AVIATION MAINTENANCE TRAINING CENTRE

MT.147.02

M9 HUMAN FACTORS

EASA PART-66
CAT A/B1/B2
ISSUE: 1MAR2006

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EASA PART-66
M.9

M9 HUMAN FACTORS

For Training Purposes Only

Lufthansa Technical Training

HUMAN FACTORS

Anthroprometric man - Leonardo d’Vinci

FRA US/F-4 GoS

JAN 2004

Page: 1

The following list is only a small sample of the possible topics of human factors those participants might list: Fatigue. We must do better. we will say: ”How could such simple error have combined to cause such a catastrophe?” An in−depth review of the events after the fact will reveal. poor tool control. The industry can hardly afford such losses now. INTRODUCTION Air transport is considered as one of the safest means of travelling in the world today.000. snow. All too often. that a series of human errors (known also as a chain of events) was allowed to from until the accident occurred. poor communication. Often. During this course we will consider most of these human factors that may contribute to an incident or accident event. yet every now and again an accident occurs which shakes our complacency. the manufacturers estimate that. Human Factors are those conditions that affect a human in the aviation maintenance work environment. ’Murphy’s’ law. feel free to speak up. The list may be endless. the accident will not happen. a Human Factors class begins by asking participants to list human factors that affect work performance. Costs Not only does human error in maintenance compromise safety.1 GENERAL The need to take human factors into account. In most cases more than one of these factors contributes to a problem. it also costs money.  A flight cancellation costs a minimum of $50. Some problems are minor but can become major. boring repetitive jobs. time and again. For Training Purposes Only What you will gain from this workshop is very much related to what you are prepared to invest into it. poor instructions. poor training.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. substance abuse. incomplete or incorrect documentation. maintenance errors are part of the chain of events.  the cost of an in−flight engine shutdown is about $500. as we look at the cause of the accident. Be open minded − but if you disagree with anything that is being said. Page: 2 . If we brake the chain of events at the maintenance level. slippery floors. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 What is maintenance Human Factors? In the most straightforward terms. loud noises. In about one accident out of ten.000 when ramp equipment contacts an aircraft. Incidents attributable to human factors/human error.9 M9. It may help you to avoid mistakes and safe you from having to pay the price for them. unrealistic deadlines.  An average ground damage accident is about $100. For example. smelly fumes. or at any time. bad lighting. a rush to complete jobs. The airlines lose at least $billion per year from human error. Take the time to glance through this book from time to time in the future.1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.000. Attention to human factors can help us to improve safety and to return the airline business to profitability. lack of spare parts and tools. personal life problems. poorly designed testing for skill and knowledge.

EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.1 GENERAL Figure 1 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Introduction to Human Factors (HF) Page: 3 .9 Chain of Events For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

Excellent training programs are often the result of using applied educational psychology. using a systematic approach to understand how people work. reach and other dimensions that can be quantified to match the machine to the human. software. Computer Science remains an excellent example of human factors. and important to maintenance crews. It can address topics like emotions. which is the reason human factors has no single definition. fears and such things. This knowledge can be critical to design of equipment. how they solve problems and the ways in which they process information.1 GENERAL CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 DISCIPLINES OF HUMAN FACTORS Introduction Human factors is comprised of many disciplines. which is mandatory training for flight crews. motivation. thus making it easy to hold the bottle and drink a lot of the product. for example. Clinic Psychology Clinical psychology deals with your psychological composure. and overall health issues. and documentation. Example: An original coca−cola bottle.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Educational Psychology Educational Psychologists study how people learn. labelling. with respect to topics like safety equipment. We can review 10 of the human factors disciplines with the chart. Computer Science Computer scientists study the graphical user interface to be sure that humans can easily operate software. Medical Science Medical Science applies to topics such as vision. balance. strength. rules. Anthropometry Anthropometrics is the study of factors such as size. and such things. hearing. and then to design the job and the equipment accordingly. was designed to fit the average human hand. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 4 . Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering is the study of humans at work. Organizational Psychology Organizational Psychology looks at how people work within various size groups. Cognitive Science Cognitive Science studies how humans think. Organizational Psychologists have made excellent contributions to the field of Crew Resource Management. For Training Purposes Only EASA PART 66 Safety Engineering Safety Engineering applies to worker safety. Therefore. Experimental Psychology Experimental Psychology is usually conducted in laboratories to compare differences and similarities between groups.

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 Clinische Psychology Industrial Engineering Experimental Psychology Anthroprometry Organisational Psychology Computer Science For Training Purposes Only Educational Psychologie Medical Science Cognitive Science Safety Engineering Figure 2 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Disciplins of Human Factors Page: 5 .1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

They created the verbal protocol whereby the receiver repeats any command given. Government passed a law named the Aviation Safety Act.9 HISTORICAL REVIEW It is difficult to identify the exact historical beginnings of the various disciplines of Human Factors. Throughout the 90’s. experienced an in−flight break−up which. In that year in Hawaii. the FAA conducted extensive research on maintenance human factors. the US Air Force was conducting experiments evaluating human personalities so as to better match people to their military job assignment. By the 1950’s. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 1600 1700 1800 1900 Frank und Lillian Gilbreth Page: 6 . 1400 1500 For Training Purposes Only Leonardo D’Vinci Aviation Human Factors started in the early 1900’s when aircraft designers began to consider aircraft compatibility with the human. Industrial Engineers who studied medical operating procedures in the early 1900’s. like the material delivered in this class. many governments were mass−producing military aircraft. (1878 to 1972). Much of that research evolved into regulatory guidelines for human factors training. Engineers had to consider such factors as control design and instrument layout for compatibility with pilots. That protocol continues today in air traffic control communications. Another perspective is the research of Frank (1868 to 1924) and Lillian Gilbreth. The repetition helps to ensure clear communication.1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. the U. The psychologists Sigmund Freud (1856−1939) and Kurt Lewin (1890−1947) also conducted human factors work. In 1988.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. With respect to anthropometrics − the size and strength of the human − you can refer to Leonardo D’Vinci’s (1452 to 1519) Anthropometric man. At the same time. was found to have had many human factors as the root cause of the incident. This incident generated much public concern about maintenance human factors. In World War II.S. military researchers were already looking at medical factors concerning pilots. which demanded that the FAA conduct research on human factors in aviation. through investigation. a B737. including factors related to aviation maintenance personnel.

9 HUMAN FACTOR AVIATION 1900 1920 Wright 1903 1940 1960 Optimisation human /maschine 1980 For Training Purposes Only 1988: B737 „Cabriolet“ US Congress 1988 2000 JAA EASA Figure 3 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Historical Review Page: 7 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

That is not acceptable. often showing the relative safety of a system or airplane. For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.  Second. and almost a matter of chance from one year to the next.  Third.com/commercial/safety Figure 4 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Acident Statistics Page: 8 . The Boeing Company publishes an annual worldwide safety record. This chart illustrates at least three facts:  First. That means somewhere in the world. but since then has improved only slightly. summarized here.boeing. equalling 51 accidents. the safety rate is not improving much.1 GENERAL Link: www. Most airline safety statistics demonstrate that the system is extremely safe. The number of fatalities is quite variable. if the safety rate remains the same while the number of departures increases. airline travel is very safe. Notice that safety improved radically from 1959 to 1969. there were about 17 Million Departures worldwide in the year 2000. one airliner accident takes place each week. For example.9 STATISTICS Introduction Statistics tell a story. there will be an increased number of accidents.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. It is difficult to improve the worldwide airline safety rate − less than 3 accidents per 1 million departures.

9 Accident rate approx.Boeing Study Page: 9 .EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.1 GENERAL 3/million x Figure 5 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 17million = 51 = ONE PER WEEK! Accident Statistics . 3 Accidents per 1 Million flights For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.  Weather.  and Maintenance  along with many other factors. showed that maintenance related accidents were the 2nd leading cause of fatalities. 100% human 80% Another study.9 ACCIDENTS Boeing data shows that the primary causes of accidents are:  Flight crew.  Airplane. technical 20% 1910 2000 80 / 20 Rule For Training Purposes Only Figure 6 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 10 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. conducted during the eighties to early nineties. Therefore we must pay attention to human factors if we are going to improve the overall safety of the world’s airlines. What causes these accidents? Experts agree that about 80% of these accidents are a result of human error.

1 GENERAL Figure 7 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Reasons for Accidents Page: 11 .9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 INFLUENCE OF MAINTENANCE (3 STUDIES) maintenance Influence on Incidents and Accidents 1.  and equipment missing − 11%. 3. This list is not much different from what Boeing found in their study.. cross connections of electrical wires and more were to blame. incorrect installation and more.. Boeing: In the early 90’s. They studied 276 in−flight shutdowns for that research. their findings were similar to the other studies.5%. 1 6 7 2 5 4 3 For Training Purposes Only 1 3 4 5 2 6 7 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 12 . Pratt and Whitney: Pratt and Whitney looked at the causes of 120 in−flight shutdowns on B747 aircraft. Boeing completed a study of the 7 most common errors that led to a shutdown of an engine when the aircraft was in flight (called in−flight shutdown).1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. 2. incorrect parts.  damage of a part during installation − 14.  improper installation − 11%. Not surprisingly.  Incorrect installation. Here is what they found:  Missing parts. The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) of the United Kingdom conducted a 3−year study of maintenance. The causes were:  incomplete installation − 33%. wrong fitting of parts.

9 Incorrect Installation Missing Parts Wrong Parts Wrong Parts Crosswiring Incorrect Installation Foreign Objects (Tools) left in Aircrafts Inadequate Lubrication For Training Purposes Only Covers.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Shut downs Maintenance Influence on Incidents and Accidents Page: 13 . Cowlings and Access Panels left open or not secured properly Incorrect installation of Seals (O-Rings) Nuts and Bolts improperly secured/lockwired Fuel and Oil Filler caps missing Nuts and Bolts overtightened Landing Gear ground lock pins not removed Nuts and Bolts loose 3−Year Period (Aircrafts > 5.7 Tons) Figure 8 FRA US/F-4 GoS Worn/damaged Parts DEC 2005 B747: 120 Inflight .

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Incomplete installation of a de−icing system caused the leading edge of the right horizontal stabilizer to separate in flight.Chickago O’Hare. A variety of human factors contributed to this accident.hfskyway.9 EXAMPLES OF ACCIDENTS CRASH American Airlines 1979 American Airlines DC10 . With no altitude for recovery. The flight crew was unable to control the aircraft. in 1979 in Chicago. It was found that unconventional work procedures during an engine change contributed to a structural failure that caused this engine separation.faa.gov FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Continental Express EMB 120 1994 47 MISSING SCREW FASTENERS Page: 14 .1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. the most obvious was associated with poor written and verbal communication during shift turnover. this type of communication problem is less of a human factor. other DC−10 operators knew of this imminently dangerous condition. You can read the entire report. an engine separated from a DC10 aircraft shortly after takeoff. with more industry reporting and faster data sharing. but the information was not communicated with sufficient urgency to all of the industry. DC 10 1 Kilometer For Training Purposes Only CHICAGO O’Hare Continental Express EMB120 The Continental Express crash is a classic example of human factors error with a fatal ending. and many others. 1979 For example. the aircraft crashed within a kilometer of O’Hare Field. Further. on the FAA website at http://www. The Aircraft was a Regional Turboprop Embraer 120. Today. however.

from the early eighties. It was meant to be a very short hop on this tourist flight.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. bound for Nassau. Take Off Low Oil Pressure / High Oil Temperature Eastern Airlines L1011 1982 Dual Engine Failure Miami ENGINE FAILURE Nassau For Training Purposes Only The cause of the failure was missing O−Ring gaskets on the Primary Magnetic Chip Detectors. the pilot experienced low oil pressure and high oil temperature on all three engines. which were changed just prior to takeoff.Miami 1981 Another example. The NTSB said the probable cause of the accident was the omission of all the O−ring seals on the master chip detector assemblies. This event was not a loss−of−life disaster.9 Easter Airlines L1011 .1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. About 15 minutes after take−off on descent to Nassau. Bahamas. is an incident at the former Eastern Airlines. Contributing to the cause of the accident was the failure of Federal Aviation Administration maintenance inspectors to assess the significance of the incidents involving master chip detectors and to take effective surveillance and enforcement measures to prevent the recurrence of the incidents. the repeated failure of supervisory personnel to require mechanics to comply strictly with the prescribed installation procedures. departed Miami with 175 people on board. A Lockheed L1011 with 3 engines. After two engines failed. It should not have happened! FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 15 . just a multi−million dollar loss to Eastern. the aircraft landed back in Miami. leading to the loss of lubrication. and damage to the airplane’s three engines as a result of the failure of mechanics to follow the established and proper procedures for the installation of master chip detectors in the engine lubrication system. and the failure of Eastern Air Lines management to assess adequately the significance of similar previous occurrences and to act effectively to institute corrective action.

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9
Aloha Airlines B737−200 - Hawaii, 1988
In 1988, a Boeing 737−200 operated by Aloha Airlines Inc. experienced an explosive decompression and structural failure at 24,000 feet/ 8000 Meters, while
en route from Hilo to Honolulu, Hawaii.
Approximately 18 feet of the cabin skin and structure aft of the cabin entrance
door and above the passenger floor line separated from the airplane during
flight. There were 89 passengers and 6 crew members on board.
One flight attendant was swept overboard during the decompression.
The flight crew performed an emergency descent and landed at Kahului Airport
on the Island of Maui.
The safety issues discussed in the final NTSB report included:
...the quality of air carrier maintenance programs and the FAA surveillance of
those programs, and the human factors aspects of air carrier maintenance and
inspection for the continuing airworthiness of transport category airplanes...
The ”Human Factors” included repair procedures, training, and certification
and qualification of mechanics and inspectors.

Kuaui

1988

Aloha Airlines B737
Oahu
Molokai

Honolulu

BREAK - UP
89 Passengers

Kuhului

6 Crew

HAWAII

1 Flight Attendant
Hilo
Maui

For Training Purposes Only

Lufthansa Technical Training

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.1 GENERAL

FRA US/F-4 GoS

DEC 2005

Page: 16

Lufthansa Technical Training

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.1 GENERAL

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9
United Airlines DC10, Sioux City, 1989
In 1989 a United Airlines DC10 had a critical engine failure that disabled the
aircraft’s flight controls. The aircraft was enroute from Denver to Chicago, but
crash landed in Sioux City Iowa.
The flight crew performed heroically to land the airplane.
The NTSB Accident report indicated ”inadequate consideration given to human
factors limitations in the inspection and quality control procedures used by
United Airlines’ engine overhaul facility. This resulted in the failure to detect a
fatigue crack originating from a previously undetected metallurgical defect in the #1 fan disk.
The separation, fragmentation, and forceful discharge of uncontained stage 1
fan rotor assembly parts led to the loss of the three hydraulic systems that
powered the airplane’s flight controls.
’This accident led to increased human factors attention to the processes
and procedures associated with inspection of turbine engine rotating
components.’

1989

United Airlines DC 10

SIOUX CITY
Chicago

Denver

Engine Failure

For Training Purposes Only

Northwest Airlines B747
Northwest Airlines B747−200 - Narita, 1994
In 1994, Northwest Airlines experienced a serious ”engine drag” upon landing
at Narita, Japan. The aircraft was landing on an intermediate stop from Hong
Kong to New York JFK Airport.
The aircraft stopped on a taxiway at Narita with the front of the No. 1 engine
touching the ground. The lower forward engine nose cowl had been ground
away as it dragged along the runway. Local fire fighters rapidly extinguished a
fire near the No. 1 engine.
The reason that the engine fell from the aircraft was that an aft fuse pin was
installed, about 30 days prior, without its proper locking devices.
The event investigation discovered that the locking device was found, in a
small cloth bag, back in the US facility where the heavy maintenance check
was performed.

