Print ISSN: 0976-7606

Online ISSN: 2230-7338

Journal of
Hill Agriculture
Volume 3, No. 1 Jan – June, 2012

Sharing Knowledge for Prosperity

Indian Society of Hill Agriculture,
G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
Pantnagar, Distt Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand – 263 145 (INDIA)
Website: www.ishaindia.in

INDIAN SOCIETY OF HILL AGRICULTURE (Regd. 2010)
URL: www.ishaindia.in
Sharing Knowledge for
Prosperity

JOURNAL OF HILL AGRICULTURE
(Print ISSN 0976-7606, Online ISSN 2230-7338)

Journal of Hill Agriculture (JHA) is an international journal and an official
publication of Indian Society of Hill Agriculture (ISHA). It publishes the original research in all branches
of agriculture and allied science that is of primary interest to the agricultural development, especially in
hill and mountain regions of the world. The publication is open to the members of Indian Society of Hill
Agriculture but it also accepts papers from non-members if all authors become the annual/life member
when a paper is submitted / accepted for publication. The journal publishes various types of articles, i.e.
(i) Strategy / Policy paper (exclusively by invitation from the personalities of eminence), (ii) Review
papers, (iii) Research papers and (iv) Short communications. The manuscripts may be submitted through
e mail to editorinchiefjha@gmail.com or by online submission through ISHA’s website www.ishaindia.in
or www.indianjournals.com.
For print version of journal of hill agriculture, subscribers may write to the editor-in-chief (JHA) and the
online version may be accessed through www.indianjournals.com

Editor-in-Chief
Dr SK Sharma, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, INDIA (editorinchiefjha@gmail.com)
Associate Editor (s)
Dr KC Sharma, CSKHPKVV, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA
Dr Birendra Prasad, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, INDIA
Associate Editor & Business Manager
Dr AK Pandey, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, INDIA (businessmanagerjha@gmail.com)
EDITORIAL BOARD (2012)
Dr Ajay Gupta, SKUAST, Jammu, INDIA
Dr Amit Jasrotia, SKUAST, Jammu, INDIA
Dr Asgar Ebadollahi, Ardabil, IRAN
Dr Bijayalaxmi Mohanty, National Univ of SINGAPORE
Dr Davide Spadaro, Univ of Torino, ITALY
Dr Gulzar Singh Sanghera, SKUAST(K) Anantnag, INDIA
Dr J P Sharma, SKUAST(J) Jammu, INDIA
Dr Pankaj Panwar, CSWCRTI, Chandigarh, INDIA
Dr Prashant Bakshi, SKUAST Jammu, INDIA
Dr Rakesh Sharma, Univ of Hort. & Fty. Solan, HP, INDIA
Dr Shachi Shah, IGNOU, New Delhi, INDIA
Dr S K Maurya, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, INDIA
Dr VR Karoshi, Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA
Dr Sucheta Singh, Haridwar, INDIA
Dr Udit Kumar, RAU, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar, INDIA

Dr Alkesh Kandoria, PSCST, Chandigarh, INDIA
Dr Anchal Dass, IARI, New Delhi, INDIA
Dr Ashok Thakur, Univ of Hort. & Fty. Solan, HP, INDIA
Dr BM Pandey, VPKAS, Almora, Uttarakhand, INDIA
Dr HSR Kotturi, Univ Central Oklahoma, USA
Dr Lala Iswari Prasad Ray, CAU, Meghalaya, INDIA
Dr M Shakila Banu, Coimbatore, INDIA
Dr Rajesh Kaushal, CSWCRTI, Dehradun, INDIA
Dr Rakefet David-Schwartz, Volcani Center, ISRAEL
Dr Rashmi Yadav, NBPGR, New Delhi, INDIA
Dr Sushil K Sharma, DSR, Indore, INDIA
Dr VP Zambare, SDSMT, South Dakota, USA
Dr Yun Kong, Beijing University of Agriculture, CHINA
Dr Tsering Stobdan, DIHAR, Leh (INDIA)
Dr Sanjai Kumar Srivastava, Pantnagar, INDIA

For any queries pertaining to Indian Society of Hill Agriculture (ISHA) or Journal of Hill
Agriculture (JHA) please write to Secretary / Editor-in-Chief (JHA), Indian Society of Hill
Agriculture Secretriat, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 249 199, India
Phone: +91 9412962535, 9412463923
E mail:
editorinchiefjha@gmail.com,
businessmanagerjha@gmail.com
URL : www.ishaindia.in

