Not all possible functions are always sensible.5 Possible Functions Function Nr Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. Identity A AND Not B 2. Identity EXCLUSIVE OR OR NOT OR EXCLUSIVE NOR Not A FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Not A OR B Not B A OR Not B A AND B Not IDENTITY HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 54 . n Null AND Not A AND B Input Variable Qi 1.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS Name of Function Switch Current Diagram The number of possible input combinations: Ic = 2n with n being the number of input variables.

6 Summary of all Gates 1 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! ASB + ASB = X Figure 25 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Summary Gates Page 55 .5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 4.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

OR +. The long inversion bar treats everything below it as if in brackets.7.Ɵ In accordance with the operator precedence rules: AND operations preceed OR operations.5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 4.7.3 Shannon Theorem A B C (A + B)  C A + (B  C) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 In accordance with the Shannon Theorem.ƞ 3. there is a rule for prioritising combinations of operations (AND/OR).Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. AND can replace an OR or vice versa. A practical operational way to look at DeMorgan’s Theorem is that an AND may be replaced by an OR with all inputs and the output inverted).7. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! It is: (A + B)  C  A + (B  C) ! 4. HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 56 . AND x.7 Rules of Boolean Algebra 4.1 Priority 4. A long inversion bar can be split into several smaller ones when replacing an AND by an OR or vice versa. the following sequence should be kept: 1. Negation 2. If there are several operations in one equation.2 De Morgan Theorem When realising equations. a NAND can be replaced by an OR with inverted inputs.

5 LOGIC CIRCUITS EASA PART 66 M5 4.7. Name Calculation Rule Functions with Constants (Postulates) Functions with one Constant and one Variable Commutativity Associativity Distributivity FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Priority Cancelling de Morgans Theorem Shannon Theorem HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 57 . variables and combinations of them.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 Calculation Rules The following table shows the logical connection between input variants and output in accordance to the boolean algebra using constants.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. Airplane control surfaces do not move in discrete steps but rather in continuous motion.1 Purpose FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! While digital computers process information faster and more efficiently than analog computers.3 DATA CONVERSION EASA PART 66 M5 5. They do have somewhat of a disadvantage in that they only understand 1’s and 0’s. A digital computer may be able to determine where a control surface must be positioned. Data Conversion 5. but the signal to the surface must be in analog form to drive the surface. Temperature.1. for example. It is a continuously varying quantity.1 General 5. the analog quantity must be converted to a digital representation of temperature. The circuits used to interface digital computers to the analog world are referred to as Digital to analog (or D/A) Converters and analog to Digital (or A/D) Converters. HAM US/F-4 KrA 10/2007 Page 58 . The real world is analog in nature. In order for digital computers to use temperature information. does not change in discrete steps.

3 DATA CONVERSION Figure 26 HAM US/F-4 KrA 10/2007 Digital to Analog Conversions Page 59 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

STOP” (sawtooth voltage Vv = VM) the gate is open so pulses from the pulse generator can pass it and access the binary counter. A/D-Conversion may use various principles: S Sawtooth-principle S Dual-Slope-principle S Ramp Generation A/D S Successive Ramp A/D S .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.2 A/D Converter Principles The schematics below shows the Sawtooth principle. 5. An A/D converter converts a continuous voltage signal.START” (sawtooth voltage is 0) until ..2 Analog to Digital Converters 5. The Time T from . HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 Page 60 .2..3 DATA CONVERSION EASA PART 66 M5 5. Hybrid LRU’s have these Converters incorporated. analog to digital (A/D) converters are quite common in computer systems.1 Purpose Almost all ”real world” applications are analog in nature. and especially in those systems dedicated to monitoring or controlling ”real world” events. so the could perform that task as well... the so called ADM’s (Air Data Modules). The anmount of pulses counted is a reference for the input voltage. Therefore. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Digital LRU’s have an A-D Converter attached at the input side. The Input voltage VM to be evaluated will be compared with a sawtooth voltage Vv created inside the converter itself. The time the sawtooth requires to reach the voltage level of the input voltage will be evaluated. This time will be measured by pulses from the Pules Generator. or analog signal into a multi-bit digital word. A Buffer stores that binary number and applies it to a data bus activated by a signal on the Control−Bus.2.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.3 DATA CONVERSION EASA PART 66 M5 VM FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! VV Figure 27 HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 A/D Converter Page 61 .

3 DATA CONVERSION EASA PART 66 M5 5. As soon as the sawtooth voltage eaches the voltage level of the input voltage the output will toggle to „0“ (equals 0 Volts). In case the output voltage from the comparator is „0“ the pulses from the pulse generator will be blocked. It will remain in that state for the rest of the sawtooth. In order to create a continous indication on the display the count from the binary counter will be buffered and handed over to the data bus only during the falling flangue of the sawtooth (where the output voltage toggles from 10 Volts to 0 Volts).2. they can’t pass the AND gate any more. Higher input voltages can not be converted propperly.3 How the Sawtooth Principle works The sawtooth principle uses a sawtooth created by the converter and compates it with the input voltage. The binary counter therefore provides a binary number that is proportional to the analogue input voltage.Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. In case the input voltage is higher always the maximum (in this example: 10 Volts) would be indicated. The pulses that passed the AND gate  are applied to a binary counter which will count them and the count will be applied to its output section. The analogue input voltage  and the sawtooth  will be applied to an OpAmp acting as a comparator. The output voltage from the comparator  is applied to an AND gate as well as a clock or pulse created by a pulse generator. HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 Page 62 . In case the output voltage of the comparator is „1“. As long as the sawtooth voltage is less than the input voltage the comparator will provide „1“ (equals 5 Volts) at its output. the pulses from the pulse generator can pass the AND gate. At the end of each count (sawtooth) the binary counter will be resetted and a new count may start. The input voltage must be less or equal to the sawtooth voltage.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.3 DATA CONVERSION EASA PART 66 M5    FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!  Figure 28 HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 Basic Principle of A/D Converters Page 63 .

Example: a binary input 0111 will be converted in an analogue output voltage of 7 Volts. The schematics below indicate the basic principle: Data from a data bus is applied to to a register (buffer) that controlls the (electronic) switches. This amplification is set by the ratio of the resistors on the input side. The more Bit (switches) the higher the accuracy (resolution) of the output voltage will be.3 D/A Converter Usually OpAms ate used to convert binary numbers into analogue output voltages. The output voltage of the OpAmp is the sum of the input voltages where every input will have an individual voltage amplification in accordance with its binary value.3 DATA CONVERSION HAM US/F-4 KrA 10/2007 Page 64 . The OpAmp will act as an addder. In case all four bits are „0“ the analogue output voltage will be 0 Volts. The bit with the next higher significance has a resistor wit half the resistance of the input from the LSB. In case only the least significant bit (LSB) is „1“ a voltage will be provided at the output depending on the ratio of RL over R. The resistance of the input resistors will be inverse proportional to the significance of the bits. The output voltage will not be really analogue but can be altered in steps depending on the voltage from the LSB. As the ratio of RL over R in this case has been doubled the output voltage will be doubled as well. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.EASA PART 66 M5 5.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.3 DATA CONVERSION Figure 29 HAM US/F-4 KrA 10/2007 D/A Converter Page 65 .

All informations are reduced to simple Yes/No decisions. S PROGRAMM: an order of instructions that tells how to process data. Hardware and Software. Data could be changed. This could be an application like Word or a device driver as well. S HARDWARE: all devices and components that are required to process binary data in digital systems. Both. sorted or decisions could be made. Basic Computer Structure 6. This could be logic operations or arithmetic operations as well. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. Processing is done by computers. It also controlls where (if) information is stored. displayed or printed. S SOFTWARE: a common word which is used to describe all kinds of programms.1 General Automatic data processing deals with processing informations without errors. This data could be numbers.EASA PART 66 M5 6. Electronic circuits (Hardware) is controlled with specific instructions (Software). letters or even complete sentences.6 BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 66 . form a Computer. S COMPUTER: is a machine that processes data by means of digital technologies.

6 BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE Figure 30 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Example: ADC Page 67 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

The differences in the computers are in the characteristics of devices used to make up each section of the computer.1 Minimum Hardware Requirements 6. Input-/Output Interfaces 4.EASA PART 66 M5 6. Some devices could contain several components. CPU 2.2 Basic Computer Structure As with the purpose of a basic computer. register as temporary memory. central processing unit. and the instruction steps used to control the operation of the computer. A CPU for example contains the ALU (Arithmentic-Logic Unit) in order to execute calculations.2. Each computer is comprised of an input section. The minimum requirements for computer operation is: 1. instruction decoder and timing/logic control. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. Bus-System These requirements do not meet our standards for comfort and convieniance but they are sufficient for basic functioning.2. output section. Memory 3. the structure of a basic computer does not vary between computers.2 Detailed Components 6.6 BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE HAM US/F-4 KrA 06/2006 Page 68 . a memory section and a bus−system.

Memory Page 69 .EASA PART 66 M5 Shapes of CPU’s RAM-Memory FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.6 BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE Figure 31 HAM US/F-4 KrA 06/2006 Example: CPU.

6 BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE Figure 32 HAM US/F-4 KrA 06/2006 Example Conducting Wires Page 70 .EASA PART 66 M5 Conducting Wires/Busses FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

6 BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE Figure 33 HAM US/F-4 KrA 06/2006 Example HSI Page 71 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

Every crossing of two wires is a memory able to store one Bit.000.065 mm Technologies.6 BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE EASA PART 66 M5 6.000. With specific control circuits (selectors/address decoder) the bits stored could be retrieved one by one or in groups (data words). four or eight bit (1 Byte).Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. on a surface of only 120mm@. With two address lines four data words are accessible. Every data word could consist of e. The lines could be connected by semiconductors. 125 millions (125. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Amount of Transistors in CPU over the Years Figure 34 HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 History of Processors Page 72 . This is called random access. Depending on the technology used a memory could consist of diodes or MOS-Transistors.3 Memory Memory nowadays are high-integrated components that can store many GigaBit and have a size of only few square-millimeters. Basicly Memory consists of a matrix of conducting wires. With n Address Lines 2n Adresses could be selected. Every single section of the memory could be accessed directly.g. The scale of integration of memory devices is quite similar. In a processor of the Intel Pentium IV Family in 0. In earlier times memory had to be accessed in a sequence until the desired information was found.000 transistors per square-millimeter. This is no longer necessary.000) of transistors are installed! This is equivalent to 1. The semiconductors could be conductive in case a „0“ is stored or non-conductive if a „1“ is stored.

