



INDIAN SOCIETY OF HILL AGRICULTURE (Regd. 2010)
URL: www.isharanichauri.com

Sharing Knowledge for Prosperity

Indian Society of Hill Agriculture (ISHA) was founded in 2010 having its secretariat at G.B. Pant University of
Agriculture and Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Distt Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India with the main
objective to cultivate and promote research, education and development of agriculture and allied branches of
science with special emphasis on development of hill and mountain regions of the world.

OFFICE BEARERS
Dr BS Bisht, Vice Chancellor, GB Pant Univ of Ag & Tech, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand
Dr MC Nautiyal, Dean, College of Forestry and Hill Ag, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr PS Bisht, Dean, VCSG College of Horticulture, Bharsar, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr AK Sharma, Additional Director Hort, Deptt of Hort, Govt of Uttarakhand, Chaubattia
Dr SK Thakur, CSK HPKVV, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh
Dr VK Rao, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr PJ Handique, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam
Dr MS Mir, Sher-e-Kashmir Univ Ag & Sci Tech, Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir
Secretary:
Dr VK Yadav, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Joint Secretary:
Dr Sanjeev Sharma, Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh
Dr Sunil Kumar, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr OC Sharma, Sher-e-Kashmir Univ of Ag Sci & Tech, RARS, Leh, Jammu & Kashmir
Dr Vinod K Sharma, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr Mayank Rai, Central Agricultural University, Manipur
Editor-in-Chief, J Hill Ag Dr Satish K Sharma, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Associate Editor
Dr KC Sharma, CSKHPKVV, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh
Treasurer:
Dr Chandra Dev, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Business Manager:
Dr AK Pandey, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Chief Patron:
Executive Patron:
President:
Vice President (s):

Members From India

Members From Abroad

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD
Dr Mangla Rai, President NAAS and Former Secretary DARE, Govt. of India
Dr P L Gautam, Chairman, National Biodiversity Authority, Govt. of India
Dr Anwar Alam, Vice Chancellor, Sher-e-Kashmir Univ Ag & Sci Tech, Srinagar, J&K
Dr KM Bujarbaruah, Vice Chancellor, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam
Dr K R Dhiman, Vice Chancellor, Dr YSP Univ of Hort & Forestry, Solan, HP
Dr Bhag Mal, South Asia Coordinator, Biodiversity International, New Delhi
Dr JDH Keatinge, Director General, AVRDC, World Vegetable Centre, Taiwan
Dr Md. Yousuf Mian, Director General, BARI, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Dr C Kole, Clemson University, South Carolina, USA
Prof (Dr) FG Schroeder, Dresdan, Germany
Dr G Paliyat, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Dr Ramesh Thakur, Michigan Technical University, Houghton, USA

EXECUTIVE COUNCILLORS
Dr VK Joshi, Prof & Head, Univ Hort & Forestry, Solan, Himachal Pradesh
Dr AK Singh, Professor, Horticulture, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
Dr AK Singh, Professor and Head, Forestry, GB Pant Univ of Ag & Tech. Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr Vandana A Kumar, Professor, Biological Sciences, GB Pant Univ of Ag & Tech. Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr VK Sah, Professor Ecology, GB Pant Univ of Ag & Tech. Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
EDITORIAL BOARD (2010)
Dr Pankaj Panwar, CSWCRTI Chandigarh
Dr Alkesh Kandoria, PSCST, Chandigarh
Dr Pawan Sharma, ICAR Res Complex Imphal, Manipur
Dr Ashok Thakur, UHF, Solan, Himachal Pradesh
Dr PS Kashyap, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr AV Singh, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr Rakesh Sharma, UHF, Solan, Himachal Pradesh
Dr B K Khanduri, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr Rashmi Yadav, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr B Prasad, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr S Tripathi, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr BK Mishra, North Eastern Hill Univ, Meghalaya
Dr SC Singh, CSUAT, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Dr BM Pandey, VPKAS, Almora, Uttarakhand
Dr Shachi Shah, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr Deep Ji Bhat, SKUAST (J), Jammu & Kashmir
Dr TP Singh, GBPUAT, Ranichauri, Uttarakhand
Dr Med Ram Verma, IVRI, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh
Dr Tsering Stobdan, DIHAR, Leh, Jammu & Kashmir
Dr N Bhardwaj, CHF, Passighat, Arunanchal Pradesh
For any queries pertaining to Indian Society of Hill Agriculture (ISHA) or Journal of Hill Agricultu re (JHA) please write
to Secret ary / Editor-in-Chief (JHA), Indian Society of Hill Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of A gricult ure and
Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Distt Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand – 249 199, India
P h o ne : +91 1376 252651, 252650, 252138
Fax: +91 1376 252128, 252651
E mail: editorinc hiefjh a@ gm ail.c om
URL : www.isharanichauri.com

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):1-5 January-June 2010

STRATEGY PAPER
Sharing Knowledge for Prosperity

Hill development through agriculture
BS BISHT

Accepted July 15, 2010

INTRODUCTION
India is one of the largest food producer countries of the
world (first in milk production, second largest in fruit and
vegetable production and third in grains production and
so on). The country enjoys advantage of having varied
climatic conditions ranging from temperate-to-tropical.
Name any food item and that can be grown in one or the
other part of the country. With a total land area of
3,287,263 square kilometres, India has varied climate of
snow covered Himalayas, desserts, oceans, fertile plains
and areas receiving the highest rainfall in the world.
All these make the production of various types of foods
of plant origin (fruits, vegetables, cereals, pulses, oilseeds,
spices etc) as well as animal origin (fish, meat, poultry,

milk etc) possible in the country. The annual production
of cereals, fruits and vegetables is 260, 57 and 77 million
tonnes respectively (Table 1). Besides this, the production
of milk is about 102.1 million tonnes and that of sugarcane
and spices are 355.52 and 1.1 million tonnes respectively
(FAO 2009). As a country, India has made a remarkable
progress in development of agriculture in the last few
decades, with significant increase in production and
productivity of almost all agricultural crops including
cereals, pulses, fruits, vegetables, milk etc. (Table 1).
All over the country, there is wide distribution of
hilly and mountainous areas with larger area located in
the Himalayan region which is classified in the three major
categories comprising western Himalayas, central
Himalayas and north-east Himalayas. The major hill

Table 1 Production statistics of various commodities over the last five decades
Crop
Fruits excluding melons
Vegetables and melons
Oil crops primary
Tree nuts
Oil cakes
Cereals
Coarse grains
Buffalo Milk
Cow milk

1961
Production (tonnes)
13372500
18468500
3122730
97000
4419819
87376496
22885000
-

Area (ha)
1549170
2779350
23669000
214000
23183000
92239016
44618016
-

2007
Production(tones)
57467600
77243300
12019486
653000
23451556
260480000
40110000
59210000
42890000

Area (ha)
5421875
5904800
39193000
884800
38333000
99472000
27667000
37200000 (Producing animals)
38000000 (Producing animals)

% Increase in
production
429.74
418.24
384.90
673.20
530.60
298.11
175.27
-

Source: FAO (2009)

Bisht BS
Vice Chancellor, GB Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Pantnagar, Distt Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand
– 263145, India
E mail: vcgbpuat@gmail.com

regions of the country are located in states of Jammu and
Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, North Eastern
Hill region and Nilgiri Hills in Tamilnadu. In Uttarakhand
hill areas are covered in 11 out of total 13 districts. Similarly
almost whole of Kashmir and some parts of Jammu
Division, and almost whole of Himachal Pradesh except
some parts of districts Una, Sirmour and Solan, comprise

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):6-12 January-June 2010

REVIEW PAPER
Sharing Knowledge for Prosperity

Molecular farming in plants: synthesis of novel
biomaterials
S SHAH VK YADAV AV SINGH VA KUMAR

Received: June 17, 2010; Revised: July 14, 2010; Accepted: July 15, 2010

ABSTRACT Molecular farming represents a novel
source of biomaterials or plant derived products of interest
(PPIs), such as biopharmaceuticals (anticoagulants,
hormones, protein/peptide inhibitors, recombinant
enzymes, therapeutic and diagnostic antibodies, edible
vaccines for domestic animals or humans (e.g. hepatitis
B), as well as industrial enzymes, biodegradable plastics
and lubricant oils. Plants are considered ideal candidates
as host systems because of several features, such as
ease of transformation, low cost of investment, dispersed
capital requirements, rapid scale-up, high and controlled
level of expression, and capability of performing
posttranslational modifications. A major advantage of
transgenic plants for molecular farming is the
comparatively low cost of large scale production.
However, while access to healthcare remains limited in
much of the world and the scientific community is
struggling with complex diseases such as HIV and malaria,
plant derived vaccines represent an alluring prospect.
Above all, social acceptance of this technology in the
developing countries will govern commercial achievability
of this technology However, several constraints that
hinder the widespread use of plants as bioreactors remain
to be addressed. Important factors include quality and
homogeneity of the final product, the challenge of

Shah S1 Yadav VK2 Singh AV1 Kumar VA1
1

Depar tment of Bas ic Science, 2 Departmen t of C rop
improvement, GB Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Hill Campus Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal,
Uttarakhand - 249 199, India
S Shah ( )
E mail: drshachishah@gmail.com

processing plant-derived pharmaceutical macromolecules
under good manufacturing practice conditions and
concerns about bio-safety. Molecular farming in plants
will only realize its huge potential if these constraints are
removed through rigorous and detailed science-based
studies. As molecular farming has come of age, there have
been technological developments on many levels,
including transformation methods, control of gene
expression, protein targeting and accumulation and the
use of different crops as production platforms.
KEYWORDS PPIs, Transgenic plant, plant-made
pharmaceutical, recombinant protein, therapeutic protein.
INTRODUCTION
The large-scale production of recombinant proteins
(protein with novel traits to produce novel compounds)
with in plants is known as molecular farming. These plants
with novel traits (PNTs) have been developed by
inserting new genes, usually from other species, that
instruct the plant to produce the desired substance
(Kamenarova et al. 2005). In other words Plant molecular
farming refers specifically to the production of crop and
non-crop plants genetically modified to express plant
derived products of interest (PPIs), such as
biopharmaceuticals (anticoagulants, hormones, protein/
peptide inhibitors, recombinant enzymes, therapeutic and
diagnostic antibodies, edible vaccines for domestic
animals or humans (e.g. hepatitis B), as well as industrial
enzymes, biodegradable plastics and lubricant oils
(Kusnadi et al. 1997, Fischer and Emans 2000, Fischer et
al. 1999, 2001, Giddings et al. 2000, Daniell et al. 2001).
Plants can synthesize a wide variety of proteins that are
free of mammalian toxins and pathogens. Plants produce
large amounts of biomass at low cost and require limited
facilities. Molecular farming represents a novel source of



RESEARCH PAPER


Micropropagation and screening of antioxidant potential
of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f) Nees
A KATAKY P J HANDIQUE



ABSTRACT  
Andrographis paniculata 
        

    



      




      

 

A. paniculata 
    
        
A. paniculata 

KEYWORDS Andrographis paniculata


 


  


INTRODUCTION
Andrographis paniculata Acanthaceae

      


     
   
     
    
    

 
         


       





      




       
    

       A.
paniculata     




Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):19-22 January-June 2010

RESEARCH PAPER
Sharing Knowledge for Prosperity

Effect of bio-fertilizers and NPK levels on growth and yield
of mid-maturity group of cauliflower under mid hill subhumid conditions of Himachal Pradesh
KC SHARMA LK SHARMA