FRA US/F-4 GoS

DEC 2005

1994

New York

NARITA
Tokyo

No. 1 engine touching the ground.
lower fwd engine nose cowl grounded away
fire near the No. 1 engine

Hong Kong

Page: 17

Lufthansa Technical Training
For Training Purposes Only

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.1 GENERAL

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9
Valu-Jet DC9 - Florida, 1995
This accident involved a cargo fire. The fuel for the fire was old aircraft tires
and aircraft passenger oxygen generation canisters.
The Aircraft was a DC−9 enroute from Miami to Atlanta. The long list of human
factors that contributed to this accident included the following:
Insufficient training of mechanics and of cargo handlers; 
failure to follow procedures; 
failure to secure and label hazardous cargo; 
and insufficient regulatory oversight.
In this example there were many errors by workers, their company, and the
regulators. You can read the entire report, and many others, on the FAA
website at http://www.hfskyway.faa.gov
Valu-Jet DC9 - Atlanta, 1995
In 1995, a ValuJet DC−9 had a catastrophic turbine blade failure at the start of
takeoff roll in Atlanta. As the aircraft began its takeoff roll, occupants, and even
the air traffic controllers heard a ”loud bang.”
The right engine fire warning light illuminated, the flight crew of the following
airplane reported to the ValuJet crew that the right engine was on fire, and the
takeoff was rejected.
Shrapnel from the right engine penetrated the fuselage and the right engine
main fuel line, and a cabin fire erupted. The airplane was stopped on the runway and evacuated. The fuselage was destroyed.
What was the cause? Human factors!
The previous operator of the aircraft failed to perform a proper inspection
on a 7th stage high compressor disk. Further, they did not maintain an adequate record keeping system or use ”process sheets” to document the
step−by−step overhaul/inspection procedures.

FRA US/F-4 GoS

DEC 2005

Valu-Jet

1995

Aircraft
tires

Oxygen generators
(PAX OXYGEN)

Atlanta

FIRE
Miami

Page: 18

1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Examples Page: 19 .Fire in Cabin For Training Purposes Only .Firewarning activated .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.Take-Off aborted .Passengers where evacuated Figure 9 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Aircraft Accidents/Incidents .Engine #2 caught fire .9 Valu-Jet 1995 .loud bang! .

 The H is the Hardware. − The first L represents the individual Human characteristics like knowledge. like the oil company. and information to support system operation. the model also helps us to understand maintenance environments. However.  E represents the Environment. It refers to such things as the rules and procedures of operation.9 SHELL . That includes abstract factors like corporate communications or company profitability. − The second L refers to the human in groups. In summary. and uses 2 Ls. you can remember key considerations for Human Factors.  H for hardware. aircraft. attitude and culture. communication. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Software Hardware Prof. hangars. if you can remember the word SHELL. The SHELL model is comprised of the following parts:  S for Software.  L(L) and there are two Ls for Lifeware.  E for Environment. buildings and other such physical things. technical manuals.1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.MODEL General The SHEL model was created by Professor Edwards in the early 1970’s. applies to Software. the first letter in the Shell Model. which is actually two distinctly different environments: − the physical work environment.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. group norms and leadership. Explaination  S. which are quite clearly the tools.  The L in Shell stands for Lifeware. including factors like temperature. experience. The original purpose was to teach flight crews about Crew Resource Management (CRM). Edwards (1970) Environment Liveware Page: 20 . lighting or humidity and − the political and social environment. skills. including such factors as teamwork. Software with regard to SHELL is not necessarily computer software.

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 H ardware S oftware E nvironment Physical Environment Political & Social Environment For Training Purposes Only L iveware People in groups Individual Figure 10 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 SHEL(L) Model Page: 21 .

Interestingly enough. the regulators believe that you should know ”Murphy’s Law” as part of human factors.” Thus. it will. but the name is often used as the example of the mechanic that makes mistakes.9 MURPHY’S LAW Most mechanics and engineers know of the fictitious character named ”Murphy.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.” For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. you should always plan for the possible errors that may result from ”Murphy’s Law. Murphy’s Law is: ”If something can go wrong.” The origin of ”Murphy” is unclear.1 GENERAL FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 22 .

1 GENERAL EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.it will! Figure 11 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Murphy’s Law Page: 23 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 MURPHY’s LAW For Training Purposes Only If something can go wrong .

this is incorrect.9 M9. Smell and Touch Touch is when the sensors in the skin perceive temperature and pressure and transfer the information to the brain. That is why food tastes different when you have a cold. you will lose your sense of balance. However. Information processing.  taste. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 24 .  the processing of information in the brain  and phobias. The five senses are:  touch. If not. You already know much about these things.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. the inner ear and forces acting on the body. Some maintenance tasks require a ”sniff check” in order to determine a system error. Sense of touch can. To taste something. you need the ”sensors” in the mouth and the nose. for example. THE FIVE SENSES Hearing. We want to concentrate here on the following three areas:  the five human senses. Balance is produced in the brain from signals received from the eyes. Sense of balance is often included in the senses. However.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. These three signals must be in the right proportions. Claustrophobia and physical access.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND LIMITATIONS Vision. Memory.  smell. INTRODUCTION Taste. Attention and perception. but the authorities require us to treat this subject. Cells in the nose enable us to smell.  sight  and hearing. What does this mean for humans? This chapter gives you an insight into the human body and its shortcomings. such as claustrophobia. enable us to work with our hands and warn us of injuries. tasting should play NO part in maintenance! At least we are not aware of any ’taste-checks’ For Training Purposes Only General We can take it for granted that technology does not function 100%. Flight simulators make use of this by simulating movement.

2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 SIGHT Informationsprocessing 5 Senses HEARING Phobias SMELL TASTE For Training Purposes Only TOUCH >SENSE OF BALANCE< Figure 12 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Introduction / 5 Senses Page: 25 .

These include − ADAPTATION − controlling the incidence of light. All three activities are physiologically dependent on each other and are controlled by six muscles. In the case of the eye these are called: − IRIS. − LENS and − RETINA.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Lense Shutter Llight sensitive background Camera RETINA PUPIL OPTIC NERVE CORNEA For Training Purposes Only LENSE Figure 13 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Sight .The Human Eye Page: 26 .9 SIGHT / THE HUMAN EYE General Description It is important to explain the function of the eyes so that we can better understand sight and possible visual impairments. The eye is similar to a simple camera with a shutter. the pupil and the lens onto the retina. − ACCOMMODATION − focusing.  color. Light passes through the cornea. The eye has four main tasks:  The perception of brightness.  space and  form and movement. stimulating light−sensitive cells. The eye adapts constantly to changing visual tasks. This stimulation produces small electrical impulses that are transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. − and FIXATION − locating direction. a lens and a light−sensitive background.

. such as cataracts and glaucoma are among the ”medical/physical factors” which can lead to risks. Environmental influences.Negative Influences Page: 27 .  Congenital color blindness can unfortunately not be cured.  Most visual impairments can easily be corrected with eyeglasses. In the case of red−green color blindness good lighting can improve sight. Alcohol. mist or dazzling. The great danger lies in the gradual reduction in the power of sight. also affect the power of vision.. Many of those affected are unaware of their impairment.and long-sighteness) Diseases (cataracts.9 Negative Influence on Sight 1. At present there are no JAA/ EASA regulations governing the visual ability of technical personnel.  Long−sightedness caused by the ageing process begins after the age of 40. 3. which may reduce the supply of blood and oxygen to the eyes. Environment Amount of Light. and signs of old age.  Cataracts and glaucoma are mostly a result of ageing. Substances Medication. curvature of the cornea and axial defects. Fog.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. including: Substances taken into the body  such as medicine. etc. glaucoma. Older people are often more affected by dazzling than younger ones... clarity of the air. Clarity of the air. Medical/physical factors Visual defects such as short or long−sightedness.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS Impairments The subject ”Limitations to Visual Performance”. alcohol. as the brain replaces the missing color. Cigaretts.. Dazzling . long−sightedness. long−sightedness caused by the ageing process.. and color blindness are visual impairments. nicotine or drugs.) Figure 14 SIGHT . glaucoma.  for example amount of light.  Shortsightedness. Each individual should be made aware of possible impairments to sight and their risks. fully adapting to darkness can take up to 30 minutes. Often only an operation will prevent blindness.  We adapt to brightness very quickly. 2. Medical factors Visual defects: (short. cataracts. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. fog. etc. Airlines and airport authorities often have their own guidelines governing the driving of vehicles or the taxiing and towing of aircraft on the apron.

In the middle ear there is a ”natural” protection mechanism. The pain threshold is at 140 dB − damage to hearing can be expected above 150 dB (A). which in turn stimulate the nerves. Ventilators of Computers whispering Forrest Figure 15 Typical Noise Levels Page: 28 . The auditory threshold is 0 dB(A) (decibels). Not only the sound level but also the period of exposure is decisive. which is filled with liquid. if ventilation is limited or if a great change of pressure suddenly occurs. The limit is reduced to 85 dB(A) if exposure is more than 4 hours.. must be worn at sound levels above 90 dB(A). the ear is completely unprotected.000 Hz.. The vibrations are ”mechanically” transferred to the membrane of the cochlea. The sound waves are directed to the eardrum through the auditory canal. It is most sensitive at about 3. Both are important for our occupation − here we will deal mainly with hearing. by small bones in the ear. When flying or diving you often have an unpleasant sensation in the ears. The ear is made up of the outer.CAR passing.000 Hz. The cavity of the middle ear is connected to the mouth and throat by the ”Eustachian tube”. which the brain recognises as sounds.. Over a longer period of time a loss of hearing can result. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Jet during Take-off Saw . Pressure of Sound Pressure of sound influences hearing. The hearing range of a healthy. The three sections transform sound waves into nerve impulses.. the eardrums can burst. This reflex can hold back a maximum of 20 dB(A).. ear protection. which protects the ear temporarily from sound levels above 80 dB(A). The liquid oscillates.9 HEARING / THE HUMAN EAR General Description The ear has two main tasks − to provide hearing and balance. young individual is from 20 Hz (Hertz) to 20.TRUCK normal conversation . stimulating millions of tiny hairs. In extreme cases. In Germany and other countries.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. middle and inner ear. by law. If noise occurs suddenly (for example in an explosion)..

000 Hz) Auditory Range: 0 dB(A) Painthreshold: 140 dB(A) OUTER EAR INNER EAR .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.The Human Ear Page: 29 .AUDITORY NERVE MIDDLE ERA For Training Purposes Only ”Eustachain Tube” AUDITORY CHANNEL EAR DRUM EAR BONES Figure 16 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Hearing .COCHLEA .9 approx. 3. 20 Hz to 20.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS Hearing Range: EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.000Hz (highest sensity at approx.

Using a ”visual program” which is learnt during the first few weeks of life. But what task does the ”decision generator” have? That is what allows us to make the decision! Your brain combines information from the senses with your experience and your knowledge. Focusing attention. For example. melodies and illusions.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.  long−term memory. You need persistent attention for activities that take longer. Perhaps you have developed several solutions.  attention mechanism. That is what the decision generator does. Input data is organised. Decision Generator Up to now we have only concentrated on data and information. you are waiting for a signal lamp to illuminate. Selective attention reacts to key information. 3.  motor neuron programs  and actions with feedback. awareness provides us with faces. persistent attention and 4. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Awareness Awareness assembles information in such a way that the environment becomes recognisable. That is also a part of reaching a decision (Feedback loop). In this way it is possible to hear spoken words as sentences and images as films. The impressions of sense are received here and stored temporarily for up to 2 seconds.  decision generator.  awareness module. interpreted and combined into parcels of information. Images are stored for about half a second. yes/no decisions or incorporating experience and knowledge. If you hear your own name in the background. as performing different tasks is constantly demanded of us. Sight is a good example. like inspections. The model consists of the following modules:  signal input and store. the mechanism immediately switches to this conversation − a perfect form of distraction. Divided attention is often found in the workplace. − going through check items step by step. the correct image of space is created. This simple diagram shows you how the information is processed. This is called attention.  locating errors in a complex system. on the other hand. − quick succession of trained hand movements.  short−term memory. The optical nerve delivers inverse. Crosscheck if corrections are necessary. 2. but have decided on only one. is concentrated on one individual aspect. The attention mechanism switches back and forth between them. two−dimensional data. Signal Input (and Storage) The first module is the signal input and store. Attention If information has been received. the brain concentrates on particular elements. In aviation technology you must make a decision according to the situation:  ”fire alarm” when engine is idle. There are four different kinds of attention: 1. Among other things.9 INFORMATION PROCESSING Introduction All impressions of sense are transmitted to the brain via nerves. divided attention. focusing attention.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. Page: 30 . selective attention. Experience prevents correct data from being rejected and false data from being transferred.

2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 Signal Input & Storage Attention Mechanism For Training Purposes Only Awareness Module Short-term Memeory Decision Generator Motor Neuron Programmes Action & Feedback Figure 17 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Long-term Memory Information Processing (1) Page: 31 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

As a row of numbers is difficult. In the computer world the ”RAM” is extended if you want to increase its capacity. Long−term memory has almost endless capacity and stores our knowledge. EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. In groups it is easier. You can increase the capacity of the short−term memory by repeating things in your mind or by linking the information to images or concepts.  short−term memory  and long−term memory. the short−term memory is pushed to its limits. values and social norms. without which we could not deal with the flood of information. Thus. And how is it with people? Training or ”grouping information” can increase efficiency. rules and formulas. different people may store the same event in completely different ways. For example. personal experiences. An example of this is the often−conflicting accounts made by eyewitnesses. − The episodic memory stores experiences. It serves as a store. Under normal conditions the ability to store information temporarily is sufficient. The short−term memory serves as an interim store for information. remember the following telephone number − 0496951696.9 Motor Neuron Program Do you remember your first driving lesson? Your brain had to give the following commands every time:  first push down the clutch − then change gears − slowly let out the clutch! − Once you perform this action many times it becomes an automatic process. Memory comes in three types:  ultra short−term memory.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS Memory Memory is imperative for repetitive actions and for learning new things. You could call it the ”RAM“ of the brain. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 32 . The action is stored in the motor neuron program where many of your reflexes are also stored. The information is filed in the semantic and episodic memories. − The semantic memory stores factual knowledge such as language. The episodic memory is strongly influenced by personal expectations. The corresponding circumstances are also stored at the same time as the event. The data is not tied to time or place. The ”decision generator” uses the short and long−term memories. If the load on the decision generator is great.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. You don’t have to think about it. abilities and processes.

9 Signal Input & Storage Attention Mechanism For Training Purposes Only Awareness Module Short-term Memeory Decision Generator Motor Neuron Programmes Action & Feedback Figure 18 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Long-term Memory Information Processing (2) Page: 33 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

make notes and use aids. Investigation reports then contain the phrase: ”. forgetfullness and other memory−related limitations:  use up−to−date manuals. The information processing system of the brain can. that didn’t occur to me.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. The following suggestions can help you to counteract illusions.9 LIMITATIONS OF INFORMATION PROCESSING Technicians know that any system can work defectively. If the information does not fit. Plan blocks of decisions and pay attention to feedback. it is suppressed.  Do not just look for information that supports your way of thinking. Good teamwork here is invaluable. too.. to make decisions when looking for errors.. such as trouble shooting flow charts.  Question your information and data. the person chose the ”wrong awareness”: Important data does in fact reach the brain but is not recognised and processed.“ Tips In the case of deceptive awareness.  Missing data is replaced by knowledge and experience. Usually we look for information that confirms our ’mental model’ and not for that which questions it. After you consider other opinions and do not find alternatives then you can fully support your ideas. Conjuring tricks are often based on this weakness in the system. then you can make one. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 34 . So what can lead to wrong data being processed?  Usually.  Wrong decisions result.. the signals are received but they are not processed correctly.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. If no flow chart exists..

.. uses Trouble-shooting-flowcharts.. Figure 19 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Information Processing . take notes.9 use Up-to-date Manuals...Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. For Training Purposes Only Don’t just look for data confirming ’your mental model’... question information and data.Limitations and Tips Page: 35 .2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M....

