We affirm resolved: prioritizing economic development over environmental

protection is in the best interest of the citizens of India.

We observe:
Economic development is defined by Trasgakes
Tragakes, Ellie. Chief Examiner for IB Economics. "Glossary." Economics for
the IB Diploma. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. Page 543.
Economic development: Broad based rises in the standard of living and wellbeing of a population, particularly in economically less developed countries. It
involves increasing income levels and reducing poverty, reducing
income inequalities and unemployment, and increasing provision
and access to basic goods and services such as food and shelter,
sanitation, education, and health care services.

and improved environmental management. ¶ Accordingly. through. where a 1993 ¶ constitutional ¶ amendment required that one-third of rural ¶ village council seats and village presidencies ¶ be reserved for women. increased educational attainment by daughters and sons. Education could ¶ have an effect. ¶ women invest the money in goods and services that improve the well-being of families. use contraception. More education for girls will also ¶ enable more and more women to attain leadership positions at all levels of society: from ¶ health clinics in the villages to parliaments in ¶ the capitals. Kofi Annan. ¶ the Secretary General of the United Nations. and Professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. not ¶ men. For example. have been directed almost ¶ exclusively at women. ¶ Similarly.edu/files/7417 TK. in the same report. “Women Empowerment and Economic Development” http://economics. said:¶ Education for girls has a catalytic effect on ¶ every dimension of development: lower child ¶ and maternal mortality rates. wider distribution of the fruits of ¶ growth. Kofi Annan ¶ argues that gender equality is in fact a “pre-requisite” to achieving the other MDGs. and this ¶ inequality between genders is repulsive in ¶ its own right. Co-Founder and Director of the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab. for example. The ¶ gender gap in education. Journal of Economic Literature. Transfers conditioned on school enrollment are often higher for girls or even ¶ positive only for girls. Pages 10511079.” The second. equally ¶ important. The first is ¶ that equity is valuable in and of itself: women ¶ are currently worse-off than men. a central argument in the ¶ discourse of policymakers. 50. ¶ The stance that women empowerment is ¶ desirable for efficiency shapes both the policy debate and the resultant economic policies the world over. It should be ¶ done. . December 2012. these can ¶ mean faster economic growth and. . Together. Measures to enforce ¶ women’s access to political positions through quotas have been instituted in 87 countries. in the United ¶ Nation’s 2005 report on the Millennium ¶ Development Goals (MDG). . ¶ and manage their homes. it is argued. First of ¶ all. ¶ Wolfensohn makes four claims. ¶ for example. ¶ in goods that are conducive to development. for ¶ example. direct the transfer to women. Esther Duflo. will change the way ¶ societies will deal with problems and raise the ¶ quality of global decision-making. but also because it will ¶ have beneficial consequences on many ¶ other society-wide outcomes. Micro-credit schemes. and employment opportunities should ¶ therefore be reduced not only because it is ¶ equitable to do so. that education of girls would change out comes for their children and the ¶ We might call this a “reduced form” argument: broad “empowerment” of women ¶ could change outcomes. is that women ¶ play a fundamental role in development.Contention One is Women Subpoint A: Education Empowerment of women means helps development. in turn. There are two rationales for supporting ¶ active policies to promote women. ¶ higher productivity. political participation. ¶ such as PROGRESA/Opportunidades in ¶ Mexico. ¶ Former World Bank President.mit. most conditional cash transfer ¶ benefit programs in developing countries. addressing the Fourth UN ¶ Conference on Women. French economist. to increase efficiency. ¶ writes: “The full participation of women to ¶ all levels of decision-making is a basic human ¶ right. in other words. Issue 4. His second claim is ¶ rest of us. ¶ including India. This. . Vol. because. James ¶ Wolfensohn. by improving their understanding ¶ of how to raise children.