Journal of Hill Agriculture 2012, Vol 3(1)
CONTENTS
Soil acidity tolerance in cereals – basis and
approach

1-7

WRICHA TYAGI • MAYANK RAI
An overview of recent developments in poultry 8-15
production in north eastern region of India
SANTOSH HAUNSHI •
SV RAMARAO
Irrigation scheduling at specific growth stages
of onion (Allium cepa L.) under variable
fertilizer rates in different soil types in
Gumselassa (Tigray), Ethiopia

16-23

24-28

AK JOSHI • VK CHAUHAN •
PANKAJ MITTAL
Effect of processing and storage on the colour 29-36
characteristics of milkcake – a traditional Indian
milk product
ANIL KUMAR • GR PATIL •
RRB SINGH • AA PATEL • NC SHAHI
Yield and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.)as 37-41
influenced by rainwater management treatments
and crop establishment methods under high
rainfall areas of Himachal Pradesh
AJAY GUPTA • VISHAL SHARMA •
DINESH BADIYALA
Problems in marketing of ginger in Uttarakhand 42-45
CHANDRA DEV • VIRENDRA SINGH
• BK KHANDURI

ANIL K CHOUDHARY •
SK THAKUR • DS YADAV
Correlation and path analysis studies in bacterial 53-57
wild resistant F6 progenies of tomato (Solanum
lycopersicum L.)
SANJAY CHADHA •
AMIT BHUSHAN

NEGASH AREGAY • ATUL KUMAR
Evolving nursery production technology for
summer vegetables under foggy conditions

Development of integrated farming system
46-52
model for marginal and small farmers of Mandi
district of Himachal Pradesh – an innovative
extension tool

Physico-chemical evaluation and acceptability 58-61
of RTS beverage and concentrate prepared from
apricot
REENA • YS DHALIWAL •
APARNA SHARMA
Blood cellular responses in Sarcosystis tenella
infected lambs treated with Toltrazuril

62-64

SANJAY CHAUDHARY •
ANJALI CHAUDHARY
Prediction of runoff from Nagwa watershed
using SCS – Curve Number method

65-67

SAURABH SINGH • PS KASHYAP •
SK SRIVASTAVA
Guidelines for authors

i

Common abbreviations used in JHA

iii

Abbreviations used for citing references

iii

Referees of JHA 2012 Vol 3(1)

v

Copyright Transfer Statement

vi

Membership of ISHA

vii

INDIAN SOCIETY OF HILL AGRICULTURE (Regd. 2010)
URL: www.ishaindia.in
Sharing Knowledge for
Prosperity

Indian Society of Hill Agriculture (ISHA) was founded in 2010 having its secretariat at G.B. Pant University
of Agriculture and Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Distt Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India with the main
objective to cultivate and promote research, education and development of agriculture and allied branches of science
with special emphasis on development of hill and mountain regions of the world.

OFFICE BEARERS
Chief Patron:
President:
Vice President (s):

Secretary:
Joint Secretary:

Editor-in-Chief, J Hill Ag
Associate Editor
Associate Editor & Business Manager:
Treasurer:

Vice Chancellor, GBPUAT Pantnagar
Dr PS Bisht, Dean, Bharsar
Dr AK Sharma, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr SK Thakur, CSKHPKVV, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh
Dr VK Rao, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr PJ Handique, Guwahati, Assam
Dr MS Mir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
Dr VK Yadav, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr Sanjeev Sharma, CPRI, Shimla
Dr Sunil Kumar, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr OC Sharma, CITH, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
Dr Vinod K Sharma, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr Mayank Rai, CAU, Manipur
Dr Satish K Sharma, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr KC Sharma, CSKHPKVV, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh
Dr AK Pandey, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr Chandra Dev, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD
Members from India