Page: 36 .your body tenses up. There are different types of phobia:  fear of animals such as spiders − arachnophobia.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. Contrary to fear. a phobia is usually without basis. In conclusion.  Artificial protection mechanisms. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Acrophobia Most people suffer some degree of vertigo. are safety lines. panic reaction to heights is what is really dangerous. people often thoughtlessly do without safety aids. It occurs in various ways. Team attitude can lessen dangers.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.  fear of crowds of people − known as agoraphobia. claustrophobia is difficult to foresee.  and fear of heights − called acrophobia.  Once the panic attack has set in. Particularly at low heights. self−control fails entirely. The dangerous thing about claustrophobia is when this uneasiness becomes panic−stricken fear. In enclosed spaces most of us feel uneasy. During such an attack the person can no longer calm himself. claustrophobia and acrophobia are the most common. To do this. There must be a collective attitude that it can affect everyone. This is quite normal and is a natural protective mechanism. So expressions like ”Hey. which may explain the normal respect for heights above 1. The abnormal. Nobody can fly. In aviation. in other words. A real sufferer could hardly climb onto a chair without a panic attack.9 PHOBIAS A phobia is a compulsive feeling of terror of particular situations or things. for example. Sudden acrophobia is less common than claustrophobia. stop putting it on” should disappear from your vocabulary. colleagues must try to get the sufferer out of the area. Safety lines and suitable platforms lessen the risk of a fall and give you a feeling of security. Claustrophobia The official definition of claustrophobia is: − ”abnormal fear of enclosed spaces”. the warning signals must be recognised and taken seriously. not only the victim but also the helper. If the phobia sets in.50 m. two protection mechanisms are missing:  The natural protection mechanism is missing . What can be done about claustrophobia?  The sufferer can free himself from the enclosed space BEFORE an attack.  fear of enclosed spaces − known as claustrophobia. During maintenance you must often work at great heights.

9 Claustrophobia For Training Purposes Only 150 cm Acrophobia Figure 20 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Phobias Page: 37 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

Motivation and de−motivation. He introduces his knowledge.social Environment / Motivation .3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Peer Pressure . Management. INTRODUCTION General The aircraft engineer works within a system.Culture Issues . Team working.Leadership For Training Purposes Only These factors are the direct work environment. supervision and leadership.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 M9. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Culture issues. Peer pressure.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Responsibility: individual and group. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 38 . organisation or company culture. regulations inside and outside the company and the economic and political environment of society at large.Teamwork .Responsibilities . . ability and characteristics into this system and is influenced by other factors.

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.Introduction Page: 39 .3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.5 Physical Environment Economic & Political Environment For Training Purposes Only Direct Environment Rules and Regulations Figure 21 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Oraginsation/Company Culture Social Psychology .9 Knowledge Ability/Skill Character See Chapter M9.

9 Influences Every company has its own culture. This includes:  company philosophy and policy. For Training Purposes Only Impact The organisation can have a positive influence. The influence that the organisation exerts on the engineer can be positive or negative.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. or if it takes notice of problems and takes measures to solve them. Negative influences arise if. The result is an increase in human errors. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 40 .  procedures.  and the quality assurance system. the individual realises that particular factors are having an effect on the quality of his work. the organisation exerts pressure on the technician to operate on a tight time schedule or to work with an inadequate budget. At some point. if it encourages its employees − financially or with career incentives. fluctuation and absenteeism will increase. for example. Where does this come from? From de−motivation. What is the consequence? Apart from latent dissatisfaction.  selection and training criteria.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

9 Positive solving of problems takes notice of problems Career Company. financially Philosophy and Policy Procedures Latent Dissatisfaction Selection/Training Criteria tight timeframes Quality Assurance System low budgets For Training Purposes Only Fluctuation other Absenteeism Negative Figure 22 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Organisational Influences on Employees Page: 41 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

. The hierarchy shows the corresponding steps..  prestige and recognition.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 MOTIVATION Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs A well known theory on the subject of motivation stems from MASLOW − Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.  and the realisation of individual potential. most technicians do strive for the Maslow level of achieving full individual potential. The middle level is influenced strongly by the social environment:  social standing.  finance a home  and provide for a family.1970) . . SAFETY For Training Purposes Only PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Figure 23 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs Page: 42 .. SELFREALISATION .. RESPECT . Where does the ”typical” aircraft technician belong in this simplified structure? The technician can achieve the lower levels by earning money and thus:  buy food. Maslow (1908 .. Maslow postulated that two different motivation forces drive people:  Fulfilment of basic physiological and psychological needs. As a result..3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Abraham H... AFFILIATION .

Lufthansa Technical Training

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9

Social Environment

Need for Respect

For Training Purposes Only

Need for Affiliation

Need for Safety
Physiological Needs

Figure 24
FRA US/F-4 GoS

DEC 2005

Motivation (Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs)
Page: 43

Lufthansa Technical Training

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9
Motivation / De-Motivation
How can we recognise highly motivated people? 
They perform at a high level and get results. 
They are energetic, enthusiastic, and set goals. 
They are cooperative problem solvers. 
They readily assume responsibility 
and are willing to accept change.
De−motivated people have a different set of characteristics: 
They may be indifferent, 
have little safety awareness, 
manage time poorly and are frequently absent, 
exaggerate problems and difficulties, 
create disputes and grievances, 
rarely cooperate to solve problems, 
and are opposed to change.

For Training Purposes Only

Caution:
Not everything may be labelled de−motivation. Many of these items are
serious signs of stress!

FRA US/F-4 GoS

DEC 2005

Page: 44

Lufthansa Technical Training

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9

Performance
Opposed for Changes

MOTIVATION

Lack of Co-operation
Exaggarates Problems

DE-MOTIVATION

Poor Time Management
High Absent Rate
Low Safety Margins

Goals

Indifferent

Enthusiasm
Energetic

For Training Purposes Only

Time

Many of these items are serious signs of stress!

Figure 25
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Motivation / De-Motivation
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 The ”ability” depends on many factors.9 RESPONSIBILITIES ”An aircraft technician carries a lot of responsibility!” And what about the other occupations within aviation? What does ”responsible” really mean? Somebody must be accountable for the tasks he has been given. time and many other things. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 46 .  The ”permission” is determined by the task and the qualifications of the individual to carry out this task. He takes this responsibility individually and within the group setting. In accordance with your qualifications. materials.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. For Training Purposes Only The individual is given tasks − usually from within a group − for which he takes responsibility.  Who did what and when? But what does the responsibility of the individual involve? We must examine whether he is permitted and able to carry out the task.  And to complete the list: ”willingness” also plays a role. A good example of this is the job card for an inspection.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. This proven method guarantees ”traceability”. you carry out this job and sign it off. such as tools.

Individual WHAT? WHEN? For Training Purposes Only WHO? Figure 26 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Individual Responsibility Page: 47 .3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 RESPONSIBILITY .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

Of course. this is not a mistake! Almost all positive aspects of group responsibility can also be ”killers”. 4. for example. Achieving the goal is regarded as a challenge. 1) The burden of responsibility is blurred − Who should do what at what time? 2) Safety: with the help of others you can take greater risks. 4) Mutual supervision: ”Some one else can fix it − it’s time for me to take a nap!” The team as a whole must take on group responsibility. and thus to individuals.9 Group Responsibility Group responsibility is often limited to the following formula: ”Group responsibility is the sum of all individual responsibilities.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. 3. 3) Achieving the goal: it can result in unhealthy competition between teams. No. Mutual supervision is offered and accepted. Everybody feels responsible for the group result. The disadvantages are:  Several people carry the burden of responsibility. to do the inspection within a given time. For Training Purposes Only Group responsibility has the following advantages: 1. 2. but group responsibility refers to the general goal.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. 5. Several people carry the burden of responsibility.” Unfortunately this is the wrong approach. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 48 . the inspection is divided among several job cards. Safety awareness applies to the job as a whole. Team structure and culture determine if group responsibility will succeed or not.

Achieving the goal is regarded as a challenge.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. 3. Several people carry the burden of responsibility. 5. 4. Everybody feels responsible for the group result. Figure 27 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Group Responsibility Page: 49 . Safety awareness applies to the job as a whole. 2. Mutual supervision is offered and accepted.9 Group Responsibility Disadvantages Advantages For Training Purposes Only Notes 1.

 self−esteem: people with low self−esteem will give in to pressure more easily. On the one hand you want to belong.” It depends on how you should react. The community is everything. But sometimes adaptation goes too far. The following factors influence the individual’s susceptibility to pressure from others:  the cultural environment: In some countries the individual has little value.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. above all if he feels he has too little knowledge or experience. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 50 .  knowledge and experience: the newcomer tends to follow the majority. women tend to conform more than men.” or ”Forget the manual. Think of the statement: ”Everybody must pull his weight − there are NO exceptions”.  sex: in general.  relationships: Conformity is greater if the members of the group know each other well.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. pressure is not always applied openly. Further. and unfortunately the borderline is not always clear. On the other hand you have reservations. But what if they do not pull their weight or have reservations about whether or not ”this is the right way”? This is exactly where pressure sets in. This is the way we do it. You perceive the pressure or maybe you think you perceive it.9 PEER PRESSURE Do you know the expression ”peer pressure” or group compulsion or pressure from colleagues? This can exert a massive influence on work. There must be a safety culture within the group and ”everybody must pull his weight − there are NO exceptions. What if colleagues exert pressure on you to do the job ”properly” or make high demands regarding safety? Should resist this pressure? Or is it better to conform? Usually the individual gives in to pressure if he hears such things as ”Stop making a fuss.” Only in this way can peer pressure be tolerated. With regard to safety it is clear. A certain level of conformity to the group is imperative.

.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 Please take the Manual.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. don’t be chicken.... You will not climb on the dock without safety ropes! Figure 28 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Peer Pressure Page: 51 . For Training Purposes Only Come on.. This Job can be done without a Manual..

10” it says: ”. the head of the organisation is in the best position to influence all cultures.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.safety culture is the motor giving the system the goal of ”maximum safety”. and in which there is a willingness to carry through important reforms when necessary..  ”business culture”. The culture of an organisation can be more accurately measured by deeds rather than words. roles and social and technical practices. How do the circles interact with each other? The head of the organisation does not define every culture . customers and the general public.  ”cultures within the teams and groups”  and ”location culture”. within which employees are encouraged to pass on information relevant to safety. 4.” Professor James Reason. For Training Purposes Only Cultures FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Safety Culture What does ”safety culture” mean? In the ”ICAO Human Factors Digest No. Training and ”tools” such as information systems must be accepted and used.. offers the following hypothesis on this: ..many ”cultures” develop independently.. ability and experience of staff and direct superiors.9 CULTURE ISSUES General What springs to mind when you hear the expression ”cultural issues”? Do you think about ”the company?”. which aim to minimise dangerous and risky conditions for employees. Page: 52 . norms. 3.. The establishment of a learning culture. safety culture is the sum of attitudes. In this respect the distinction between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour must be made clear. one of the leaders in the field of human factors. However. managers. independently of persons and current economic demands. in which competence is developed to draw the right conclusions from events.  ”technical culture”. The image shows various ”cultures” of a company:  ”safety culture”. analyze them and distribute the conclusions to everybody.. The creation of an atmosphere of trust. Some efforts are needed to guarantee a culture of safety: 1. Respect for the knowledge. What is the use of a highly− praised safety system if it is not implemented on the working level? Everybody has to participate. 2. It is the job of management to make these aids available and to encourage their usage.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. The construction of a safety information system to collect relevant incidents as well as audit reports.

9 Safety Culture 1..3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Respect for the knowledge. Construction of a Safety Information System 2. ability and experience 4.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Establishment of a learning culture . independently of persons and current economic demands. For Training Purposes Only Collect Incident/Audit Reports Distribution of clues analyse Figure 29 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Safety Culture Page: 53 . Atmosphere of Trust 3....safety culture is the motor giving the system the goal of ”maximum safety”.

.9 TEAMWORK General Within a society there are many groups.  The goal defines the composition of a team. for example: men between 18 and 25. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 54 .  line maintenance personnel. etc.  A team consists of a recognised ”leader” and at least one ”follower”. ”Team vs. red−haired children . a team can consist of members working in parallel to achieve the goal. Group” For Training Purposes Only Does a ”team of mechanics” exist? What distinguishes the team from the group?  A team consists of persons working together to achieve a common goal. women with a university degree.  The cohesion and functioning of the team must be maintained..3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.  Alternatively.  the group of electricians. In aircraft maintenance there are also numerous groups:  the group of mechanics.

3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 Mechanics Electricians Team GROUPS GOAL For Training Purposes Only „Line Maintenance“ Figure 30 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Group vs. Team Page: 55 .

Communication problems are the main cause of maintenance errors in aviation. Cooperation is an important ”adhesive” for the team. you would not have a team. and team leaders should play an active and important role in solving them.  coordination  and mutual support. but is not essential for working in a team. Mutual support is the ”heart” of every team. Checking: delegated tasks must be monitored and 3. For Training Purposes Only Coordination means: 1. In this scenario. honesty and fairness increase cohesion and mutual respect. and to be of assistance regarding solutions.9 Maintaining a Team and important lubricants. It is a part of mutual support to point out somebody’s mistakes realistically and constructively. Every member introduces his own strengths and weaknesses into the team. Why was ”having parties together” not mentioned as imperative for maintaining a team? It is the expression for ”social contact”. Members of the team must treat disagreements with respect. and should not be underestimated as a factor in carrying out safe and efficient maintenance work. It forms the basis for team identity. Delegating: tasks must be clearly and fairly allocated according to the abilities of the team members. just a ”group of happy workers”. and as a result steers clear of team parties? Would he otherwise be a better member of the team? The ”team gearbox” is often oiled only at parties − other lubricants remain untouched. For example: what about the colleague who has (had) alcohol problems.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. and to compensate for his weak points. What is necessary to keep a team together?  communication. It may boost morale. 2. It can strengthen ties within the team but it also holds risks. Openness. Communication is very important.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. The art is to employ everyone according to his abilities. a separate chapter (M9.7 Communication) will be devoted to communication. priorities must be set: Priorities should be subject to change if difficulties or new circumstances arise. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 56 .  cooperation. For this reason.

9 Very important. and should not be underestimated as a factor COMMUNICATION Communication problems are the main cause of maintenance errors in aviation COORDINATION Deligate Monitoring Set priorities Difficulties COOPERATION Openess Rearrange Honesty Fairness MUTUAL SUPPORT For Training Purposes Only Strenght and Weaknesses ’crease’ cohesion and mutual respect Employ according abilities Compensate weak points Critise constructively Offer support Figure 31 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Maintaining a Team Page: 57 .3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Management lays down company policy. Think of ”safety culture”! For Training Purposes Only THEY? Work Groups OUR!! FUTURE! Management Work Group Leaders Work Groups FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 58 . On the one hand the company management provides them with economic data. SUPERVISION AND LEADERSHIP General In large organisations. We must succeed in making safety OUR affair. leadership is found on various levels. Team leaders are in direct contact with the workers and their work. unforeseen difficulties and unscheduled tasks. The art of work group leadership is to mediate between both sides. Work group leaders are often under pressure as they are the link between the management and the teams.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. THEY! WE! Management Work Group Leaders PRESENT? Matters of Safety What is the relationship between management and safety? You frequently hear the words US and THEM. Differing leadership approaches are needed in various job areas.9 MANAGEMENT. Supervisors serve as a link between management and the work groups or teams. such as reporting off sick. They put directives into practice and are responsible for personnel planning in their respective areas. makes business decisions and has little direct contact with the employees and their work. customer orders and procedures. Each level plays its part in this. On the other hand there is feedback coming from the teams.

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 Have you noticed the new procdures? Company Politics Business Decisions Little Contact to Work Groups Link Which? Yes! Sure! Personnel Planning Put Directives into Practice Management Work Group Leaders For Training Purposes Only Work Groups Economic Data Off Sick Reports Customer Orders Unforeseen Difficulties Procedures Unscheduled Tasks Differing leadership approaches are needed in various job areas Management Work Group Leaders Work Groups Figure 32 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Leadership Page: 59 .