Providing girls with one extra year of¶ schooling beyond the average can boost their eventual¶ wages by 10 to 20 per cent.4¶ • For every boy newly infected with HIV in Africa. such as economic independence and political representation. Department for International Development.¶ • Africa.pdf TK. two-thirds of teenage girls in school ¶ are free from HIV. Education has a profound effect on girls’ and women’s ability to claim other rights and achieve¶ status in society. in high-prevalence areas such as Swaziland.2¶ • gender parity goal by 2005. ¶ changes in the rule governing programs. assuming that increasing decision making of women would indeed lead to different ¶ (and better) outcomes.empowerment of women in a narrower ¶ sense (power or the ability to influence decision making) would also change outcomes . while two-thirds of out-of-school girls are HIV positive.5 . children ¶ who have been to secondary school are four times less likely to become HIV positive. having an education can make an enormous difference to a woman’s ¶ chances of finding well-paid work. Do they need to wait ¶ for it to come from improvement in their ¶ human capital (the quote suggests it would ¶ be a consequence of their improved education).3¶ • If we had reached the beyond age five. “Girls’ education: towards a better future for all” http://www2.1¶ • An infant born to an educated woman is much more¶ likely to survive until adulthood. January 2005. that is what policy ¶ instruments are available to policymakers to ¶ achieve these changes. such as ¶ changes in the law. increasing immunization and increasing life expectancy. In Uganda. As the following¶ examples demonstrate. In healthy family and preventing the spread of diseases ¶ such as HIV and AIDS. raising a Women with at least a basic education are much less¶ likely to be poor. Yet.org/english/issues/development/docs/girlseducation.ohchr. there are between three and six girls newly ¶ infected. or can policy interventions. The comment also raises a that fourth ¶ issue. change in electoral rules. ¶ The third claim is that these changes would ¶ be positive.¶ more than 1 million childhood deaths could have been ¶ averted. ¶ or other similar “top down” interventions ¶ change effective power? AND Education is key to decreasing poverty. children of¶ mothers who receive five years of primary education ¶ are 40 per cent more likely to live An educated woman is 50 per cent more likely to have ¶ her children immunised against childhood diseases.

This cyclical relationship is commonly referred to as the poverty-environment Nexus. Animals like sheep or goats that act as capital resource for the rural poor degrade the vegetation and soil faster than the livestock of the richer rural population like buffaloes. who cannot meet their subsistence needs through purchase. insurance and capital markets. Haimanti Bhattacharya and Robert Innes. environmental degradation in turn implies a shrinking input base for the poor households that increase the severity of poverty. The poor depend heavily on the open access resources like the forests. Urban population is also using rivers to dispose of untreated sewage and industrial effluent. pastures for fodder. 2006. pastures.edu%2Fbitstream %2F21201%2F1%2Fsp06bh01. BZ Many studies have established that the rural poor in developing countries are heavily dependent on local natural resources for their sustenance.umn. Land tenure system can also play a crucial role in the investment for maintaining soil quality. Population pressure driven overexploitation of the surface and underground water resources by the poor has resulted into contamination and exhaustion of the water resources.pdf&ei=_c44U9bnD_LisASlq4CYBQ&usg=AFQj CNHpxW90mkxASk1RwKuMGXIWEIcaug&sig2=YdNCwNjhOPNzRPLtiww3jg. deplete natural resources faster as they have no real prospects of gaining access to other types of resources. who rely on natural resources more than the rich. rural poverty leads to resource degradation in many ways. Since the environment as in the most developed countries is not an amenity but a necessary input for the rural households.google. The poor people.com/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CEQQFjAC&url=http%3A %2F%2Fageconsearch. University of Arizona. In the absence of capital resources. Cultivable land degrades quickly due to lack of investment for maintaining the soil quality that erodes the soil fertility. Moreover degraded environment can accelerate the process of impoverishment. http://www. The result is that health of those dependents on untreated water resources is increasing at risk. the poor are directly dependent on natural resources. Due to weak property rights and limited access to credit. and ponds and rivers for water. again because the poor depend directly on natural assets. “Is There a Nexus between Poverty and Environment in Rural India?”. .Poverty is said to be both cause and effect of environment degradation. Acceleration in poverty alleviation is imperative to break this link between poverty and the environment.Poverty feeds the endless cycle of Environmental Degradation and Poverty. Poorer people. University of Arizona. water resources that leads to their over exploitation. are forced to use common property resources such as forests for food and fuel.