3. The capacity of memory devices is stated in the same format: Capacity = Amount of Addresses x Amount of Bit/Address Example: 2048 x 8 This means: The memory has 2048 Adresses. Every Adresse can store 8 Bit. Usually bits are used in groups of eight.3. Example: 256K x 1 This memory has 256 times1024 Addresses.1 Capacity of Memory 6. In Aircraft software sometimes is stored on socalled OBRM’s.3 ROM FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Fixed Memory (Read-Only-Memory.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 Page 73 . This memory can store information provided via a bus-system and data can be retrieved as well.000 but 1. Read / Write-Memory (Random Access Memory. RAM) usually consists of 4 6 MOS-Transistors per bit. All ROM keep their information even if the power supply is switched off. When switching on the power supply the contents of the memory is unknown.3. the state is accidental. 6. Usually they are produced in large amounts. Both types have in common that the information stored is lost as soon as the power supply is switched off. This is just a single „0“ or „1“-Information.2 RAM The smallest amount of information that is possible is a Bit. This is because they use very small capacitors that have quite high leakage currents. Dynamic RAMs have to be refreshed within a few milliseconds by reading the information and writing it back (Refresh cycle). But static RAM is faster as it doesn’t need a refresh. OBRM’s (On Board Replaceble Memory) are memory cards that can be replaced without opening up the computer. Static RAMs keep the information stored as long as the power supply is not switched off. ROM) don’t have the option of writing information into it. The advantage of dynamic RAM is that they are smaller so that their interation scale can be larger than the static ones. Every Address can store 1 Bit. This is what we call Byte. Here K doesn’t mean 1. Usually one can see the letter ”K“ for Kilo.024 (this is a power of 2). The programming is a part of the production process (Gameboy Software) and can not be changed.6 BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE EASA PART 66 M5 6.

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6.3.4 PROM
Programable ROM (PROM) is programmed by short bursts of current. This will
cause a gap in the current paths which then could mean 1 or 0. They are
programmed with a specific device called programmer. This programming is
irreversible! They are used for small series.

Basic Principle of a PROM

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

Fuseable Links.

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6.3.5 EPROM

6.3.6 EEPROM, EAPROM

Erasable and Programable ROM (EPROM) can be programmed with a specific
device, a programmer just like PROM. They have a small transparent
„window“. Below lies the silicon memory which can be erased when exposed to
UV light. As daylight also contains a small amount of UV the window is covered
by a label that has to be removed in order to erase the memory.
So EPROM can be erased, the programming is reversible.
Typical application is experimental programming. In aircrafts is had been used
for software (e.g. FMS) and nav data base.

EEPROM is eraseble memory that can be erased electrical and then be
reprogrammed (computer BIOS).
EAPROM is eraseble memory where information also can be altered. So no
erasing is required.
Both, EAPROM and EEPROM, nowadays replace PROM and EPROM
because they can be reprogrammed in a running system, no components have
to be exchanged, no opening of LRU is required.

Overview: Types of Memory

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

Type

HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008

Volatile

Programmable

RAM

Yes

YES

ROM

NO

NO

PROM

NO

Once

EPROM (UV-PROM)

NO

Numerous times, but not
in system

EEPROM
EAPROM

NO

Numerous times in the
system

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6.4 Computer Technology
6.4.1 Reference Computer
Although computers can be classified by hardware as analog, digital, or hybrid,
they are more often classified by their tasks or application.
A computer which may be used for a source of information or data can be
called a reference computer. Reference signals from this computer may be
self−contained and only provides outputs.
An Inertial Reference System (IRS) is one example of a reference computer.
This system is a laser gyro and accelerometer based reference system used to
generate such outputs as airplane attitude, heading, acceleration and angular
information. Other than for initialization purposes, the IRS needs no inputs to
perform its task.
Some of the units utilizing this information as a reference are the Autothrottle
Computer, the flight Control Computers, the pilot’s Horizontal Situation
Indicators, and the Flight Management Computer.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

Lufthansa Technical Training

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES
M5.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE

HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008

Page 76

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE Figure 35 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Reference Computers Page 77 .

EASA PART 66 M5 6. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. the maintenance personnel often need to recall certain events that occurred during the flight. engine oil levels. during and after a flight.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 78 . electrical / hydraulic parameters.2 Informational Computers A computer that collects data from various places. from power up through touchdown. During the different phases of a flight. Airplane configuration. such as out of normal parameters on an engine (overspeed). and formats it for display can be called an informational computer. processes it. An Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (ElCAS) is one type of informational computer. Parameters used to set and monitor engine thrust are displayed on a cathode ray tube (CRT) full time and the remaining engine parameters may be selected for display by the crew.4. equipment cooling and status. On the ground. The flight crew has various types of information available to them before. Information needed may include total air temperature. The main task of an informational computer is to collect data and display it in a central place. the flight crew is often in need of information concerning a certain airplane system. Maintenance information can be displayed when required by maintenance personnel. and engine vibration levels. performance data and engine exceedance are some of the types of maintenance information available. hydraulic pressures. or Auxiliary Power Unit voltage information.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE Figure 36 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Informational Computers Page 79 .

Their main task is to monitor and store data for later retrieval. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 80 . When the EEC systems indicate a failure has occurred. the maintenance personnel can recall the faults from the EECM to determine what maintenance action needs to be completed.3 Storage / Monitor Computers Storage/monitor computers retain information provided to them by other systems. by the flight crew or by the maintenance crew. by other computers or by monitoring other systems or sections of the storage/ monitor computer unit.4. An Electronic Engine Control Monitor (EECM) is a type of storage computer which stores fault data from the Electronic Engine Control (EEC) system. Typically storage/monitor computers do very little signal processing. When an abnormality occurs on an engine during flight.EASA PART 66 M5 6. The information stored may be used by other computers. the data pertaining to that fault is stored within the EECM.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE Figure 37 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Storage/Monitor Computers Page 81 .

In industry today nearly anything that can be controlled can be controlled by a computer. so computers are used to lighten the crew’s workload by providing automatic control. surfaces. The FSEU can control the flaps automatically during take−off and landing by utilizing information from other systems such as the Flap / Slat position Module.4. It is impractical to have the flight crew manually control all of the necessary systems. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. Airplanes have a myriad of systems. both in the air and on the ground. If the flight crew elects to extend the flaps at an unsafe air speed.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 82 . The Flap/Slat Electronic Unit (FSEU) computer provides a means to monitor the flap lever position and to control the flap position on the wings. this is one of the largest categories of computers.EASA PART 66 M5 6. Computerized controllers range from simple temperature controllers to entire systems for controlling a complete factory.4 Controlling Computers A computer with the primary task of controlling something can be called a controlling computer or controller. and Flap Lever. the Proximity Switch Electronics Unit. and devices needing control during operation. the FSEU will monitor the air speed and control the flap extension when airspeed is within allowable parameters.

6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE EASA PART 66 M5 FLAP LEVER FLAP/SLAT POSITION MODULE FLAP/SLAT ELECTRONIC UNIT PROX: SWITCH ELECTRONICS UNIT FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! FLAP DRIVE UNIT FLAP Figure 38 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Controlling Computers Page 83 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

The computer calculates optimum cost profiles for climb. All computed values are also automatically displayed allowing the crew to fly an optimum profile using manual control.EASA PART 66 M5 6. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. Interactive computers typically display information to the operator and then manipulate the data based on the interaction between the operator and the computer. initialization data and route structure.5 Interactive Computers Some computers can perform several different tasks depending on operator inputs.4. The flight crew interfaces with the computer by means of the Control Display Unit (CDU) to input performance data. The Flight Management Computer (FMC) is an example of an interactive computer. cruise and descent used by the autopilot and autothrottle for automatic flight control.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 84 . Such a computer is called an interactive computer.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE Figure 39 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Interactive Computers Page 85 .

and information computers. reference. As in the example of the interactive computer. These computers can be either analog. and make available information. digital or hybrid. the flight management computer is also used as a control computer by controlling the autopilot and other systems. Computer types and applications are as varied as their tasks.6 Aircraft Digital Systems − Summary Airplanes typically have many computers to control. It can also be noted that computers are typically different combinations of the five types of computers as categorized by application. Those are interactive. It can be an Informational computer by providing the flight crew with route Information. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. provide references. in that it monitors many of its inputs and stores this information for further reference.EASA PART 66 M5 6. It also acts as a storage / monitor computer.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 86 . storage / monitor. controlling. monitor.4. The flight management computer also acts as a storage computer by storing information to be used by other airplane systems.

TESTS STORAGE DATA: PERFORMANCE NAVIGATION GUIDANCE REPLIES RESPONSES INFORMATIONAL CONTROL AUTOMATIC PILOT CONTROL COMMANDS FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! AIRCRAFT SENSORS FLIGHT MANAGEMENT COMPUTER SYSTEM FUNCTIONS MONITOR Figure 40 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Airplane Digital Systems Page 87 . DATA ENQUIRIES.6A BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE EASA PART 66 M5 INTERACTIVE COMMANDS.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

which are implemented into the front face of the LRU. After HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 this procedure the EPROM can be reprogrammed electrically. A computer would be built from these and given specific/unique instruction sets and programs. usually accessed by the input of a security code. UV−ROMs are only used. each with different costs. EAPROM. The technique of EAPROM/ EEPROM is used for S Fault−recording. cpu memory ICs etc. It is usual for the hardware and the software to be developed together. then the system must be put through the test procedure. when parameter changes are infrequent. These memory devices allows program and parameter changes. The designer/engineer will decide which hardware.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. A huge increase in flexibility was brought about by the development of electrically eraseable ROM‘s. S by a Portable Data Loader. a program change in an aircraft−LRU can be done S by an ADL (Airborn Data Loader). EEPROM. S Parameter−saving and S Program−change (partly) 7. Beginning with the easiest way. M5 Software Management Control 7. The invention of the EPROM/UV−ROM increased system flexibility.13 SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT CONTROL 7. stored in the ROM By storing the whole program in a ROM. a drive found in the cockpit. It is up to the manufacturer to realize all of the demands. ROM. If. The specification of an electronic unit does not detail the hardware the system should/does employ. Page 88 . The memory−chip has to be erased first. The easier it is to reprogram a device.2 History FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! EASA PART 66 Nowadays different manufacturer’s computers can run the same software.3 Program Change Reprogramming may be done in different ways. The software is loaded from a diskette or diskettes followed by the start−command. RAM. This means a new ROM chip must be programmed by a specialist. located in the cockpit. environmental resistance and relevant international standards. the whole ROM must be changed. This technique allows to change the program with the equipment in situ. S their tolerances. also known as electrically alterable ROM‘s. 7. for example the change of magnetic variation in an Inertial Reference System (IRS). came onto the market separately. S by changing of OBRM‘s (On Board Replaceable Modules). S by using a special Programing Menu on the MCDU. a parameter value must be changed for a modification. compiler etc. Address register. the program of the arithmetic and logic process in the computer. But the process is still involved. In the past devices such as CPU. In both cases. decoder. Because of the high complexity of this procedure. S in the workshop. which must be connected direct to the LRU−Front−Plug or to a transfer− plug.1 General Each digital LRU (Line Replaceable Unit) consists of the S Hardware. the computer will not be flexible. Programs stored in ROM are often referred to as firmware (rather than software). This is done by shining a UV−light onto the light−sensitive substrate of the chip for about 20 to 30 minutes. will best meet the requirements of the unit. which can be located in the cockpit. for example. a disc or a magnetic tape may be the data transfer medium. the electronic devices and the S Software. The software specifies the S input− and output−parameters. S fault detections and so on. then the specification of a unit will be guaranteed by the software of the system . As long as the hardware chosen must meets requirements in terms of interfacing. the more quality controls have to be applied to ensure that the reprogramming is done correctly in a controlled manner. S refreshment−rates.