Illegal Drugs Stress: domestic and work related. as well as the ’legal drug’ alcohol. Illegal drugs.B. Therefore we have decided to refer to the regulations (and useful advices) of the ’old’ JAR 66. fatigue and shift work.500 (old JAR 66.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. sleep.9 M9. stress. In this chapter the following subjects are covered: health and fitness. And. Time pressure and deadlines.50 in this book. Most company security checks discover any court records involving illegal drugs. can lead to loss of license according to EASA Part 66. The employer takes responsibility for this. drug abuse. Workload: overload and underload.9 Basic Training. A rule of thumb may help for medicines:  You are not fit for work if the instructions in the packet say you should not drive a car! For Training Purposes Only Important Note Even so the regulation JAR 66. Alcohol. You are responsible for maintaining your fitness. as well as alcohol.65).4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE Fitness/health. medicines and drug abuse. drug use is a criminal offense in many countries. the chapter ’health and fitness’ is still subject of EASA Part 66 M. Sleep and fatigue. of course. basic fitness was ascertained. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 60 . Fitness and Health At the medical on entering employment. INTRODUCTION General There are many factors that can lead to a reduction in human performance. shiftwork. work load.50 was not transformed into the new EASA Part 66 regularies(!). medication.

Figure 33 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Factors Affecting Performance Page: 61 . Medication.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Fatigue and Shift work JAR 66.50 imposes a requirement that certifying staff must not exercise the privileges of their certification authorisation if they know or suspect that their physical or mental condition renders them unfit.9 Fitness / Health Stress Alcohol.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE For Training Purposes Only Sleep. Drugabuse Workload Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. resulting in adverse consequences. ”I’ve done it!” We can call this type of stress ”positive stress.9 STRESS General Stress − a word often used in our society. − If there is an immediate reaction which eliminates the stress. Today. anyway? In itself stress is a normal and healthy phenomenon. the more you have managed to do. ”stress” has become almost a measure of performance. The more you are under stress.  You are affected by a particular incident − the so−called stressor. you feel good.  Your reaction to the stressor is known as stress response. STRESS = Performance For Training Purposes Only Stress FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 62 . the stress ”messengers” are stored in the body.” − If the physical reaction finds no release. What is stress.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. This is ”negative stress”.

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.’Messengers’ are stored .Negative Symptomes .Feeling Well Figure 34 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 STRESSOR Stress .9 POSITVE STRESS NEGATIVE STRESS STRESSOR STRESS RESPONSE No Reaktion For Training Purposes Only Immediate Reaktion .Decrease in Performance .’Boost’ of Performance .General Page: 63 .’Messengers’ are decreased .4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

or do physical work that you enjoy.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE Negative Stress When we talk about stress. Fight stress. − Try to reduce tension through such methods as yoga and relaxation through self−hypnosis and secondly. allergies. − Do not try to solve problems when under severe stress. 2. sleeplessness. You can think more clearly and your concentration is better when you are relaxed. heart trouble. stomach pains.. sorrow. go for a walk. − i. Typical psychological stress reactions are: nervous unrest. External factors. The reactions that follow vary from individual to individual. for example from watching too much television and 2. Do not take on too much. tenseness or muscle cramp. 3. environmental poisons or overstimulation. which means: − Do not overestimate problems. are produced in excess. we usually mean adverse or ”negative stress”. such as:  anger. such as:  noise. performance pressure.e. at home or in your leisure time. physical exertion and sickness.  Transform stress into physical activity. What are some typical stressors? There are two main groups: 1.9 STRESSORS INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS Noise Environmental Poisons Anger Sorrow Pressure Physical Exertion others Overstimulation Counter Meassures 1. do sports. Internal factors. followed by an increase in blood pressure. such as adrenaline. Regarding leisure time stress you should heed the advice ’It’s better not to overdo it’. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 64 . Accept that some stress is useful in achieving a certain level of performance. For Training Purposes Only What are the Effects of Negative Stress? The physical reaction always begins in the same way: Typical stress hormones.. diarrhoea.  Reduce the stressors. irritability and sleep disorders. Stress is often self−made − by putting too many demands on yourself at work. This can be done in two ways. skin irritation. EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. People may react to stress hormones and increased blood pressure with headache.

4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Reactions and Counter Measures Page: 65 .9 Physical Reactions Psychological Reactions Headaches Nervous Unrest Sleeplessness Irritatiability Heart Troubles Sleep Disorders Stomachaches Diarrhoea Skin Irirtation For Training Purposes Only Allergies Tensions or Muscle Cramps Figure 35 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Negative Stress .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

mood and degree of stimulation. Performance may suffer considerably if you are over− or under−stimulated.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. and 3. The task itself − the physical and mental demands which are made. outside control. But what is the right right level of stimulation? That is a very individual thing and also depends on your daily conditions. your health and fitness and your emotional state. How good is your ability and knowledge. environmental factors. This can also be a stressor! FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 66 . influences your performance. For Training Purposes Only Arousal Stimulation. Yourself. your experience in the field. such as precision. If we are inundated by stimulation. time frame. also known as arousal.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. What causes a slump in performance? If we are not stimulated sufficiently. 2. The accompanying conditions.9 WORKLOAD Your workload depends on three things: 1. In the case of extreme over−stimulation we are no longer aware of new information. such as stress level. Only if stimulation is in the ’middle ground’ can peak performance be achieved. our attention becomes blunted and we are overcome by indifference or boredom during an activity. our attention tries to focus itself only on the most important things at the expense of the total performance of our brains.

PERFORMANCE LEVEL For Training Purposes Only OVER AROUSAL IDEAL UNDER AROUSAL Figure 36 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Workload Page: 67 .Contributing Factors Yourself..Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9..9 Precision Knowledge and Skill Timeframe Experience Outside Control Fitness and Health Environmental Emotional State mental ..4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE physical Task itself... EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M..

9 Overload If you recall the factors of workload − namely the task itself. helps to prevent overload.  Early intervention. in the same way as with overload.  It is better to assess the situation correctly before an overload develops. It sounds simple. Along with boring routine activities this can happen extremely quickly. Another risk is declining motivation. Imagine an activity which you find easy and enjoyable. Good ideas and short−cuts often result from an overload. Such ideas should be discussed among the team in a low−stress environment. but that is exactly the solution for human overload.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. talk in the group about:  Training. Now reduce the time allowed for it by 50%. In short: Use the time and team resources to get fit for the next ’big load’. Be careful in such cases. What do you do if an electrical system is overloaded? You reduce the load before the fuse blows. for example in time schedules and job planning. The risky combination of bordom and no challenge can lower your attention to the quality of the task. For example. It is sure to come! FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 68 . the accompanying conditions and yourself − it quickly becomes clear where overload starts. What has happened to your load? Under certain circumstances you are no longer able to complete the task. Why is it so difficult to reduce this load? Just think which actions are necessary.  It is important to find agreement within your team. Real teamwork can help. gaining experience.  Improvements  and sensible short−cuts and Completing unfinished tasks. Find additional responsibilities matched to your knowledge and abilities. but it is a potential problem.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. Underload is undemanding work. The greatest risk of underload is that attention deteriorates. If you are always given tasks which demand too little of you − physically as well as mentally − you can easily have the feeling: ”They don’t think I’m up to it!”.. Underload Do workers usually complain about underload? Not usually.

Figure 37 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Over.9 PERFORMANCE MOTIVATION LOAD For Training Purposes Only UNDERLOAD OVERLOAD UNDERLOAD  find agreement within your team.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Gaining experience.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.  Improvements  and sensible short−cuts and Completing unfinished tasks.  Early intervention in time schedules and job planning  Training.  assess the situation correctly before an overload develops.and Underload Page: 69 .

once said that every bad decision he ever made was made when he was tired.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. For example. Some cultures sleep more that others.  Fatigue slows your reaction time. If you lose it or disrupt it. 20 hours of wakefulness has the same effect on driving performance as drinking 2 beers or 2 wines!  Excessive Fatigue can affect your long−term health. and nighttime. William Clinton. And.  First of all. which is often a result of lack of sleep. nature’s soft nurse. scientists have demonstrated that driving while fatigued can be compared to driving while drinking. But there are many additional factors that affect your levels of ”Alertness”.  Fatigue affects your ability to solve problems.  Fatigue and loss of sleep have much the same effect as alcohol.9 FATIGUE General Former US President. The industry does not rest! That is a fact! It is also a fact that humans need sleep. it degrades your work performance.” This unit is about fatigue. The US is an example of a culture that does not sleep enough. a recent survey by the National Sleep Foundation showed that 2 of 3 Americans from the US do not get 8 hours of sleep.  Fatigue can affect the quality of your judgement. The airline industry operates around the globe.  Fatigue can affect you mood and your general attitude about the job and you co−workers.  Your memory is not as good when you are tired. O gentle sleep. you must pay for it. Think about that the next time you drive home from the night shift! Effects We list here some of the effects of fatigue. Even the famous playwrite William Shakespeare drew attention to the importance of sleep: ”O sleep. In fact.S. 1 in 4 Americans say that they are sleepy at work a few days each week. All humans need rest! This requirement does not vary among cultures of the world. it is estimated that 20% of U. auto accidents are related to fatigue. Fatigue is a serious matter for you and for your safe and efficient work. Sleep is like a logistical supply. where it is always somewhere morning.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 70 . afternoon.

S.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. 20% of U.Introduction Page: 71 . auto accidents are related to fatigue FATIGUE For Training Purposes Only ! Breaks Figure 38 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Fatigue .9 Lack of Sleep ? approx.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

meaning a day.S. You should consider the implications of the Circadian Clock on your work schedule. Circadian Clock The Circadian Clock is like an automatic clock in the brain. highly alert and ready for work.9 Alertness ”Alertness” is a term that encompasses all aspects of rest and readiness for work. the nuclear powerplants of Chernobol. about 24 hours. You may have insufficient sleep. Some scientists say that it is in our chromosomes. That includes the shipwreck of the Exxon Valdeeze Oil Tanker in Alaska. and the terrible chemical plant leak in Bhopal. you may be unsafe. It can lead to error and other unsafe conditions. You are not fully fit for duty. in the U. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 72 . India. meaning about. Your safety margin is increased. And.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.. It is probably not a coincidence that many of the worst human error−related disasters of this century started between 1 and 3 am. ”Fatigue” is a lack of energy. It affects all humans. The word Circadian comes from two Latin words: ’Circa’. On one end you can be well−rested. Fatigue is a normal and important human response to physical exhaustion. At the other end of the range is Fatigue.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. Our lowest level of alertness is around 2 in the afternoon and even lower between 1 and 3 am. You can see that we are most alert around 9 in the morning and around 7 at night. or to lack of sleep. in Ukraine and Three−Mile Island. You may be physically and mentally tired. Alertness may be seen as a range. and ’Dias’. emotional stress. The clock therefore affects our level of alertness over about one day. a weariness or tiredness.

fully alert 15 .M.lightly affected 10 . ALERTNESS SCALE SAFE  well rested  alert  fit for duty 3 A.M.degraded alertness 5 .dangerously sleepy 0 09 12 15 18 21 24 03 06 09 Time For Training Purposes Only UNSAFE  exhausted  physical and mental tired  unfit for duty Three-Mile-Island. Ukraine Alertness / Circadian Clock Page: 73 . USA Figure 39 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Tschernobyl. 20 .4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 CIRCADIAN CLOCK Alertness 1 A.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

Chronic Fatigue is long term. You are always fatigued. Treat sleep like money in the bank.  You should eat a balanced diet throughout the day. A small amount of exercise. If you borrow from the bank you must eventually pay it back. sometimes. If you sleep only 5 hours one night you have to sleep a bit more the subsequent nights. exercise and stretch (best in fresh air) when you feel tired. It keeps your body in good condition and it helps you rest. you may have Chronic Fatigue. you should help co−workers who have an occasional lapse in alertness.  When Chronic fatigue is a likely problem one must seek the advice of a professional in sleep disorders.  The cure for acute fatigue is simple − get some rest and sleep. In turn. Fatigue: „Non-Routine Maintenance“ Although you may take all the appropriate steps to avoid fatigue. there may be too much alcohol.  Put the correct ’fuel’ in your tank! (Mineral water. Fatigue: ’Routine Maintenance’ Most maintenance personnel underestimate the seriousness of fatigue and its effects on performance.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE Types of Fatgue There are two types of fatigue: Acute Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue.  There are many things that you can do to promote alertness at work. The party causes you to stay awake throughout the night and. For Training Purposes Only The causes of Chronic Fatigue are not as straightforward as Acute fatigue. Many General Practice Doctors do not have the specialized training to properly diagnose and treat Chronic Fatigue.  Quality exercise prevents fatigue. often resulting from physical sickness or some ongoing emotional stress.  Set a routine for going to bed and for waking up. Working with a partner helps promote alertness. Sometimes acute fatigue many be associated with too much partying the night before. try to schedule the tedious/boring tasks early in the shift when you are most alert. like a walk. The symptoms are the same as Acute fatigue but they reoccur daily. you suffer from a morning or day of acute fatigue.  Often you may get so tired that you are too stubborn to admit your fatigue. The alcohol causes disturbed sleep. If you are always tired. ask your co−workers to assist you. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. fruit drinks)  Turn off the lights and the television.9  Regarding shift work. Take ’good breaks’. Thus.  Sleep experts suggest to avoid caffeine and excessive alcohol before going to bed.  It is a requirement that you come to work fit for duty. It is temporary and of short duration. On the average you should have 8 hours of sleep each night. it is best to sleep before your work shift rather than after the shift.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.  Conversation and caffeine are both good ways to stay awake.  Caffeine is a legal drug that works to keep you alert.  It is good to remain physically active when you are fatigued. When you have alertness challenges. A dark and quiet room promotes sleep. Here is a list of Guidelines. Face the fact that fatigue is a normal human response to physical and/or mental exhaustion. Page: 74 . It is relatively easy to avoid fatigue. In those cases you must work smart to avoid fatigue−related errors. Move around. and the recovery is slow. Acute Fatigue is associated with temporary loss of sleep or temporary exhaustion from brief periods of too much physical or mental work. Keep a sleep record for 2 weeks and see how you do.  Strive to obtain 8 hours of sleep per night. but don’t overstrech it! Drink caffeine before you are tired. they overestimate their ability to overcome fatigue.  When it is hard to remain alert. will help during a break. Eat your balanced meals on a regular schedule and drink water and fruit drinks. Chronic fatigue is more serious than Acute fatigue. there are occasions when you cannot avoid it.  Remember that alertness is a ”Fitness for Duty” issue. In turn.

...... Sickness! ACUTE FATIGUE     Lack of Sleep Temporay Breaks will Help Short Duration .... Sleep/Night Standard Sleep Routine Excercises (Sports) No Caffein and Alcohol before Sleep Balanced Diet Sufficient Drinks Sleep before the Shift Figure 40 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Fatigue: Acute vs. ARE NEARLY THE SAME! „Non-Routine Maintenance“ For Training Purposes Only ’Routine Maintenance’        Accept the Fact that you are tired! Physical excercises (e... streching).9 CHRONIC FATIGUE     THE SYMPTOMES . ........g..Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Develops over Time Period Recover takes a long time Symptoms reoccur on a daily base Often caused by emotional Stress. 8 hr.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M... Chronic Page: 75 .in Fresh Air Take ’Good Breaks’ / Caffein maybe a ’booster’ for a short time  Plan ’boring’ Task in the Beginning  Conversate! -About the Fact that you are tired  Teamwork / Mutual Support     Aprox.

We are not raising our finger in warning here. Even small amounts of alcohol reduce human performance. The effects of alcohol the morning after are often underestimated.x per mil) has been set by the EASA. It should now be clear why you should not position the pointer within the scale.  A blood alcohol level of only 0..500 quotes:’. but EASA Part-66. Vision deteriorates by about 25% and concentration decreases. since the body breaks down about 0.8 and 1.6 per mil.B. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 76 . and so−called ”tunnel−vision” sets in. Your vision narrows.2% a state of euphoria sets in. but it dulls the senses and reduces mental and physical reaction time. Balance and co−ordination are severely affected. MEDICATION AND DRUG ABUSE This chapter is about alcohol. It seems likely that the ’EASA limit’ for blood alcohol for maintenance personnel will be much lower than the one for the roads! Alcohol Alcohol has a calming effect on the central nervous system.2 per mil affects performance and awareness.  Between 0.  At 1.’ Look at the blood alcohol level scale and set your own limit. You overestimate yourself to the extreme. Perception and coordination suffer. body weight. We will also point out current legislation. This chapter will attempt to show the characteristics of various substances and their effects on the body.9 ALCOHOL. medicines and illegal drugs.8 per mil. you begin to lose your inhibitions and to overestimate your abilities.2 per mil there is a drastic reduction in the ability to judge space. Also at this level. feel more euphoric and lose more of your inhibitions. there is still 0.5 − 0.. An example:  If you finish drinking at 1 am with a blood alcohol level of 1.85 per mil in the blood at 6 am. and sex.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. but your reactions become slower and slower. You must draw your own conclusions from the facts! So far no blood alcohol level ( x. the eyes adapt more slowly to changing light conditions.  Spatial judgement begins to decline at 0.1 − 0.under the negative influence of alcohol.15 per mil per hour.  At 0.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. The amount of alcohol in the blood depends on the amount of alcohol consumed...8 per mil it takes 50% longer to react.