Dr Mangla Rai, Former, President NAAS and Former Secretary DARE, Govt. of India
Dr P L Gautam, Former, Chairperson, PPVFRA, Govt. of India
Dr Anwar Alam, Former Vice Chancellor, SKUAST(K), Srinagar, J&K
Dr KM Bujarbaruah, Vice Chancellor, AAU, Jorhat, Assam
Dr KR Dhiman, Former Vice Chancellor, Dr YSPUHF, Solan, HP
Dr Bhag Mal, Former South Asia Coordinator, Biodiversity International, New Delhi
Members from Abroad Dr JDH Keatinge, Director General, AVRDC, World Vegetable Centre, Taiwan
Dr Md. Yousuf Mian, Director General, BARI, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Dr C Kole, Clemson University, South Carolina, USA
Prof (Dr) FG Schroeder, Dresdan, Germany
Dr G Paliyat, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Dr Ramesh Thakur, Michigan Technical University, Houghton, USA

EXECUTIVE COUNCILLORS
Dr AK Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
Dr AK Singh, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr BL Attri, CITH (ICAR), Mukteshwar, Uttarakhand
Dr SP Uniyal, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr Vandana A Kumar, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr VK Joshi, Dr YSPUHF, Solan, Himachal Pradesh
Dr VK Sah, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr VK Wali, SKUAST (J), Jammu and Kashmir

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 1 - 7, January - June, 2012
REVIEW PAPER

Soil acidity tolerance in cereals - basis and approach
WRICHA TYAGI • MAYANK RAI
Received: Jan 15, 2012; Revised: April 24, 2012; Accepted: May 15, 2012

ABSTRACT Soil acidity poses a significant challenge to
plant productivity due to a complex of several micronutrient
toxicities and deficiencies, Aluminium toxicity and
Phosphorus deficiency being the major players. Several
breeding, molecular, genomic and transgenic approaches
have been employed in recent years to understand and
harness the genetic mechanisms involved in soil acidity
response in major cereals. An overview of the approaches is
presented here to highlight the current understanding of soil
acidity tolerance mechanisms in cereals. Also, certain lacunae
and future direction in this challenging area of research that
may lead to enhanced crop productivity under acidic soils are
discussed.
KEYWORDS
Soil acidity, cereals,
micronutrients, phosphorus, aluminium

tolerance,

INTRODUCTION
Nearly 74 million ha of cultivable area in India is
affected from soil acidity (pH<5). The toxic effects of acid
soil result from an interaction between pH and elements
present in the soil. Several metals, including Aluminium (Al),
Mangenese (Mn) and Iron (Fe) become soluble at and below
pH 5.5, which causes stress in the plant. The problem of
acidity is more pronounced in hill regions due to heavy
rainfall and upland growing conditions. The three most
commonly cultivated species; rice (Oryza sativa), wheat
(Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) too are affected by
acidity. An estimated 100 million ha of land suited to rice
Tyagi Wricha • Rai Mayank
School of Crop Improvement, College of Post Graduate
Studies, Central Agricultural University, Umiam, Meghalaya793 103, India
Mayant Rai ( )
E mail: mrai.cau@gmail.com

production in south and southeast Asia is currently unused
because of the soil problems (Senadhira 1994). For maize,
upto 70 % reduction in yields have been reported due to
acidity (Pandey et al. 1994). On the global level,
approximately 30 % of world’s soil is acidic in nature, 17 %
of which is considered arable (Uexkull and Mutert 1995).
Harnessing of this land is a must to meet the demand of
increased cereal production in response to increase in world
population (Khush 2005). In this background it is
understandable to address the issue of soil acidity to increase
crop productivity especially in acidic soils of north-eastern
hilly regions (NEHR) of India.
Al toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency often coexists in acidic soils. Al, one of the most abundant elements
in the soil, is solubilized as Al3+ under highly acidic soil
conditions (pH<5.0), This causes a rapid inhibition of root
growth leading to a reduced and stunted root system, thus
having a direct effect on the ability of a plant to acquire both
water and nutrients like phosphorus (P). P, an essential
macronutrient, is required for many metabolic processes in
plants. Since P is rarely mobile in soils, its fixation in soils
with high aluminum (Al) concentration limits access of plants
to P even if it is present in the soil. P acquisition efficiency
has been correlated with the amount of soil explored by the
roots as indicated by root morphology and root architecture.
However, extensive root system architecture has not been
reported to be directly correlated with increase in phosphorus
uptake and/or increase in yield. So, quest for acidity tolerance
requires a more thorough knowledge of key genes involved in
root development and transport of nutrients. This should
provide new molecular resources for further improvements in
crop acidity tolerance via both molecular-assisted plant
breeding and biotechnology.
General mechanisms for acidity tolerance
Genetic variation for Al tolerance in maize and rice
indicates that it is a complex trait, involving multiple genes
(Garvin and Carver 2003, Famoso et al. 2010). Our current