Received: June 10, 2010; Revised: June 22, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT A field experiment was conducted during
summer season of 2008 and 2009 to investigate the effect
of different levels of bio-fertilizers (Azotobacter and PSB)
in combination with four levels of NPK fertilizers on growth
and yield of cauliflower hybrid ‘Swati’. The application
of bio-fertilizers alone and in combination resulted in
significant improvement in plant height, number of leaves/
plant, curd diameter, curd depth, gross weight/plant,
marketable curd yield and benefit cost ratio. The increased
marketable curd yield was to the tune of 26.4%, 24.19%
and 18.16% with the combination of bio-fertilizers
(Azotobacter + PSB), PSB and Azotobacter, respectively
over un-inoculated control. The application of NPK
fertilizers significantly increased all the growth and yield
parameters along with marketable curd yield over control
with each incremental level of NPK. The interaction effects
showed that gross weight/plant, marketable curd yield
and benefit cost ratio were increased in a linear manner
with the application of bio-inoculants integrated with
increasing levels of NPK fertilizers. The highest marketable
yield (247 q/ha) was recorded when the plots were
supplemented with 100% NPK + seedlings dipping of
both the inoculants. Furthermore, it was observed that

Sharma KC1 Sharma LK2
1

Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, 2Krishi Vigyan
Kendra, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya,
Bajaura, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh - 175 125, India
KC Sharma (

)

E mail: keycsharma@yahoo.com

the yield (238.66 q/ha) obtained with the application of
75% NPK +Azotobacter +PSB was at par with that of
recommended NPK (100%), thus resulting in net saving
of 25% NPK fertilizers with maximum benefit cost
ratio(5.06).
KEYWORDS Cauliflower, bio-fertilizers, marketable curd
yield, benefit cost ratio.
INTRODUCTION
Cauliflower is one of the most important commercial
vegetables of India, grown for its white tender curd, used
as a vegetable, soup and for pickling. It is rich in proteins
and minerals like potassium, sodium, iron, phosphorus,
calcium and magnesium. The crop is gaining popularity
as an off-season vegetable resulting in high economic
returns to the growers, when mid-maturity cauliflower
varieties/hybrids are grown during summer-rainy season
in the mid hill sub-humid conditions of Himachal Pradesh.
Indiscriminate use of synthetic fertilizers imparts reduced
nutritive value and sensory parameters, whereas
integration of organic amendments and bio-fertilizers
reduces the NPK doses and improves the soil health and
plant nutrient availability resulting in higher crop yields
besides being environmentally safe. Azotobacter
chroococcum, a non-symbiotic bacteria is the potential
bio-fertilizer and has the capability for contribution
nitrogen to a number of non-legumes by tapping
atmospheric nitrogen (Singh and Sinsinwar 2006) and can
meet up to 15-20 kg N requirement of crop, besides
producing some growth promoting and antifungal
substances and vitamins that help in increasing the yield
(Das et al. 2006). The Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria
(PSB) in the rhizosphere is known to increase the

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):23-29 January-June 2010

RESEARCH PAPER
Sharing Knowledge for Prosperity

Influence of different summer green manures on rice - wheat
yield, nutrient uptake and soil characteristics
PK SARASWAT S KUMAR RC TIWARI VK SINGH

Received: May 28, 2010; Revised: June 23, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT A field experiment was conducted during
2002 to 2004 to study the response of summer green
manuring on rice-wheat crop yields and soil
characteristics on a sandy loam soil. Green gram
(Phaseolus aurus-Roxb), Sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea
Lin) and Dhaincha (Sesbania-aculeata poir) crops were
grown as summer green manures (SGM) during April to
June. Fresh weight of organic matter added by Sunnhemp,
Dhaincha and green gram was 32.65, 35.55 and 17.30t ha1
respectively. N supplying capacity of Sunnhemp,
Dhaincha and Green gram was recorded to be 126.8, 120.5
and 79.6 kg ha-1 respectively, that of P supplying capacity
27.0, 31.4 and 17.3 kg ha-1 and that of K 130.3, 137.6 and
98.5 kg ha-1 respectively. Sunnhemp, Dhaincha and Green
gram added dry matter at the rate of 5.87, 5.71 and 3.94 t
ha-1 to soil. Sun hemp and Dhaincha supplied treatments
along with 120 kg nitrogen registered maximum yields of
rice and wheat. Further, summer green manuring along
with inorganic fertilizer decreased bulk density and pH of
soil whereas, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and
cation exchange capacity of soil increased. Translocation
of NPK and micronutrients to rice and wheat grain also
increased. Conclusively it emerged that seasonal summer
fallow fields may be used for growing of summer green
manures and higher yields of rice and wheat could be
obtained.

Saraswat PK1 Kumar S Tiwari RC Singh VK
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Banaras
Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh – 221005, India
1
Corresponding Address: KVK, Banasthali University, PO
Banasthali, Rajasthan – 304022, India
PK Saraswat ( )
E mail: saraswat_pankaj_nj@yahoo.com

KEYWORDS Summer green manures, rice wheat yield,
nutrient uptake, physico-chemical properties of soil
INTRODUCTION
Rice-wheat cropping systems (RWCS) are age old
practices but its present level of production is due to
high yielding varieties in both crops. These crops are
high fertilizer responsive and input exhaustive.
The nutrient uptake capacity often exceeds replenishment
through fertilizer and manures thereby causing
deterioration in plant nutrient level of soil in many parts
of the Indo-Gangetic plains (Kharub and Chander 2010).
Currently there are growing concerns in sustainability of
RWCS since, the growth rates of rice and wheat yields
are either stagnant or declining. More over, there has
been enormous damage to natural resources and there
are wide concerns about the sustainability of this system,
the serious issues being declining soil fertility, depletion
of ground water and rising salinity and sodicity in soils.
Despite the ecological damage, the farmers are still
persisting with rice and wheat due to assured production
and market. Continuous rice wheat cropping practices
without adequate nutrition of soils may pose threats to
the sustainability of this system causing nutrient
depletion at an alarming rate which is one of the major
forms of soil degradation. Integration of plant nutrient
sources either through green manures, crop residues or
farmyard manure and different composts is an important
and promising component for sustaining fertility and
productivity of soil and crops respectively. Maintaining
and improving the level of soil organic matter (SOM) is
pre- requisite for ensuring future productivity and
sustainability (Singh 2008). But due to short turned
around period between two crops in RWCS crop residue
management is serious problem. From this perspective

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):30-34 January-June 2010

RESEARCH PAPER
Sharing Knowledge for Prosperity

Effect of temperature and fruit storage on yield and
quality of mechanically extracted olive oil
R SHARMA VK JOSHI

Received: May 19, 2010; Revised: June 07, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT Efforts were made to study the effect of
temperature and period of storage of olive fruits on yield
and quality of mechanically extracted oil. Olives fruits
(Olea europaea cv. Frantoio) used for oil extraction were
stored in plastic containers at two different temperatures
(ambient and 5 +10 C) for 20 days. The quality of both fruit
and the oil extracted from these fruits was analyzed during
the entire storage period. Fruit quality evaluation included
fruit weight, pulp recovery, moisture and oil yield whereas
oil quality was determined by the analysis of free fatty
acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value
and specific extinction coefficients (K232 and K 270 ).
The olive fruits can successfully be stored at 5+1o C in
ventilated plastic containers (30% ventilation with open
top) for about 15 days without any considerable changes
in the fruit quality and quality of oil extracted. However,
the storage of fruits at ambient temperatures (15-260 C)
beyond 5 days brings about drastic changes in the
physical quality of fruit and the composition of oil due to
excessive decay of fruit and initiation of oxidation
reactions under such conditions.
KEY WORDS Olea europaea L., olive storage, olive oil
quality, refrigeration, oil extraction
INTRODUCTION
Olive oil is edible, containing essential vitamins, fatty
acids and other natural elements of dietetic importance
and is known for its anti-ulcer and plasma cholesterol
Sharma R Joshi VK
Department of Postharvest Technology, Dr Y S Parmar
University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal
Pradesh - 173 230, India
R Sharma (

)

E mail: drrakes@gmail.com

lowering properties. In addition, it is also used for
manufacturing various industrial products such as soaps,
textiles, lubricants, cosmetics and has different skin
applications (Kiritsakis and Markakis 1987).
Olive oil quality is directly related to the physiological
conditions of the fruit from which it is extracted. Good
quality olive oil is obtained from healthy olive fruits using
extraction processes that produce minimal changes in oil
composition. In India, olive oil extraction is not well
synchronized with fruit harvest due small number and
size of oil extraction facilities and practically it is not
possible to utilize olive fruits for oil extraction immediately
after harvest. Therefore, the industry is often forced to
store the fruit piled up for several weeks at ambient
temperatures (Sharma 2003).
During this period, the fruit suffers mechanical,
physico-chemical and physiological alterations that may
eventually cause the breakdown of metabolic processes
in the olive fruit and subsequent reduction in oil quality.
The oil extracted from such damaged olive fruits present
high acidity, low stability and a characteristic musty smell.
These oils require refining, which leads to consequent
higher cost, besides loss of market value (Agar et al 1998).
However, storage of olive fruits under controlled
conditions could allow a more orderly flow of fruits to the
oil extraction unit and the possibility of extending the
length of storage of fruits before oil extraction could
increase the yield of good quality oil. Therefore, the
present investigations were undertaken to study the effect
of temperature and period of storage on yield and quality
of olive oil.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Raw material
Olive fruits (Olea europaea L. cv. Frantoio) were
collected from Progeny-cum- Demonstration Orchard,

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):35-39 January-June 2010

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Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on plant
growth promotion and nodulation in soybean (Glycine
max (L.) Merr.)
AV SINGH S SHAH B PRASAD

Received: June 10, 2010; Revised: June 25, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT Influence of three phosphate solubilizing
bacteria i.e. RMV1, RMV4 and RPB3 were evaluated on
growth, seed yield and nodulation of soybean through
seed inoculation under field conditions. Results of the
study revealed that all these isolates had significant
impact on plant growth in terms of field emergence, root
length, plant height, nodule dry weight, number of branch
and nodule per plant and finally seed yield over control.
Among these, RPB3 exhibited greatest influence by 24.31,
64.79, 26.89, 32.69 and 23.88 % for germination, root length,
plant height, number of branches per plant and seed yield
respectively. While, RMV4 and RMV1 reflected lesser
influence than RPB3 for the characters studied. However,
RPB3, RMV4 and RMV1 showed 74.68, 61.74 and 53.95 %
increment on nodulation, respectively over control, while
dry weight of nodule enhanced by 86.08, 71.47 and 61.32
%. The better performance of these three bacterial isolates
was attributed to their greater phosphate solubilization
ability and positively correlated with plant growth and
seed yield of soybean. However, RPB3 was rated as good
candidate to be developed into a phosphate solubilizing
bio-inoculant.
KEYWORDS PGPR, Phosphate solubilization,
nodulation, seed yield, soybean