0 Concentration and coordination problems. starting speech disorder 1.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.0 You are unable to keep up.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.0 Lethal dose Alcohol and its Effect Page: 77 . depreviation of balance and muscle control.0 Uncontrolled staggering.5 You feel ’tipsy’ and a clear sense of warmth 0.5 Here starts mortal danger 3.9 Per Mil Level Typical Reactions 0. you lose your consciousness 4.8 Limited reactions 1. vomit 2.3 You start to feel the alcohol 0.0 First reactions For Training Purposes Only Where do you set your „personal margin“? Figure 41 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 0. drunken stupor.5 Strong drunkenness 2.

be sure to take it at least 24 hours before you must report to work.9 Medicines Medicines are routinely used in the treatment of illness. as long as they do not contain substances such as antihistamine. This list is not comprehensive. Speak to your doctor or pharmacist about the effects of medicines.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.If you need these to stay awake. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 78 . are quite safe in themselves. but should only be taken if you have a serious infection!  Antihistamines. you are definitely unfit. out! . All medicines − including ’over the counter ones’ − can have side effects which impact our ability to work. such as penicillin.  Preparations to reduce swelling of the nasal passages sometimes have side−effects such as a feeling of apprehension. of course. shivering. Ask yourself seriously if you are not already ’unfit for duty’.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. You may be unfit for a time. Consult your doctor!  Over−the−counter cough mixtures are probably quite safe. for example aspirin.  Antibiotics. should be quite safe if taken correctly.  Stimulants are. racing pulse or headaches. If you are taking a medicine for the first time. as often found in allergy or cold preparations. often cause drowsiness. For Training Purposes Only Here are a few typical medicines along with their effects on our work:  Pain killers.

do you know their effects? Check the description and discuss the this subject with your doctor.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 Do You have to take medicine on a regular base? If the answer is yes. For Training Purposes Only My Medicin: Figure 42 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Medication Page: 79 .4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

irritability. and reaches a maximum after about 15 minutes.  Movements slow down. and possibly convulsions. likely to take risks and feels ”omnipotent”. The effect starts almost immediately and lasts for about four hours.9 Cannabis Cannabis products such as hashish and marihuana are usually smoked in the form of joints. distances and speeds are judged wrongly. sleeplessness. Cocain Cocaine or ”crack” is usually ”snorted” or smoked. and headaches may occur. The effects may be particularly severe if even a small amount of alcohol is consumed at the same time. speech becomes slurred and reaction time becomes longer and  The thought process and perceptions of space and time are distorted. such as aggressiveness.  Possible Depression: fatigue. In all three phases there are strong mental and physical changes. The ”high” begins within a few minutes. Certainly not ’Fit for duty’! FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 80 . The ”high” lasts for three to four hours.  Possible Hallucination: this lasts one to two hours and the user may suffer from illusions. The user becomes sociable. but the medical effect lasts longer − about nine to ten hours.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. with increased sensitivity to dazzling and blurred vision. The following effects are known:  The brain can no longer distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. increased pulse rate and blood pressure with the risk of blackouts.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9.e. i. lethargy may set in. restricted vision and paranoia. dilated pupils. There are three phases:  Euphoria: this lasts about 30 minutes.

Opiates are extremely addictive. nervousness and loss of inhibitions. resulting in a need to increase the dosage. Depression. including stumbling. The effects start within minutes.4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE „Designer Drugs“ & LSD Speed. with the possibility of convulsions and a loss of muscular control. anxiety. with effects that may include dizziness. morphine and heroin usually injected. This lasts for about eight hours. there is the danger of mental addiction. EASA PART 66 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 81 . Physical effects are: Pin−point pupils with no reaction to light and complete night blindness. This can last for days! The effects could be: hallucinations. and increased pulse rate. exhaustion and anxiety may result  Flashback. drowsiness. but in the case of heroin addiction this becomes shorter and shorter. paranoia and panic. and illusions. Extasy and ’Adam and Eve’ are amphetamines or designer drugs. If taken frequently. euphoria and subjectively increased performance. even virtual unconsciousness are the symptoms and  Coming down. to restlessness. This takes about 45 minutes. Apathy.  Stoned. morphine and heroin.  Coming down. They are usually swallowed in the form of a small pill. indifference and blankness of expression. CAT A/B1/B2 M. distorted perception.  There may also be an increase in pulse rate and blood pressure. confusion and disorientation. and the mind concentrates on finding more dope. irritability. The effect lasts from about four to eight hours. depending on the drug. slurred speech and loss of muscular control. There are four phases:  Coming up. with possible hallucinations and reduced muscular control. increased pulse rate and may be convulsions.  The high. The fear of coming down itself sets in. The risk of an overdose is great. There is a strong feeling of happiness. For Training Purposes Only LSD is found in various forms and is usually swallowed or sucked.  Subjectively increased performance leads to a greater willingness to take risks. slow physical movements. The effect lasts for a maximum of five to six hours. There are three phases:  The flash or rush. optical and acoustic hallucinations. and lasts for up to eight hours. When injected. with paranoia and a tendency to violent acts. Opium is usually smoked. with a high degree of tolerance leading to an increase in dosage. the effect is immediate. possibly to delusions.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 Opiates Opiates include opium. extremely dilated pupils with extreme sensitivity to light.

Physical environment includes: noise. fumes. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 82 . supervision and leadership. cultural issues.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. peer pressure.3 Social Psychology 2. climate and temperature. This subject is covered under Chapter M 9. The social environment and The social environment includes: motivation. Climate and temperature. Working environment. The direct physical environment. INTRODUCTION For Training Purposes Only The subject ”work environment” can be divided into two main sections: 1. lighting.9 M9. responsibility. Motion and vibration. Illumination. movement and vibration and confined spaces.5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Noise and fumes. teamwork and management.5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

3 Social Psychology NOISE Social Environment/ Motivation FUMES Responsibilities ILLUMINATION Peer Pressure PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE & TEMPERATURE Culture Issues MOTION & VIBRATION Teamwork Supervision CONFINED SPACES DIRECT WORK ENVIRONMENT For Training Purposes Only SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Figure 43 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Work Environment Page: 83 .5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 See: M9.

Noise can be thought of as any unwanted sound. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 84 . This explains why the ticking of a watch can be annoying (noisy!). with all its negative effects on the human being. The brain can filter out much of the background noise. you should protect yourself from the noise. and camouflage warning sounds. the noise levels exceed these figures. If you cannot understand a normal conversation within a radius of two metres. (During some maintenance Tasks .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. But this activity leads to a reduction in concentration. and may be annoying and unpleasant.5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. disturb communication (if not make it totally impossible). Noise can cause stress. Typical Noise Zones In aircraft maintenance we can expect noise levels  from 85 dB(A) to 90 dB(A) on the apron  and 70dB(A) to 75 dB(A) in the hangar.) For Training Purposes Only There is a useful rule−of−thumb to answer the question ”Do I need an ear protector?”.9 NOISE Noise at the workplace can distract. Noise is subjective and perceived differently by different people. especially if it is loud.

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9..9 NOISE CAN .5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M...CAUSES STRESS For Training Purposes Only Typical Noise Zones in Maintenance Enviroment  70dB(A) (Decibel) bis 75dB(A)  Caution: during some maintenance Tasks expect much higher levels!  85dB(A) (Decibel) bis 90 dB(A) Figure 44 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Noise Page: 85 .DISTRACT . ..DISTURBS COMMUNICATION ..CAMOUFLAGE WARNINGS ..

9 FUMES In the maintenance environment there are many materials such as grease. the ’motivation’ is often lowered and you want to get the job done as soon as possible. They often smell nasty. Working under thoose conditions. fumes lead to performance limitations. Serious damage to health can otherwise result. FUMES hazardous ’unpleasant’ one is ’only ’aware of Warnings Safety Regulations Health Damages possible Fumes For Training Purposes Only Figure 45 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 86 . In the case of health hazards.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. paint and solvent − that vaporise. The resulting fumes can be categorised as unpleasant and hazardous to health. oil. and may irritate the eyes . warning notices and safety regulations must be obeyed.5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. You are only ”aware” of unpleasant fumes. Besides the health aspects.

 Natural light is best for recognising colours. Note: Mercury vapour lamps are often found as Hangar and Apron illumination. But what is proper illumination? Whether natural or artificial. − average for florescent tubes − and poor for mercury vapour lamps. light sources have very different light properties. a red cable appears as anything from orange to black. POOR Artificial Light Natural Light Caution: Rotating parts quickly appear to be stationary when illuminated by florescent tubes. This is also called the stroboscope effect. This is clearly illustrated by our perception of colour under different light sources.5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 ILLUMINATION In order to carry out maintenance you need proper illumination. In this case. correct color recognition depends on proper illumination! When the focus is on light efficiency.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Efficiency For Training Purposes Only POOR AVERAGE GOOD BEST Figure 46 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Ilumination Page: 87 . The mercury vapour lamps do best. the rating changes completely.  The ratings for artificial light are: − good for candescent light. because of its efficency. ILLUMINATION Artificial Light Natural Light Colour Perception GOOD BEST AVERAGE Clearly.

dust/other airborne contamination. the particular maintenance or inspection tasks must be suspended until satisfactory conditions are re−established.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Result: The Performance level further decreases! The authorities (EASA) has come to grips with the matter and applied regulations.25 Celsius 25 . Optimum Sunlight Strong Winds Precipitation Arctic Temperature Zones Tropic Desert PERFORMANCE LEVEL Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.25 Facility requirements Individual performance depends strongly on temperature. 7. moisture.. .. light. Page: 88 . FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 5.A...5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 18 . Other factors include:  wind.85 % relative Humidity Cold & Humid Figure 47 Climate and Temperature Cold & Dry CLIMATE Hot & Dry Hot & Humid Extract from For Training Purposes Only EASA Part 145. .. ice.9 CLIMATE AND TEMPERATURE Humans can exist and work under various climatic conditions.  sunlight  and precipitation. 6. We cannot change the weather − so work must be adjusted to suit the conditions. Therefore where the working environment deteriorates to an unacceptable level in respect of temperature. Age also plays a role.. The graph shows the connection between performance and climatic factors. wind.. humidity and other climatic factors. the working environment for line maintenance is such that the particular maintenance or inspection task can be carried out without undue distraction. hail. snow...

such scenes are rarely seen in aviation. In some circumstances a task cannot be completed safely.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Fingers and hands can become numb as a result of using machines that vibrate strongly.. In the meantime. For Training Purposes Only At first he focuses on his safety. precise work.. Vibration can be a safety challenge. Vibrations and motions reduce performance and lead to fatigue and distraction. Cheery Picker moves Height will augment the sensation. and as a result is distracted.! Height affects the reaction of a person more strongly than when on solid ground..9 MOTION AND VIBRATION Vibrations Vibrations Of course. is virtually impossible.5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.. SAFETY. Vibrations in maintenance stem mainly from the use of tools. Working on wobbly grounds. such as making fine adjustments. Movements Fatigue Distraction Platforms What comes to mind when you look at this picture? Physical activities which are not carried out on firm ground.. It can take a long time for feeling to return to the hands.. such as rivet guns or grinding and polishing machines. Figure 48 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Motion & Vibration Page: 89 . can lead to sudden movement.

000Hz). These sonic waves can damage nerve canals.000 HERTZ NOT AUDIBLE! For Training Purposes Only Can damage nerve cells Figure 49 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Dangerous Sonic-Waves Page: 90 . but which can damage internal organs (e. When there is a danger there will proper labeling and warnings.  Going near a running engine will not harm you as long as you take the usual safety precautions.5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. kidneys). Infra-Sonic Waves Some engines emit INFRA−SONIC WAVES. Sonic Waves Ultra-Sonic Waves ULTRA−SONIC WAVES are above our hearing range (>20. which you cannot hear (<20Hz).9 DANGEROUS SONIC WAVES Engines are sources of sonic waves.g. Can damage intenal organs (internal bleeding!) Infra-Sonic < 20 HERTZ Ultra-Sonic > 20.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

Speak openly about it and take a break. good planning is recommended. NOT UNDER SELF-CONTROL! For Training Purposes Only PANIC!!! Figure 50 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Confined Spaces Page: 91 . other areas. The time between feeling uneasy and having a panic attack can be very short.9 WORKING ENVIRONMENT Confined Spaces You do not have to suffer from claustrophobia to get an uneasy feeling at the thought of climbing into a fuel tank. apart from the ’classical example’ of the fuel tank.? Do I suffer from Claustrophobia? Uneasy. When working in confined spaces.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Here are some tips:  Follow all safety regulations. and is usually not under your control. The build of the worker should be considered.  Make sure that ventilation and lighting are good. NARROW. Of course. can also lead to uneasy feelings and claustrophobia...  and make your job as comfortable as possible for yourself. It should not be necessary to send a six−foot−six mechanic into the smallest of tanks. Should you still feel uneasy. There have been cases of working in tanks where people have had to be rescued by the emergency services. depending on the type of aircraft.5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.  Let a colleague assist you.. especially if entry and exit is limited.. Stay in contact with your colleagues. it is nothing to be ashamed of.

9 M9. a group of mechanics or process engineering − they all have to do their preparatory planning before starting with the actual job. repair. The ”SHELL” model of chapter M9.1 shows how these individual topics are interlocked. replacement. Communication between colleagues can often help to eliminate ambiguities.6 TASKS In cases of doubt concerning the work to be performed. which spare parts will be needed. The supervisor usually delegates individual jobs to the members of his team.6 Tasks combines many topics of ”Human Factors” that have already been discussed previously. required qualifications and skills  specific tasks must be detailed on ”Task Sheets”. For Training Purposes Only EASA PART 66 This planning includes:  exact analysis of the work to be performed  considerations concerning the required means and tools − are these available in the necessary numbers and in due time. The individual tasks have to be clearly specified as check. PHYSICAL WORK Planning Thorough planning must precede all work procedures. The individual mechanic. or overhaul. A ”good mixture” of mental and physical activities is important to avoid various aspects of exhaustion and stress. Page: 92 . In case the mechanic is not absolutely sure of that. availability of hangars etc. Furthermore additional information like AMM references or part numbers must not be missing FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 In general the shift supervisor is responsible for the provision of the means and tools necessary to perform the work. the mechanic has to refer to written documentations. B1/B2 etc. It is in the responsibility of the management to ensure every mechanic receives the training necessary for the performance of the tasks required of him or her:  Every individual mechanic is responsible for his/her decision as to whether or not he/she has acquired the necessary training and experience to deal with the desired task. To just ask a colleague for clarification is by no means sufficient. As an alternative the supervisor of course can delegate a complete work procedure to a team.) and experiences that have been acquired in a specific field of work. but at the latest it must be accounted for when realising the work demands on the technical object. At best this should already be considered when planning the task. what about the documentations.6 TASKS CAT A/B1/B2 M. inspection. he should not hesitate to mention his doubts even if he is subjected to peer pressure and additional pressure from the management. − On the other hand such a conversation is advisable should the documents provide no specific details or only imprecise information. Physical work Repetitive tasks Visual inspection Complex systems INTRODUCTION Chapter M9. as wrong or improper information could be passed on.  planning of personnel with respect to number of persons. In this case the individual members of the team will perform those jobs which correspond to his/her qualifications (CAT A.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

6 TASKS Figure 51 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Task-Planning Page: 93 .9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

The aim of the Boeing Company is to facilitate maintenance of modern aircraft by incorporating data on the physical abilities and capabilities of its staff. lifting heavy structural components) or they are facilitated in this way. In the long run intensive physical work will lead to exhaustion.6 TASKS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. The attempt to lift an extremely heavy object is usually beyond our physical properties and might even lead to injuries. but the effects of aging cannot be eliminated all together. If the body is granted sufficient time for relaxation and recovery.) and on the force that is necessary to create for example a certain leverage. because exhausting our motor skills to the limit will decrease our faculty of perception. strength etc. Exercise can minimize this process. the result may well be injury instead of productiveness. precision work with a high demand on fine motor skills and work which requires physical strength and thus a high demand on gross motor skills. This applies for both. But when break−times are ignored in order to finish a particular job within a certain time. This increases the risk of injury and prolongs the healing time. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 94 . our awareness and our work standards. The physical properties of people are different of course. For Training Purposes Only The older a person gets. The amount of aircraft maintenance work has to be physically manageable for the staff.g. Many tasks are only possible with the help of suitable tools and devices (e.9 Physical work Maintenance work is a rather energetic activity and it requires a relatively high amount of physical energy from the employees. The Boeing company uses a computer program that is based on human performance data (average body size. this will not create problems.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. the stiffer the body and the weaker the muscles become.

