Chicago Style Citations

[The examples below follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition.]
Notes [i.e. footnotes or endnotes] are numbered consecutively throughout the paper.
Authors' names are not inverted in notes. With two or more authors, use "and," not an
ampersand (&). In notes for works with four or more authors, use the first author's name
followed by "et al." Page numbers are not preceded by the abbreviation "p." or "pp."
If you use endnotes, begin typing them on a separate page after the text of your paper.
Type the title "Notes," centered, on the first endnote page. Number the endnote pages
consecutively with the rest of the paper.
TEXT
Governor John Andrew was not allowed to recruit black soldiers out of
state. "Ostensibly," writes Peter Burchard, "no recruiting was done
outside Massachusetts, but it was an open secret that Andrew's agents
were working far and wide."1

NOTE
1. Peter Burchard, One Gallant Rush: Robert Gould Shaw and His Brave
Black Regiment (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965), 85.

First reference to a source
The first time you cite a source, the note should include publication information for that
work as well as the page number on which the specific quotation, paraphrase, or
summary may be found. The following models are consistent with guidelines set forth in
The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition.

Books
1. BASIC FORMAT FOR A BOOK Begin with the author's name followed by the title.
Put the city, publisher, and date in parentheses, and conclude with the page(s) cited.
1. James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 87.

2. TWO OR THREE AUTHORS List authors in the order in which their names appear
on the title page.
2. Rudolph O. de la Garza, Z. Anthony Kruszewski, and Tomás A.
Arciniega, Chicanos and Native Americans: The Territorial Minorities
(Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973), 8.

3. FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS For books with four or more authors, use the Latin term
"et al." ("and others") after the first author.

UNKNOWN AUTHOR If the author of a work is unknown. Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela (Boston: Little. TITLED VOLUME IN A MULTIVOLUME WORK If a volume in a multivolume work has its own title. 1928).: Transaction Books." after the title. 65-83. EDITED WORK WITHOUT AN AUTHOR If an edited work does not list an author. trans. In Defense of Liberty (New York: United States Publishers. preceded by the abbreviation "trans. 5. Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Lawrence. New Cambridge Modern History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 8. 435. 11. 1995). followed by the cited page(s)." for more than one editor). In Defense of Liberty. 1990). Terrence J. followed by the abbreviation "ed. EDITED WORK WITH AN AUTHOR If an edited work also has an author. 1957). UNTITLED VOLUME IN A MULTIVOLUME WORK Include the volume number at the end of the note. 10. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall.3. vol. 1928). N. C. 1912). Metaphor. (London: Longman. 7 of The Pageant of America (New York: United States Publishers. Understanding American Jewry (New Brunswick.J. 23. begin with the title.. Medhurst et al.. . Marshall Sklare. 7. The Men's League Handbook on Women's Suffrage (London. begin with the author's name. begin with the title. TRANSLATED WORK Begin with the author's name and put the name of the translator. Riordan. 6. ed. 7. EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST For second and subsequent editions of a work. 4. Cold War Rhetoric: Strategy.. begin with the editor's name. 1989). provide the edition number after the title. 9. 7. The Japan That Can't Say No. vol. 11. Shintaro Ishihara. or 11. 135-42. 6. 5. 8. and put the editor's name after the title. Brown. and Ideology (New York: Greenwood. you can give the volume title before or after the title of the whole work. 2d ed. Martin J. 49. The Pageant of America. William Wood and Ralph Henry Gabriel. 1:52-53. 4. 1994). 10." (or "eds. Frank Baldwin (New York: Simon and Schuster. 33. ed. 9. William L. William Wood and Ralph Henry Gabriel. McDonald (Boston: Bedford Books. 1989). 88. 135-42. 1982). 16364.. H. AUTHOR'S NAME IN TITLE When the author's name appears in the book title.