Singh AV1 Shah S1 Prasad B2
1
Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Seed Science
and Technology, G B Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal,
Uttarakhand – 249 199, India
A V Singh ( )
E mail: ajaygbpuat@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Phosphorus (P) is a major growth-limiting nutrient, and
unlike the case for nitrogen, there is no large atmospheric
source that can be made biologically available
(Ezawa et al. 2002). Root development, stalk and stem
strength, flower and seed formation, crop maturity and
production, N-fixation in legumes, crop quality, and
resistance to plant diseases are the attributes influenced
by modulation in phosphorus nutrition. Although
microbial inoculants are in use for improving soil fertility
during the last century, however, a meager work has been
reported on phosphate solubilization compared to
nitrogen fixation. Phosphorus availability for soybean
growth is frequently low because phosphate reacts with
iron, aluminum and calcium in soil to form insoluble
phosphates. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.),
a leguminous crop, is one of the most important and
extensively grown crops that accounts for 30% of the
world’s processed vegetable oil (Graham and Vance 2003).
Phosphorus is also an essential ingredient for Rhizobium
to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N 2) into an ammonium
(NH4) form usable by plants. Phosphorous deficiency in
soil can severely limit plant growth and productivity,
particularly in legumes, where both the plant and their
symbiotic bacteria are affected resulting in deleterious
effect on nodule formation, development and function
(Alikhani et al. 2006). To complete the requirements of
phosphorous, large quantities of chemical fertilizers are
being used, resulting in high costs and severe
environmental contamination (Dai et al. 2004).
Many microorganisms associated with roots have
the ability to increase plant growth and productivity.
Among them, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms
(PSMs) are ubiquitous in soils and could play an important

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):40-42 January-June 2010

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Uptake studies and yield effects in potato variety Kufri
Badshah in response to varying levels of nitrogen and
potassium
S CHOPRA AK GUPTA DJ BHAT R RAFIQ

Received: May 14, 2010; Revised: June 04, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT The experiment was conducted at Vegetable
Research Farm, SKUAST-J, FOA, Chatha to study the
effect of nitrogen and potassium on the total leaf nitrogen
and potassium content and the yield attributes in potato
variety K. Badshah during the years 2008-09. It was
evident that the leaf N and K content were increased with
the application of nitrogen and potassium recorded 45
and 90 DAP. However the N and K content showed a
decline when assessed after 90 DAP then that of 45 DAP.
The number of tubers per plant, weight of tubers per plant
and the tuber yield was increased by the application of
nitrogen, however, potassium increased the no. of tubers
and the tuber yield only.
KEYWORDS Days after planting, potato variety, yield,
nitrogen, potassium.
INTRODUCTION
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is fast emerging as a cash
crop among the farmers of Jammu Division where it remains
in the fields round the year. During the year 2005-2006 it
was grown on an area of 5005 ha with a production of
75695 metric tonnes (Anon 2007). The average
productivity in Jammu division is 15.12 tonnes/ha.
The division is comparatively better placed in terms of
fresh potatoes availability because in north Indian plains
Chopra S Gupta AK Bhat DJ Rafiq R
Division of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir
University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu,
FOA Chatha, Jammu and Kashmir-180 009, India
S Chopra ( )
E mail: drsc373@rediffmail.com

the crop is normally harvested in the month of JanuaryFebruary, thereafter fresh potatoes becomes a rare
commodity in the market up to the months of SeptemberOctober. It continues till the produce arrives from the
hills and the consumers have to depend upon the cold
stored produce which has got lesser appeal due to the
increase in reducing sugars and starch breakdown.
Hence the crop of the Jammu area is becoming a hot
favourite and this division has the distinction of
producing potatoes round the year.
The nutritional requirement of potato is fairly high
especially for high yielding varieties such as Kufri
Badshah because of their biological yields. It has been
observed that a mature crop of potato yielding between
250-350 q/ha tubers removes about 120-140 kg N, 25-30
kg P2O5 and 170-230 kg K2O per ha (Sharma et al.1978,
Singh and Grewal 1978). Moreover, it is highly cost
intensive crop owing to hefty investment made in terms
of seeds, other inputs and costly labor charges.
The
exhaustive nature of Kufri Badshah could be effectively
depicted through the uptake studies however, it depends
upon a number of factors including the moisture regimens,
the concentration of other nutrients and the plant density.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Considering the importance of nutrient removal from the
soil an experiment was conducted at Vegetable Farm,
Chatha during the year 2008-2009 to access the uptake of
N and K and yield attributes in response to applied
fertilizers in variety K. Badshah. The treatments comprised
of four levels of nitrogen i.e. 0, 125, 187.5 and 250 kg/ha
and four levels of potassium i.e., 0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg/
ha. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized
Block Design with three replications. The planting was

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):43-46 January-June 2010

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Effect of different propagation and planting techniques on
the performance of Picrorhiza kurroa
MK THAKUR R CHAUHAN B DUTT

Received: May 25, 2010; Revised: June 15, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT Field trials were conducted to study the
effect of different propagation and planting techniques
on the performance of Picrorhiza kurroa at Medicinal
and Aromatic Plants Research Station, Rahla of Dr YS
Parmar University, Solan, India, during 2005-06 and 200607. After two year’s observations it was concluded that
for vegetative propagation of Picrorhiza kurroa, 6 cm
stolon cutting taken from top portion gave maximum
sprouting and survival whereas, maximum rootstock yield
was obtained with 10 cm stolon cuttings taken from middle
portion of the plant. The stolon cuttings should be planted
horizontally at 7.5 cm depth with the spacing of 30x30 cm
to get maximum rootstock yield/ha.
KEYWORDS Picrorhiza kurroa, vegetative
propagation, planting technique, stolon, cutting,
rootstock yield
INTRODUCTION
Picrorhiza kurroa, commonly known as Kutki (in India),
is one of the important high altitude medicinal plant.
The plant is naturally distributed in alpine and sub-alpine
region of Himalayas at altitudes from 2500 to 3500m amsl.
It is a creeping, glabrous perennial herb and is often found
gregarious in its natural habitat and spread by means of
stolons. Picrorhiza kurroa is found in the North-Western
Thakur MK1 Chauhan R 2 Dutt B2
1
Regional Horticultural Research Station Bajaura, Kullu,
Himachal Pradesh-175 125, India
2
Department of Forest Products, Dr YS Parmar University of
Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh173 230, India
R Chauhan ( )
E mail: drrajesh_25@yahoo.co.in

Himalayan region from Kashmir to Kumaun regions in
India and also in Nepal. Over and unscientific exploitation
by the local vendors have posed a threat to the very
existence of this valuable plant species. The plant is
known to contain picroside-I, II, III and kutkoside as major
bioactive compounds (Kitagawa et al. 1969, Jia et al. 1999).
It is a high value medicinal plant where underground parts
are used in both traditional as well as modern systems of
medicine. The commercial drug is obtained from dried
stolons and roots and is used as bitter tonic, hepatoprotective, anti-periodic, cholagouge, stomachich, antiamoebic, anti-cancerous, anti-oxidant, laxative in small
doses and cathartic in large doses, carminative,
anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, immuno-stimulant, and
cardio-tonic. It also finds use in dropsy, asthma, leprosy,
arthritis and is also considered as blood purifier, blood
pressure reducer, cardiac and expectorant. The local
inhabitants use this plant in fever and stomachic troubles.
The root paste is applied to cuts and wounds for speedy
healings. The clinical trials on this drug have shown its
therapeutic efficiency in a number of conditions of
immunological disorder like asthma, arthritis, urticaria etc.
(Anon 1980). It show better activity than silymarin, a well
known hepato-protective drug used in Europe and has
promising activity against Hepatitis B virus (Rajalakshmi
et al. 1992, Mehrotra et al. 1994, Kerry 1995, Singh et al.
2005). Considering its demand and use vis-à-vis threat
status Picrorhiza is a very important medicinal plant.
Cost-benefit analysis after third year of cultivation
indicates benefits of Rs 87,600/ha based on maximum
production. Thus, cultivation of Picrorhiza can provide
not only an alternate income generating resource, but
can also provide the opportunity for self-employment
(Nautiyal et al. 2001). Due to its narrow distribution range,
small population size and high value, the species figure
among the 37 identified top priority species for

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):47-51 January-June 2010

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Laboratory studies on the development of resistance to
malathion in diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella )
R LAL J KUMAR KC SHARMA

Received: June 01, 2010; Revised: July 05, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT Laboratory studies on the development of
resistance in diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.)
against malathion showed that selection of third instar
larvae with malathion by applying a selection pressure of
60-80 % kill in every generation resulted into 27.32 times
resistance after fourteen generations of selection in
comparison to non-selected strain. The rate of
development was found to be slower in the initial
generations (upto G2) of selection. These finding revealed
the ability of P. xylostella to develop resistance to
malathion if this insecticides is used continuously for the
control of this pest in the field.
KEY WORDS Plutella xylostella, resistance, laboratory
selection, insecticides.
INRTODUCTION
Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)
(Yponomeutidae, Lepidoptera) is a destructive pest of
crucifers in many cabbage growing areas of the world
(Talekar and Shelton 1993) and annual cost for managing
this pest is estimated at $ 1 billion (Talekar 1990). In India,
the incidence and damage of pest is now found to be the
most devastating in all cole crops growing areas causing
50-80 % loss in marketable yield thus enjoying the pest
status of natural importance (Srinivasan and Krishnakumar
1982). In Himachal Pradesh, cauliflower and cabbage are
grown over an area of about 2801 ha and 2195 ha,
Lal R1 Kumar J 2 Sharma KC1
1
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, 2Hill Agricultural Research and
Extension Centre, CSK HP Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Bajaura,
Kullu, Himachal Pradesh -175 125, India
R Lal (

)

E mail: rameshkulvi2007@rediffmail.com

respectively (Anon 2008 a). In mid-and high-hill areas of
the state these crops are grown as off seasons vegetables
and provide rich dividends to the farmers. Diamond back
moth, P. xylostella is one of the key species of insects
which hamper the successful cultivation of these crops
(Sharma and Bhalla 1964, Bhatia and Verma 1993, Kumar
et al. 2000). Various insecticides like malathion, endosulfan,
deltamethrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate are in
recommendation for control of diamondback moth (Anon
2008b) and vegetable growers generally resort to frequent
and indiscriminate use of these insecticides. Lal and
Kumar (2004) tested toxicity of malathion, endosulfan and
fenvalerate against different populations of P. xylostella
collected from 13 different vegetable growing area of 6
districts of Himachal Pradesh and found that these
populations did not differ statistically among themselves
for their susceptibility to these insecticides. Further in
the absence of base line data it was not possible to
authenticate the degree of resistance that pest had
developed to other insecticides. Present paper reports
the findings of the laboratory selection of a strain of
diamondback moth P. xylostella resistant to malathion.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Studies were carried out in the laboratory of Department
of Entomology, Krishi Vishvavidyalaya Palampur. Larvae
of different populations collected from 13 different
vegetable growing areas of 6 districts of the state, having
non-significant differences among themselves for their
susceptibility to malathion (Lal and Kumar 2004) were
poled to form a single population and allowed to breed
ad lib. The first generation progeny of the pooled
population, designated as parental population was
divided into two separate lines (approximately 500 larvae
in each line) for further rearing. These lines were
designated as the MS- line (subjected to malathion

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):52-55 January-June 2010

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Selection parameters for productive plant type in tomato
(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
JAG PAUL SHARMA ANAND KUMAR SINGH S PTIWARI

Received: May 27, 2010; Revised: July 30, 2010; Accepted: Aug 10, 2010

ABSTRACT One hundred twenty six genotypes of
tomato comprising collections of indigenous and exotic
were evaluated during summer 2006. There were significant
differences among the genotypes for all the traits under
study. Average fruit weight, showed highest genotypic
and phenotypic coefficient of variation followed by
number of fruits/plant, fruit yield (q/ha), number of
locules/plant, plant height, pericarp thickness and number
of branches/plant, while it was moderate for days to 50%
flowering. High heritability coupled with high genetic gain
were observed for average fruit weight, number of fruits/
plant, fruit yield, plant height, number of locules/fruit,
pericarp thickness and number of branches/plant,
however, days to 50% flowering has high heritability and
moderate genetic gain. Hence due emphasis should be
given to these traits while selecting the genotypes for
higher yield in tomato. Correlation studies showed that
fruit yield (q/ha) was significantly and positively
correlated with average fruit weight and number of fruits/
plant, however, a positive and significant genotypic and
phenotypic correlation was also observed for average
fruit weight with number of locules/fruit, pericarp thickness
and days to 50% flowering; and number of branches/
plant with plant height and number of fruits/plant.
Hence, these important yield contributing traits can be
effectively used for simultaneous improvement of plant

