Trimming and Reviewing

• Transitions • 6 elements of the edit • Rippling the edit • Rolling the edit • The review workflow • Pacing and timing

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Trimming the Assemble edit
3 types of transitions
• the cut – the change from one shot to another that is not perceived by the viewer* • the mix – there is a gradual transition from one shot to another which is perceived by the viewer* • the fade (in or out) - there is a transition, by gradual change of the image, to a completely black image. And vice versa, it is perceived by the viewer. As a result it is often used to suggest change (of time)

*continuity editing

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Reviewing the edits - Mic’s camera club
6 elements of the edit: ‘Grammar of the edit’ – Roy Thompson
1. Motivation. There should be a reason for a transition, a movement, a sound or both. 2. Information. An edit should introduce another shot with more or new information. 3. Composition. Use well framed shots. The correct moment to start and finish the shot will make maximum value from a well composed shot. This might dictate the edit point. Smooth transitions are generally the intention. 4. Sound. The sound supports the visual and creates an immediate response in a Viewer. It can lead a visual shot, supply additional (unseen) information, and motivate a transition. 5. Camera angle. The intention should be that the position of the camera relative to the subject of the shot, of the next shot should be different from the previous, and not less than 45 degrees. 6. Continuity. There needs to be continuity of content, movement (left to right etc), position on the screen, and background sound – within the same scene. If the actor uses his left hand to pick up the telephone, a shot mike johnston change should still find a phone in his left hand.
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The 6 elements of the edit

motivation Harry looks up... cut to rescuer

information cut from close up - wide angle as jurors dress for court
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The 6 elements of the edit

composition
As the camera tracks right to left the shot mixes to the past

sound
Seeing the blade we hear the cut and then see the close up

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The 6 elements of the edit

camera angle
As the emphasis shifts between the characters so does the shot. There is continuity and enough difference between the shots to avoid a ‘jump cut’

continuity of movement
As the hero turns right to left (his POV) the shot follows the same direction completing a 360 degree sweep and cutting to 3rd party POV
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Rippling (deleting)
Trimming one side of the edit
• By selecting the transition and toggling using the U you can select the out, *both or in coming edit. Then use the [ ] short cut to add or remove frames to nudge the edit forward or backward or drag the edit. Watch the Canvas to see what you are doing. ( *roll edit) • If shortening a sequence clip, open in the Viewer and reset the in or out. It will automatically be reflected in the Timeline. Then close the gap by selecting and control clicking. • Use the razor blade (B) to remove material. Razor and delete – and the timeline will ripple as the clips move to fill the gap. mike johnston
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end frame

start frame

Rolling
Trimming both sides of the edit
• Rolling (R). One clip gets shorter and the other gets longer by the same amount and vice versa. You can roll the video and audio together or separately. • The Extend edit (E). Highlight the edit you want to change. Play the timeline to the point you want to make the new edit point. Click E. Split video and audio edits to improve the flow of dialogue scenes. It can work across a number of clips but is limited by the clips’ ‘handles’. • Slipping (S). The in and the out of the same clip change but the duration stays the same. Click S.

these edits wont ripple the timeline

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Points to remember
• Linking and unlinking. If you want to just work on either the picture or the sound you need to either link or unlink the clip to its audio.

• Snapping. Vital to get things to line up, however sometimes you don’t want things to get snapped to a certain position. In whcih case its great to turn it off

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The Review workflow
Work from an overview to the detail
1. Check the overall “shape” of the film (pace, tone, duration, interest, progression – beginning, middle, end) 2.Are there any ‘redundant’ elements - any repetition etc? 3.Make it shorter! Apply the ‘party principal’ to your scenes - arrive late and leave early! 4.Check the scene cuts - find a way of linking the scenes together visually or with sound 5.Check each individual sequence - intercutting is one technique that can shorten 2 scenes into one 6. Check each shot. Be harsh - kill your darlings! 7. Check each cut. The point you come into a shot and the point you choose to leave it.

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The pace and timing

Setting Up full screen preview. Under the View menu -

• use the the full screen preview (CMD + F12) Are the shots (and scenes ) the right length (students often leave shots too long) • trim the static bits at both ends of pans and zooms. Don’t cut in the middle of camera moves. • in order to get a feel for the pace of a scene, play it through and use the position of the playhead to find by ‘feel’ your edit points. • play the video to someone else

Then check on the same View menu that Video Playback on your main monitor is selected

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Short cuts

Insert edit F9 Roll edit R Play around edit \ Roll by frame [ ] Select edit V Extend edit E Option click to select either video or audio

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Further reading and directions
• Editing techniques with Final Cut Pro by Michael Wohl. This has alot of advice about the process and practice of editing based on FCP and Final Cut Express. Its more a “why to” rather than a “how to”. • There are more advanced ways of using the software - using the Trim window and syncing the Viewer and Timeline together. These and others are in Michael Wohl’s book - which is in the Library too!

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