In defining each system it defines the function of the whole aircraft.5 Software Handling Depending on the Software Level. Only authorized personal may modify the software which is classified in level A. to another. Document DO 178B or EUROCAE Doc. In the RTCA (Requirement and Technical Concepts for Aviation). which can result in catastrophic failure. called: S Core Software. S successful loading must be acknowledged. also known as Application Software. such as the air data computer. Software which is classified in level E can be done by maintenance personnel. if the airline engineering guarantees an ‘equivalent−level−of−safety‘. It will interface one LRU. The Core Software defines the individual system. the LRU−Manufacture can be bypassed. A change of this software can only be made with the agreement of the aircraft manufacturer and the LRU−manufacturer.4 Software Definition Modern LRU‘s contain their software in different packages. S Operational Software or Application Software and S Data Base. this is a complicated process. S no other systems will be affected. only parameter values will be changed. ED 12B (Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certiication) software levels are defined as: S Level A. A change of the Operational/Application−Software also needs the agreement and documentation of both manufactures. By implementing a new Data Base Software. This is documented in authorized Service Bulletins (Cover−S/B) of the two manufacturers. because it is a part of the control loop of the aircraft. An uncontrolled change could be disasterous. such as the flight control system. However. The Core−Software should normally never be touched. to S Level E. The Operational Software. different levels of care must be taken in documentation and handling of the software. In any case it must be guaranteed that S only the authorized software will be influenced by re−loading. not strictly a program change. which will not effect the safety of the aircraft. defines for example the kind of display in the cockpit. HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 89 .13 SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT CONTROL EASA PART 66 M5 7. but only if respective documentation is available .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. For example the maximum aircraft take off weight can be increased because of the higher pressure in the tyres. A Data Base Software change can normally be done without involvement of the manufacturers if it is guaranteed that the software is classified in level E. Kinds of Software Separations: FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 7.

But tendency goes to more reliable.1.1 ARINC Standards ARINC. and A−300 aircraft. and DC−10. fit. fast databusses which can deal the enormous amount of digital data modern aircraft provide. They include guidelines for installation. function. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 700 Series 700 Series ARINC Characteristics define digital avionics systems and equipment installed on current−model production aircraft. data buses. DC−9. 500 Series 500 Series ARINC Characteristics define older analog avionics equipment still used widely on the B−727. Some ARINC-Specifications deal with digital data transmissions. 600 Series 600 Series ARINC Specifications and Reports define enabling technologies that provide a design foundation for equipment specified per the ARINC 700 Series of digital avionics systems. databases. and interface. Among the topics covered by Specifications are data link protocols. B−747.4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 8. From time to time there is an ARINC Meeting where representives from manufactureres.1 General 8. Nowadays some boards also deal with aviation. even in Boeings 777 and in Airbus A380. Standard is ARINC 429 still. Aeronautical Radio Incorporated is a corporation that was founded 1929 in the United States in order to simplfy radio commumication and find common standards.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. 400 Series 400 Series ARINC Specifications and Reports provide a design foundation for equipment specified per the ARINC 700 and 500 Series. ARINC 8. HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 90 . wiring. owners and avionics suppliers meet to redefine the standards if necessary. and general guidance. They include detailed definitions of form. as well as on early models of B−737.

4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 80ies ARINC 429 90ies ARINC 629 2000ers ARINC 664/AFDX (A380) ? FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 70ies ARINC 419 Figure 41 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 History of ARINC Standards Page 91 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

i.2 ARINC 429 8. The hardware support providing serial transmission of information is a mono−directional bus composed of a pair of twisted and shielded wires (see figure below). both directions at the same time. Therefore.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. both directions.2. S only one set of digital circuitry is needed to process the data.4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 8. This shielding is connected to ground. HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 92 . the parallel message is converted into a serial message. e. one Receiver.2. but only one at a time. One transmitter can supply data to up to 20 receivers. Advantages of serial transmission: S only a single line is required for transmission. for weight control and reliability reasons. to use a serial transmission system. The digital computers of the different aircraft systems. process results in the form of messages or parallel binary words. This is slower than parallel transmission but sufficient for ARINC 429 requirements.2. it is preferable.2. The message is thus sent in the form of a string of pulses. This specification therefore defines encoding data of signals to be transmitted. However.1 General System data transfers in and out of an aircraft system and within the system occur in digital formats as defined by ARINC specification 429 Mark 33 Digital Information Transfer System (DITS). S Full Duplex: One Transmitter. 8.2. one Receiver. One Way only. S Simplex: One Transmitter. S Half-Duplex: One Transmitter. information comprising several bits (0. in particular at each branch..1 Data Exchange ARINC 429 defines Simplex-Operations as a standard.2 Interconnection 8. to transmit digital information towards external receivers.2. one Receiver.2 Data Cables FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Serial transmission of information in digital format as defined by ARlNC specification 429. 8. Then a line transmitter adapts this serial logic message into voltage levels which are compatible with the transmission standard.1) available simultaneously.

4 DATA BUSSES Figure 42 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 ARINC 429 Interconnection Page 93 .EASA PART 66 M5 Serial Transfer FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

2.2.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. Voltage Ranges The Voltage ranges for transmitter and receiver differ a little bit.4 Transmission Speed ARINC 429 defines two different transmission speeds: S Low Speed ( 12 .2.2.5 +0.14 kBit ) S High Speed ( 100 kBit ) Low Speed and High Speed-Transmission may never occur on the same data bus it is either a low speed or high speed bus.5 ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ −9 -10V −11 HIGH NULL ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ Ç Ç ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ LOW t − 6. U 10V HIGH SPEED LOW SPEED TRANSMISSION SIGNAL SPEED 100 kBit 12.5 kBit BIT TIME T 10 ms 80 ms ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ + 13 +11 +9 + 6.4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 8.3 8.5 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 94 .5 HIGH NULL LOW − 13 Receiver Input States FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Transmitter Output States − 2. The receiver accepts a wider voltage range so it could read the data even if there are some minor disturbances on the bus.5 + 2.5 −0.

10 Volts for the logic „0“ FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.1 Bit . Gap HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 95 . The Receiver recognises the first bit of a new data word by the change in voltage (from 0 V to +10V or -10V).3.2. Therefore three different voltage levels are required: S + 10 Volts for the logic „1“ S 0 Volts for the clock S .2.2 Word Synchronisation The data words are separated by a gap of 4 bit time minimum.Synchronisation ARINC 429 uses a bipolar RZ (Return to Zero)-Signal.EASA PART 66 M5 8.3. which contains data and clock.2. Usually it is from 4 to 8 bit.3 Data Synchronisation 8.4 DATA BUSSES 8.

4 Information-Rate Important data is transmitted quite often.EASA PART 66 M5 8.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 96 .2. This is what we call Information Rate. less important data is transmitted less often. As BCD-Data (Binary Coded Decimal) is used for displays only it is transmitted every 500 ms (average). BNR (Binary) is to be processed by other LRU’s and therefore transmitted 6 to 20 times a second. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

5 ms PS TAS TAS BCD BNR MACH PS 62.5 ms 125 ms FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 500 ms Figure 43 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Information Rate Page 97 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 Information-Rate TAS TAS BCD BNR MACH PS TAS TAS MACH BNR MACH BNR 62.

These 32 Bits are split up in areas with a dedicated purpose: S Bit 1-8: Label / Adress S Bit 9-10: Source / Destination Identifier S Bit 11-28 (29): Data S Bit (29) 30-31: Sign/Status Matrix S Bit 32: Parity Bit FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.2. even if not all of them are required for the information transferred.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 98 .5 Data Word 8.2.5.1 General A Data Word is always composed of 32 Bits.EASA PART 66 M5 8.

IDENTIFIER 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 13 LSB BINARY DATA 26 27 28 29 30 SIGN / STATUS MATRIX MSB ( 1 2 4 ) (1 2 4 ) ( 1 2 ) LABEL / ADRESS FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! ODD PARITY 31 ODD PARITY SIGN / STATUS MATRIX M5 32 Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 DATA BUSSES Figure 44 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 ARINC 429 Data Word Composition Page 99 .EASA PART 66 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LABEL / ADRESS 8 9 10 SOURCE / DESTIN. IDENTIFIER (4 2 1 ) (8 4 2 1 ) (8 4 2 1 ) (8 4 2 1 ) (8 4 2 1 ) MSB LSB BINARY CODED DECIMAL DATA SOURCE / DESTIN.

5. the receiver can check that the different bits forming the word have all been integrally and correctly transmitted. Example1: Label: 213 LABEL / ADRESS 32 8 7 (1 2 1 1 6 5 4 3 2 4) (1 2 4) (1 2 ) 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 1 1 2 Example 2: Label: 270 LABEL / ADRESS 32 8 7 (1 2 0 0 0 6 5 4 3 2 4) (1 2 4) (1 2 ) 0 1 0 1 1 7 1 1 2 Page 100 . a radio frequency. etc. It is octal coded (based 8 number system) the following Figure gives some examples of application to illustrate the selected coding system. or a series of binary data.2 Parity Check 8. It is used to increase transmission security. Each word is identified by a label which defines its function: A word may represent aerodynamic information. The parity bit is defined. ”constructed”. the last bit (bit 32) of each word is used. D C B A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 P odd HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Label / Address This label takes up the first 8 bits (1 to 8) of a word. each one of which controls the illumination of an inscription or controls a function.3 To check transmission validity. in such a way that all ARlNC words have an odd number of binary zeros (therefore an odd number of binary 1‘s). By means of this parity bit.2. As nowadays the total amount of labels (256) available is no longer sufficient they may be used for different parameters. To determine the correct parameter the equipment identifier is also needed. It is called the parity bit.Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. It is generated ”constructed” by the transmitter when the word is emitted and it is checked by the receiver upon arrival.2.4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 8.5.

g. Discr. 0 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 X 01 02 03 BCD 04 05 06 07 10 11 BNR 12 BCD 13 14 Discrete 15 Maint. The issue of that guideline can be read from the number of the ARINC: e. Data Ack 37 Figure 45 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 M ISO ISO 5 BNR EQ ID Guideline for Label Assignment Page 101 .4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 Guideline for Label Assignment This guideline gives the assignment of the labels to certain types of information. In addition to that a list is available. 16 Maint. From time to time there might be a change in that guideline. ARINC 429−14.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. Data M Data BCD 17 20 BCD 21 22 23 BCD 24 25 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 26 BNR Mix Test 27 Discrete 30 Application Dependent Test 31 32 BNR 33 34 35 36 Maint.