LETTER IN A PUBLISHED COLLECTION Include the sender. you must include the issue number. chapter. ENCYCLOPEDIA OR DICTIONARY Publication information and volume and page numbers are not necessary in notes for entries from encyclopedias and dictionaries. followed by the title of the anthology. no. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY ISSUE When each issue of a journal begins on page 1. 14. 325-27. It is necessary to specify the volume number (but not the issue number). 17. 15. preceded by the abbreviation "s. followed by the date. and underline or italicize the name of the journal. s.. in quotation marks. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed. and date of correspondence.v. and name the version you are citing. It is not necessary to specify a volume or issue.v. 1977). Hein. Michelle T. ed. Articles in periodicals 17. 16. and put the name of the entry in quotation marks. and verse. Barbara Smith (New York: Kitchen Table. 12. D. Helen Thurber and Edward Weeks (Boston: Little. ed. 14. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY VOLUME Include the author and title of the work. and publication information for the anthology. 18. Brown. Of Cabbages and Kings: Tales from Zinacantán. vol. 15. Matt. 1983). Clinton. You can abbreviate the name of the version in subsequent notes (in this case. WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY Include the author and title of the specific work you are citing.12. 13. "evolution. "RSV"). 20." Wilson Quarterly 19." in Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology.C. followed by the date and page(s) cited. 18." Journal of Asian Studies 53 (1994): 752. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology. 4 (1995): 42. Selected Letters of James Thurber. recipient. WORK IN A SERIES Include the name of the series after the title. 19. 1981).4-9 Revised Standard Version. 27 December 1948. and title of the publication. or "under the word"). Specify the edition if it is not the first. "In Search of Peace and Democracy: Postwar Japanese Economic Debate in Political Context.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 14. 23 (Washington. Robert Darnton. 65-66. ." 16." (for the Latin sub verbo. Laura E. Laughlin. 13. title of the article. James Thurber to Harold Ross. followed by standard publication information. ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE Include the author. "The Pursuit of Happiness. BIBLICAL REFERENCE Cite the book. "For Strong Women. the name of the editor. Robert M.

ONLINE DATABASE Include the name of the database and the designation "database on line" (in brackets) as well as the publication date and date of access (also in brackets). Carol M. review of Vanguard of Empire: Ships of Exploration in the Age of Columbus. 23. by Roger C." New Yorker." in Contemporary Education (Terre Haute: Indiana State University. 96. News and World Report. INFORMATION SERVICE In addition to standard publication information (including city. ED 509251. Utah: Brigham Young University. "Chinese Feel the Strain of a New Society.1. review of Women and Literature in Britain. BOOK REVIEW Begin with the reviewer's name followed by "review of. 20. Howes. 66." Washington Post. winter 1995)." the name of the work being reviewed.edu. but do not list pages.[cited 5 March 1996]). available from http://www. Journal of World History 6 (1995): 137.edu/halsall/sbook. 25. A. or name instead. sec. Include a section letter. UNSIGNED ARTICLE Begin with the title of the article if there is no author. Conclude with publication information for the journal containing the review. article title." in EuroDocs: Primary Historical Documents from Western Europe [database online] (Provo. Hightower. 13 June 1993. 22. and journal title) and include the designation "electronic journal" (in brackets) if appropriate. 25. addresses. Dialog. "Radiation in Russia. ERIC. 20. 15 May 1995. available from listserv@cc.19. Sun.4. and conclude with file numbers.[cited 10 April 1996]). include the name of the information service and any other details (such as document numbers) to help others access the material. number. "The Formation of Latin Christendom: The Roman Church. Dauril Alden.fordham. 1993. file no. such as an Internet address. 24. in Bryn Mawr Medieval Review [electronic journal] (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.html#romchurch. 41. ed. and date)." U. to help others access the source. "The New Politics of Coca. Conclude with other information. School of Education. 11501500. ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OR BULLETIN BOARD List standard publication information (such as author. Lena H. Meale. publisher. Paul D. Internet. 24. ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER Follow the format for magazine articles. 70. Andrew Weil.brynmawr. Laura L. 21. Electronic sources 23. or any other information to help others access the source. 9 August 1993. "Censorship. Smith. 21. 22. 1996. and its author's name. Provide the publication date and date of access (also in brackets). .S.