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 8 -15, January - June, 2012
REVIEW PAPER

An overview of recent developments in poultry production in north-eastern
region of India
SANTOSH HAUNSHI • SV RAMARAO
Received: Sept 8, 2011; Revised: April 5, 2012; Accepted May 10, 2012

ABSTRACT North-eastern region of India is a landlocked
area and it is inhabited by various tribal communities who are
mostly non-vegetarians and hence there is a huge demand for
meat and eggs of poultry. Requirement of poultry eggs and
meat of the region is mostly being met by procuring them
from outside the region. About 82 % of the population resides
in rural areas of the region and they are depending on the
agriculture and allied sectors like backyard poultry for their
livelihood. By and large, all the farmers practice age old
traditional system of poultry farming with little or no inputs.
In spite of several attempts, the modern industrialized
(commercial) poultry farming has not taken roots in the
region. However, there is an urgent need for improving the
availability of egg and poultry meat in order to meet the ever
increasing demand for these poultry products. In the recent
fast, efforts were made to introduce the improved varieties of
chicken in the region to augment the productivity of
traditional system of poultry farming. The paper reviews the
issues related to existing poultry faming and the way forward
to improve productivity of poultry farming in the northeastern region of the country.
KEYWORDS Low input, backyard poultry, improved
varieties, north-eastern region
INTRODUCTION
North-eastern region of India is a landlocked region
of the country which is situated between 21.5 oN-29.5 oN
latitudes and 85.5 oE - 97.3 oE longitudes. The region has
Haunshi Santosh • Ramarao SV
Project Directorate on Poultry, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad,
Andhra Pradesh -500 030, India
Santosh Haunshi ( )
E mail: santosh575@gmail.com

geographical area of 262180 km2 (8.06 % of the national
geographical area) and shares international border in north
with Tibet and Bhutan, east with Myanmar and south and
southwest with Bangladesh and in west with Nepal. The
region is climatically classified as sub-tropical humid in
general and it receives highest rainfall in the world. The
annual maximum temperature ranges from 10 to 20 °C during
winter and 25 to 35 °C during summer season. Minimum
temperature is 5 to 8 °C during winter months. The average
relative humidity of the region remains in the range of 60 to
80 % for most part of the year. As per the 2011 census, the
total human population of the north-eastern region is 45.59
million, which is about 3.77 % of national population of India
(GOI 2011). The most important thing is that majority of
people (about 82 % of the total population) resides in rural
areas of the region and they are dependent mostly on
agriculture and allied sectors like backyard poultry farming
for their livelihood and nutritional needs.
Current scenario of poultry production in north-eastern
region
Intensive system of poultry production was
initiated in the region but this system of farming could not be
sustained due to obvious reasons of scarcity of quality feed
ingredients and their prohibitive cost and non-availability of
other inputs required for the modern poultry farming.
Besides, there is considerably a less demand for commercial
broiler chicken and eggs of White Leghorn breed which are
widely used in the intensive system of poultry farming.
Further, prevailing agro-climatic conditions such as high
rainfall and high humidity of the region makes intensive
system of poultry rearing uneconomical due to higher
incidence of litter borne diseases such as Coccidiosis, Ecoi,
Salmonella, etc during rainy season. Therefore, backyard
farming is the preferred approach to enhance of poultry
production in north-eastern region. National per capita
availability of eggs per year is 46 and poultry meat is 1600 g

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 16 - 23, January – June, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Irrigation scheduling at specific growth stages of onion (Allium cepa L.)
under variable fertilizer rates in different soil types in Gumselassa
(Tigray), Ethiopia
NEGASH AREGAY • ATUL KUMAR
Received: January 09, 2012; Revised: May 21, 2012; Accepted: June 10, 2012