4 DATA BUSSES Figure 46 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 BCD List Page 102 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

4 DATA BUSSES Figure 47 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 BNR List Page 103 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

) for FCC-Controller.EASA PART 66 M5 8. S Label 315 is defined for „Wind Speed“ if the EQID is 04 (or 004) for IRS.2. They are defined by their code in the hexadecimal system. ... This is an information like altitude. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. speed.4 DATA BUSSES Figure 48 HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Equipment Identifier Page 104 . So this is not a part of every data word but only in that label 377 word. temperature. Because of the restricted amount of labels (001 to 376 in octal) one specific label may be used for different parameters: S Label 315 is defined for „Stabilizer Position“ if the EQ ID is A1 (or 0A1 in ARINC-Specs with heigher Dash-No.4 Equipment Identifier The “ARlNC specification 429“ defines the label 377 to recognize the transmitting LRU on the bus by means of the so called EQUIPMENT IDENTIFIERS.5.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 DATA BUSSES Figure 49 HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Equipment Identifier List Page 105 .

2 will transmit SDI−bits 10 on its output bus). single system installed only). 10 is transmitted on bits 9 and 10. and when the source system of a multi system installation needs to be recognizable from the word content. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. This is the most frequent case. when specific words need to be directed to a specific system of a multi system installation. or when the information is directed to a specific location (which has a minor function). if the ARINC word is to be sent to be recognized by system No 2 only. The same bit combination (00) is also used. The respective system is mostly informed about its installed position by pin programming at the shelf receptacle or by an identification plug as it is used for example at the engine PMC (Power Management Computer).g. The SDI function is used when it is necessary to indicate the source of information. If 00 is transmitted on bits 9 and 10. As an example.2.5 Source / Destination Identifier Bits 9 and 10 comprise the source/destination identifier. or SDl. For example.5. the data is sent to be recognized by all receivers (ALL CALL). the transmitter sends its installed position on bit 9 and 10 (IRS No. if the receiver is not specified by its SDl (e. If 4 identical systems are installed. For another example: If there are several identical systems which transmit data.EASA PART 66 M5 8. system 4 is identified by SD code 00.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Page 106 .

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 not used / 4 1 2 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 3 Figure 50 HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Source / Destination Identifier Page 107 .

HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Page 108 . AIM Data and File Transfer Data have a SSM from Bits 30 and 31.5. As far as validity information is concerned. failure /warning or flag signal to the various receivers. BNR BNR Data have a SSM that consists of Bits 29 for Sign and 30 und 31 for Status. In case of a failure the data word is supressed (not transmitted any more). In case of a defect a failure warning is transmitted. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! BCD BCD as well as Discretes.6 Sign / Status Matrix Validity and complementary information accompanying the signal carried by the word: Each word includes status or validity indicators.2.4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 8. there is no need for a wire carrying the discrete validity.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! BNR BCD Figure 51 HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Sign Status Matrix Page 109 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

The other digits are formed from four bit groups.6 Data-Information The ARINC specification No 429 considers 6 type of transmissible data: S Numeric Data BCD S Numeric Data BNR S Discretes S Maintenance data S Alphanumeric data S Data file 8.1 Numeric Data (BCD) A transmission of numeric data in BCD format consists of the Bits 11 to 29. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. ARINC gives the range and the resolution of the information contained in the data word.6.2.EASA PART 66 M5 8.2. As not all the digits available are required for some specific information.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Page 110 . The Bits 29 to 27 form the MSC (Most significant Character) and has a range from 0 to 7.

4 DATA BUSSES Figure 52 HAM US/F-4 KrA 03/2008 Example BCD Page 111 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

2 Exercises BCD FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.EASA PART 66 M5 8.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 11/2006 Page 112 .2.6.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 11/2006 Page 113 .

4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 11/2006 Page 114 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 11/2006 Page 115 .

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 11/2006 Page 116 .

4 DATA BUSES Figure 53 HAM US/F-4 KrA 10/2006 Example BCD Exemptions Page 117 .EASA PART 66 M5 Example 2 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

.g.).. Speed .4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 118 .6.. here are the characteristics defined in ARINC Specification No 429 regarding total air temperature: FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. Sometimes they are used to transmit discrete data. a 1/4 th S The following bit. For instance. 1024 kts for a calibrated airspeed CAS). that is encoded as a binary uses the bits 11 to 28.3 Numeric Data (BNR) Numeric Data (e. Bit 28 is always the MSB (most significant bit). an 1/8 th S The following bit a 1/16 th etc. PAD-Bits are all the bits that are not a part of the information.. The Figure gives some examples of coding of numerical data. The most significant bit (MSB) will therefore represent half of this maximum value.EASA PART 66 M5 8.2. Temperature.. As not all the digits available are required for some specific information ARINC gives the range and the resolution of the information contained in the data word. S The following bit. They are filled with logic „0“. The RANGE is defined which gives the maximum value that can be represented (e.g. To read the value this complement has to be reversed by inverting the binary word string and then add 1. The resolution is quite close to the LSB but not necessarily exact the same value. Negative values are transmitted in the so called two’s complement.

4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 Parity DATA PAD-Bits SSM DATA PAD-Bits FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Parity SSM SDI SDI LABEL LABEL = 16 + 4 + 2 + 1 + 0.25° C Figure 54 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Example BNR Dataword Page 119 .23.25 = .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

The value of the most significant bit (MSB). The value of the less significant bits comes from dividing the MSB by 2 again and again. All bits together form the number transmitted. no grouping is allowed.6.EASA PART 66 M5 8. This doesnt necessarily mean it is a power of 2. Bit 28.2.4 Exercises BNR Binaries must be seen as a string of bits.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 120 . FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. A decimal point is never transmitted. Any number can occur. is always Range/2.

4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 121 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 122 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 123 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 124 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 DATA BUSES EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK HAM US/F-4 KrA 10/2004 Page 125 .

. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. They might also be used on aircraft with special (unique) equipment.. The system receiving the data must be capable of identifying its source by reference to the port at which it arrives. There are two groups of discretes: S General Purpose Discretes They can be found in many (any) aircraft like TAT.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 126 . S Dedicated Discretes Specific dedicated words with assigned labels are used when the data is intended for AIDS..2. These words should be used in ascending label order.6. The ARlNC specification No 429 assigns 7 possible labels (octal 270 to 276) to those words.5 Discrete Data The ARlNC specification No 429 defines two methods of transmitting discrete items of Information: S Inside a word assigned to a specific data item. A/S.EASA PART 66 M5 8. Altitude. S Use of words fully dedicated to transmission of discretes. use of one or several bits not used for encoding such item.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 DATA BUSSES Figure 55 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Example Discretes from ADC Page 127 .

6.4 DATA BUSSES HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 128 .2.6 Maintenance Data The general purpose maintenance words are assigned 5 labels in sequential order (350 to 354) as are the labels for general purpose discrete words. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. General purpose maintenance words must contain only discrete or numeric data BNR or BCD coded.EASA PART 66 M5 8. They are used for maintainance purposes in shops as the information stored is kept even if power supply is shut off.

EASA PART 66
M5

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

Lufthansa Technical Training

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES
5.4 DATA BUSSES

Figure 56
HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008

Example Maintenance Data from IRS
Page 129

Lufthansa Technical Training
FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES
5.4 DATA BUSSES

EASA PART 66
M5

8.2.6.7

AIM Data

Alphanumeric data is encoded in ISO alphabet No 5 as called for in ARlNC
specification No 429. That specification uses the term AIM in referring to the
three possible types of data:
S Label 355 − Acknowledgement: not applicable
S Label 356 − Maintenance: Transmission of alphanumeric characters
intended for maintenance
S Label 357 − ISO alphabet No 5: Transmission of alphanumeric characters.
The ISO alphabet No 5 is a seven−bit code set which implies that an ARINC
specification No 429 word can include a maximum of three characters:
bit No.9 to 15, 16 to 22, 23 to 29.
Several words must be used to transmit information which exceeds three
characters. Therefore, ARlNC specification No 429 lays down a procedure to
cover this as outlined below.
The following words include the characters of the actual information. They are
assigned the same label as the initial word and the SSM (status/sign Matrix):
intermediate word, or final word whenever there are no more characters to be
transmitted.
A control word may be in use following the initial word. It is used to set the
character size, colour and brightness as well as flashing of the text.
NOTE:
S The most significant character is the initial character transmitted (bits No. 9
to 15 of the first word containing information).
S As regards transmission of data known as Acknowledgement, the ARlNC
specification 429 does not lay down a format since an application does not
yet exist.
In the future AIM Data will be used to transmit non-timecritical information e.g.
comms frequencies in order to reduce traffic from ATC to the cockpit on voice
communication channels. An attention getter and a three-tone chime will come
on in case a message arrives at the cockpit.

HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008

Bit No:

Usage

31

30

Alphanumeric

0

0

Intermediate Word

0

1

Initial Word

1

0

Last Word

1

1

Control Word

Page 130

EASA PART 66
M5

Alphanumeric Signs from ISO Alphabet No 5
MSC
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

LSC

NUL

DLE

SP

0

@

P

p

0

SOH

DC1

!

1

A

Q

a

q

1

STX

DC2

2

B

R

b

r

2

ETX

DC3

#

3

C

S

c

s

3

EOT

DC4

$

4

D

T

d

t

4

ENQ

NAK

%

5

E

U

e

u

5

ACK

SYN

&

6

F

V

f

v

6

BEL

ETB

7

G

W

g

w

7

BS ←

CAN

(

8

H

X

h

x

8

HT

EM

)

9

I

Y

i

y

9

LF ↓

SUB

*

:

J

Z

j

z

A

VT ↑

ESC

+

;

K

[

k

{

B

FF →

FS

,

<

L

\

l

|

C

CR

GS

-

=

M

]

m

}

D

SO

RS

>

N

^

n

~

E

SI

US

/

?

O

_

o

DEL

F

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY!

Lufthansa Technical Training

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES
5.4 DATA BUSSES

Figure 57
HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008

Alphanumeric List
Page 131

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.4 DATA BUSSES Figure 58 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Example AIM Data Transmission Page 132 .