Sharma Jag Paul Singh Anand Kumar Tiwari SP 1
Division of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, 1Division of
Agricultural Economics and Statistics, Sher-e-Kashmir
University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (J), Chatha,
Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir – 180 009, India
Jag Paul Sharma (

)

email: jpsharma2020@yahoo.co.in,
drjpsharma2020@rediffmail.com

phenotype. Path analysis studies for fruit yield revealed
that average fruit weight is the most important yield
contributing traits followed by number of fruits/plant.
Hence, due emphasis should be placed on these traits
while selecting the genotypes for higher yield in tomato.
KEYWORDS Tomato, variability, heritability, genetic
advance, correlation and path
INTRODUCTION
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) occupies the
prime position among different vegetables. It’s grown
practically in every country of the world in as well as out
door fields. The present trend in crop improvement
programme is the development of hybrid cultivars to
boost the productivity and profitability. Different research
institutes have develop/released a large number of
improved cultivars which in turn could be utilized for the
development of suitable hybrids (Rai 2006). To meet all
the requirement of successful hybrids, it is necessary to
be familiar with the detailed genetic structure of the
selected material to be used for hybrid breeding. Genetic
variability among the parent is a pre-requisite to get better
segregates for various economic characters. Genetically
diverse genotypes used as parent for hybrid breeding
may lead to development of heterotic cross combinations.
Knowledge of correlation is equally important in plant
breeding for simultaneous and/or indirect improvement
of characters that are difficult to quantify especially those
traits which exhibit low heritability. Therefore, it is
imperative to make preliminary investigations of the
characteristics of the lines to be used for the development
of superior hybrids. In the light of the above, present
investigations were undertaken to study the genetic
variability, correlation among different traits and path
analysis in different germplasm lines of tomato to facilitate

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):56-58 January-June 2010

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Genetic variability and selection parameters for different
genotypes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) under valley condition
of Uttarakhand
P OLIVIA DEVI SC PANT DK RANA SS RAWAT

Received: July 02, 2010; Revised: August 04, 2010; Accepted: Aug 10, 2010

ABSTRACT The objective was to ascertain genetic
variability, heritability and genetic advance of different
traits for their utilization in crop improvement programs.
Analysis of variance revealed highly significant
differences for almost all the characters, except breadth
of pods and number of primary branches which it was
significant only at 5% level. This indicated the presence
of much more variability among the genotypes used in
the present study. But the number of seeds/pod showed
non significant. The genotypic and phenotypic coefficient
of variability estimated in the present investigations
recorded high variability for almost all the characters
except days to first green pods harvest, breadth of pods
(cm), 100 seed weight and protein content per cent
accompanied with high heritability and genetic advance
indicating good scope for selection. Based on its
contributing variability, heritability and genetic advance,
breeders should give attention to the characters like plant
heights, length of pods, length of internodes and days
taken to first flower are important characters for bringing
an improvement through selection of high yielding
genotypes in garden pea.
KEYWORDS Pea, germplasm, variability, heritability,
diversity

Devi P Olivia Pant SC Rana DK Rawat SS
Department of Horticulture, Chauras Campus, HNB Garhwal
University, Srinagar- Garhwal, Uttarakhand - 246 174, India
SC Pant (

)

E mail: pant_satish@rediffmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Vegetable pea (Pisum sativum L.) is highly nutritive and
contains a high percentage of digestible protein along
with carbohydrate and vitamins. Being a cool season crop,
pea is extensively grown in mid and high hill areas of
Uttarakhand in summer season as an important off-season
vegetable and in lower hills and valley areas in rabi season
as cash crop. Crop improvement depends largely on the
availability of diverse germplasm and their judicial
utilization. Success in any crop improvement or breeding
programme depends upon the selection of suitable
parents. For effective selection of suitable parents a
thorough knowledge of genetic variability, heritability and
type of gene action is very essential. In addition,
characters upon which selection of parents is to based
should be known. The possibility of improvement in any
crop is measured by variability available in the crop.
Hence, it is essential to partition overall variability into
its heritable and non-heritable components with the help
of genetic parameters like genetic coefficient of variation,
heritability and genetic advance. Knowledge of
correlation among different traits and further partitioning
them into direct and indirect effects is one of approaches
to understand nature and extent of such relationship. Some
earlier workers Ramesh and Tewatia (2002), Sharma et al.
(2003), Singh et al. (2003) and Gupta et al. (2006) reported
considerable genetic variability in peas.
Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to
study the genetic components and variability, heritability
and genetic advance for their utilization in crop
improvement programs.

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):56-58 January-June 2010

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Genetic variability and selection parameters for different
genotypes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) under valley condition
of Uttarakhand
P OLIVIA DEVI SC PANT DK RANA SS RAWAT

Received: July 02, 2010; Revised: August 04, 2010; Accepted: Aug 10, 2010

ABSTRACT The objective was to ascertain genetic
variability, heritability and genetic advance of different
traits for their utilization in crop improvement programs.
Analysis of variance revealed highly significant
differences for almost all the characters, except breadth
of pods and number of primary branches which it was
significant only at 5% level. This indicated the presence
of much more variability among the genotypes used in
the present study. But the number of seeds/pod showed
non significant. The genotypic and phenotypic coefficient
of variability estimated in the present investigations
recorded high variability for almost all the characters
except days to first green pods harvest, breadth of pods
(cm), 100 seed weight and protein content per cent
accompanied with high heritability and genetic advance
indicating good scope for selection. Based on its
contributing variability, heritability and genetic advance,
breeders should give attention to the characters like plant
heights, length of pods, length of internodes and days
taken to first flower are important characters for bringing
an improvement through selection of high yielding
genotypes in garden pea.
KEYWORDS Pea, germplasm, variability, heritability,
diversity

Devi P Olivia Pant SC Rana DK Rawat SS
Department of Horticulture, Chauras Campus, HNB Garhwal
University, Srinagar- Garhwal, Uttarakhand - 246 174, India
SC Pant (

)

E mail: pant_satish@rediffmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Vegetable pea (Pisum sativum L.) is highly nutritive and
contains a high percentage of digestible protein along
with carbohydrate and vitamins. Being a cool season crop,
pea is extensively grown in mid and high hill areas of
Uttarakhand in summer season as an important off-season
vegetable and in lower hills and valley areas in rabi season
as cash crop. Crop improvement depends largely on the
availability of diverse germplasm and their judicial
utilization. Success in any crop improvement or breeding
programme depends upon the selection of suitable
parents. For effective selection of suitable parents a
thorough knowledge of genetic variability, heritability and
type of gene action is very essential. In addition,
characters upon which selection of parents is to based
should be known. The possibility of improvement in any
crop is measured by variability available in the crop.
Hence, it is essential to partition overall variability into
its heritable and non-heritable components with the help
of genetic parameters like genetic coefficient of variation,
heritability and genetic advance. Knowledge of
correlation among different traits and further partitioning
them into direct and indirect effects is one of approaches
to understand nature and extent of such relationship. Some
earlier workers Ramesh and Tewatia (2002), Sharma et al.
(2003), Singh et al. (2003) and Gupta et al. (2006) reported
considerable genetic variability in peas.
Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to
study the genetic components and variability, heritability
and genetic advance for their utilization in crop
improvement programs.

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):59-61 January-June 2010

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Seedling growth of Bartlett pear in response to exogenous
chemical substances and stratification duration
NA GANAI MS WANI GH RATHER

Received: May 26, 2010; Revised: July 26, 2010; Accepted: Aug 10, 2010

ABSTRACT Different chemical treatments viz.,
gibberellic acid, ethanol and thiourea were applied to pear
seeds under three periods of stratification i.e., 30, 60 and
90 days. Maximum stem diameter (3.27 mm) was recorded
under gibberellic acid 50 ppm. Stratification period of 90
days was found best to promote more stem diameter
(3.20 mm) than other two stratification periods. Root
diameter increased with an increase in levels of thiourea
concentration and was recorded maximum (3.72 mm)
at 2000 ppm. Inverse relationship in root diameter was
found with stratification periods. The maximum root
diameter (3.63 mm) was found at 30 days stratification
period which decreased with an increase in stratification
period. However, thiourea 2000 ppm under 30 days
stratification period was found superior in inducing root
diameter of pear seedlings in comparison to other
treatment combinations. There was a marked increase in
number or secondary roots as influenced by chemical
treatments compared to control. Maximum number of
secondary roots (48.66) was observed with thiourea 2000
ppm. Among the different stratification periods, maximum
number (46.65) of secondary roots was observed in 30
days.
KEYWORDS Pear, chemical substances, stratification,
root and shoot growth

Ganai NA Wani MS Rather GH
Division of Pomolog y, Sher-e-Kashmir University of
Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar,
Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir -191121, India
GH Rather (

)

Email: drghassan71@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Pear is next to apple in acreage production and varietal
diversity in the world. Ancient Greek poet Homer praised
pears as ‘one of the gift of god’. It is widely grown in
China, Italy, USA, Japan, Turkey, Germany and France.
In India, pear occupies third place among temperate fruits
both in area and production (Mitra et al. 1991).
With the introduction of improved pear cultivars in the
later part of 19 th century, the cultivation got momentum
due to success of various cultivars in different parts of
the country. In Jammu and Kashmir state, pear grows well
in temperate zone Kashmir valley as well as in the
intermediate zone of Jammu region viz. Kathua, Doda,
Poonch, Rajouri and Udhampur. Bartlett is also known as
William’s or William’s Bartlett or William’s Bon Chretien
has its origin in England. Except China and Japan, Bartlett
is most popular commercial cultivar all over the world
because the tree is adapted widely to soil, climatic,
changes and geographical ranges (Childers 1976) and the
fruit is well suited to desert, drying and canning.
Bartlett is generally considered as a standard of excellence
which is used in describing other pear cultivars.
In the past, propagation by cuttings in majority of
fruit trees was not successful, making it imperative to
resort to budding and grafting in which the seeds of
commercial cultivars were used for raising rootstocks.
Since all rootstocks do not impart impeccable traits to
scion, there is general trend in modern fruit culture
towards growing of cultivars on their own roots.
Furthermore, stress conditions of climate and soil,
incidence of pests and diseases and demand of high
density culture makes the use of pear rootstock imperative
to combat these problems. In Kashmir valley, pear
cultivars are mostly propagated on rootstock from nondescript pear suckers. These suckers impart different

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):62-65 January-June 2010

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Quantification of damage and evaluation of different
insecticides against onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen)
(Diptera: Anthomyiidae) in Kargil district of Ladakh region
AJAY KUMAR PANDEY DORJAY NAMGAYAL

Received: June 29, 2010; Revised: July 09, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT Survey was conducted during the year
2005-08 at Kargil district of Ladakh region to quantify the
extent of damage of onion maggot, Delia antiqua
(Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) in onion and to find
out effective insecticide for the management of onion
maggot. The study revealed that the onion maggot caused
17.11 to 37.5 % infestation in onion in different area of
Kargil district with highest and lowest infestation in
Shilikchey and Baro village, respectively. Similarly in a
experiment, out of six insecticides namely Phorate,
Dichlorvos, Phosphamidon, Endosulfan, Chlorpyriphos
and Malathion, Phosphamidon was found to be most
effective insecticide at both concentrations i.e. 0.05 and
0.07 % by reducing 60.00 to 84.5 % infestation over control.
However, it was almost at par with Phorate which reduced
46.0 to 76.8 % infestation, respectively. The Endosulfan,
at both concentrations, was found to be least effective
insecticide as compared to the rest of the test insecticide.
KEYWORDS Onion, Delia antiqua, insecticide,
infestation, Kargil, Ladakh