6 TASKS Figure 52 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Physical Work Page: 95 .9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

.... In maintenance the monotony is usually created by repetitive activities that have to be performed when doing a certain check... As a matter of fact a thorough inspection does not take place any more................ FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Checking Point 1: examination of the elevator for...... so why should there be one today?)  .................................. A positive development one may think....... or during any other short period of time......... In addition to vision...  Facts are being replaced by assumptions (we have never had a problem with that....... the other senses are usually also required.... In chapter M9. The task ”checking life vests for completeness” during a night stop may prove as ”monotonous” as the fiftiest special check of a certain engine type. A sensible change between physical and mental work can improve matters ( see task planning)..................... The level of complexity of the respective tasks is of minor importance........ It is obvious that you will need functioning sensory organs ( see chapter M9..... perception and vision are limited............... You can fully concentrate on the job (for instance an inspection) without having to think about the way it has to be done.................................  Work procedures are consciously or unconsciously ”modified” in order to break away from the monotony................... experience and common sense are important here......6 TASKS CAT A/B1/B2 M... For Training Purposes Only EASA PART 66 Maybe you can think of similar reactions.....4)...  Clearance of mountings .  .......  obvious damage ......... mirrors....Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Similar to physical work..... Most scientific research on that topic has been done in the field of manufacture (assembly line) and thus is not easily transferable to aircraft maintenance...... Visual inspections are one of the primary methods to ensure the airworthiness of an aircraft.. boroscopes) Visual inspections are a question of concentration.............  Delamination of panels . Concentration decreases.... Routine is created by frequency and repetition... Monotonous activities are one source for this type of mistake.. exhaustion will result sooner or later. during shift−work.........................  The documentation is not used anymore or only in a superficial way.....8 we deal with the problem of complacency in more detail........ visual checks of components during large inspections up to detailed examinations using equipment like boroscopes..................9 REPETITIVE TASKS VISUAL INSPECTION Monotonous activities may have a tiring effect and can decrease stimulation ( see chapter M9... Training............. Here is a simple practical example...2) apart from other necessary gear (lights.......... Those topics are also called ”situation awareness”...... A further aspect of visual inspections is assessment.............. Please find out which of your sensory organs you will need to use................ But when routine arrives at the level that ”you feel like being able to do the work in your sleep” the danger of complacency is not to be disregarded.................. Page: 96 .. Visual inspections include simple pre−flight and post−flight checks............. although the respective area is still being looked at..

9 Monotonous Tasks? For Training Purposes Only Boroscope Check Figure 53 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Monotonous Tasks / Visual Inspections Page: 97 .6 TASKS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

In the past the term for situation awareness was used only for cockpit personnel. Our knowledge tells us that the service panel belongs to the forward toilet facilities. 1. The prediction is that the liquid could freeze and then blocks of ice could hit the engine or other components. This stage may involve listening attentively.Model Page: 98 . Look carefully at the picture and go consciously through the three stages. 3. Situation awareness can be divided into three stages:  The first stage is Perception − for example loose bolts and missing parts. Today it is also recognized in aircraft maintenance. Often it was only the ”donut” that was replaced. The aircraft is obviously losing a considerable amount of liquid. Example The following example should help clarify the three stages of situation awareness. beginning at the service panel and ending in the middle of the wing. Perception recognizes a blue−green smear along the side of the fuselage.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9.6 TASKS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. awareness and decision reaching areas in our brain. The nicks remained in the fan blades! SITUATION AWARENESS Sensing Attention Awareness Short Term Memory Decision Motor Neuron Action Feedback PERCEPTION Situation Awareness UNDERSTANDING: Why is it so? Is it the way it should be? PREDICTION How will it develop? What effects can it have? Figure 54 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Long Term Memory Situation Awareness .  The 2nd stage of Situation Awareness is understanding: Why is it so? Is it the way it should be?  The third stage is Prediction: How will it develop? What effects can it have? ’Prediction’ can also look back and ask − What was the reason? Situation awareness in the technical field means: − recognizing the state of the system. The pipe seal or the ”donut” is defective or completely missing.9 Situation Awareness Situation awareness is an important topic in ”Human Factors” and is a complicated process that takes place in the attention. − forming a relationship between defect and modification and − predicting the possible effect on other systems. 2.

Real Life Page: 99 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 PERCEPTION UNDERSTANDING For Training Purposes Only PREDICTION Figure 55 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Situation Awareness .6 TASKS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

Basic System Purpose. Manuals and released procedures are of an even greater importance than in the case of comparable basic systems. Today the documentation of the manufacturers is put together according to the most advanced standards. They enable the technician to perform his work or to facilitate it. In order to maintain such systems you need a specific training. In our example ”elevator operation” knowledge in the areas airframe/engine (EASA CAT B1) and avionics (EASA CAT B2) is required. A single modern aircraft is usually complex enough − nevertheless the aircraft technicians are normally qualified for more than one aircraft type. trouble shooting and diagnosis should be relatively simple − but the respective manuals must be consulted nevertheless. as the trend goes from mechanical operation towards advanced electronic systems. Routine work. A320:  The cylinder is hydraulically isolated and bypassed permanently. Sudden changes in the lateral attitude of the aircraft in proximity to the ground were the result (!) In almost all cases the technicians had achieved ”several years of experience with Boeing aircraft and had only recently finished an A320 training” (quote from the incident report). Configuration and function are usually quite difficult to understand completely.6 TASKS CAT A/B1/B2 M. This complexity will increase even more in the future. Due to the linkage of individual systems one cannot be sure to understand everything in detail anymore.9 COMPLEX SYSTEMS All modern aircraft can be seen as ”complex systems”. Another aspect of this complexity is the necessary specialization of the technicians. a maintenance unlocking device (hex drive) is turned. although trouble shooting will be far easier. Different ”philosophies” of the manufacturers have quite a share in the hazard potential as well. Operation of the elevator is used here to clarify this trend.  The spoiler can be lifted manually  Resetting the cylinder has to be effected via the maintenance unlocking device (hex drive). which will be even more complex. configuration and function of a basic system are usually easy to comprehend for an aircraft technician. but not without a critical attitude. Thus we have to follow manufacturers’ instructions. Teamwork is absolutely necessary and its importance will be increased even more in the future. This is almost identical on Airbus and Boeing airplanes. Within this system there are many individual systems and components which are complex themselves. For Training Purposes Only EASA PART 66 Complex Systems When dealing with complex systems the aircraft technician must be familiar with the purpose of the system at least. Here an example: In order to be able to lift a spoiler for maintenance purposes. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 It will not be practicable to achieve the same level of familiarity with all these aircraft types − one more reason to adhere to the manufacturers’ instructions. B757/767:  The cylinder is internally unlocked and hydraulically isolated and bypassed  The spoiler can then be lifted manually  Resetting of the cylinder is effected automatically when the spoiler is retracted again. Page: 100 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Several incidents on A320 airplanes have been reported worldwide where the spoiler(s) where suction during approach (airspeed/ landing flap position) has caused the spoilers to lift. The future will be dominated by integrated mechatronics. Here it is important to observe a balance of detailed technical knowledge and analytic proceeding during trouble shooting.

6 TASKS EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 ? „Complex System“ Elevator Electronic Flight Control System Yoke (Boeing) „Sidestick“ (Airbus) EFCS Electrical Signal Aircraft Systems Hydraulic Actuator (Servo) Yoke Elevator Autopilot Cables/Push-pull Rods For Training Purposes Only Hydraulic Actuator (Servo) „Simple System“ Yoke Elevator Cables/Push-pull Rods Figure 56 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Complex Systems Page: 101 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

unnecessary revisions.  Facial Expressions. Assume a ’normal’ conversation. maintenance error. INTRODUCTION For Training Purposes Only General Communication is a critical component of safe and efficient maintenance work. In each conversation we use wording. tone of voice and body language as so called ’non-verbal elements’. Communication issues are the number one type of cause of events in aviation maintenance.7 COMMUNICATION EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Eyeand Head movements Dissemination of information. loss of time and money. Work logging and recording. A few examples are: Lower quality and performance. delays. Which of these methods is most important in aviation maintenance? Check the correct box.7 COMMUNICATION Within and between teams. personnel conflicts. currency. The list of results of poor communication is endless. Arm. we will discuss communication by offering a small amount of theoretical explanation and a number of practical ways to minimize communication−related issues. frustration.9 M9. Why is communication difficult? How do communication errors lead to so many errors in maintenance? What does Communication mean? Communication is the exchange of informations between two or more persons. and Body posture. How much is transported by words and how much by non−verbal signals Your guess Words % Tone of voice % Body language % (Answer see next page) FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 100% Page: 102 . Keeping up to date. Eye. Reading and Writing Facial expresions Speaking and Listening Leg-. and Head movements. Among the many ways that humans communicate:  Writing and Reading. Therefore. All of these methods are critical for effective communication.  Speaking and Listening.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. Arm-.  Leg. In it. and many more. this unit is very important.

In order to make communication possible the sender has to translate his thoughts. his expectations and apprehensions. spectator). This makes it very important for the sender to make sure his messages are correctly understood.) Words only 8 − 10% Tone of voice 40% Body language 50 − 52% Sender Receiver Feedback ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ Idea Idea encode decode Words Words ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ Sender/Receiver Communication model ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ = 100% FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 103 . The receiver is left to his own devices when doing so. Some may not be understood at all. author. Answer (from previous page) For Training Purposes Only EASA PART 66 Percentage (approx. The meaning he gives to what he hears depends on his former experience.  He has to decode. communication is performed from  a sender (speaker.  We have to give or demand feedback. reader. The receiver has to understand the meaning.7 COMMUNICATION CAT A/B1/B2 M. artist)  to a receiver (listener.  He has to encode them. But if we are dealing with information whose correct comprehension is vital. In every day life we can usually tell from the receiver’s reactions whether or not he or she has understood correctly what we tried to get across. This way.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. messages or his knowledge into recognizable signals. some messages may be misunderstood.9 Communication model As a rule.

The ’Three C’s’ represent the three main principles of every communication: Clear − Correct and Complete. An example: Mike: ”Hey.7 COMMUNICATION EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. you over there?“ and. blade Number 3 at the blade tip?” Whenever you communicate: keep it clear.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 104 .  at which part of the propeller is the cut? At the leading edge? At the trailing edge or at the blade tip? Correct communication is precise. on the aircraft ABC. Thus. Speaking (transmitting) 2. you over there. Listening (receiving) 3. tell him to say: ”John. as we are responsible for our communication. There is a good rule for optimal communication. we need to make every effort to optimise it. did you see the cut in the propeller?” Was that clear? No! At least 3 kinds of information are missing:  Which aircraft?  Which propeller?  Which blade? Clear communication is concrete and easily understandable. It is the rule of the ’Three C’s’. correct and complete. and provides exact information without mistakes. So. Feedback (give and receive) Proper communication is important to each of us. Was this complete? No! Complete communication is thorough and explicit. when you meet Mike the next time. Was this correct? No! At least 2 questions remain:  Who is ”Hey. did you see the cut in the Number 2 propeller.9 Oral Communication Each verbal Communication process has three areas where you can actively make improvements: 1.

Figure 57 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Transmitting and Receiving Page: 105 . Express your thoughts and feelings clearly.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.  Be self confident.  Listen actively. Don’t wait for the ”catchword” you always use to make your point.  Consider the knowledge of your listeners and adapt your speech to it. but also with your gestures.  Use a positive body language. For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 Rules for Speaking  Speak using the first person singular.  Concentrate.  Don’t interrupt. What the speaker has to tell you should be important enough for you to listen to it closely.7 COMMUNICATION Rules for listening  Turn to the speaker.  Speak for a purpose and make sure that everybody knows what your purpose is. This stresses that you take responsibility for what you say. Address your listeners not only orally. Ask questions.

EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Don’t choose the breakfast break in the canteen when you are surrounded by the other colleagues.7 COMMUNICATION FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 106 . leave alone understand your hurt feelings.  When you are giving feedback you should be together with only those you are offering the feedback to and you should have enough time at your disposal.  In addition to that you might have worked yourself in a rage over four weeks. If you do this. This can make a matter of fact conversation difficult for you. For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. It’s no use to show your feelings about something four weeks after the incident happened. You would have made the previous four weeks easier for you if you had reacted immediately. People will not even remember the incident. It is important that nobody tries to use the feedback procedure to get the better of others.9 Rules for feedback Feedback can be given and received.  Feedback is a personal process. the person you are talking to will probably refuse to communicate with you any further.  Be conscious of place and time.

if anything remains unclear. not those of others. If you are vague you might not be understood. Check on your motivation. You can only give your impressions.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.  Speak for yourself only.  Use the first person singular.  Show respect.  Listen to the end before you answer. Do you intend to help or to hurt? Feedback Page: 107 .  Criticize behavior.  Thank the person who gives you feedback It shows that you are important enough to him or her to care about you and your problems. do not generalize.9 ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ FEEDBACK FEEDBACK For Training Purposes Only ASK FOR FEEDBACK Message Receiving feedback  Clarify the facts.  Be constructive. not persons. Ask. Figure 58 FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍ (IDEAL) Giving feedback  Be precise. Try to make suggestions. Don’t start preparing your answer before the other person has finished speaking. It is unfair and will cause your partner to take up a defense position anyway.  Check if there is anything in the answers you can learn from.7 COMMUNICATION EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

Cool off before you send a message that you may later regret.. When writing a message you should observe the following: The text has to. The rules for written communication also apply to electronic communication. Clear. and Complete. First of all. instructions for work procedures and log book entries are some examples for a communication that’s based on writing and reading. E−mail messages should be short and to the point. Job−cards. when you write an E−mail it is good to remember the 3 Cs: Correct.General In your work area the written word is as important as the spoken word.. The receiver cannot ask the transmitter to clarify.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9.  be readable  include all necessary information  be formulated clearly  be easily understandable  be free of emotions (at least in business matters) You shouldn’t neglect the following considerations:  What is the reader’s level of knowledge?  Is the reader familiar with the subject?  Does the reader understand your language?  What is the reader’s attitude? Written communication is more difficult than verbal communication.7 COMMUNICATION EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Written communication . Again. treat an E−mail as if it was a written letter that will be printed and sent for many to see. work plans. Never write an E−mail when you are angry. There are no spoken words or body language to provide critical feedback. Be careful to check the addressee so as not to send the message to the wrong person. Therefore. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 108 . you must be aware of these challenges when you write a message to someone.9 DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION. This is true for several reasons: There is limited feedback between the transmitter and the receiver.