4 DATA BUSSES Figure 59 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Example AIM Data Page 133 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

ADF. These words are always assigned a label associated with the file involved which is going to be transmitted or which has just been received and the SSM (status Sign Matrix): initial word. For other data regarding the radio−navigation systems: ARINC specification No 429 furthermore defines other applications concerning ILS.Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.8 Data File ARlNC specification No 429 lays down certain characteristics for specific applications with file data transfer: S file capacity: 1 to 127 records S record capacity: 1 to 126 words of 32 bits S data encoding: numeric data: BNR coded. In this type of transmission. S Bidirectional: Poll − This instruction denotes that the line is clear. S Transmitter to Receiver: Header Information in the case where the transmitter informs the receiver of the file size.2.4 DATA BUSSES EASA PART 66 M5 8. without awaiting the instruction to transmit.6. HF systems etc. ARlNC specification No 429 defines the words containing instructions permitting dialogue between the transmitter and receiver. characters: ISO Alphabet No 5 transmission protocol All words in a file are assigned the same label as the file label.. which will be defined in the respective ATA specification No 100 chapters. Normal protocol is as follow: S Transmitter to receiver: Label ”Request to Send” – Initial word S Receiver to transmitter : Label ”Clear to Send” – Initial word S Transmitter to receiver : Label ”Data follows” − Initial word LabeI Information Intermediate word Label Check sum of all words in file − Final word S Receiver to transmitter : (after check upon reception of final word) ARINC specification No 429 furthermore defines use of the following instructions in initial words: S Receiver to transmitter: ”Data Receiver Not OK” S or ”Synchronization Lost” in the case of error or loss of synchronization detected by the receiver. S Transmitter to Receiver: Header Information in the case of error or loss of synchronization detected by the receiver. DME. HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 134 ..

4 DATA BUSSES Figure 60 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 File Data Transfer Protocol Page 135 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

high-reliability. ARINC Specifications 429 and 629 may both be applied on the same airplane in order to obtain the best technical and economic solution (which both are implemented in the 777). which are implemented in each LRU. (A Voltage Mode Coupler is as yet not specified. which could be a potential source of total data bus failure. S Stub Cables and S Terminals. consisting of four conductors. HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 136 .3 ARINC 629 8. ARINC 629 supports a multi-transmitter and bidirectional approach to digital data communications.) FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Stub Cables The Stub Cable Assembly. The primary advantages of this multiple access data bus include the ability to move more data between LRU’s at higher rates using fewer wires. Boeing began working on a concept of a multi-transmitter data bus in 1977. carries the differential voltage doublet from the Terminal to the Coupler and back.3. S Fiber Optic Mode Bus.3. Current Mode Couplers (CMC) or Fiber Optic Input/Output Ports. S Voltage Mode Bus. which was first deployed on the Boeing 777 aircraft. Couplers According to the Data Bus Cable there are associated Couplers implemented. The ARINC 629 specification was adopted by Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee (AEEC) in 1989.4 DATA BUSES EASA PART 66 M5 8.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. multi-user data bus. Data Bus Cable Three transmission modes and media are specified for the implementation of ARINC 629 networks: S Current Mode Bus. 8.2 Components Physically the ARINC 629 system consists of the following components: S Data Bus Cable. Another advantage of this concept is: it does not need a central bus controller.1 General The new ARINC 629 communication system is a high-integrity. S Couplers.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.4 DATA BUSES Figure 61 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 ARINC 629 Principle Page 137 .

however. At each terminal point an optical/electrical converter is required for each fibre being utilized by a system. HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 138 . the special methods required for repair of these cables are more involved than that for wire cables. As such. One of the greatest advantages of fibre optics is its bandwidth.1 General 9. The outer jacket provides protection from crushing and impact damage. In parallel and coax cables the bandwidth varies inversely as the square of the cable length. Its most prolific use has been in the area of ground-based communications. jacketed fibre optic cables are significantly smaller and lighter and can tolerate more mechanical abuse than comparable electrical cable.10 FIBRE OPTICS EASA PART 66 M5 9. Because of its many benefits. At present. The core is the light carrying component of the cable. Fibre Optics 9.5 MHz. Terminations also require special care to prevent damage to the fibre end. For example. Consequently. The silicone coating prevents scuffing of the thin cladding layer with the buffer jacket providing additional protection. Limitations of fibre optics arise mainly from the need for optical/electrical conversion and the implementation and maintenance of the physical connections. while in fibre optic cable it varies inversely with length. In fibre optic cables data is transmitted in the form of light. fibre optics are being seriously considered as a medium for the transfer of digital data between systems on aircraft.Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. large electric and magnetic fields do not affect the transmission. It is through this core that the digital data is transmitted.2 Fibre Optic Structure In recent years fibre optic systems have found increased application in the transmission of digital data. A typical fibre optic cable structure is shown. In addition. fibres cannot interfere with each other. In addition. the 3dB frequency for a 100-meter length of RG-59 coax is 22. This could result in a multiplicity of these converters being required by a system. In most communication applications the power levels used are safe to personnel and electrically dangerous environments. fibreous tensile strength members running the length of the cable allow it to be pulled through a long conduit. multiple connections on a fibre optic cable are economically impractical. For the same length of a typical fibre optic cable the 3dB frequency is 200 MHz. The surface of this core is coated with a cladding that acts to reflect the light rays which would otherwise pass out of the core and be lost. Any light leakage from the fibres is eliminated by surrounding the fibre with an opaque jacket.

10 FIBRE OPTICS Figure 62 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Fibre Optics Page 139 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. One derives between three different types of optical fibres: S Multimode Fibre S Gradient Index Fibre S Monomode Fibre For transmission a single light beam may be in use as well as several beams with the same wave lenght.EASA PART 66 M5 9.10 FIBRE OPTICS HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 140 .4 Optical Fibre Types Several wave lengths have prooved to be most useful for transmission because of the low damping / signal losses. Usually the light is infrared and therefore invisible.3 Wave Length 9. An individual light beam is called mode.

10 FIBRE OPTICS 2nd Window 1300nm 1st Window 850 nm Figure 63 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 3rd Window 1550nm Optical Windows Page 141 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

by using optical couplers. to attach more than one set of transmit and receive terminals to a single fibre rather than run a separate fibre or cable for each transmit−receive pair. Access to the LAN is made through optical couplers that divert part of the signal power on the LAN fibre to each receiver and couple power from each terminal transmitter onto the fibre. The most common application for this technology is with Local Area Networking. This amplifier then provides the driving levels required by the output transistor. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.5 Optical/Electrical Converters Conversion of electrical signals into light signals is accomplished by an optical transmitter. whereby a common fibre carries the multiplexed signals from multiple terminals placed at various locations served by the LAN. (LAN). Digital signals applied to the transmitter cause the internal light source (usually an LED or similar device) to operate between two distinct output levels. A photosensitive device responds to the light at the end of the fibre optic cable by providing a signal level input to a receiving amplifier. At the receiving end an optical receiver converts the light signals back into electrical signals. This light output is then applied to the end of the fibre optic cable. This transmitter is electrically connected to the sending system.EASA PART 66 M5 9. Couplers It is possible.10 FIBRE OPTICS HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 142 .

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.10 FIBRE OPTICS EASA PART 66 M5 OPTICAL RECEIVER FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! OPTICAL TRANSMITTER Figure 64 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Optical/Electrical Converters Page 143 .

6 Properties In comparison to copper cables the following advantages and disadvantages are obvious: Advantages: S Optical signals unaffected by EMI/EMP. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Disadvantages: S Requires optical/electrical converters.10 FIBRE OPTICS EASA PART 66 M5 9. S Less weight than comparable electrical cable. S Multiple connections are economically impractical. S No cross talk between fibres. S Energy levels harmless to maintenance personnel. S More tolerant of mechanical and environmental abuse than comparable electrical cables. S Repair requires special methods. S Terminations require special care. HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 144 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. S Bandwidth inversely proportional to length as opposed to electrical cable which is inversely proportional to the square of the length.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.10 FIBRE OPTICS EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 145 .

The 7-segment display is used where numbers and a limited amount of other symbols are required. Character displays give visual indications of numbers and letters. The 5 x 7 dot matrix display also can be inserted in a 14-pin DIP socket. Typical packages for character displays is shown .2.The 7-segment display fits a standard 14-pin DIP socket. 5x7 dot matrix The 5 x 7 dot matrix display can represent most alphanumeric characters. Graphic displays are more complex and can give pictorial as well as alphanumeric information. 10. S CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube).1 Simple Visual Displays A display produces light output to show information in visual form. Displays can be divided into two categories.1 General Displays may be constructed in several ways. S OLED (Organic LED). This older type of unit operates at high voltages and emits an orange glow. Electronic Displays 10. Another type of display uses the gas-discharge tube .11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS M5 10. S LCD ( Liquid Crystal Display).2 Light-Emitting Diode (LED) 10. Electronic Displays in modern aircraft are realized in the following technologies: S LED ( Light Emitting Diode). Typical fonts for both a 7−segment and a dot matrix display are shown in the Figure. similar to regular lamps.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. Note the five columns of seven dots in the matrix for each character. Incandescent displays use thin filaments for each segment. Lens Advantages: S small dimensions S robust S long lifetime Disadvantages: S high current consumption (compared with LCD) S limited flexibility HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 146 . A multi-digit display is common in digital clocks and other equipment. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! EASA PART 66 7−Segment Two types of character display formats are common -the 7 segment and dot matrix displays.

11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS Figure 65 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 LED Page 147 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS EASA PART 66 M5 5 Collums FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 7 Lines Figure 66 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 LED Dot Matrix Page 148 .

11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS Figure 67 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 LED Cockpit Display Page 149 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 150 . CRT’s are used in: S CDU’s. It is the same principle as used in Oscilloscopes: in order to prevent magnetic fields the deflection is done by electrostatic means. Burn-In is prevented by slowly shifting the picture. − limited lifespan. This is the cause to that longer shape in comparison with TV-Tubes. resoires lots of space − heavy weight. − tends to burn-in. S EIS or IDS S Weather-Radar Displays.3 CRT The old but widely used Catode Ray Tube still is standard in many aircraft. − thermal sensitive. − Worming up requires (approx. 10 sec. As the force allied to the electrons is lower then the deflection angle is lower too. − high power consumption.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. Advantage: − coloured multifunctional displays FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Disadvantages: − long shape.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS EASA PART 66 M5 10.).

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! CRT with Burn-In Figure 68 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 CRT Page 151 .

− long lifespan. This filter allows only light with a selected polarisation to pass. If used for EFIS-. The application of LCD depends on the complexity of the arrangement itself: S Watches S Meters S CDU’s S EIS or IDS. − multifunctional displays − low energy consumption. A secondary polarizer in a 90_ arrangement to the first one allows light to pass if the polarisation matches. no twist of light is performed. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. − virtually no maintainance required. − good illuminated. Liquid-crystal is an organic (carbon based) compound that may influence light. All the remaining will be blocked. the fluid might freeze. The light that passed the polarizer will then pass the liquid crystal while following the crystals twist.or EICAS-Displays they must be operated in a certain temperature range in order to ensure high-quality pictures and fast reaction.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 152 .EASA PART 66 M5 10. liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) are not light sources but control light. Since LCDs radiate no light.4 Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) 10. First light is applied to a polarizer. It forms twisted strings which the light will follow. If no voltage is applied the crystal twists and the light will follow this twist. they must be used in lighted areas with a mirror installed on the back side. The figure on the next page show how the light passes the − Polarizer − Liquid Crystal Cell − Color Filters and − Second Polarizer. − high-quality picture. flat screens within the cockpit S TV screens (entertainment) for the passengers Advantages: − flat. Disadvantages: − temperature sensitive.1 General While LEDs give off light. If a voltage is applied to the liquid crystal it adjusts in a straight line. or they must use an active back−light.4. Depending on the state of the crystal the polarisation of the light may be altered. ECAM.