as well as water treatment facilities we can help reduce disease. India will be able to bolster and enhance its economic growth. and less waste mismanagement.org. if they can barely sustain themselves. certain reciprocal elements will act on the population and its environment. the best interests of the people lie in the current problems India faces which according to Pollution Issues in 2006 is PollutionIssues.html. set up industrial zones with adequate utility and infrastructure facilities in unused public land…. Lack of education. additionally. lack of appropriate infrastructure—from water-treatment facilities to better roads and communication—all exacerbate the twin problems of poverty and environmental degradation. Better infrastructure will allow for more efficient use of recourses. http://www. if the Indian government were to through economic development. One cannot ask people to heal the environment. Manish Agarwal in 2013 writes India’s torrid rate of urbanization means that massive investment will be required in everything from metro systems to clean water supplies. and we have to improve access to coal and other raw materials.com/Pl-Re/Poverty. 2006. or even just mind it. according to the Daily Star this year. For India’s economy to make sustained progress.pollutionissues. power generation to affordable housing. Overall. By building hospital and roads. we have to build better roads so that the transportation of goods becomes efficient.org. we have to enhance our power capacity. Thus by having solid infrastructure. It would both save arable land and accelerate industrialization.Contention 2: Infrastructure INFASTRUCTURE is NEEDED TO STRENGTHEN THE ECONOMY Along with providing jobs and demand for manufacturing the development of India’s infrastructure is critical for its huge population centers. we have to build ports. .000 people a day in India is made worse by lack of access in the public sector. oppression. Further more Business Standard Magazine cautions this year that Tuberculosis. He further writes. “Poverty”. These are all very important requirements. BZ Regardless of the reason or the area of the world in which a poor population lives. which kills around 1. PollutionIssues.

In Conclusion. . To solve environmental issues. In order to sustain a healthy environment and provide economic growth. you are going to be casting an affirmative ballot ebcause 1. India’s main problems of overpopulation and poverty can be reduced through providing economic development opportunities 2. the economy must be prioritized to solve the problem 3. which are worsened by overpopulation and poverty. thus we urge a pro ballot. infrastrcutre would allow for greater economic freedom and environmental protection.

will have a unique set of challenges for economic development. marketing. managing parks and providing medical access to the disadvantaged.org/hotlinks/whtecodev. Typically economic development can be described in terms of objectives. Communities differ in their geographic and political strengths and weaknesses.” [http://www. business retention and expansion. “A passage to modernity. Manish Agarwal. These are most the creation of jobs and wealth. Kolkata and Bangalore.2 billion. . The need to upgrade India’s infrastructure is especially acute in huge cities such as Mumbai. The need to upgrade India’s infrastructure is especially acute in huge cities. policy or program for achieving successful economic development. business finance. Summer 2013. • Policies and programs explicitly directed at improving the business climate commonly described as through specific efforts. By 2030. In the broadest sense. job retention. Rapid industrialization is intensifying the strain on the nation’s unreliable networks for electricity and water. the re is no single strategy. Global trade is placing acute pressure on India’s inefficient ports. tax base enhancements and quality of life. Economic development can also be described as a process that influences growth and restructuring of an economy to enhance the economic well being of a community. Wrote an article for PricewaterhouseCoopers.html ] What is Economic Development? No single definition incorporates all of the different strands of economic development. over 1 million residents. Each community therefore. And the government has fallen far short of its plans to build 20 km of roads each day – an urgent requirement in a nation where 65% of all freight is transported by road . high employment and sustainable growth. The railway system – already infamously overcrowded – faces rising demand for freight capacity. and the improvement of quality of life. The main goal of economic development is improving the economic well being of a community through efforts that entail job creation.iedconline. neighborhood development. and where traffic is so severe that the maximum highway speed for trucks and buses is only 30-40 km per hour. technology transfer. power generation to affordable housing. • Policies and programs to provide services including building highways. and this presents enormous opportunities. The population has already surpassed 1.CARDS USED From the International Economic Development Council (IEDC) [http://www. real estate development and others. India’s urban population of around 375 million is projected to reach 500 million by 2017. economic development encompasses three major areas: • Policies that government undertakes to meet broad economic objectives including inflation control. the country is expected to have 68 cities with This torrid rate of urbanization means that massive investment will be required in everything from metro systems to clean water supplies. and it continues to grow at a heady rate. New Delhi.com/gx/en/capital-projects-infrastructure/assets/gridlinesindia-article-2013.pwc.pdf] VF Yet India’s vast infrastructure needs are expanding all the time. As there is no single definition for economic development.