ABSTRACT Irrigated agriculture demands high
consumption of water. However, the amount of water
required and fertilizer utilization varies with specific crop and
its specific developmental stages. In 2009-10 an experiment
was conducted in Adigudem, Northern Ethiopia to determine
the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on yield and
yield components of onion with specific developmental
stages of irrigation water in different soil types. Factorial
combination of Randomized Complete Block Design
(RCBD) with three replications was used. Treatments
consisted of four nitrogen levels (0, 46, 92, and 138) kgha-1
and four levels of phosphorus (0, 46, 92 and 138 kg ha-1 P2O5)
in two different dominant soil types of the area. The gross
experimental plot size was 1.5 x 1.6 (2.4 m2), 1.5 m between
replication and 0.50m between plots within a block. The
spacing used was 30 × 10 cm. Total bulb yield (t ha-1), plant
height (cm) significantly (p = 0.0001) increased with
increasing N rates. However, unmarketable bulb yield (t ha-1)
was significantly (p = 0.01) decreased as N fertilizer
increased. The rate of 138 kgha-1 N increased yield and water
use efficiency compared to the control. Total bulb yield and
marketable bulb yield (t ha-1 ), harvest index, crop water use
efficiency, plant P concentration significantly increased with
Aregay Negash • Kumar Atul
1

Department of Dryland Crops and Horticultural Sciences,
College of Dryland Agriculture and Natural Resource
Management, Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia
2
Department of Basic Sciences, College of Forestry and Hill
Agriculture, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal,
Uttarakhand - 249 199, India
Atul Kumar ( )
E mail: atulvkumar@gmail.com

P fertilization. However, application of P did not show
significant difference (p = 0.08) in unmarketable bulb yield.
KEYWORDS Onion, irrigation schedule, water use
efficiency, fertilizer use efficiency
INTRODUCTION
Onion (Allium cepa L.), a member of Alliaceae
family, is an important shallow-rooted horticultural crop.
Though there has been considerable expansion in the area of
onion production, but its productivity in Ethiopia is very low
as compared to other parts of Africa. The low yield has been
attributed to low fertility of soil, inappropriate fertilizer rate,
and poor management practices (Dessalegne and Aklilu
2003). Onion is a heavy feeder and requires more fertilizer
than majority of other vegetable crops (Currah and Proctor
1990). It responds well to additional N fertilizer (Brown
2000, Currah and Proctor 1990, Dessalegne and Herath
1992). However, P fertilizer does not show clear response to
yield and yield components of onion (Dessaglegne and
Herath 1992, Zink 1966). High mobility of N and greater
incidence of P fixation in northern Ethiopian soils, make N
and P priority nutrients in soil fertility management practices
(Dessalegne and Herath 1992, MoARD 2006, Tsidale, et al.
1995). Irrigation and fertilizer are major inputs in the
production of most crops, however, when used excessively,
they are likely to reduce yields, affect post harvest quality
and also constitute a threat to the environment due to surface
and ground water pollution. Though, onion requires high
amount of water for good yield, some phonological stages are
less sensitive to water stress (FAO 1979). Hence, it is
important to consider the agronomic and physiological
aspects of the crop.
The main objective of this study was to determine
appropriate use of fertilizer and irrigation water in different

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 24 - 28, January - June, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Evolving nursery production technology for summer vegetables under
foggy conditions
A K JOSHI • V K CHAUHAN • PANKAJ MITTAL
Received: December 12, 2011; Revised: March 30, 2012; Accepted: May 15, 2012

ABSTRACT To grow summer vegetables successfully, the
vigorous and healthy nursery is required to be raised under
severe winter months. The plains experience fog in December
and January, which induces chilling injury to tender plants in
nursery. Hence, different techniques were tried to grow the
nursery under foggy conditions. The experiment was
replicated thrice over years to get the reproducible results.
The longest germination duration has been observed in
capsicum hence chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. DKC-8 was
taken as testing seed. The experiments were conducted on
29th December every year, keeping in view the over casting of
fog. The field germination of seed was uniform around 85.00
± 1.0 %. But significant differences were found in days to
emergence. Sunken bed (3m x 1 m x 0.45 m deep) covered
with white/transparent polythene took 11 days to emergence
in non foggy year of 2008-09, while in foggy years of 200910 and 2010-11, the seed emerged in 20 days. The emergence
in sunken bed could be advanced by 36.33 days as compared
to control (53.33 days) i.e. raised bed covered with grass.
Lanky and etiolated seedlings were produced under black
polythene thatched over sunken or raised beds. The seedling
emergence process was also enhanced under white poly
tunnels (23.33 days) and naturally ventilated poly house (27
days). The seedling attained four leaf stage in 36.33 days
under sunken beds covered with white polythene by
producing vigorous seedlings (SV-1, valued at 755.83).
Damping off disease was observed in control only.
Joshi AK • Chauhan VK • Mittal Pankaj
Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry,
Horticultural Regional Research Station, Dhaulakuan,
Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh – 173 001, India.
AK Joshi ( )
E mail: joshi.ajayram@gmail.com