11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS EASA PART 66 M5 Backlight Assy Glass Plate Polarizer Glass Plate Color Filter Polarizer Liquid Crystal DIRECTION OF LIGHT Light Green Light No Voltage applied Subpixel Driver Backlight Assy Glass Plate Polarizer Glass Plate Liquid Crystal Color Filter Polarizer Display Backlight Symbol Generator FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Light Voltage applied Subpixel Figure 69 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 LCD Page 153 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

The field. the display used on a Digital Multi Meter is normally a field-effect type of LCD. they contain the control circuitry but still are dependant on backlights or other illumination. can be addressed. By continuously activating successive X electrodes with corresponding Y electrodes pictures and graphics can be formed on the display. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. LCDs are widely used in battery power applications such as calculators because of their extremely low power consumption. Type II means:Pixel never shine. they are widely used on service station pumps. As an example.000 Sub-Pixel 4 4 4 7 10 Type I means: Pixel are always lit. They are easy to read in sunlight and other areas of high light intensity. always off or are flashing HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 154 .Segmenting of the lower electrode allows selection of the color desired. The field-effect LCD produces black letters on a silvery background. TFT-Displays TFT-Displays are active displays. The glass back plate is also metallized. or pixels.360.000 Sub-Pixel 1 1 1 1024 x 768 2. as it will damage them. The under surface of the top plate has nearly invisible metallized shapes where the segments and symbols are to appear. The older dynamic-scattering type of LCD produces frosty white letters on a dark background. The activation of one X electrode along with selected Y electrodes results in a column of color elements.930. Direct current must not be used to drive LCDs. A steady back-light can be used for the LCD in applications where the light level is too low.2 Technology Liquid crystal displays are either the dynamic-scattering or the field effect type.760.000 Sub-Pixel 2 2 1280 x 1024 3. Further segmenting of the upper electrode 90_ with relation to the lower electrode produces a display in which individual picture elements. Contacts are attached to the back plate and to each segment of the display.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS COLOR LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY Color is added to an LCD by the incorporation of filters under the liquid crystal layer. A polarizer forms the top and bottom of the sandwich.effect LCD is the most widely used because it consumes the least power and is easy to read.4.000 Sub-Pixel 3 3 1600 x 1200 5.EASA PART 66 M5 10. For this reason. The display consists of two glass plates with a special liquid crystal or nematic fluid filling the space between. Type III means some Pixel might always be on. As it is impossible to produce millions of dots without any faulty dot they are classified depending on the kind and amount of faulty dots: Type I Type II Type III 240 x 320 230.

Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS EASA PART 66 M5 Color Liquid Crystal Display Figure 70 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Technology Page 155 .

3 Cockpit Display FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 156 .4.EASA PART 66 M5 10.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS Figure 71 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 LCD Cockpit Display Page 157 .

Picture from Flight International. on board an Airbus A340−600 widebody. which aligns the graphic overlay and the real−world view. 29. Aug .Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. in comparison with cathode−ray tubes. the liquid−crystal display provides greater reliability and increased luminosity.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS EASA PART 66 M5 Airbus begins flight tests of A340 digital head−up display Manufacturer aims for parallel certification of new technology on all types next year Airbus has started flight testing the Thales−developed liquid−crystal−based digital head−up display (HUD) in a bid to gain certification by the second half of next year. Carriers including Air France and FedEx have already opted for the system on the A380 and it will also be fitted in the cockpit of the Airbus Military A400M transport aircraft. This follows Airbus s selection of Thales two years ago to design and produce the equipment.six days ahead of the first A340−600 flight with the Thales system. and the fold−down optical combiner. It will also fit the display to an Airbus narrowbody and the ultra−large A380 to achieve parallel certification across the manufacturer’s entire family. From Flight International. performed the first test flights of its own liquid−crystal head−up display with an Embraer 170 on 7 April . Airbus will be able to offer the digital head−up display as a single or dual installation. Head−up displays have previously been based on cathode−ray tube technology. known as D−HUDS. Thales has installed the system.11. The picture below shows a HUD installed in an Embraer 190 where it was fitted in for (succsessful) Cat III Certification. which receives and processes the data and generates the graphics. Freighters and VIP Jets already use this technology and it will become quite common in the future. Thales says that.04 Sep 2006 Page 158 . the projector unit. Rival HUD firm Rockwell Collins Flight Dynamics. The HUD provides a 35° x 26° field of view and the equipment weighs 23kg (51lb). July 2005 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Usage of HUD in Aircraft HUD are succsessively installed in many aircraft to improve landing abilities under bad weather conditions. which was beaten to the Airbus contract by Thales. 05 . The display shipset comprises three line−replaceable units: the head−up display computer.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS Figure 72 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Usage of HUD in Aircraft Page 159 .

The colours are brighter. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. Production of OLED can be done with inkjet printers as the polymer ink is just printed on a transparent slide.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 160 . Nowadays only very small displays with low resolution can be assembled as there are still some difficulties in producing the driver-matrix.EASA PART 66 M5 10. The lifespan is limited but will hopefully be extended within the next few years. the screen can also be read from a side view and is thinner and even flexible. OLED−Technology has several advantages over LCD−Technology. Its power consumption is also much lower as no backlight is required.5 OLED Organic LED (OLED) is available since 2003 and on the way to replace old LCD displays.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS EASA PART 66 M5 Light Passive Matrix OLED Cathode transparent Anode FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Active Matrix OLED Figure 73 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 OLED Page 161 .

11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS EASA PART 66 M5 Production with Inkjet-Technology FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lifespan of OLED Figure 74 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Lifespan and Production of organic LED Page 162 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.11 ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS Figure 75 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Example: Displays with organic LED Page 163 .

This discharge can be extremely fast and full of energy. These wounded components were able to pass quality tests without showing any faults. There was also the additional problem in practice that. further analysis revealed that when compared to fully functioning components they had an increased amount of leakage current and also a change in the switching behaviour. Device-internal ”CHECK SUM’’. The static load is then stored in those material which are non-conductive and tend to look for the nearest way to discharge. An example is when we walk over a carpet to open a door we get a slight shock shortly before touching the door handle and perhaps even see a spark or hear crackling. HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 What is ESD? Electrostatic discharge is always present in our environment. consequently also at our place of work.or integrated circuits along the discharge path of the static electricity then these discharges will flow through the components in an uncontrolled fashion or will even be completely penetrated.Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5. Static electricity is created as soon as two materials are rubbed together. Local overheating. In addition. distortions. Further fault analysis revealed that more than 1/3 of these minor errors were attributed to ESD -related changes in the specification of the components. are separated or are in moving in some kind of fluid or gaseous form. A BITE-Test (Built In Test Equipment) is a test that runs when the equipment is switched on and checks the hardware (Power-Up Test). However.1 General History With the advent of a new generation of devices replacing the former digital AVIONIC devices round about 1979 it became apparent that there were problems with ESD (Electrostatic Sensitive Devices). Because many of these devices were identical to the old ones it was possible to compare the failure statistics objectively. separation or reduction of strip conductors as well as pitting can be the result of ESD in the micro structure of a component.and ’’BlTE’’-Tests often were not capable of detecting these errors. it was also noticed that 80−90% of these failures were not total-failures but only changes in their properties. thick film. depending on the working temperature a gliding shifting of the defective parameters occurred.2 ESD-Effects If there are semiconductors. 11. Die Check Sum is the sum of digits retrieved via the software and which can detect faults in the memory. An increase in the number of minor errors and data differences ranging up to 3 or 4 fold were observed.12 ESD EASA PART 66 M5 11. Short−circuiting between tow strip conductors is seldom the case. It can also be very destructive. The damage is always irreparable! As a result of the progress in technology the integration density has increased which causes the ESD problems also to increase rapidly! Voltages from well below 100 volts can be absolutely fatal for components! Page 164 . These are typical forms of appearance of static discharge. gasifications. Electrostatic Discharge 11.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.12 ESD Figure 76 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 ESD Page 165 .

Otherwise this would make it difficult to find the actual cause of the fault. S fitting protective caps on the electrical terminals of LRUs as soon as they are no longer installed. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.EASA PART 66 M5 11.12 ESD HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 Page 166 . S handling defective equipment as carefully as if handling new equipment. S assuring that suitable grounding techniques are applied to set both personnel and the device with the same potential. These include: S identifying components sensitive to ESD. S opening an LRU or removal of an SRU (Shop Replaceable Unit) only on a work area prepared for such a purpose. S using conductive material for transport and dispatch S storing parts away from sources of high energy like radar. tools and workbench. x-rays and laser beams. to prevent any charging of personnel. Conductive protective caps are preferred. S application of static neutralizers. These are usually labelled as such.3 ESD-Guide−lines Personnel performing work on ESD components and devices must have a good knowledge of the procedural guide−lines pertaining to ESD.

EASA PART 66 M5 ESD-Symbols and Labels FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES 5.12 ESD Figure 77 HAM US/F-4 KrA 05/2008 ESD Symbols Page 167 .

Both the radio transmitter/receivers and non radio equipment can be influenced by this disturbace. S EMI. Radio communication and navigation systems operate by transmitting controlled EM radiation.14 ELECTRONIC ENVIRONMENT HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 Page 168 . In the identification sheet for the aircraft. the status of the build regulations is fixed (under licence). the integration of it into the aircraft is important. As well as the specification for a component. The specification of the appliance describes its Technical Standard Order (TSO) for the American area. amongst other matters.2 Aircraft Components All electric/electronic equipments influence the environment by electromagnetic radiation. The chance of disturbing neighbouring components must also be taken into account.The nature of these currents can produce intense bursts of EM radiation. By the testing of components.1 General 12. electronic note books . they describe the fulfilling functionality of a component (MOPS = Minimum Operating and Performance Standards) and define the environmental conditions under which the components are operated (Environmental Conditions). high intensity radiated field is the zone of high radiation which is caused by equipment such as weather radar. All other electronic devices radiate to some degree. electromagnetic compability. The TSO. are the authorised industrial standards of the authorities (FAA or JAA). electromagnetic interference is the maximum interference allowable for a particular transmission. We distinguish between units that are: S permanent installations within the aircraft and S transportable units like mobile phones. Following terms are used for Electromagnetic Environment : S EMC. it ensures that they do not exceed their fixed tolerance values. High voltage electric discharges can produce high currents. In carrying out an EMI−survey in an aircraft. or in Eurocae document ED−14C. all electrically operated systems in the aircraft are checked for disturbances which could originate from newly installed components. To keep within limits it can be necessary to install so called EMI-filter on the receiver and transmitter side of the unit. S HIRF. the examination is repeated in reverse. Electromagnetic Environment 12. or the JTSO. CD-Players etc. but this radiation should be reduced as far as possible. the procedures for checking the ”electromagnetic compatibility”. The components installed in aircraft are subject to build regulations. As a rule. The ”Advisory Circular 25−10” details regulations on this subject. Also electronic devices should be able to operate normally in the presence of EM radiation. If the new component is critical to flight safety. These test procedures and the limitations are fixed in RTCA Document DO−160C. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. S Lightning / lightning protection. or Joint TSO for the European area.EASA PART 66 M5 12. as well as the chance of the unit being influenced by other units. Herein is described. meaning units will not adversely affect one another.