Summer 2013.net/allow-unused-publicland-to-build-industrial-zones-17965] VF Business leaders yesterday urged the government to set up industrial zones with adequate utility and infrastructure facilities in unused public land and on the premises of closed nationalised mills. capacity and experience of diagnosing and treating DR-TB for patients in real need. This is true not just for Mumbai but for the entire country. 03-31-14. India lacks the infrastructure to treat tuberculosis.” [http://www. 03-24-14. "It is gloomy and depressing. Till then doctors like Dolorosa are filled with angst and a deep sense of frustration. Manish Agarwal.com/article/news-ani/india-lacks-infrastructureto-treat-tb-carries-one-fourth-of-global-burden-114032400334_1. we have to enhance our power capacity.Dolorosa.Infrastructure is necessary for a sustainable economy. Then there is a legion of undiagnosed DR TB patients who are on regular tuberculosis drugs amplifying their resistance. Till last year.” [http://www. “India lacks infrastructure to treat TB. The Daily Star. carries one-fourth of global burden. Business Standard. It could mean expediting detection and starting treatment early. the government has the responsibility of preventing the indiscriminate sale and prescription of the drug in the private sector to avoid amplifying drug resistance and accelerating what is already a public health emergency. Bedaquiliine. we have to build better roads so that the transportation of goods becomes efficient. "It is only with better diagnostics and access to new medicines we will be able to make any headway in providing effective treatment to the patients". says Lorraine. National newspaper in India. and we have to improve access to coal and other raw materials. samples from the city were sent to Chennai and patients had to wait for two months for results. British newspaper. “A passage to modernity. we have to build ports.html] VF The gravity of the [tuberculosis] situation is magnified by lack of access in the public sector. Wrote an article for PricewaterhouseCoopers.pdf] VF For India’s economy to make sustained progress. Setting up industrial zones in such a manner will save arable land and accelerate industrialisation. she adds.thedailystar.business-standard. Though India had pioneered TB . a sixteen year old girl and a six year old boy. Setting up industrial zones will save arable land. Decentralising diagnostics is important. I have lost two patients in the last six months. It is important to ensure that it is first made available to institutions who have the expertise. "Not just that. There is a complete lack of government accredited labs to diagnose all forms of DR TB. says Lorraine." adds Lorraine. Moreover there are just three labs in the country including one at the Hinduja Hospital in the city that was recently accredited by the government. they said. the first new TB drug to be approved by the USFDA in forty years is pending registration in India.com/gx/en/capital-projects-infrastructure/assets/gridlinesindia-article-2013." says Dr.pwc. doctor at the MSF clinic. These are all very important requirements.” [http://www. “Allow unused public land to build industrial zones.

with the launch of a national TB control project.000 people a day in India.cms Tuberculosis. .com/india/New-deadlier-form-of-TB-hitsIndia/articleshow/11396410. SATS ABOUT TB New.indiatimes.control as early as in 1962. A new entity—ominously called Totally Drug-Resistant TB (TDR-TB )—has been isolated in the fluid samples of 12 TB patients in the past three months alone at Hinduja Hospital at Mahim . deadlier form of TB hits India Malathy Iyer Jan 7. which kills around 1. Of the estimated 2. has acquired a deadlier edge. it now carries 26 per cent of the global TB burden. according to World Health Organsiation (WHO). The hospital's laboratory has been certified by the World Health Organization (WHO) to test TB patients for drug resistance. 2012 The Times of New India http://timesofindia.