KEYWORDS Sunken nursery, raised nursery, naturally
ventilated poly house, germination, SV-I, Capsicum annuum
INTRODUCTION
Area and production of vegetables along with
melons have increased manifold (112.45 %, and 418.24 %,
respectively) in India over the years 1961 to 2007 (Bisht
2010). The expansion in area under vegetables is still
continued at geometrical progression rate due to the alluring
remuneration offered by the off season cultivation of
vegetables. Farmers are swapping cereal or minor crops with
vegetables and concentrating on the production of those
vegetables, which have perpetual demand throughout the
year. Of late, it has been witnessed that most of the
vegetables are grown out of their normal season with the
advent of widely adaptive hybrid varieties and protected
cultivation technology. With all kind of advanced technology
available, the global warming, is posing new threats to the
researchers. Growing vegetables, under the fluctuating
temperatures, erratic precipitation, shortened seasons, are the
paramount challenges to combat with. The cultivation period
of summer vegetables is required to be advanced towards the
spring for curtailing the harsh and un-predictable summers.
Hence, the need was felt to grow the nursery of tomato, chilli,
bell-pepper, brinjal and even cucurbits in the severe winters.
Through the technology of poly tunnels and naturally
ventilated poly house is available for inducing normal
germination and growth in seedlings, yet the transplant of
poly-cultured nursery in the open fields have had failed
alarmingly. Such challenges requisitioned the advent of new
viable technology which could produce healthy and vigorous
nursery under harsh winters like foggy conditions
experienced in the plains and foot hills of the Himalayas.
The outcomes of the past research is encouraging
and have pointed out the adoption of poly house, green

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 29 - 36, January – June, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Effect of processing and storage on the colour characteristics of milkcake a traditional Indian milk product
ANIL KUMAR • GR PATIL • RRB SINGH • AA PATEL • NC SHAHI
Received: December 10, 2011; Revised: April 02, 2012; Accepted: April 15, 2012

ABSTRACT Effect of processing and storage on the colour
indices of milkcake viz. lightness (L*), redness (a*) and
yellowness (b*) was investigated during the study. Two
levels each of thermization temperature (70 and 80°C/60
min.) and corn syrup level (0 and 4 %) during processing and
effect of storage at 25°C for change in colour of milkcake
was studied at an interval of one month. During experiments
the browning effect of both the variables (i.e. thermization
temperature and corn syrup level) was found significant
(p<0.05) on colour indices of milkcake as indicated by
decrease in L* values, hue angle (H*) and C* values and
increase in red hue (a*) values. Browning also increased
significantly (p<0.05) with storage period as indicated by
decrease in L*, b* and C* values. Extent of browning was
found more in samples thermized at 80°C than at 70°C.
Instrumental readings were found in agreement with the
analyzed HMF values for milkcake. The study revealed that
CIE Lab parameters could be used as an effective objective
colour measurement method to monitor colour characteristics
of milkcake, in particular and other similar heat desiccated
milk products, in general.
Kumar Anil1•Patil GR2•Singh RRB2•Patel AA2•Shahi NC3
1

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of
Agriculture, GB Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand – 263 145, India
2
Dairy Technology Division, National Dairy Research
Institute, Karnal, Haryana – 132 001, India
3
Department of Post Harvest Process and Food Engineering,
College of Technology GB Pant University of Agriculture
and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand – 263 145, India
Anil Kumar ( )
E mail: anilkumargbpuat@gmail.com