 Do your very best to follow the company procedure on log book completion. correct and complete.  Create an organized routine for shift change.7 COMMUNICATION EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.  Take your time. imprecise or incomplete descriptions or citation of incorrect ATA chapter. shift turnover is not only a time to say hello to colleagues.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 Shift Turnover & Log Book-Entries Communication is critical to safe and efficient shift turnover. Another important form of written communication is the log book entry.  It must be clear. Maintenance uses the documentation to determine whether the airplane can be released to service again.  Describe what has been done and what must be completed.  When an uncompleted task crosses shifts it is especially important to communicate the status of the job. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC 2005 Page: 109 . The captain will rely on it to assess the condition of the airplane.  Try to meet in the same location each day. Most of the errors are caused by carelessness. Treat written communication as a critical safety item. Thus. The common mistakes are: illegible handwriting. such as installing a warning flag on components or switches.  Make special note of any tasks that may not be documented on the job card.  Know the persons who are responsible for communication of information. but also to communicate critical job−related information. Safety is dependent on all of your work tasks including the ”Paperwork”. and complete the logbook with attention to detail. This document is the ”Medical History” of the aircraft.  Complete all job card written documentation so that all information is available.

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.e accidents) Avoiding and managing errors.9 M9. Transport Canada Page: 110 . FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Gordon Dupont. that will never change! However. and will offer guidelines for minimizing such errors. Then.” The Dirty Dozen is a listing of the 12 most common causes of human error in maintenance. as aviation maintenance personnel you must take the proper steps to minimize error. This unit will first define error. No matter how we try. Implications of errors (i. Concept developed by Gordon Dupont For Training Purposes Only To minimize error.8 HUMAN ERROR Error models and theories. ERROR MODELS AND THEORIES General To err is human.  It is a matter of safety!  It is also a matter of pride in your work and a matter of cost control for your company. the section will show you the 12 most common errors that humans make. The concept was developed by Mr. As humans we make mistakes. Finally. Gordon Dupont at Transport Canada. Throughout the human factors training you may hear the words ”Dirty Dozen. it is necessary to understand error. the section will offer graphical models to help you visualize error.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Types of error in maintenance tasks.

This nut and bolt assembly can only be disassembled one way. of which only one is correct! This is a good example of the complexity. and chance of error. Figure 59 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Human Error Page: 111 . there are over 40.9 To Err is Human! MAINTENANCE ERRORS COST MONEY!! SAFETY FACTOR minimise Error Error containment As humans we make mistakes .8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. However.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.000 combinations for reassembly. in aviation maintenance environments.that will never change! 1 2 For Training Purposes Only 3 4 5 6 EXAMPLE: Look at this easy example of one bolt with many nuts.

a Psychology Professor at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 SWISS CHEES .MODELL Professor James Reason. uses Swiss cheese to explain safety.  The gaps may be caused by individuals or by the organisation. more substantial portion of the cheese represents the many safety systems or ”defences” that stop the danger arrow. and with airline maintenance. For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.  With Swiss cheese. The solid. it is very rare that all of the holes align. The holes represent ”gaps” in the safety system.  The solid portion of the cheese can be called the ”preventative or corrective actions” that prevent the danger arrow from penetrating the pile of cheese. His ”Swiss Cheese” model is shown. Remember this model as you learn about minimizing human error.8 HUMAN ERROR FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 112 . The holes in the Swiss cheese can also be called ”Contributing Factors” that lead to an event.

inadequate Individual Interactions with local factors Organisation For Training Purposes Only Productive Activities .deficencies Event (Arrow) Figure 60 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Management .„psychological“ precursors of unsafe acts Line Management .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.unsafe acts Preconditions .failable decisions „Swiss Cheese“ Model Page: 113 .9 Gaps Preventive or Corrective Actions Contributing Factors Defences .8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

or the mechanic should have chosen not to use it. FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 114 . latent Error What are the different kinds of error? The first type is active error. you read a torque value from the job card and you transposed 26 to 62. or the company issues that lead up to the event. The second type is latent error. − or regulations. For Training Purposes Only EASA PART 66 Activer Error Figure 61 Latent Error Active vs. When you see latent conditions that may lead to error you should report them. or the specific individual activity that is an obvious event. you select the wrong work card to conduct a specific job. a violation is always conducted willingly (on purpose or intentionally)  NOTE: ’good intentions’ . Generally an error is ”an unsafe act unintentionally committed”. − standards. Someone should have replaced the broken ladder. Contrary to mistake or slip. For example.  A mistake is a ”bad plan”. The latent error was the broken ladder.  A slip (and lapse) is merely a good plan poorly executed.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.may have the same result as ’bad intentions’! A violation occurs when you deviate from. − safe practices. In this example the active error was falling from the ladder.8 HUMAN ERROR CAT A/B1/B2 M. we don’t err on purpose! An error can be a slip or a mistake. For example. In other words. Think about it. − procedures.9 TYPES OF ERROR How is ERROR defined? There are many definitions of error. Much of the information on the card may not apply to the work task. only a few of which are offered here.  A violation is a very serious mistake.

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.good / .bad intentions VIOLATION For Training Purposes Only Used wrong Task Card Did NOT use a Task Card at all! (SABOTAGE) Motivation Intended actions Figure 62 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Error Types Page: 115 .8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 SLIP (LAPSE) MISTAKE Unintended actions Transposed numbers Error Type Root cause SLIP Awareness LAPSE Memory Rule based MISTAKE Routines / Patterns of behaviour Knowledge based MISTAKE Knowledge and problemsolving strategies VIOLATION Motivation .

8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. and also know the best methods for preventing them. If we could eliminate or control these 12 causes of error we would eliminate a very high percentage of maintenance−related events.” Throughout the human factors training you may hear the words ”Dirty Dozen” many times. ”To Err is Human. By the end of your Human Factors training you should remember many of these errors.9 DIRTY DOZEN We all make the same kind of errors and we are all human. The following is a listing of the Dirty Dozen: Lack of communication Lack of teamwork Norms Pressure Complacency Lack of knowledge Lack of awareness Lack of ressources Distraction Assertiveness Fatigue Stress For Training Purposes Only             FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 116 .Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. We will look at each factor that contributes to an error. and offer possible corrective actions to prevent such error.

9 Lack of Communication Lack of Teamwork Norms Pressure Complacency Lack of Knowlegde Lack of Awareness Lack of Resources For Training Purposes Only Distraction Lack of Assertiveness Fatigue Stress Figure 63 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Dirty Dozen Page: 117 .8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

1994 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 118 . Tips What are some of the corrective actions that can be taken?  First of all: Be aware of the challenges. You must be continuously aware of the communication challenge.7 Communication) deals with this factor exclusively.EMB120 . All three are important!  When you communicate.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. There are many opportunities to fail in communication.  Remember that complete communication requires a transmitter. LACK OF COMMUNICATION YES! I checked the oil BILL! Are the screws tightened For Training Purposes Only Continental Express . remember the 3 C’s: Correct − Clear − Complete.  Assumptions are dangerous. a receiver and feedback. therefore a whole chapter (M9. Be sure by looking for the feedback.9 LACK OF COMMUNICATION Communication errors are the most common type of error.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Try to avoid assuming that your message was understood.

EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 64 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Lack of Communication Page: 119 .9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

− Make sure that everyone understands what is going on.  Recognize that the team’s success is a shared success. Tips What are the Corrective Actions for Lack of Teamwork?  Communicate the group goal. ”Lack of Teamwork” is another of the Dirty Dozen.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Lack of teamwork is the failure of a group to work together to achieve a common goal.  Recognize that each person must contribute to the team goal.  Do you give your best effort to serving your customers? You must remind yourself to treat your teammates the same as your most important customers. For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.9 LACK OF TEAMWORK LACK OF TEAMWORK Maintenance requires teamwork. − The team leader should promote this understanding.8 HUMAN ERROR FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 120 .  A good team should communicate the challenges. When something goes wrong it should be discussed. not ignored.

8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 65 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Lack of Teamwork Page: 121 .9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

Lufthansa Technical Training
For Training Purposes Only

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.8 HUMAN ERROR

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9
NORMS
Norms are the commonly accepted work practices within an organization.
Norms are not usually written down − they are simply the methods by which the
organization works. Often „norms“ are bad practices, bypassing „inconvenient
procedures“ but there are examples of „good norms“ as well.
Here is an example of a good norm for shift turnover. 
(Klaus): ”Hi Stefan, let me tell you what we did today and what are the next
tasks. We also wrote this information on the job cards” 
(Stefan): ”Thanks Klaus, I want to be sure I understand this so I can explain
it to the team. By the way, are the lock pins and power−on warnings
installed as usual?” 
(Klaus): Also Stefan, remind everyone that the lock pins for the thrust
reverser are hard to see, and must be removed before the aircraft is ready
for service. I also wrote that down.” 
(Stefan):”OK Klaus, have a good evening and I will see you the same time
tomorrow.”
Tips
Now let’s look at some of the corrective actions for bad norms. Remember that
a violation was defined as a disregard of regulations and operating procedures.
Often the difference between a norm and a violation is based on whether or not
there is an incident.
If you do something merely ”because everyone does it that way” you may be
subject to legal action. 
Therefore, a corrective action may be finding proper documentation for the
norm. 
It is OK to ask why a procedure is not documented. There should be a
reasonable answer or you should not follow the action. 
Pressure from your co−workers can force you to follow undocumented
procedures. 
Assume leadership. Be assertive and push for converting the good norms to
good written procedures. Finally, adopt the ”Good Norms”.

FRA US/F-4 GoS

JAN 2006

NORMS

Chickago, 1979 American Airlines DC10

Page: 122

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9

For Training Purposes Only

Lufthansa Technical Training

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.8 HUMAN ERROR

Figure 66
FRA US/F-4 GoS

JAN 2006

Norms
Page: 123

Lufthansa Technical Training

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.8 HUMAN ERROR

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9
PRESSURE

PRESSURE

There is often pressure in maintenance, which can come from many sources.
Often, you put the greatest pressure on yourself. You press yourself for high
quality performance in minimal time.
Your managers may apply pressure. Pressures to meet a deadline are the
most common. And, your co−workers may also apply pressure. They can
create a sense of urgency that forces you to work at a pace faster than you are
comfortable with. Conditions cause pressure. The closer it gets to departure
the more pressure builds up to get the task completed quickly. So, pressure is
one of the dirty dozen. It is a possible contributing factor to an event.
Tips
We have established that negative pressure can have negative consequences
on your maintenance work. It can lead to error, but you can control it.
What are the Corrective Actions for Pressure? 
First, when pressured, stop and assess the situation.
Be rationale. Cool down - ”Chill”. 
Remind yourself of the consequences of error. 
As the saying goes, ”If you do not have time to perform the job correctly the
first time, how will you have time to redo the task?” Haste makes waste. 
Don’t let pressure become the norm. If there is always undue pressure,
it becomes a condition that is setting you up to fail. 
Bring the situation to management attention.

For Training Purposes Only

The Airline industry will always have daily pressures, but you must do your best
to ensure that the pressure does not affect system safety or efficiency.

FRA US/F-4 GoS

JAN 2006

Page: 124

8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 67 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Pressure Page: 125 .EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

For Training Purposes Only Tips What are the Corrective Actions needed to avoid errors of complacency?  You should remind yourself to be aware of complacency...LIKE ALWAYS.” Most likely you were Complacent! .today I will detect something. FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 126 . you sometimes can forget the trip. You must remind yourself.9 COMPLACENCY COMPLACENCY Complacency can contribute to a maintenance event when the mechanic is overconfident about a task.. Psychology experts say that many tasks become ”Automatic”...  Continued use of Job Cards is a good way to avoid complacency.. Like driving to work.  Rather think:“. That is because you were on ”Automatic.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.” You may have been inattentive.“ The error of Complacency can be minimized. or an unsafe event may be the grim reminder of complacency.  Ask for check by colleagues.. You have been ”unsafe. This is usually a result of performing the tasks repeatedly..

9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 68 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Complacency Page: 127 .EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

Fatigue may also contribute to a Lack of Knowledge error type. you may request additional training. There are many ways to avoid such error. When something is unfamiliar. If you have the appropriate type training you can read the manual to learn how to do a job. or failure to communicate the lack of knowledge.9 LACK OF KNOWLEDGE Lack of knowledge is one of the 12 common mistakes that contribute to events. or failure to work as a team. What are the Corrective Actions for Lack of Knowledge?  First of all. but is rather rare. LACK OF KNOWLEDGE Tips For Training Purposes Only Lack of knowledge should not be an error in today’s aviation maintenance.  Don’t let lack of knowledge become a company norm. the Lack of Knowledge factor is usually compounded by a worker’s failure to consult the manual. They can offer explanations and can show you how to do a task. acknowledge that you need assistance.  If you have many situations where you lack appropriate knowledge. FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 128 .  Often your co−workers are the best source of new knowledge.  Use the manual. However.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. then additional training is necessary.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. strive to recognize what you do not know. If many people lack knowledge.

8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 69 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Lack of Knowledge Page: 129 .EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

What are the Corrective Actions?  First of all. if you recognize a close clearance between equipment. buildings. usually the person acknowledges that there was a lack of awareness.  For example. an event investigation will result in quotes like the following: ”I was not paying attention. and project to the impact of the conditions. LACK OF AWARENESS Tips Lack of Awareness is a challenge that can be overcome. However. FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 130 . and aircraft then you should project the potential danger and remain aware of it.” Whatever the confounding excuse.” ”I did not see the obstacle. and most simply. Help one another.9 LACK OF AWARENESS Lack of Awareness is an error that is often combined with other errors in the dirty dozen. For Training Purposes Only Lack of awareness does not have to be a common error.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.” ”I did not notice the wing tip was so close to the hangar door. Quite simply it can be called ”Failure to Pay Attention.  Cooperate with colleagues to maintain awareness.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.” All too often. remain alert to workplace conditions. you must work hard to maintain constant awareness of the maintenance work environment. Maintain situation awareness by observing conditions. knowing what they mean.

8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 70 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Lack of Awareness Page: 131 .9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

TIME TOOLS COMPUTERS MANUALS PEOPLE MONEY For Training Purposes Only Tips What are the corrective actions for lack of resources?  First of all.  Have a means to pool parts and to get them quickly. You must do the job correctly. For example.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. You must be assertive.9 LACK OF RESOURCES Lack of Resources is often cited as a reason for error. computers. When there is a lack of resources you must be realistic about the situation and find the best legal and safe way to get the aircraft back in the air. and more. you cannot be complacent. Order stock and special tools before you start the job. Lack of Resources is likely to become a problem when it is combined with other errors in the Dirty Dozen. you have the responsibility to decide which resources are imperative for safety. if you need a part or a tool that is not available. manuals.  Work the resource logistics with planners. That minimum cannot be compromised. you must be realistic and accept that resources are not unlimited in any organization.  Good job planning can reduce resource challenges. and you must not become a victim of pressure or of schedules.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Resources can mean many things: tools. LACK OF RESOURCES FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 132 . time. then you must speak up. people.  Don’t let lack of resources become your workplace norm.  However.

8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 71 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Lack of Resources Page: 133 .9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

in spite of the complications. then you are more likely to be bothered by distractions. FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 134 .  To avoid error. mark the task as incomplete.  When you return to a task that was interrupted. Tips For Training Purposes Only ”Keep your mind on the job. people. fatigued.  When you know that you have mental distractions. or lack assertiveness. If you are pressured.” ”Concentrate to avoid distractions”. finish a task before you attend to the distraction. you must accept them and find ways to cope with them. and you can also check on yourself.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. radio messages or telephone calls. Distraction can come in the form of thoughts. go back a few steps in that task to check that everything was completed. bright lights. then ask a colleague to check on you. use the checklists and the job cards to help ensure that you completed the job correctly. Since you cannot easily eliminate distractions.9 DISTRACTION DISTRACTION Jobs and life are full of distractions! That is why ”Distraction” is another of the Dirty Dozen. Whatcan be done to overcome Distractions?  Beware of other dirty dozen errors. noise. Recognize that mental distractions can cause work problems. That is easier said than done.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.  Try to avoid stopping before the final step.  Again.  If you leave a task unfinished.

EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 72 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Distraction Page: 135 .

bossiness or other negative characteristics. It is not to be confused with stubbornness. aggressiveness. if you wait too long you may not be able to properly influence the situation.  Sometimes you must document situations to show assertiveness.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.  Sometimes your actions show your assertiveness. When an assertive worker sees an opportunity. follow the ’3 Cs’: Clear. For example. − However. FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 136 . − If you speak too soon you may be embarrassed.9 LACK OF ASSERTIVENESS LACK OF ASSERTIVENESS Assertiveness is a good thing! It means that you speak up when you believe it is necessary. There are times when assertiveness is an absolutely necessary part of aviation safety. For Training Purposes Only Tips What are the corrective actions needed for assertiveness?  Usually you must speak up to assert your opinion.  When you do speak up. they bring it to the attention of their co−workers or the management. you write in the logbook only the items that you believe to be air worthy. That is demonstrated when you insist on doing a job properly. or by refusing to do a job in a manner that is unacceptable to your standards.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. and Complete. Correct. Do it politely and at the right time. Assertiveness is a good thing.

8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 73 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Lack of Assertiveness Page: 137 .EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

Fatigue can be a serious on−going ’chronic’ problem or it may be ’acute’ − just caused by a few nights of missed sleep.  Work with colleagues and let one another know when fatigue may be a problem. Fatigue can be managed.9 FATIGUE ’Fatigue’ is one of the dirty dozen errors that we make in maintenance. For example. you may forget to complete a task. − If you are always tired you should seek professional medical care. so be careful!  Remain physically active. but first you must be aware of the risks. stretch at frequent intervals and engage in conversation if possible. It is a potential problem for many.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 138 . your physical strength and mental ability are impaired.  To minimize fatigue. get up and walk around. But fatigue is the real problem. Usually you make errors because you are fatigued. drink caffeinated beverages and lots of water. avoid the most tedious work when fatigued. or you may be temporarily too lazy to do the job correctly. When you are fatigued. − Exercise regularly.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. − Eat properly. FATIGUE For Training Purposes Only Tips What are the corrective actions for fatigue?  If you are fatigued you may not admit it. review this list: − Get 7−8 hours of sleep every night. take breaks. When tired. you may be unclear in your communication.

9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 74 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Fatigue Page: 139 .EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

headaches. or stop. and inability to sleep. Stress is often a part of daily life and therefore a part of work. Stress affects health. stress can affect your life and your work performance. Stress can lead to alcohol or drug abuse. you should slow down. or your ability to make rational decisions. called chronic stress. It may cause loss of appetite. a short−term stressor may be a very difficult repair that must be done quickly. You should try to think rationally. It is often helpful to discuss the conditions that are causing the stress.” The stressor can be a once−only situation or it can be an ongoing one. Obviously.  You should ask your colleagues to monitor your work if you are stressed out. all of these conditions may put at risk the quality of your work.  When stressed.9 STRESS Stress is a psychological and sometimes physical condition caused by some kind of ”stressor. and long−term stress. FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 STRESS Page: 140 . Once the repair is completed the stress goes away. your ability to pay attention. Stress causes one to be nervous or restless. Do not let a stress compound itself by performing poorly in your maintenance responsibilities. Usually you know when you are stressed. It may affect your memory. For example. however. You must deal with it. Sometimes you may want a ”TIME OUT” − a short break to think over the stressful situation. Whether acute or chronic. not emotionally.  Engage in physical activity − exercise relieves stress. An example of long−term stress could be a divorce situation or other personal problems. What can you do about it?  First of all. called acute stress.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. many behaviours are reliable indications of stress.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. Like fatigue. it can lead to error. While stress is not an error. about the situation. always be aware that stress can impact the quality of your work. stomach problems. there is short−term stress. Stress may make you irritable. and regain your composure. What are the symptoms of stress? Different individuals may have different symptoms.

9 For Training Purposes Only Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.8 HUMAN ERROR Figure 75 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Stress Page: 141 .EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.

the tip of the iceberg is above the water level. The tip of the iceberg represents the one human error that causes a serious airliner event. understand. some are ”operationally significant” causing delays. By understanding our current errors we can prevent future errors. We use the word ”Event” to include accidents and incidents where maintenance is a contributing factor. classify. However. The process is called Maintenance Error Decision Aid or MEDA for short. Which of the many programs is used within a maintenace organistation is rather secondary. and minimize our errors. cancellations or in−flight shutdowns. MEDA helps us to document. incidents. MEDA is widely spread throughout the MRO community. The ”Event Investigation” describes a process that was introduced by the Boeing Company in the early nineties. At the large base of the iceberg are the multitudes of minor human errors that are committed daily within an airline maintenance organization. There are other investigation programs available.Philosophy: LEARN FROM ERRORS! Page: 142 . which have a structured design to evaluate incidents. accidents and events happen. albeit to a minute percentage of flights. therefor we will give a brief overview of its operation. We must reduce the number of errors below the water level to reduce the serious events above the water level. Iceberg Model The ”Iceberg Model” provides a rationale for recording and understanding human error using processes like MEDA. On a large iceberg. FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 MEDA MEDA . The prime philosophy is that we can learn a lot from our errors.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Lufthansa Technical Training For Training Purposes Only HUMAN FACTORS M9. Most of these errors do not compromise safety but can cause large expenses of wasted time and resources.9 ERROR MANAGEMENT General Airlines are the safest mode of transportation. That is a FACT! However.

600 For Training Purposes Only ? Please guess? ? Please guess? Figure 76 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Iceberg Model Page: 143 .9 ICEBERG MODELL Inflight loss of a Cowling (Exemplary): .8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.Cowling was not locked properly! 1 Visible Statistics How many delays in the past where caused by unlocked Cowlings? Unkown How many Cowlings were (resp. are) NOT properly closed? Answer: 1 / 40 /approx.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.

 In the last step you have to determine corrective actions. you must identify the factors that contributed to causing it. Many airlines and MRO customers support the development of the MEDA system with Boeing. FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 Page: 144 .  Then the ”Contributing Factors” will be identified. Usually there is more than one contributing factor. and there is seldom one contributing factor. The process is quite simple. Boeing offers 10 categories on the MEDA form.Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. Therefore. Your event investigation practice during the classroom training will help you practice ways to identify corrective actions.9 MEDA Prozess ”Maintenance Error Decision Aid” or MEDA is a process used to investigate human error. Many of the corrective actions were described in the Dirty Dozen. you may also choose to list any of the Dirty Dozen as contributing factors.  It starts with an identified error. Corrective actions are often specific to the individual workplace and are best determined once the contributing factors are identified. Each contributing factor has a reasonable set of corrective actions. Once you become familiar with these contributing factors you will be more aware of them when they appear in your work environment. For Training Purposes Only After the error is identified. Thus. While the MEDA form is an excellent way to identify Contributing Factors. Consult the MEDA form to see all the contributing factors. you are likely to choose many factors. An incident is usually a chain of events. the combination of contributing factors and corrective actions are the basis for understanding and minimizing human error.

Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9.simplified Page: 145 .8 HUMAN ERROR EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M.9 Maintenance Error Decision Aid (MEDA) Contributing Factors For Training Purposes Only indentified Error Corrective Actions Dirty Dozen Figure 77 FRA US/F-4 GoS JAN 2006 MEDA Process.

. We will only mention a few important points here.9 HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE Recognising and avoiding hazards. In addition. the safety representatives. The EASA/JAA requires that this topic be discussed in a ”Human Factors” course. Good question: Who is the safety representative in your field? Page: 146 . take note of safety information and make use of the safety measures provided.9 Hazards in the Workplace has many overlapping items with the subject ’Safety at Work’. Dealing with emergencies. he must inform the employees about them though suitable instructions or notices. the works council. the people responsible for keeping the rules are: the safety engineer. If possible. Apron. Safety at Work is not the absence of accidents.. ’Cherry Picker’)  Harmful Substances (Liquids. and the technical supervisory committee of the occupational insurers. and provide the necessary aid and protection..Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9. This is controlled by national regulations and standardised in accordance with European harmonisation.. as there are a large number of training courses elsewhere on this subject. At most airlines. ’Safety at work’ is a subject that puts the emphasis on the health and safety of the employee. Platforms. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC2005 The Employer. Gases.  The employer must recognise potential hazards. Power Plant Testcell)  Confined Spaces (Fuel Tank)  Heights (Docks.5 Physical Environment.9 HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE CAT A/B1/B2 M. INTRODUCTION General The Chapter 9. but the recognition of potential risks and the eliminating of those.  The employee must report hazards when he sees them.and Jet-wash Many of these issues are discussed in Chapter M9. he must remove them or limit them. The following possible hazards can be expected in Aviation Maintenance:  Noise (Hangar. For Training Purposes Only EASA PART 66 Responsibilities Safety at work is the responsibility of two parties:  the employer and the employee. The employee.9 M9. other Materials)  Excessive Temperatures (supercool and hot Components)  Taxiing and towing of aircrafts  Propeller.

. If you put your knowledge into practice..9 RECOGNISING AND AVOIDING HAZARDS Typical accidents in Maintenance These points are at the top of the accident statistics at Lufthansa Technik and other maintenance companies.. you can avoid such accidents.g.     > Tripping of a Platform. Ladder or Dock.9 HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE EASA PART 66 CAT A/B1/B2 M. working with sheet metal)..Lufthansa Technical Training HUMAN FACTORS M9... > The Head tossed against the Engine Cowling.     Look at the four examples of accidents and think what could have been done to prevent them..     > Hydraulic Fluid irritates the eyes..     For Training Purposes Only > Various cuts in the handplam (e. FRA US/F-4 GoS DEC2005 Page: 147 .

Lufthansa Technical Training

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.9 HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9
DEALING WITH EMERGENCIES
Dealing with Emergencies
How would you behave in an emergency? Probably − run away. But where?
It would be a good idea to memorise the alarm plan for your area. It shows the
escape routes and the assembly points. It also includes a checklist for rules of
behaviour.

For Training Purposes Only

The most important points for general emergencies are:
1. Try to stay calm and think: What has happened? What are the dangers for
others and myself?
2. Report the emergency.
3. Make things safe: that means, among other things, the hazard, e.g. switch
off the power source, rescue the person in danger, and think about yourself
at the same time. Don’t try to be a hero.
4. Take care of the victim and
5. Make yourself available, and help in any way you can.
Caution: Die recommndations here reflect on the Maintenance environment.
Probably you may (or will) recall other priorties from general First Aid Training!

FRA US/F-4 GoS

DEC2005

Page: 148

EASA PART 66
CAT A/B1/B2

M.9

For Training Purposes Only

Lufthansa Technical Training

HUMAN FACTORS
M9.9 HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE

Figure 78
FRA US/F-4 GoS

DEC2005

Dealing with Emergencies
Page: 149

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIRTY DOZEN . . . . . NOISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LACK OF RESOURCES . . . . .MODELL . . . . . . . . . .3 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPETITIVE TASKS . . . . . . NORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 M9. . . . . .4 FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LACK OF KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . LACK OF COMMUNICATION . MEDICATION AND DRUG ABUSE . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 102 108 M9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLEX SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 38 42 46 50 52 54 58 M9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 HUMAN ERROR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WORKING ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STATISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISUAL INSPECTION . . . . . . . . . . . 92 92 92 96 96 100 M9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MOTION AND VIBRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 TASKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PHOBIAS . . . . . . . . . .7 COMMUNICATION . . . . . . . . EXAMPLES OF ACCIDENTS . . . . . . . . . CULTURE ISSUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P66 A/B M9 E TABLE OF CONTENTS M9 HUMAN FACTORS . . . . FATIGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HEARING / THE HUMAN EAR . . . . . PHYSICAL WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DANGEROUS SONIC WAVES . . . . . . . . . . ILLUMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCIPLINES OF HUMAN FACTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISTRACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PEER PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LACK OF AWARENESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RESPONSIBILITIES . .5 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLIMATE AND TEMPERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LACK OF ASSERTIVENESS . . . . . . SHELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLACENCY . . . . . . LACK OF TEAMWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 84 86 87 88 89 90 91 M9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FATIGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFORMATION PROCESSING . . . . . . . MOTIVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFLUENCE OF MAINTENANCE (3 STUDIES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TYPES OF ERROR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 24 24 26 28 30 34 36 M9. . . . . . . . . . ERROR MODELS AND THEORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUPERVISION AND LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 Page i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HISTORICAL REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FUMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 60 62 66 70 76 M9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIGHT / THE HUMAN EYE . . . . . SWISS CHEES . . . . . . . . . ALCOHOL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEAMWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . LIMITATIONS OF INFORMATION PROCESSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MANAGEMENT. . 82 FRA US/F-4 GoS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 20 22 M9. ACCIDENTS . . . . . . . THE FIVE SENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WORKLOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MURPHY’S LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 146 146 147 148 FRA US/F-4 GoS Page ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 HAZARDS IN THE WORKPLACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RECOGNISING AND AVOIDING HAZARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 M9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEALING WITH EMERGENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . . . . . .P66 A/B M9 E TABLE OF CONTENTS ERROR MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information Processing (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monotonous Tasks / Visual Inspections . . . . . . Acident Statistics .Reactions and Counter Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Confined Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Historical Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motivation (Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disciplins of Human Factors . . . . . . . . . . Peer Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ilumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task-Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complex Systems . . . . . . . SIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic . . . . . Group Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alertness / Circadian Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lack of Teamwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance Influence on Incidents and Accidents . . . . . . .Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintaining a Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motivation / De-Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Noise Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work Environment . . . . Fatigue: Acute vs. . . . . . . . . . . SHEL(L) Model . . . . . . .The Human Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Active vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motion & Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reasons for Accidents . . . . . . . . . . . 80 / 20 Rule . . .The Human Ear . . . . . . . Alcohol and its Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Negative Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medication . . . . . . . . . Murphy’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction / 5 Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Situation Awareness . .Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Error Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lack of Awareness . Hearing . . . Complacency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dirty Dozen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human Error . .Introduction . . . Lack of Communication . . . . . . Phobias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate and Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Limitations and Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRA US/F-4 GoS Page: 3 Page: 5 Page: 7 Page: 8 Page: 9 Page: 10 Page: 11 Page: 13 Page: 19 Page: 21 Page: 23 Page: 25 Page: 26 Page: 27 Page: 28 Page: 29 Page: 31 Page: 33 Page: 35 Page: 37 Page: 39 Page: 41 Page: 42 Page: 43 Page: 45 Page: 47 Page: 49 Page: 51 Page: 53 Page: 55 Page: 57 Page: 59 Page: 61 Page: 63 Page: 65 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Workload . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aircraft Accidents/Incidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information Processing (2) . . . . Fatigue . . . . . . . Organisational Influences on Employees . . . . . . . Pressure . . . . . . Physical Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Real Life . . . . . . . . .Negative Influences . . . . . . . . . . . . Norms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Over. . . . . . . . . „Swiss Cheese“ Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fumes . . . . . . Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page: 67 Page: 69 Page: 71 Page: 73 Page: 75 Page: 77 Page: 79 Page: 83 Page: 85 Page: 86 Page: 87 Page: 88 Page: 89 Page: 90 Page: 91 Page: 93 Page: 95 Page: 97 Page: 98 Page: 99 Page: 101 Page: 105 Page: 107 Page: 111 Page: 113 Page: 114 Page: 115 Page: 117 Page: 119 Page: 121 Page: 123 Page: 125 Page: 127 Page: 129 Page: 131 Page i . . . . . . . . . . . Noise . . . . . . . . . Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Individual Responsibility . . . . . . . . Accident Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P66 A/B M9 E TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Introduction to Human Factors (HF) . . Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sight . . . Factors Affecting Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmitting and Receiving . . . . . . . latent Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lack of Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dangerous Sonic-Waves .and Underload . . . . . . . . . . . .General . . . . . . . .Boeing Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Situation Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .P66 A/B M9 E TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 71 Figure 72 Figure 73 Figure 74 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Lack of Resources . . . . . . . . . . . Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MEDA Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lack of Assertiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distraction . . . . . Iceberg Model . . Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRA US/F-4 GoS Page: 133 Page: 135 Page: 137 Page: 139 Page: 141 Page: 143 Page: 145 Page: 149 Page ii . . . . . Dealing with Emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .simplified .

P66 A/B M9 E TABLE OF FIGURES FRA US/F-4 GoS Page iii .

P66 A/B M9 E TABLE OF FIGURES FRA US/F-4 GoS Page iv .