S. MGM/UA. letter to author. the publication or show that printed or aired the interview. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Include the type of communication after the source's name. and the playing time. prod. followed by the production company and date. Department of State. Hector LaForge. U.C. 450-51. 30. 34. Conclude with the date of the communication. 2 hr. Alfred Hitchcock. the producer. and page(s) cited. 4. UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATION After the author and title. followed by the title of the document. and page(s) cited. 32. 1965). GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT Include the name of the issuing body. 28. 17 min. 29. Public Broadcasting System. videocassette. Other sources 27. Lotus 1-2-3 Rel. Ohio State University. Telarc compact disc 80133. Gustav Holst.26. 31. 30. Hoover. D. 28. and the date of publication or broadcast. followed by the recording company and number. Frontline. COMPUTER SOFTWARE After the name of the software. Jesse Jackson. Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers.D. Cheryl D. . Martha Carlin. 30 April 1996. André Previn. 33. include the academic institution. and the performer. SOURCE QUOTED IN ANOTHER SOURCE Include publication information for the original source. Include the designation "videocassette" if appropriate.. 32. Royal Philharmonic. interview by Marshall Frady. SOUND RECORDING Include the composer's name. 1943 (Washington. 31. 13 August 1996. INTERVIEW Include the name of the person interviewed.: Government Printing Office. 27. 562. 4 April 1996. the director. 26. "East Germany's Revolution" (Ph. issuing company. publisher and date. date. FILM OR VIDEOTAPE List the title. 1994). 33.. list the release number. and dir. 1959. North by Northwest. 29. Sara Lehman. 18 June 1996. diss. e-mail to author. followed by "quoted in" and publication information for the source from which you drew the information. followed by the name of the interviewer. Cambridge. The Planets. telephone interview by author. Lotus Development Corporation. the title of the work. Mass. and city.

Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. 3. New York: . de la. 31.. "Affirmative Action. quoted in C. Cold War Rhetoric: Strategy. Anthony Kruszewski.: Prentice-Hall.35. Rudolph O. and Ideology. New York: Oxford University Press. et al.J. use "ibid. 1973." are no longer used." followed by a comma and the page number. 46. use "ibid. Ibid. Article: 3. BASIC FORMAT FOR A BOOK McPherson. 64." and "loc. Patterson." to refer to the work cited in the previous note. The Jazz Age Revisited: British Criticism of American Civilization during the 1920s (Stanford: Stanford University Press. 31. and Tomás A. 5. Book: 2. Subsequent references to a source When citing a work that has already been cited." alone. Patterson. TWO OR THREE AUTHORS Garza. Chicanos and Native Americans: The Territorial Minorities. George Harmon Knoles. cit. Slavery. 1991). Englewood Cliffs. a shortened version of the title. 2.. cit. Metaphor. The Chicago Manual of Style allows but does not require the use of "ibid. The Latin abbreviations "op. 1955). FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS Medhurst." 10. The Old World's New World (Oxford: Oxford University Press. If you are citing the same page of the work. 1988. Ibid. If you are citing a different page. Vann Woodward. James M. Bibliography 1. 4. Arciniega. Martin J. followed by a comma and the page or pages cited. you may simply give the author's last name. N.

UNTITLED VOLUME IN A MULTIVOLUME WORK New Cambridge Modern History. 7. William. 6. Understanding American Jewry. N. C. Edited by Terrence J. 11. 1. William. AUTHOR'S NAME IN TITLE Mandela. Boston: Little.Greenwood. and Ralph Henry Gabriel.: Transaction Books. 10. 1989. 5. 2d ed. 1928. WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY . Shintaro. Vol. UNKNOWN AUTHOR The Men's League Handbook on Women's Suffrage. New York: United States Publishers. In Defense of Liberty. Brown. New York: United States Publishers. The Japan That Can't Say No. 1982. EDITED WORK WITHOUT AN AUTHOR Sklare. 4. Marshall. EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST Lawrence. 7. 1912. In Defense of Liberty. William L. Nelson. London. Vol. Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages. 12. or Wood. McDonald. 1928. 7 of The Pageant of America. 9. New Brunswick. ed. Translated by Frank Baldwin. London: Longman. Vol. The Pageant of America. 8. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1995. Boston: Bedford Books. 1989. TRANSLATED WORK Ishihara. and Ralph Henry Gabriel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. H. TITLED VOLUME IN A MULTIVOLUME WORK Wood. 1990. 1994. 1957.J. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall. Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. EDITED WORK WITH AN AUTHOR Riordan.

C. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY VOLUME Hein. . Letter to Harold Ross. edited by Barbara Smith. 13. Lena H." Washington Post. "The Pursuit of Happiness. A. 18. In Selected Letters of James Thurber.: Smithsonian Institution Press. LETTER IN A PUBLISHED COLLECTION Thurber. Washington. 1977. 16. 23. vol. 14. Andrew. sec. New York: Kitchen Table. "For Strong Women. WORK IN A SERIES Laughlin. edited by Helen Thurber and Edward Weeks." Journal of Asian Studies 53 (1994): 752-78." New Yorker. ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER Sun. 70. no. Robert M. Articles in periodicals 17. 1981." In Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology." Wilson Quarterly 19. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology. 65-66. 1983. Brown. Michelle T. D. 20. James.Clinton. 15. ENCYCLOPEDIA OR DICTIONARY Encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually not included in the bibliography. 19. "The New Politics of Coca. 4 (1995): 42-52. "Chinese Feel the Strain of a New Society. Of Cabbages and Kings: Tales from Zinacantán. Boston: Little. "In Search of Peace and Democracy: Postwar Japanese Economic Debate in Political Context. Robert. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY ISSUE Darnton. BIBLICAL REFERENCE The Bible is usually not included in the bibliography. 15 May 1995. Laura E. 13 June 1993. 27 December 1948. ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE Weil.

by Roger C. School of Education.1. 96. ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OR BULLETIN BOARD Howes. 25.4. Laura L. Electronic sources 23. INFORMATION SERVICE Hightower.edu/ halsall/sbook. winter 1995." In EuroDocs: Primary Historical Documents from Western Europe [database online].brynmawr." U. Review of Women and Literature in Britain.S. ONLINE DATABASE "The Formation of Latin Christendom: The Roman Church.fordham. Meale. 26. 4. Mass.edu.html#romchurch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993[cited 5 March 1996]. Available from http://www.21. ERIC. 40-42. COMPUTER SOFTWARE Lotus 1-2-3 Rel. 24. Utah: Brigham Young University. Terre Haute: Indiana State University. Available from listserv@cc. Internet. Lotus Development Corporation. edited by Carol M. Review of Vanguard of Empire: Ships of Exploration in the Age of Columbus. Other sources 27. ED 509251. Smith. Journal of World History 6 (1995): 137-39. Dialog." In Contemporary Education. News and World Report. UNSIGNED ARTICLE "Radiation in Russia. 22. BOOK REVIEW Alden. 1150-1500. Provo. 66. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTATION . In Bryn Mawr Medieval Review [electronic journal]. Paul D. "Censorship. Dauril. File no. 1996. 9 August 1993.[cited 10 April 1996]. Cambridge.

FILM OR VIDEOTAPE North by Northwest. Cheryl D. 31. MGM/UA. Washington. Videocassette.: Government Printing Office. George Harmon. 29. 1959. Royal Philharmonic. All rights reserved. 17 min. 2 hr. Stanford: Stanford University Press. INTERVIEW Jackson.D. 32. Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers. 1955. The Planets. 1965. André Previn. Produced and directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Public Broadcasting System. Interview by Marshall Frady. Gustav. Ohio State University. UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATION Hoover. This document may be distributed as long as it is done entirely with all attributions to . Vann Woodward. diss.. 1943. The Jazz Age Revisited: British Criticism of American Civilization during the 1920s.S. This information [is adapted from] from Bedford Books: Research and Documentation in the Electronic Age--by Diane Hacker Copyright © 1997 Bedford Books Copyright (C)2000 by Millikin University. Jesse. SOURCE QUOTED IN ANOTHER SOURCE Knoles. D. SOUND RECORDING Holst.C. 1994. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Personal communications are not included in the bibliography. 30 April 1996. 28. Frontline. 46. 30. 31. Department of State. "East Germany's Revolution. 1991). 33. The Old World's New World (Oxford: Oxford University Press." Ph. Quoted in C.U. Telarc compact disc 80133.

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