Pandey Ajay Kumar1

Namgayal Dorjay2

1

Regional Agriculture Research Sub Station, Sher-e-Kashmir
University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Kargil,
Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir– 194 103, India
2

Regional Agriculture Research Station, Sher-e-Kashmir
University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Leh,
Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir - 1941001, India
Ajay Kumar Pandey ( )
E mail: drajay2002@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
In Ladakh region onion maggot, Delia antique (Meagan),
and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) are found in
all major onion-growing area which cause severe damage
to onion crop. The onion maggot larvae attack germinating
seedlings, feeding on the developing roots and epicotyl
and can continue to feed on the expanding bulbs during
later stages of growth. If not controlled, it can prevent
the production of a marketable crop. The onion maggot,
Delia antiqua (Meigen) can cause onion stand losses
from 20 to 90% in many temperate regions (Eckenrode
and Walters. 1997). Various insecticides like Ethion,
Diazinon, Fonofos, Carbofuran (Harris et al. 1982),
Chlorpyrifos, Chlorfenvinphos, Deltamethrin, Permethrin,
Cypermethrin, Fenvalerate Permethrin (Carroll et al. 1983)
and Carbofuran (Narkiewicz 1988) have been tested and
recommended for the management of onion maggot.
However, from Ladakh region there is no such record till
date regarding the insecticidal management of onion
maggot. As the level of resistance in plain population is
very high due to regular use of insecticide for their
management and accordingly the dosage of insecticide
is also high. In a study Carroll et al. (1983) found that
onion maggot expressed 15 and 7.7 fold levels of crossresistance to direct contact applications of Chlorpyrifos
and Chlorfenvinphos, respectively. Similarly, Parathion
resistant onion maggot showed 3.4, 2.9, 1.6, and 1.3 fold
levels of resistance to Deltamethrin, Permethrin,
Cypermethrin, and Fenvalerate, respectively. However,
in Ladakh frequent use of any pesticides to manage any
insect pest is uncommon. So the efficacy of lower dosage
pesticide to be sufficient to suppress the pest population

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):66-71 January-June 2010

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Effect of retention of pedicel and packaging on storage
behaviour of plum fruits
SK SHARMA D SINGH MC NAUTIYAL S JUYAL R C SATI

Received: June 17, 2010; Revised: July 10, 2010; Accepted: July 15, 2010

ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to evaluate
the effect of retention of pedicel, atmosphere modification
and storage of “Santa Rosa” plum fruits under different
conditions. It was observed that there was an increase in
the physiological loss in weight and TSS of the fruits
during 15 days storage, while, the fruit firmness and
titratable acidity declined consistently during the entire
storage period. Further, these changes were minimum in
the fruits harvested with pedicel, packed in polythene
and those stored under ZECC. Group shrink wrapping of
fruits on thermocol bowls of about 200 g capacity
alongwith storage in zero energy cool chamber was
significantly effective in reducing weight loss and rotting
alongwith retention of firmness and chemical quality of
fruits.
KEYWORDS Plum, harvesting, storage, pedicel
retention, MA packing, zero energy cool chamber
INTRODUCTION
Plum is an important temperate stone fruit grown
throughout the world. In India, this fruit of family Rosaceae
is grown over an area of 21,000 ha and producing about
1,60,000 tonnes of fruits annually (FAO 2008). Although
plum is grown in various states of India including Jammu

Sharma SK Singh D Nautiyal MC Juyal S Sati RC
Department of Horticulture, College of Forestry and Hill
Agriculture, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
Hill Campus Ranichauri, Distt. Tehri-Garhwal, Uttarakhand 249 199, India
SK Sharma ( )
E mail: drsatish10@yahoo.com

and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, North-Eastern hill
region etc., its production in Uttarakhand is 40,896 tonnes
from an area of 9,424 ha. The fruit is harvested by hands
in these states or by shaking the trees with a mechanical
shaker. Plum fruits are highly perishable in nature,
and faulty harvesting may cause bruising injury or
mechanical damage to the fruits, thereby reducing the
shelf life of the fruits. Heavy losses occur due to bruising
by impact with the branches, catching surfaces and
transportation. The pedicel of plum is not very firmly
attached to the fruit and is detached easily during
harvesting and postharvest handling. The detachment of
pedicel opens the fruit for the entry of micro organisms
and such fruits rot very easily. On the contrary, retention
of pedicel may prove advantageous for enhancing the
shelf life of this highly perishable fruit. The harvesting of
fruit alongwith small pedicels has been reported to
enhance the shelf life and retention of quality during
storage (Fuchs and Barki-Golan 1979, Singh et al. 1993,
Prakash et al. 1996, Sharma et al. 2009).
Plum fruits are harvested during the months of MayJune during which the temperatures are very high,
resulting in poor shelf life of the fruits. Practically, the
shelf life of the plum fruits is only 2-4 days during the
harvesting season. As such, it is very difficult to profitably
dispose the fruits in such a short span of time. The facility
of cold storages is beyond the reach of common marginal
farmers, especially in the state like Uttarkhand. Under
such circumstances the use of Zero Energy Cool Chamber
may prove to be beneficial for the farmers (Sharma 2010).
The present study was therefore, conducted to assess
the postharvest behaviour of plum fruits with respect to
pedicel retention and storage in Zero Energy Cool
Chamber.

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):72-74 January-June 2010

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Studies on yield and yield contributing characters in different
genotypes of garlic (Allium sativum L.)
N SHARMA A GUPTA RK SAMNOTRA

Received: May 14, 2010; Revised: July 02, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT The experiments were conducted at two
different locations one at the Farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra
Poonch located in the intermediate zone at an altitude of
1100 mamsl and other at Farmers Participatory Vegetable
Research station Karllah Chenani in the temperate zone
situated at an altitude of 1400 mamsl during Rabi seasons
of 2007and 2008 to evaluate 12 local large segmented
genotypes collected from different garlic growing areas
of Jammu Division for plant growth characters as well as
yield contributing traits. The pooled data for two years
indicated that local collection LC-M-1 showed superiority
for growth characters like number of leaves (9.4),
leaf length (22.4 cm.), leaf weight (27.86 g) and took less
number of days (168.24) for maturity as compared to other
lines. The highest yield (178.45q/ha) and yield contributing
traits like diameter of bulb (6.8 cm), fresh weight of bulb
(65.7 g) and number of cloves per bulb (13.0) were recorded
with LC-M-1 in Poonch closely followed by LC-M-2.
Similarly in location 2 i.e. in temperate conditions, the
genotype LC-M-2 showed superiority for growth and
yield contributing traits closely followed by LC-M-1. The
genotype recorded highest no. of leaves (9.7), leaf length
(23.2cm.), fresh weight of leaves (28.5g) and took less no.
of days to harvest (160.2). Also the maximum diameter of
bulb (7.3 cm), fresh weight of bulb (60.4 g) , no. of cloves
(15.0) per bulb and highest yield (189.5q /ha).
Sharma N 1 Gupta A 2 Samnotra RK 2
1
Krishi Vigyan Kendra Sher-e-Kashmir University of
Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Poonch,.
Jammu and Kashmir – 185 101, India
2
Division of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir
University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu,
Faculty of Agriculture, Chatha, Jammu -180009, India
N Sharma ( )
Email: neerja1975@gmail.com

KEYWORDS Garlic, genotypes growth, yield
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is the second most widely
cultivated Alliums after onion, valued for flavouring and
medicinal purposes, foreign exchange and rich in proteins
and minerals. It has long been encouraged all over the
world as spice used in vegetarian and non vegetarian
dishes. Therapeutic properties of garlic have also been
recognized in the processing of garlic capsules, tablets
or other formulations related to human health.
It is popularly grown in plains as well as in the hilly regions
of India. The garlic cultivars are sterile and propagated
only vegetatively by cloves, they exhibit morphological
variation between clones and thus genetic improvement
is limited only to clonal selection, the effectiveness of
this improvement programme therefore largely depends
upon the magnitude of interclonal variability and further
the heritability of this variability being carried forward
into subsequent generations (Kohli and Prabal 2000).
A lot of local germplasm of large segmented genotypes is
available in the hilly areas of Jammu Division which needs
improvement and can be utilized in breeding programmes.
The present investigations were carried out at two
different locations to evaluate genotypes of garlic for
yield and related characters.
The present investigations were carried out at
experimental farms of Sher-e-Kashmir University of
Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, India at
two different locations, one at the farm of KVK Poonch in
the intermediate zone situated at an height of 1100 m amsl
where maximum day temperature ranges from32-380C
during summer and 5-100C during winter and other at
Vegetable Research Station Karllah Chenani in the
temperate area at an altitude of 1400 m amsl where day
temperature ranges from 25-320C during summer and -2 to
50C during winter. The experimental farm of Poonch is

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):75-78 January-June 2010

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Influence of foliar application of micronutrients on the fruit
quality of guava cv. Lucknow-49
V RAWAT YK TOMAR JMS RAWAT

Received: May 19, 2010; Revised: July 01, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out during the
rainy season of two successive years i.e., 2005 and 2006
on guava cv. Lucknow-49 (Sardar Guava) to improve the
quality of fruits by foliar application of micronutrients i.e.
zinc, copper and boron at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% alone and in
combination of two and three, with control. TSS, total
sugars, sugar-acid ratio and seed weight significantly
improved whereas significant reduction in acidity was
exhibited with the foliar application of zinc sulphate at 0.4
% concentration. Application of boron at 0.4 %
concentration significantly increased the vitamin C and
pectin content of the L-49 guava fruits. Thus micronutrient
spray with 0.4% zinc sulphate and 0.4% boric acid are
beneficial for improvement of fruit quality in guava.
KEYWORDS Guava, Lucknow-49, micronutrients, zinc,
copper, boron
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is not only a delicious
table fruit due to its excellent flavour, nutritive value and
pectin content, but is also important fruit for processing
industry for preparing many kinds of excellent products
like jelly, jam, canned fruit products, fruit butter, toffee,
cheese and guava nectar. It is a rich and cheap source of
vitamin C and pectin (Agnihotri et al. 1962).
Foliar feeding of nutrients to fruit plants has gained
much importance in recent years which is quite economical

Rawat V

Tomar YK

Rawat JMS

Department of Horticulture, HNB Garhwal University,
Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand- 246 174, India
JMS Rawat (

)

E mail: jms_rawat99@yahoo.co.in

and obviously an ideal way of evading the problems of
nutrients availability and supplementing the fertilizers to
the soil. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potash
play a vital role in promoting the plant vigour and
productivity, whereas micronutrients like zinc, boron,
copper and molybdenum perform a specific role in the
growth and development of plant, quality produce and
uptake of major nutrients. Keeping in view the importance
of application of micronutrients for improving fruit quality,
present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of
micronutrients by foliar application, on fruit quality
characteristics of L-49 guava in rainy season crop
(Ambe Bahar).
The study was conducted at Horticultural Research
Centre and Department of Horticulture, HNB Garhwal
University, Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand, India. Twelve
year old sixty six bearing guava trees (cv. L-49) of uniform
vigour, size and maintained under uniform cultural
schedule were selected for the present studies.
The experiment consisted of 22 treatment combinations
of 3 micronutrients viz., zinc, copper and boron at 0.2%,
0.3% and 0.4% and in combination of two and three except
spray of plain tap water as control. Aqueous solutions of
zinc, copper, boron and tap water were sprayed at the
time of full bloom on rainy season crop (Ambe Bahar).
The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design
(RBD) with 3 replications of all the treatments.
Micronutrient sprays were done at full bloom stage in
early morning with the help of foot sprayer @ six liters
per tree to ensure the maximum absorption of nutrients
through the leaves.
The weight of pulp and seeds was measured by using
electronic top pan balance (Model Z - 400). Total soluble
solids (TSS) was measured by hand refractometer and
values were corrected at 200C. Acidity was determined by
titrating the fruit pulp against 0.5 N NaOH and expressed