(BCAR Sect A Chapter A3 -11).” FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. Because of this.14 ELECTRONIC ENVIRONMENT HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 Page 169 .EASA PART 66 M5 Radio frequency transmitters are a seperate case.. there is a test for freedom from interference . the national rules for the issue of a certificate of airworthiness are specifically detailed: S UK CAA: The approval of an aircraft radio installation is based on a survey by the CAA followed by such ground and flight tests as are required in respect of a particular installation.. S German LBA: A ruling by the German Aviation Authorities (7/91) states that ”Before the sampling inspection. because they are designed to radiate electro-magnetic waves. to prove the satisfactory functioning of the installation..

S Displays with liquid crystal technology (LCD). S Displays using cathode ray tube technology (CRT). since they can interfere with an aircrafts electronic systems. Tests by airlines have shown. S Video cameras. Here are the rules governing usage of electronic devices on Lufthansa aircraft: May be permitted to be operated during certain phases of flight: S Laptops /note books (incuding those with CD ROM drives). Passengers then may use their mobiles during flight at rates with „mirror“ international roaming charges. S CD ROM writers. S Mini disk recorders. S Cordless computer mice. S Cassette players (Walkman). S Computer games (game boy).3 Portable Components General No electronic device may be switched on during take-off and landing. Page 170 . S CD players. Prohibited from use on aircraft at anytime : S Mobile phones (also satellite support). HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 Use of Mobile Phones during Flight On Sep 30 2006 Ryanair anounced the installation of OnAir mobile phone equipment on the Boeing 737 fleet starting in the 2nd half of 2007 (subject to relevant regulatory approval). S CD ROM recorders. S Computer printers. that some devices do not have an impact on flight safety. The use of mobile phones is not permitted at any time. Minidisk players. S Walkie talkies S Remote controlled devices.Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. S Video recorders. so passengers may be permitted to use them at the descretion of the operator.14 ELECTRONIC ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 M5 12. This decision has been endorsed by the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA).

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.14 ELECTRONIC ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 M5 New Hardware found! Device: A310 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Install? HAM US/F-4 KrA 02/2008 Page 171 .

HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 172 .15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 13. Consequently the data transfer from the ground to the aircraft is called the uplink.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. The data sent by ACARS is received by the ground station of a network provider which transports the data via its network to the users. ACARS transmits and receives either automatic reports.1 Introduction FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! The Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting system or ACARS. The data transfer in this direction is called the downlink.1 ACARS 13. and manual reports which are independent of the flight profile. which usually depend on the flight profile. It uses the VHF Communication system #3 or the Satellite Communication system dependent on the aircraft location.1. Typical Aircraft Systems 13. is a datalink communication system which can transfer messages and data between the aircraft and the ground.

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Figure 78 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 ACARS COMPONENTS Page 173 .

However. The pilot inputs are interpreted by computers and move the flying controls as necessary to achieve the desired flight path. Boeing 757 and 747.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. Hydraulically Activated. This simplifies aircraft construction and reduces weight. HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 174 .2 FlyByWire The Airbus 320 and Boeing 777 are examples of commercial aircraft which have full Flight Guidance Systems. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! The stabiliser and rudder can be mechanically controlled. These differ from other modern aircraft such as Airbus 310. The advantage of a fly by wire is the reduction in mechanical connections between the cockpit and control surfaces. regardless of the pilot’s input the computers will prevent excessive manoeuvres or exceedance of the safe flight envelope. safer and nicer to fly or ride in than earlier generation aircraft. Side sticks which replace the more conventional handwheels are used to fly the aircraft in pitch and roll. Basic Principles (Airbus 320) The fly by wire system has been designed and certified to make the new generation of aircraft more cost effective. A fly by wire system will provide electrical signals from the computers to control surface actuators. The flight control surfaces are all: Electrically Controlled. The actuators will then move the control surfaces under hydraulic power. because the automatic control of the control surfaces is by a fly by wire system.15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 13.

15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 AERODYNAMIC FEEDBACK AUTOPILOT COMPUTER FLIGHT CONTROL COMPUTER FEEDBACK FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! SIDE STICK CONTROLLER COMPUTER DEMAND CONTROL SURFACE Figure 79 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Simplified FlyByWire Schematic Page 175 .Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

Mechanical for manual trim control. Two hand wheels on the centre pedestal are used to mechanically control the trim of the horizontal stabiliser. alternate or direct flight control laws.15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 176 . 2 FAC’s − Flight Augmentation Computers These provide normal electrical rudder control. aileron and stabiliser control. The two side sticks are not mechanically coupled. All surfaces are hydraulically actuated. however control for yaw damping. 3SEC’s − Spoilers Elevator Computer. Two pairs of pedals which are rigidly ’interconnected’ ensure mechanical control to the rudder. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. Roll Axis: Ailerons control = Electrical Spoilers control = Electrical Yaw Axis: Rudder Control = Mechanical. Each controller sends independent electrical signals to the Flight Control Computers. Two side stick controllers are used for pitch and roll manual control. one on the captains left hand side and the other on the F/O right hand side.AIRBUS 320 FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES The Airbus 320 flight controls are electrically or mechanically controlled as follows: Pitch Axis: Elevator control = Electrical Stabiliser control = Electrical for normal or alternate control. EASA PART 66 M5 Computers Seven Flight Control Computers process pilot and autopilot inputs according to normal. turn coordination and trim is electrical. A switch installed on the centre pedestal operates the rudder trim control. All surfaces are electrically controlled through a computer arrangement which includes: 2 ELAC’s − Elevator Aileron Computer. A speed brake control lever is provided on the centre pedestal. These provide normal spoiler control and standby elevator and stabiliser control. In addition two Flight Control Concentrators acquire data from the Elevator Aileron Computer and the Spoiler Elevator Computer to send to the Electronic Instrument System and the Centralised Fault Display System. These provide normal elevator.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 MECHANICAL LINK ADIRU RUDDER TRIM L R RUDDER FLIGHT AUGMENTATION COMPUTER YAW RATE DEMAND RAD FMGC ALT ACCEL FMG LGCIU FMGC − Flight Management Guidance Computer LGCIU − Landing Gear Control Interface AILERON SIDE STICK EIS − Electronic Instrument System ELEVATOR & AILERON COMPUTER ROLL DEMANDS FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! PEDALS EIS FCD SPEED BRAKE ABNORMAL AL LAW SPOILER ELEVATOR COMPUTER SIDE STICK ADIRU − Air Data Inertial Reference Unit SFCC ACCEL ELEVATORS SFCC − Slat Flap Control Computer STABILISER HYDRAULIC JACKS RAD ALT TRIM MECHANICAL LINK Figure 80 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Schematic of a Flight Control System Page 177 .

15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 13. navigation and performance management. MCDU These data sources are used for lateral and vertical navigation. Also waypoints are found in the NAV data base.1 General The Flight Management System is used for automatical control of the aircraft. Nav Display (via SGU or DMC) 2.3 FMS Data Sources Besides the NAV data base. Autopilot in LNav Mode (Lateral Navigation) 3.3. NAV radios 4.Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.3. Communication with data sources and receivers usually is done by using ARINC 429 data busses. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! 13. IRS 2. which has to be updated every 28 days. Modern FMC are also capable of controlling the NAV receiver.3 Flight Management System (FMS) 13. It compares the entry with its calculated latitude and reports discrepancies.3. It comprises the following components S Flight Management Computer S MCDU S Sensors 13. HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 178 . GPS (if installed) 3.2 13. setting them to the frequencies required. Fuel Quantity System 5. Also it will be calculated if the Fuel On Board is sufficient for the remaining flight.3. Auto Throttle System System Layout Prior to flight the FMS receives the Present Position that has to be entered manually into the MCDU. This information will be forwardded to the IRS system. The FMC contains a NAV data base from which it calculates the route by using start point an aim. Autopilot in VNav Mode (Vertical Navigation) 4.4 FMC Data Receivers Besides MCDU data is also transmitted to: 1. the following data sources are connected to the FMC: 1.

Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 MCDU Display DMC Autopilot FMC FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Auto Throttle Fuel Quantity System Nav Radios IRS Figure 81 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 GPS Overview FMC Page 179 .

The present position calculation is updated during the whole flight using the acceleration signals. For this calculation it needs a 10 minute align phase on the ground. The IRS system has a mode select unit. heading. wind and inertial vertical speed.4. These calculations must never be interrupted during flight. HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 180 . therefore the IRS requires a backup electrical supply directly from the aircraft battery or from it’s own battery unit. it does not require a flux valve to calculate the magnetic heading. Usually either 2 or 3 independent systems are installed in an aircraft. The gyros used are normally laser gyros. The IRU has a very powerful computer which is able to calculate the present position of the aircraft. msu in short. The IRU primarily provides output signals for attitude. It consists of an inertial reference unit (IRU) which contains all the necessary system components. Therefore. The computer also knows the magnetic variation. so it can be used by the lateral navigation of the flight management system.4 Inertial Stabilised Systems 13. This is stored in its memory for all positions on earth.15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS EASA PART 66 M5 13. Some systems also need an inertial sensor display unit (ISDU) in short for data entry and monitoring.Lufthansa Technical Training FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. Modern systems don’t have an ISDU because all functions are controlled from the MCDU. During that time the aircraft may not be moved.1 Inertial Reference System (IRS) The inertial reference system is the standard system in todays generation of aircraft. It also receives inputs from the air data computer. ground speed. On this unit can be found the ON − Off switches.

15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Figure 82 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 IRS ARCHITECTURE Page 181 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

EASA PART 66 M5 13.1 Global Positioning System (GPS) The Global Positioning System. FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.5 Global Navigation 13. The satellite signals are routed to a GPS unit which is. is a satellite−based navigation system that calculates aircraft position with high accuracy. when the distance to at least four satellites is available. It uses 21 primary and 3 spare satellites which orbit about 10900 Nm above the earth.5. or GPS in short. The GPS unit processes the signals and sends them primarily to the flight management system for position calculation. in a dedicated component near the antennas or inside the multimode receiver. longitude and altitude. The GPS unit in the aircraft calculates the travel time of the signal by comparing the time of the signal reception with the transmission time. Usually two GPS. GPS can calculate the aircraft latitude.s are installed. because radio signals travel at the speed of light. The travel time gives the distance to the satellite. Each satellite completes an orbit once every 12 hours and permanently sends signals which include the time of the transmission. Each GPS has one top−mounted antenna which receives the satellite signals. for example.15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 182 .

EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Figure 83 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 GPS ARCHITECTURE Page 183 .

It transmits interrogations on one frequency (1030 Mhz) and receives the replys on another frequency (1090 Mhz).6. one at the top and one at the bottom of the aircraft.15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 Page 184 . FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5. S A TCAS Computer which is located in the Avionics compartment S Two antennas which are used for transmission and reception. S Finally a combined ATC and TCAS control panel.1 TCAS ARCHITECTURE A typical TCAS system has the following main components.6 TCAS .EASA PART 66 M5 13. therefore it uses the same two frequencies as the ATC transponder.Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System 13. The two TCAS antennas consist of four electronically controlled elements. This gives the antenna a directional characteristic so that the computer can calculate the direction to an intruder. The TCAS computer communicates via the antennas with the ATC transponders of other aircraft.

15 TYPICAL ELECTRONIC / DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Figure 84 HAM US/F-4 KrA 07/2008 TCAS COMPONENTS Page 185 .EASA PART 66 M5 FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY! Lufthansa Technical Training DIGITAL TECHNIQUES M5.

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. . . . . . .2 Glass Cockpit Layout . . .2 NOR Gate . . . . . . .Hexadecimal Numbering System . . . . . 54 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2. . . . .4. .5 Hexadecimal Number System . . . . . .5. . . . . .5 Possible Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4. 48 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . 22 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.4 Octal Number System .7 Rules of Boolean Algebra . . . . . . 2. . . . . . 52 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1. . . . .3 Exclusive OR . . . . . . 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . 56 DIGITAL TECHNIQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2. . . . . . 40 3. 40 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4. 32 4. . . . . . .4. . . . .3. . . . 33 2. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 44 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Levels Assignment . . . . . . . . . 22 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hexadecimal Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 20 4. . .4 Exclusive NOR . . 46 2. . . . . . . . . . . .Octal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4. . . . . . .3 Basic T . . . . . . 44 Numbering Systems . . . .7 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4. . . . . . .2 EIS Display Control . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Priority . . 45 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 BCD − Binary Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Binary / Octal Conversion . . . .1 Classification of the Indicators . . . . . . .6 Overview: Binary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 8 1. . . . . . 40 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2. . . . . . . . . . . 55 2. . . . . . .2 Octal / Decimal Conversion . . . . . . . . . . 53 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . .6 Summary of all Gates . . . . . . . . 10 1. . . . .6 Indication in case of computer failure . . . . . . . . .1 NAND Gate . . 25 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . .4. . . . .2 Decimal Number System . . . . . . . . 27 4. . . . Logic Circuits . .1 General . . . . . .P66 B1 M5 E TABLE OF CONTENTS 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Binary Number System . . . . . .3 Definition of Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Inverter .7. . . . . .4 Navigational Displays . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . .7 On-Board-Maintainance . . . . . . . . . . .1 Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 AND Gate . . . . . . 26 4. . . . . 38 3. . . .3 OR Gate . . . . . . .2 De Morgan Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary / Hexadecimal Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page i . . . . . . Electronic Instrument Systems . . . . . 28 4. . . . . .1 BCD-Decimal Conversion . .4. . 4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Binary Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1. . . . . . 22 4. . . . . . . Logic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 18 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Classic Layout . . . . . . .4 Gates with several Basic Functions . . 23 4. . .5 ECAM/EICAS . . .2 Positional Notation . . . .

.1 General . . Data Conversion . .3. . . . . . . . . 89 5. . . . . . . . . . .3 Storage / Monitor Computers . . .2 A/D Converter Principles . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 57 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . 62 7. . . . . . . 96 6. . . . . . . Bit . . . . .Synchronisation . . . . . . . Software Management Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Reference Computer . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 92 92 94 94 6. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Aircraft Digital Systems − Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . 75 6. . . .2. .5 EPROM . . . . . . . .3 How the Sawtooth Principle works . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5. . . . . .1 Minimum Hardware Requirements .2 Analog to Digital Converters . . . 68 8. . . . . . .1 ARINC Standards . . . .1 8. . . 89 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 82 5. . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . .4 Information-Rate . . . . . . . . .1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . 84 6. . . . . .1 General . .5. . . . . . . . . . .5 Interactive Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Capacity of Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .4 Controlling Computers . . . . . .2. . . . . . 92 8. . . . . . .7. . . .2 Basic Computer Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 7. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 56 6. . . . . .2 Detailed Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARINC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 EEPROM. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Program Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 8. . . . . . . . 76 8. . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 60 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . 92 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 6. . . 90 6. . . . . 68 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . .P66 B1 M5 E TABLE OF CONTENTS 4. . . Word Synchronisation . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Informational Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .1 Data Word . . . . . . . . . . .4 PROM . . 66 8. . .5 Software Handling . . 78 8. . . . . . . . 74 8. . . .3 Shannon Theorem . .1 General . . . . . . 72 6. . . . .2. . . . 76 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ARINC 429 . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 95 95 6. 73 6. . .4 Computer Technology . . . .2. . . 88 5. . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 7. . . . . . . . . .2 RAM . . . . EAPROM . . . Voltage Ranges . . . . . . . . . 66 8. . . . . . . .3 D/A Converter . . . . . .3 ROM . . . . . . . . . . . 90 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Data Synchronisation . . . . . . . . Basic Computer Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .3 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission Speed . . . . . . . . . . Data Cables . . . .5 8.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Calculation Rules . . . . .2. . . . . Data Exchange . . . . . . .2. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 7. . . . . . . . . . .2. 80 4. . . . . . 88 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 68 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . 90 6. . . . . . 88 5. . . . . . .4 Software Definition . 98 98 Page ii . . . . . . . . . .4 Interconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 10. . . . . .3 CRT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Cockpit Display . . 168 12. . . . 150 10. . . . . . . 174 13. . .4 Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Components . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 12. . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . Electrostatic Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Flight Management System (FMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 OLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . Fibre Optics . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . 110 110 112 118 120 126 128 130 134 8. . . . . . . .2 Fibre Optic Structure . . . . . . . . . .2 Light-Emitting Diode (LED) . . . .3 ARINC 629 . . . . . . 146 10. . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.2. Source / Destination Identifier . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 100 104 106 108 8. . . .2. . . . . . .3. . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Wave Length . . 138 9. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .5.2 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ESD-Effects . AIM Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . 160 11. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ESD-Guide−lines . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2. . . . . . 166 12. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 10. . . . . . . 178 Page iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetic Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises BNR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . Maintenance Data . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . .8 Data-Information . 164 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 13. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .2 8. . . . Discrete Data . . . . . . . 138 9. . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . 152 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 10. . . . . . 146 10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Numeric Data (BCD) . . . . 168 12. . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . .1 Simple Visual Displays . . . . . . . . . . . Label / Address . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . .2 FlyByWire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 13. . . . . . . . . . . . 164 11. .7 8. . . . . .3 8. . . . . . 136 9. . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 13.2. Exercises BCD . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .6. . . . .4. . . .3 Portable Components . . . . . . 152 10. . .2. . . . Sign / Status Matrix . . . 136 8. . . . . . . 140 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ACARS . . . . . .P66 B1 M5 E TABLE OF CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.2. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Aircraft Components . 146 10. . . . . . . . . . 136 8. . . . . . . . .6 Parity Check . . . . . . 170 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 9. . . . 156 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .5 Optical/Electrical Converters . . . . . . . . Typical Aircraft Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Optical Fibre Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . .6 8. . . Numeric Data (BNR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .1 Inertial Reference System (IRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .3 FMS Data Sources . 178 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 13.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 13. . . .3. . . . . . . . . .5 Global Navigation . . . . . . .3. . . . . .1 Global Positioning System (GPS) . . . . . . . . . . . 178 13. . . . 178 13. . . . . 184 13. .1 Page iv . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Inertial Stabilised Systems . . . 184 TCAS ARCHITECTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 FMC Data Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 TCAS . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . 182 13. .Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2 System Layout .P66 B1 M5 E TABLE OF CONTENTS 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 13. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .P66 B1 M5 E TABLE OF FIGURES Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Cockpit Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . Interactive Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example HSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example: Decimal to BCD / BCD to Decimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optical Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARINC 629 Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . Airplane Digital Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example: CPU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRT . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cockpit Layout Airbus A320 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Storage/Monitor Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alphanumeric List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BNR List . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decimal to BCD / BCD to Decimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cockpit Layout Boeing 747−100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . History of ARINC Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optical/Electrical Converters . . . . . 79 81 83 85 87 91 93 97 99 101 102 103 104 105 107 109 111 117 119 127 129 131 132 133 135 137 139 141 143 147 148 149 151 153 155 Page i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Identifier List . . . . . . . ARINC 429 Data Word Composition . . . Navigational Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File Data Transfer Protocol . . . . Decimal Number System . . . . . . Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INVERTER . . Example Discretes from ADC . . . . . History of Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A/D Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sign Status Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Upper Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example AIM Data Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Controlling Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fibre Optics . . . . . . . . . . Binary to Hexadecimal / Hexadecimal to Binary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Identifier . . . . . . Example AIM Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lower Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example: ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Source / Destination Identifier . . . . . . EIS Brightness Control . Example: Landing Gear Challenger 604 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example BCD . . Cockpit Layout Boeing 737−300 (Classic) . . . . . . . . . . D/A Converter . . . . Digital to Analog Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LCD . Example BNR Dataword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On Board Maintenance Facilities Schematic . BCD List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LED Dot Matrix . . . . Binary Number System . . . . Binary to Octal / Octal to Binary . . . . . . . . Example Maintenance Data from IRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 6 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 24 26 29 31 33 37 39 41 44 45 46 47 55 59 61 63 65 67 69 70 71 72 77 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Informational Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic T Layout . . . Example BCD Exemptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARINC 429 Interconnection . . . . . . . . . . . AND Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Display Unit in case of computer failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example Conducting Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hexadecimal Number System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Octal Number System . Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Principle of A/D Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guideline for Label Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OR Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LED Cockpit Display . . . . . . Example: Level Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of a Flight Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACARS COMPONENTS . Simplified FlyByWire Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESD Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OLED . . . . . . . .P66 B1 M5 E TABLE OF FIGURES Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 LCD Cockpit Display . . . . . . . 157 159 161 162 163 165 167 173 175 177 179 181 183 185 Page ii . . . . Usage of HUD in Aircraft . . . . Example: Displays with organic LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lifespan and Production of organic LED . . . GPS ARCHITECTURE . . . . . . . Overview FMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IRS ARCHITECTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TCAS COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ESD . . . . . . . . . . .

P66 B1 M5 E TABLE OF FIGURES Page iii .

P66 B1 M5 E TABLE OF FIGURES Page iv .