KEYWORDS Traditional dairy product,
browning, colour characteristics, thermization

milkcake,

INTRODUCTION
The consumption of sweets is an integral part of
Indian dietary system. Traditional dairy products have great
commercial significance as they account for over 90 % of all
dairy products consumed in the country (Aneja et al. 2002).
About 50–55 % of milk produced is converted into a variety
of Indian milk products by the traditional sector (by halwais
or sweetmeat makers) using processes such as heat
desiccation, heat acid coagulation and fermentation, out of
which about, 5.5 % of total milk production is utilized for
khoa making in India (Bandyopadhyay et al. 2006).
Preparation of khoa and khoa based sweets viz. burfi,
kalakand and milkcake essentially involves heat coagulation
of milk brought about by boiling and concentration under
atmospheric conditions (De 1980). However, processing of
milk and milk products at high temperatures for prolonged
periods of time or storage of the products under adverse
conditions may impart more browning (tan colour). But
colour is an important characteristic of food quality and
influences consumer acceptability of most processed foods
including dairy products. A combination and interaction of
Maillard reaction and caramelization, which occur during
heating, can contribute to the quality of milk products in
some dairy products in general and milkcake in particular. So
extent of browning of any dairy product will depend on the
inherent desired characteristics of the product in particular
instead of comparing basis with other products of dairy
origin. Hence, in case of milkcake it is desirable to have
controlled browning to get a product with typical desirable
characteristics like brown colour and caramelized flavour.
The rate of heating as well as scraping and pattern
of foaming during boiling become important to the colour

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 37-41, January – June, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Yield and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by rainwater
management treatments and crop establishment methods under high
rainfall areas of Himachal Pradesh
AJAY GUPTA • VISHAL SHARMA • DINESH BADIYALA
Received: January 16, 2012; Revised: March 25, 2012; Accepted: April 15, 2012

ABSTRACT Many researchers in the recent past have
advocated direct seeding as an alternative to transplanting
method considering the rising cost of production and non
availability of labour at critical time for transplanting Direct
seeded rice, however, suffers from heavy weed infestation
and leads to quite lower yields. The method though is
reported to reduce the cost of cultivation and labour
utilization, but whether it is economically viable considering
the yield and value cost ratio, still needs to be investigated
under high rainfall areas of North Western Himalayas. A
field experiment was therefore, conducted during the rainy
seasons of I Year and II Year at the Experimental Farm of
Department of Soil Science, Himachal Pradesh Agricultural
University, Palampur to study the effect of rainwater
management and crop establishment methods on yield and
economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Continuous
submergence (R4) proved the best in influencing the grain
yield (26.6 and 35.0 q/ha) and was followed by plots with 25
cm bund height (R2) receiving diverted runoff from adjoining
maize plots during both the years Gross returns (

Gupta Ajay1 • Sharma Vishal1 • Badiyala Dinesh2
1

Department of Agronomy, Sher-e-Kashmir University of
Agriculture and Technology, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir –
180 009, India
2
Department of Agronomy, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar
Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur,
Himachal Pradesh – 176 062, India
Ajay Gupta ( )
E mail: ajayms3@rediffmail.com

(1.94 and 3.04) were found significantly the highest in
continuous submergence (R4) treatment. Transplanting
method of rice establishment gave the highest mean grain
yield (25.9 and 31.5 q/ha); the increase being 4.7 and 9.9 q/ha
over sprouted and dry seeding methods during I Year and 5.4
and 12.5 q/ha during II Year. Transplanted rice also recorded
and 18816) as well as value cost ratio during both the years.

KEYWORDS Rain water management, rice, economics,
yield, crop establishment methods
INTRODUCTION
In South Asia, rice production involves two
principal methods of establishment: direct seeding and
transplanting. Direct seeding involves dry and wet seeding. In
rainfed conditions where assured irrigation is not available
and situation is conducive for water accumulation the rice
seeds are sown directly in dry soil. Emergence takes place
with available moisture on rain following the seeding. In
second method where irrigation or rain water can be
accumulated, the fields are puddled and sprouted seeds are
broadcasted. The suspended soil particles provide cover on
the seeds. Transplanting is adopted in areas of assured water
supply and involves replanting of rice seedlings raised in
nurseries to puddled soils. Direct dry seeding is done in low
rainfall areas of zone I of Himachal Pradesh with limited
water supply. The three methods of rice cultivation show
considerable difference in cost of cultivation and labour
utilization. As a result, it is obvious to have different
profitability from different cultures. Various studies confirm
less labour requirement in direct seeded rice than transplanted