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):79-81 January-June 2010

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Impact of integrated nutrient management on soil nutrient
status in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv.
Chandler
I UMAR VK WALI R KHER A SHARMA N GUPTA

Received: May 28, 2010; Revised: June 17, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT A field trial was conducted in 2005-2006
and 2006-2007 to assess the effect of integrated nutrient
management on strawberry yield and soil nutrient status.
There was a substantial increase in soil organic carbon
and available nutrient content by poultry manure, urea
and Azotobacter applied alone or in combination.
The highest organic carbon content of 0.62% was
recorded in treatments where full nitrogen as poultry
manure + Azotobacter or 75% nitrogen through poultry
manure + 25% nitrogen as urea + Azotobacter or 50%
nitrogen through poultry manure + 50% nitrogen as urea
+ Azotobacter was applied. However, highest available N
and phosphorous of 255.40 and 21.05 kg ha -1 was
observed when 25% N was applied as poultry manure +
75 % N through urea + Azotobacter whereas full N applied
as poultry manure + Azotobacter resulted in highest
available soil potassium (143.12 kg per ha-1). Calcium and
magnesium build up was highest (7.98 and 2.95 meq
100g-1 soil) in treatment where full N was applied as urea
+ Azotobacter.
KEYWORDS Available nitrogen, Azotobacter, poultry
manure, urea
Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) has attained
the status of being one of the most important soft fruits
Umar I Wali VK Kher VK Sharma A Gupta N 1
Division of Fruit Science, Sher-e-Kashmir University of
Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, FOA, Main
Campus Chatha, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir-180 009, India
1
Rainfed Research Sub-station for Sub-tropical Fruits, Raya,
Jammu and Kashmir-181 143, India
I Umar ( )
Email: umarwaida@rediffmail.com

of the world after grapes (Umar et al. 2008b). For successful
cultivation, nutrition plays an important role in growth
and yield of strawberry. The strawberry plants being
herbaceous in nature having shallow root system with 90
% of the roots spread in the top six inches of soil, needs
effective nutrient management as well as growing strategy
(Umar et al. 2008a). Plant nutrients are therefore a vital
component of any system for sustainable fruit crop
cultivation. Moreover, intensification of horticulture
requires increased flow of plant nutrients and higher
uptake of nutrients by plants. The depletion of nutrient
stocks in the soil is a major but often hidden form of land
degradation. On the other hand, excessive applications
of nutrients, or their inefficient management, can cause
environmental problems raising concerns about the
sustainability of horticultural production in a long term.
Thus, the adoption of integrated nutrient management
system (INM) which enhances soil productivity through
a balanced use of mineral fertilizers combined with organic
sources of plant nutrients, including biological nitrogen
fixation is ecologically, socially and economically viable,
and it can not only increase both soil and fruit productivity
but also makes it a critical component for sustaining
horticulture over the long term (Umar 2007). The present
work is an attempt to analyze the effect of integrated
nutrient management on crop yield and availability of
nutrients in soil.
Field trials were laid out in Research Orchard,
SKUAST-J, Udheywalla, Jammu during the years 2005-06
and 2006-07. The texture of the soil at the site was sandy
loam and neutral in reaction with organic carbon 0.51%.
Available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil
were recorded as 215.5, 13.44 and 135.0 kg/ha,
respectively. The available soil calcium and magnesium

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):82-84 January-June 2010

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Germination, growth and storage studies of Pinus gerardiana
from Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh
AGUPTA

Received: June 03, 2010; Revised: June 25, 2010; Accepted; July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT Seeds of Pinus gerardiana were collected
from twelve different sites from Kinnaur, in Himachal
Pradesh, India. Seeds were sown in October and in May.
Germination on an average was more in freshly collected
seeds sown in October. However, the growth of May sown
seeds was higher than those sown in October. Seeds were
also stored in four different containers viz. cloth bags,
polythene bags, steel containers and plastic containers.
Cloth bag storage is the best as the insect infestation
was minimum 3.43 seeds out of 150 seeds stored even
after 180 days of storage.
KEYWORDS Storage containers, insect infestation, seed
weight.
Pinus gerardiana was discovered by Captain Gerard
a British officer in India, and subsequently introduced in
England in 1839. The species exists from East Afganistan
to North Pakistan, India and Tibet. Pinus gerardiana
(Chilgoza pine) mostly grows in valleys at 2000 – 3350 m
elevation in the dry temperate forest of the inner ranges
of Himalayas, with weak summer monsoon and
precipitation received mostly in form of snow. The species
is valuable for its edible seed and coexists with Cedrus
deodara, Quercus ilex and Juniperus excelsa
(Bhattacharyya et al. 1988). Native populations are
ruthlessly exploited, with typically 100 % of cones
harvested. This harvest pressure is driven by subsistence
A Gupta
Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Regional
Research Station, Jacch, Nurpur, Himachal Pradesh-176 201,
India
E mail: atulgupta63@rediffmail.com

and for the economic benefits that it provides.
As a consequence, there is virtually no natural
regeneration of this species except in small range out of
human approach and consequently the species was listed
as “LR/NT” (Lower risk, near threatened) by the World
Conservation Monitoring Centre – Trees database. Efforts
are being diverted in India for conservation of the species
by establishing clonal seed orchards (Singh 1992) and
working on genetic diversity (Singh and Chaudhary 1993).
The present study was carried out to study the
germination and storage of the species, collected from
various locations.
The study was carried out in Kinnaur district of
Himachal Pradesh state in India. A total of 12 locations in
district Kinnaur were surveyed and five candidate trees
from each locality were selected based on number of
mature cone and freedom from attack by cone borer.
Selected trees were compared to some neighboring trees
for number of mature cones. Seeds of these trees were
purchased from the right holders at the locations in the
month of September - October.
The soil was sieved with fine mesh and treated with
BHC WP @ 0.4g/bag to avoid soil borne insects. Seeds
collected in previous year and stored in cloth bags were
sown in May the following year in polythene bags of 5 x
18" (perforated) containing 1 kg farm yard manure. In
another experiment freshly harvested seeds in October
were sown immediately in a similar way. Before sowing
the seeds were pre-treated with cold water mixed with
0.01 % Bavistin for 36 h. After sowing the seeds grass
mulching was done and chicken mesh was stretched over
the polythene bags to avoid attack of rodents and birds.
Regular irrigation was done to obtain optimum moisture.
Seed germination and seedling height were recorded.
Healthy and disease free seeds were stored in four
different types of containers viz. Plastic containers, Steel

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):85-87 January-June 2010

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Influence of organic seed priming on germination and seedling
quality in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
DK MEHTA HS KANWAR AK THAKUR KS THAKUR

Received: June 04, 2010; Revised: June 09, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to improve
the germination and quality of seedling through seed
priming of bell pepper cv California Wonder using 16
botanicals and animal by-products/ wastes for 12 and 24
hours. Analysis of variance depicted significant
differences among different treatments. The best
germination and quality of seedlings were obtained
through pre-sowing seed priming treatments of Melia
azedarach leaf extract 10 % followed by Eucalyptus leaf
extract 10%, garlic clove extract 5%, cow urine 5% and
cow dung extract 5% at seed soaking duration of 24 hours.
Organic, non-toxic and eco-friendly natures of these
treatments are added advantages.
KEYWORDS Organic, seed priming, germination, vigor,
quality, bell pepper
In the mid hills of North Western Himalayan region
of India, bell pepper is generally sown in nursery during
January- February and seedlings are transplanted in the
months of March- April. During this period low
temperature prevails in the entire North Western
Himalayan region leading to poor seed germination and
seedling growth. The crop transplanting is thus delayed
thereby affecting yield adversely. The problem of poor or
slow seed germination can be solved through many
techniques and one of them is seed priming. Seed priming

Mehta DK Kanwar HS Thakur AK Thakur KS
Seed Technology and Production Centre, Dr YS Parmar
University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal
Pradesh-173230, India
DK Mehta (

)

Email:devinder1971@gmail.com

is a pre-sowing controlled seed hydration treatment in
which seeds are soaked in an osmotic solution or solid
carrier with low matric potential that allows them to imbibe
water , go through first stage of germination but does not
permit radical protrusion through the seed coat.
(Copeland and McDonald 1995). After priming, the seeds
are dried back to enable normal handling, storage and
planting. The objective of this technology is to increase
the percentage and rate of germination, expand the range
of temperature over which the seed will germinate and
increase the uniformity of stand establishment
(Kanwar et al. 2010). Seed priming also reduces the
imbibitional damage associated with planting seeds in
cold soils (Bennett and Walter 1987). Therefore, the present
investigation was carried to know the effect of soaking
duration and different concentrations of botanicals/ animal
wastes on seed germination and seedling vigour in bell
pepper.
The experiment was conducted at Seed Technology
and Production Centre, Dr YS Parmar University of
Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal
Pradesh, India in the year 2009 under Complete
Randomized Design (CRD) with sixteen botanicals/ animal
wastes replicated thrice viz., Garlic clove extract 5% and
10%, Melia azedarach leaf extract 5 % and 10%,
Eucalyptus leaf extract 5% and 10%, Lantana camara
leaf extract 5% and 10%, Parthenium leaf extract 5% and
10%, Cow dung extract 5% and 10%, Cow urine 5% and
10%, Water treated and Control (Untreated) and two
soaking durations i.e. 12 hours and 24 hours.
Seeds of bell pepper cv California Wonder were soaked
in these extracts separately at a seed: solution ratio of 1:2
at 15oC temperature. The treated seeds were washed thrice
with distilled water and were allowed to dry in shade for
seven days to attain the original seed moisture content
i.e. 8%. The seeds were tested for the standard germination

Journal of Hill Agriculture 1(1):88-89 January-June 2010

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Performance of capsicum under protected cultivation in cold
arid region
MS KANWAR OC SHARMA

Received: June 12, 2010; Revised: June 24, 2010; Accepted: July 10, 2010

ABSTRACT For making capsicum cultivation in cold
arid region of Ladakh a successful and profitable venture,
potential of various capsicum genotypes were evaluated
for their performance under greenhouse conditions.
Bharath, BSS-519 and Spinx were best for greenhouse
cultivation under Ladakh, the cold arid region. We can
also choose US-181 for cultivation of yellow coloured
capsicum under protected conditions. However,
non–significant differences were observed for plant
height, number of fruits per plant and days to first harvest.
Hybrid Bharath was earliest to marketable maturity with
longest harvest season.
KEYWORDS Capsicum, greenhouse, variation,
heritability, Ladakh
Ladakh, being cold arid high altitude region of India
has a very harsh climate and short agricultural season.
Very few crops like cabbage, root and leafy vegetables
are grown traditionally. Production of these crops during
crop season is causing glut in the local markets and
transportation is uneconomical due to distant markets
and competition from other vegetable producing regions.
Due to lack of scientific know-how regarding other high
value crops like capsicum, tomato, egg-plant and
cucurbits, the farmers are not getting handsome returns.
Keeping in view the diversification strategy, capsicum

Kanwar MS Sharma OC
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and
Technology of Kashmir, Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Leh, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir -194 101, INDIA
MS Kanwar (

)

Email: mskanwar2004@rediffmail.com

cultivation during summer season seems a profitable
alternative for Ladakhi farmers if the crop is grown under
greenhouses as in open field condition, capsicum
cultivation is not successful venture. Even under
greenhouse conditions, yield per unit area is low with
small sized and poor quality fruits. Moreover, coloured
capsicums are fascinating growers and consumers in other
parts of the country and potential for coloured capsicums
also need to be tested in this region. Cultivation of sweet
pepper under greenhouse would not only help in getting
higher productivity but also help in fetching better returns
(Singh and Asrey, 2005). There is no previous report of
varietal evaluation of capsicum under greenhouse
conditions under Ladakh. Therefore, a sole attempt was
made to evaluate various variety/hybrid(s) under
greenhouse conditions with the objectives of producing
better yield, proper size and quality of capsicum.
The present investigations were carried out during
2008 under naturally ventilated polyhouse at Stakna Farm
of Regional Agricultural Research Station (SKUAST-K),
Leh, Ladakh which is situated on the left bank of Indus
river at an altitude of 3319 m above mean sea level with
latitude 33058.551’ NS and longitude 77041.995’ EW.
Climate of the area is typically dry temperate with extreme
fluctuations in the temperature. Temperature dips as low
as -320 C in winters and reaches as high as 37 0C during
summer. Eight genotypes of capsicum were evaluated in
Randomized Block Design with 3 replications.
Crop spacing was kept 45 x 30 cm. All other standard
package of practices except training and pruning
recommended for Kashmir Division were adopted. Data
on various plant and fruit characters were recorded and
subjected to statistical analysis as per Snedcor and
Cochran (1967).
Analysis of variance depicted the non–significant
differences among all the genotypes for the characters

i

AWARDS OF ISHA
The society shall recognize excellence in scientific research and
development by conferring various awards to suitable life members.
1. Fellows will be nominated / selected from among those who
have been Life Members of the society and based on their
contributions for the society and / or his / her overall
professional achievements.
2. Nominations for fellowship shall be made by fellows of the
Society and / or Executive Council. Fellows will be inducted
after evaluation of their R&D contributions as per guidelines
to be prescribed by the Executive Council of the Society.
3. Life members of the society up to the age of 65 years will only
be eligible for induction and continuation as fellows of the
society.
4. The maximum number of Fellows at any time shall not exceed
200. Each year a maximum of 6 Fellows (excluding recipients
of the awards made by Indian Society of Hill Agriculture) may
be selected from among various sub-disciplines in agriculture
and allied sciences i.e
a. Plant Improvement with reference to genetics, plant breeding,
production, cytogenetics, physiology, biotechnology and
biochemistry of various crops including fruits, vegetables,
flowers, medicinal plants and forest plants.
b. Plant Protection including entomology, plant pathology,
nematology, microbiology and agro-chemicals
c. Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences including Natural
Resource Management, Soil Sciences, Water Management,
Enviro nmental Sciences, Agronomy, Seed Science,
Meteorology and Agroforestry.
d. Animal Sciences including Veterinary Science and Fishery
e. Agricultural Engineering including Farm machinery, Soil &
Water Conservation Engineering, Energy Management,
Postharvest Technology, Food Technology and Dairy
Processing
f. Social Sciences including Statistics, Economics, Extension,
Home Sciences, Nutrition, Research Management
Types of Awards
The following awards shall be given annually
I. LIFE TIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD
This award shall be given each year for an eminent individual
scientist who has made a remarkable contribution for the
development of agriculture especially in the hills as evidenced by
publications in scientific journals of repute/products and
technologies developed etc. The awardees for Life Time
Achievement Award shall be selected and nominated by the

Executive Council of the Society. Each award shall consist of a
citation and a Momemto.
II. RECOGNITION AWARD
These awards shall be given for significant contributions to the
advancement of knowledge/technologies in the relevant scientific
disciplines of the particular area of hill agriculture. The research
contributions should be based on work carried out preferably in
hills, as evidenced by publications in scientific journals of repute/
products and technologies developed. The period of assessing the
contributions shall be upto the year of nomination. The awards
shall be made to distinguished scientists, in the age group of > 40
years, who are Fellows of Indian Society of Hill Agriculture in the
above six sub-disciplines of agriculture. Each award shall consist
of a citation and a Momemto.
III. YOUNG SCIENTISTS AWARD
Young Scientists awards shall be initiated with primary objective
of distinguishing young scientists of promise and creativity through
their contributions to agricultural sciences after obtaining Ph.D.
degree. Scientists below the age of 40 years are eligible for this
award. There will be six awards, one in the above six sub-disciplines
of agriculture. Each award shall consist of a citation and a
Momemto.
IV. BEST STUDENT AWARD
The Best Student Award shall be given to students having excellent
academic record right from matric to Master’s level supplemented
by good quality postgraduate research work. The maximum age of
eligibility for this award shall be 25 years. Each award shall consist
of a certificate and a momemto.
V. BEST PAPER AWARD
The Best Paper Award shall be given to the best quality research
paper of real significance and value to the development of
agriculture in hills published in the year of consideration in Journal
of Hill Agriculture. All the published papers shall be scrutinized by
a committee constituted by the Executive Council for the purpose.
Each award shall consist of a certificate and a citation.
The Executive Council may also decide to give cash prizes
to the awardees based on the availability of funds in the society
and to alter the number and types of categories of Fellowships and
awards each year. The society also encourages sponsored medals
and awards to students, scientists, teachers in recognition of their
services and achievements. Society wish more sponsors to come
forward for the same. The Year for consideration of all fellowships
and awards shall be from 1st January to 31st December of a
particular year.
The deadlines for applications and other details for
the awards shall be updated on our website
www.isharanichauri.com

ii

REFEREES OF JOURNAL OF HILL
AGRICULTURE 2010 Vol 1(1)
Dr AK Pandey, GBPUAT, Ranichauri,
Uttarakhand
Dr Alkesh Kandoria, Punjab State Council of
Science & Tech, Chandigarh
Dr Ashok Thakur, Dr YS Parmar Univ.
Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, Himachal
Pradesh
Dr Bhupesh Kumar Gupta, Dr YSP Univ.
Horticulture and Forestry, Recong Peo,
Himachal Pradesh
Dr Bhupinder Thakur, CSKHPKVV, Kullu,
Himachal Pradesh
Dr Devinder K Metha, Dr YS Parmar Univ.
Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, Himachal
Pradesh
Dr KC Sharma, CSKHPKVV, Kullu, Himachal
Pradesh
Dr Med Ram Verma, IVRI, Izatnagar, Uttar
Pradesh
Dr MS Kanwar, Sher-e-Kashmir Univ of Ag
Sci & Tech, RARS, Leh, Jammu & Kashmir
Dr OC Sharma, Sher-e-Kashmir Univ of Ag Sci
& Tech, RARS, Leh, Jammu & Kashmir
Dr Pankaj Panwar, Central Soil Water
Conservation Research Training Institute,
Chandigarh
Dr Rajesh Kaushal, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar,
Uttarakhand
Dr Rakesh Sharma, Dr YS Parmar Univ.
Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, Himachal
Pradesh
Dr Rameshwar S Rattan, IHBT Palampur,
Himachal Pradesh
Dr Sanjeev Sharma, Central Potato Research
Institute, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh
Dr Shachi Shah, GBPUAT, Ranichauri,
Uttarakhand
Dr Shailesh Tripathi, GBPUAT, Ranichauri,
Uttarakhand
Dr Sushil Kumar Sharma, Directorate of
Soybean Research (ICAR), Indore, Madhya
Pradesh

ii

CALL FOR PAPERS AND REFEREES
Dear Friends, Scientists, Researchers, Students
I take this opportunity to invite your valuable
contributions in the form of review papers, research
papers and short communications for publication in
Journal of Hill Agriculture (an International Journal
and official publication of the Indian Society of Hill
Agriculture) on any aspect related to agriculture and
allied disciplines.
Your contributions may be submitted through e
mail directly to the Editor-in-chief (JHA) at
editorinchiefjha@gmail.com or by online submission
after performing registration and login on our website
www.isharanichauri.com. The status of manuscripts
can also be checked online.
For details please visit “Guidelines to Authors”
and “Membership of ISHA” pages on the website
of the ISHA www.isharanichauri.com
Journal of Hill Agriculture (JHA) also invites
biodata from candidates who wish to serve Indian
Society of Hill Agriculture (ISHA) as referee of the
Journal. All interested candidates are required to
submit
their
applications
and
biodata to Editor-in-chief (JHA) at
editorinchiefjha@gmail.com.

Editor-in-Chief
Journal of Hill Agriculture

iii

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v

GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS
Journal of Hill Agriculture (JHA) is an international journal and an official publication of Indian Society of Hill Agriculture (ISHA).
It publishes the original research in all branches of agriculture and allied science (as mentioned below) that is of primary interest to the
agricultural development, especially in hill and mountain regions of the world. The publication is open to the members of Indian Society
of Hill Agriculture but it also accepts papers from non-members if all authors become the annual/life member when a paper is submitted
/ accepted for publication. The journal publishes four types of articles, i.e. (i) Strategy / Policy paper (exclusively by invitation from
the personalities of eminence), (ii) Review papers, (iii) Research papers and (iv) Short communicati ons. The manuscripts should be
submitted to the Editor-in-Chief (JHA) only by E-mail as attached file saved in MS Word to editorinchiefjha@gmail.com or by online
submission after performing registration and login on our website www.isharanichauri.com. The status of manuscripts can also be
checked online. Each manuscript must be typed doubled spaced on one side of an A4 size page. Clearness, brevity and conciseness are
essential in form, style, punctuation, spelling and use of English language. Manuscripts should conform to the S.I. system for numerical
data and data should be subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. On receipt of an article at the Editorial Office, an acknowledgement
giving the manuscript number is sent to the corresponding author. This number should be quoted while making any future enquiry about
its status.
MAJOR FIELDS/SUBJECTS COVERED UNDER JHA
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Plant Improvement with reference to genetics, plant breeding, production, cytogenetics, physiology, biotechnology and
biochemistry of various crops including fruits, vegetables, flowers, medicinal plants and forest plants.
Plant Protection including entomology, plant pathology, nematology, microbiology and agro-chemicals
Soil, Water and E nvironmental Sciences including Natural Resource Management, Soil Sciences, Water Management,
Environmental Sciences, Agronomy, Seed Science, Meteorology and Agroforestry.
Animal Sciences including Veterinary Science and Fishery
Agricultural Engineering including Farm machinery, Soil & Water Conservation Engineering, Energy Management, Postharvest
Technology, Food Technology and Dairy Processing
Social Sciences including Statistics, Economics, Extension, Home Sciences, Nutrition, Research Management

TYPES OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN JHA
a. Strategy paper. These papers are invited exclusively by invitation from the personalities of eminence to give their opinion on the
trends of agricultural development and future of various sectors of agriculture and allied disciplines and related development issues all
over the world especially in hill and mountain regions.
b. Review paper It should be comprehensive, critical and updated on a recent topic of importance. The maximum page limit is of 14
double spaced typed pages including Tables and Figures. It should cite latest references and identify some gaps for future. It should have
a specific Title followed by the Name(s) of the author(s), Affiliation, Abstract, Key words, main text with subheadings, Acknowledgements
(wherever applicable) and References.
c. Research paper. The paper should describe a new and confirmed findings. Should not generally exceed 12 typed pages i ncluding
Tables/Figures etc. A paper has the following features. Please consult previous issues of JHA for your reference and help.
Title followed by author (s) and affiliation: address of the institution (s) where the research was undertaken and e mail address of
corresponding author.
Abstract: Entire work along with the highlights of the findings must be given concisely in 200 to 300 words.
Key words: About 5- 6 keywords to be indicated.
Introduction: This must highlight importance of the problem and its relevance to hill agriculture including pervious work done and
gaps thereof.
Materials and Methods: Describe the materials used in the experiments, year of experimentation, site etc. Describe the methods
employed for collection and analysis of data in short.
Results and Discussion: This segment should focus on the fulfillment of stated objectives as given in the introduction and contain
findings presented in Tables, Figures and photographs. Data should be statistically analyzed following suitable experimental design.
Same data should not be presented in the table and figure form. Avoid use of numerical values in findings, rather mention the trends
and discuss with the available literatures. At the end give short conclusion.
Acknowledgements: (wherever applicable).
References: Reference to literature should be arranged alphabetically as per author’s names, should be placed at the end of the
article. Each reference should contain the names of the author with initials, the year of the public ation, title of the article, the
abbreviated title of the publication according to the World List of Scientific Periodicals, volume a nd page(s). In the text, the
reference should be indicated by authors’ name and year of publication in brackets. eg. (Smith 1979, Sharma and Nautiyal 2009,
Raghav et al. 2010). If there are more than two or more references mentioned together in one bracket they should be written in
chronological order.
d. Short communication: The text including Table(s) and Figure(s) should not exceed 5 pages. It should have a short title, f ollowed
by name of author(s) and affiliation and References. There should be no subheadings, i.e. Introduction, Materials and Methods etc. The
manuscript should be in paragraphs mentioning the brief introduction of the of the topic and relevance of the work, followed by a short
description of the materials and the methods employed, results and discussion based on the data presented in 1 or 2 table(s)/figure(s) and
a short conclusion at the end. References should be maximum seven at the end.

vi
STANDARD REFERENCE WRITING PATTERN FOR JHA
Research and Review Papers
Sharma KD, Kumar R, Kaushal BBL 2004. Mass transfer characteristics, yield and quality of five varie ties of osmotically dehydrated
apricot. J Food Sci Tech 41(3): 264-274.
Ponnuswami V, Kumar AR 2009. Crop improvement and management strategies in paprika – a review. Asian J Hort 3(2): 460-466.
Books and Book Chapters
Sharma SK 2010. Postharvest Management and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables – Instant Notes. New India Pub Agency, New Delhi, 395p.
Babu A, Gupta HS 2006. Approaches to improvement in maize. In: Sustainable Production from Agricultu ral Watersheds. Gupta HS,
Srivastava AK, Bhatt JC (eds). Vivekanand Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora, Uttaranchal, pp 124-138.
Symposium / Seminar/ Conference Publications
Dhillon BS, Rana JC 2004. Temperate fruits genetic resources management in India – issues and strate gies. In: Proceedings of the
Seventh International Symposium on Temperate Zone Fruits in the Tropics and Subtropics. Jindal KK, Sharma RC, Rehalia AS
(eds), International Society of Horticultural Sciences, Belgium, pp 139-146.
Mohsin F, Singh O 2010. Studies in intercropping of cash crops in Populus deltoides plantation. National Symposium on Conservation
Horticulture (21-23 March, 2010, Dehradun, India), Book of Abstracts, pp 131.
Arora VPS 2010. Indian horticulture – marketing and export issues. National Symposium on Conservatio n Horticulture (21-23 March,
2010, Dehradun, India), Souvenir, Singh SS, Singhal V, Pant K, Dwivedi SK, Kamal S, Singh P (eds), pp 80-87.
P a te nt
Schmidt GR, Means WJ 1986. Process of preparing algin/calcium gel-structured meat products. US Patent 4 603 054.
Th es is
Bisht R 2007. Studies on the multiplication and utilization of Seabuckthorn ( Hippophae salicifolia D.Don), M Sc Thesis, GB Pant
University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, US Nagar, Uttarakhand, India.
We bs i t e
Kumar S 2009. Rearing rabbits in the mid hills of Himalaya. http://www.rabbitrearing.com/. website v isited on March 10, 2009.
General instructions to the authors
Manuscript should be typed double spaced on one side of A4 size paper with proper margin of 1 inch o n all 4 sides.
Generic & specific names should be italicized throughout manuscript. Similarly, the vernacular/ loca l names are to be italicized.
Tables should be typed on separate sheets, each with a heading. Tables should be typed with the first letter (T) only capital. All
Tables and Figures should be properly numbered. All measurements should be in metric units.
Each illustration must be referred to in the text.
On the first page address of the corresponding author and E-mail Id. etc. may be specified.
Revised manuscript is acceptable only as soft copy (attached file in MS Word) of the corrected versi on through e mal sent to
Editor-in-Chief.
The paper after publication shall be sent as pdf file version of the whole issue of the journal to t he authors.
Article forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief for publication is understood to be offered to Journal of H ill Agriculture exclusively.
It is also understood that the authors have obtained a prior approval of their Department, Faculty o r Institute in case where such
approval is a necessary.
Acceptance of a manuscript for publication in Journal of Hill Agriculture shall automatically mean t ransfer of copyright to the
Indian Society of Hill Agriculture. The authors shall also have to provide a copy of the Copyright Transfer Statement duly signed
by all or the corresponding author on behalf of all the authors.
The Editorial Board takes no responsibility for the fact or the opinion expressed in the Journal, wh ich rests entirely with the
author(s) thereof.
All the authors of a paper have to become annual/life member of the ISHA for publication of paper.
All papers should be sent to Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Hill Agriculture, through e mail as attached file to editorinchiefjha@gmail.com
Check List
1. Complete manuscript in MS Word format
2. Names and details (including complete postal address alongwith Phone No. and e mail) of at least t hree potential referees who
might be interested to review your paper. The format for the same may be downloaded from ISHA website Visit
http://www.isharanichauri.com/JHA%20Format%20for%20suggesting%20Potential%20Referees%20names.doc
3. Copyright transfer statement on separate page
4. Membership Number (if fee is paid already)/ Membership fee
COPYRIGHT TRANSFER STATEMENT
Journal Name:
Journal of Hill Agriculture
Manuscript Title : ………………….……………………………………………………………………….
Author(s): ….…………………………………………………….…………………………………………
I/We hereby confirm the assignment of all copyrights in and to the manuscript named above in all forms and media to the publishers of
the journal namely, Indian Society of Hill Agriculture, effective if and when it is accepted for publication by the Editor--in-Chief of the
journal.
Date:
Authors / Corresponding author ’s
Name and signature

vii
INDIAN SOCIETY OF HILL AGRICULTURE
G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
Hill Campus Ranichauri, Distt Tehri-Garhwal, Uttarakhand - 249 199 , India
Phone: +91 1376 252651, 252650, 252138, Fax: +91 1376 252128
Website: www.isharanichauri.com

MEMBERSHIP FORM

Sharing Knowledge for Prosperity

Passport Size
Photograph of
the Member
1.

Name (in CAPITAL letters) : Dr/ Mr/ Ms ……………………………………….......................................

2.

Date of Birth.......................................................................................................................................

3.

Designation / Job Title: …………………………………………………………………….......................................................................

4.

Specialization: ………………………………………………………………………………........................................................................

5.

Institute / Organization where employed: ……………………………………………...........................................................................
.................................................................................................... .............................................................................................

6.

Address for Correspondence: …………………………………………………………............................................................................
....................................................................…………………………………………………………Pin……………………………………...
Phone: .................................………………………… Fax:…………………………......................E mail: ……………………................

7.

Permanent Home Address: …………………………………………....................................................................................................
..................................................................……………………………………….........................Pin…….…………………..................
Phone: …………………………................................. Fax:…………………………......................E mail: ……………………................

8.

Academic and Professional Qualifications:

Degree

9.

Name of University

Category of membership (please tick)
Life member
Annual member

Year

Major Field of Study

Organization/ Subscriber member

10. Payment of membership fee in (Rs) ……………………………By cash / Demand Draft
No. …………............. dated: …………………………. in favour of Indian Society of Hill Agriculture payable at Chamba, Distt
Tehri-Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India
Note: Interested members may send their demand drafts by registered post only. Drafts sent by ordinary post are liable to be lost
during postage.

DECLARATION
I wish to become the life/ annual/ subscriber member of the Indian Society of Hill Agriculture and if enrolled agree to abide by the
rules and regulations of the society.

Date: ……………………….

Signature:………………………………….

Place: ……………………

Name: (…………………………………)

MEMBERSHIPOF INDIAN SOCIETY OF HILLAGRICULTURE
Membership of the society shall be open to individuals from all nations and shall consists of the following categories of members
with qualifying criteria as indicated against each. Membership can be obtained by filling a membersh ip form and sending it to
editorinchiefjha@gmail.com alongwith membership fee as detailed ahead
(i) Ordinary Members (annual Membership)
This membership shall be offered to the individuals interested in promotion of Hill Agriculture and its allied branches. This shall also be
the minimum fee to be deposited per author for getting a paper published, in case it is accepted for publication. There shall be an annual
fee of Rs. 300/- for individuals from all SAARC countries including India and US $ 30 for individuals from rest of the nations. Year shall
be counted w.e.f. January 1 to December 31 of each year. If somebody deposits fee in October 2010 it shall be counted only for that year
i.e. 2010.
(ii) Life Members (continuing Membership)
There shall be a one time life membership fee Rs. 2000/- for individuals from all SAARC countries including India and US $ 200 for
individuals from rest of the nations.
(iii) Patrons (continuing Membership)
Any individual or institution making a payment of a substantial sum (as may be prescribed by the Executive Council from time to time).
(iv) Subscribers
Any corporate body / institution / library / association of persons can subscribe Journal of Hill Agriculture by making an annual payment
of Rs. 1000/- for all SAARC countries including India and US $ 100 for rest of the nations.
Su m m ar y
Type of membership

Fee for SAARC countries

Fee for rest of the nations

Annual member

Rs 300/- per year

US $ 30 per year

Life member

Rs 2,000/- (one time)

US $ 200 (one time)

Subscriber (organization) member

Rs 1,000/- per year

US $ 100 per year

The membership fee can be deposited by any of the two methods as detailed below:
1. Through Bank Draft : May remitted through demand draft drawn in favour of INDIAN SOCIETY OF HILL AGRICULTURE payable
at SBI Branch CHAMBA (Uttarakhand), Branch Code : 6534. The draft may be sent to the Editor-in-Chief Journal of Hill Agriculture
through registered post only alongwith duly filled membership form which can be downloaded from our website.
2. By Direct Deposit into ISHA’s Bank Account: Membership fee i.e. Rs 2000/- or Rs 300/- or Rs 1500/- as the case may be, plus Rs 30/
- (as bank charges) amounting to Rs 2030/- or Rs330/- or Rs 1530/- respectively, may also be directly deposited into the Bank Account
of Indian Society of Hill Agriculture. The details are given as follows
Name of Bank :

State Bank of India

Name of Branch:

Chamba (Uttarakhand)

Branch Code:

6534

For RTGS Transfer IFSC Code

SBIN 000 6534

Name of Account Holder :

Indian Society of Hill Agriculture

Account No. :

3119 0343 798

Important Note: If you directly deposit the fee into ISHA’s account please do not forget to send your duly filled (i) duly signed membership
form, (ii) bank transaction Id (iii) scanned copy of stamped deposit slip (counter foil). The inform ation may be sent by e mail to
editorinchiefjha@gmail.com