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 42 - 45, January – June, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Problems in marketing of ginger in Uttarakhand
CHANDRA DEV • VIRENDRA SINGH • B K KHANDURI
Received: November 16, 2011, Revised: March 12, 2012, Accepted: April 15, 2012

ABSTRACT Ginger is an important cash crop and plays a
vital role in the rural economy of Uttarakhand state. The
study was based on the data collected by survey method from
randomly selected 60 ginger growers of 5 villages in
Narendra Nagar block of district Tehri Garhwal. From each
village, 12 ginger growers were selected randomly. In
Dehradun market (mandi), 10 traders were interviewed
personally for the collection of information on the marketing
of ginger. The higher marketing cost was due to commission
of middlemen in the market, which accounted for 45.45 %.
The producer’s share in consumer’s price was estimated to be
65.39 %. This was mainly due to higher transportation cost
and higher middlemen margins. Traders were found to be
indulged in exploitation of farmers through various
underhand dealing, tactics and malpractices, which resulted
in high marketing cost and reduced producer’s share in the
consumer’s rupee.
KEYWORDS Ginger, marketing cost, marketing margins,
price spread
INTRODUCTION
The production of spices and condiments are highly
remunerative in our country because of ideal agro-climatic
conditions. Ginger is one of the important spices popularly
used in Indian diet. This commodity also has a medicinal
value. Ginger, therefore, has a continuous demand in the
market either as fresh or in dried form.
Dev Chandra1•Singh Virendra • Khanduri BK2
1Department of Agricultural Economics, College of
Agriculture, 2Department of Social Science, College of Basic
Sciences and Humanities, GB Pant University of Agriculture
and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263 145, India
Chandra Dev ( )
E mail: cdev_2006@yahoo.co.in

The important ginger producing countries are India,
Sierra Leone, Nigeria, China, Nepal, Pakistan, Japan,
Australia, Malaysia and Indonesia (Kizhakkayil and
Sasikumar 2011). India and China are the two major
suppliers of ginger in the world market. India is the largest
ginger producing country, which produces about 50 % of the
world’s total ginger and is the largest exporter. It is an
important cash crop of India. The rhizomes yield 1–3 % of a
pale-yellow essential oil, which lacks the pungent principle
(Babu and Ravindran 2004). It finds limited use as a
flavoring essence in perfumery. It is obtained by solvent
extraction from ground ginger in which the full pungency of
the spice is preserved, it is used for flavoring purpose
particularly for soft drinks and in medicines. Ginger is used
in medicines as a carminative and aromatic stimulant to the
gastro-intestinal tract and externally as a rubefacient and
counter–irritant. It has a reputation as an aphrodisiac.
Ginger is an important cash crop of great potential
in the country as it helps in earning valuable foreign
exchange every year and accounts for more than 60 % of the
world production. India is the largest grower of ginger and
also the largest producer of dry ginger in the world. At
present, ginger is cultivated over a greater part of tropical and
sub-temperate zones. It requires a warm and humid climate
for commercial production. It is grown successfully at an
altitude to 1500 m amsl in different regions of India with an
annual rainfall of 1500-3000 mm. In India, ginger is grown in
almost all the states. The main producing states in India are
Assam, Kerala, Gujarat, Mizoram, Sikkim, Orissa, Arunachal
Pradesh, Meghalaya and Uttarakhand. Total area under
ginger production in India is 105.5 thousand ha and the
production is 517.8 thousand tonnes. The highest area under
ginger cultivation is in Assam (18.1 thousand ha), where
production in quite high (123.9 thousand tonnes), followed
by Kerala. Uttarakhand is the important ginger producing
state. During the year 2008-09 the crop was grown on an area
of 2600 ha, which produced 31288 mt ginger with a

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 46 -52, January – June, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Development of integrated farming system model for marginal and small
farmers of Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh - an innovative extension
tool
ANIL K CHOUDHARY • SK THAKUR • DS YADAV
Received: October 28, 2011, Revised: March 16, 2012, Accepted: April 15, 2012

ABSTRACT This paper deals with the discussion that how
the integrated farming system (IFS) model has been
developed simulating the entire farm based situations faced
by the small and marginal farmers of Mandi district of
Himachal Pradesh with desired technological modifications
needed to boost the farmers’ productivity and profitability on
sustainable basis. Integration of different field crops,
vegetables and practically feasible farm enterprises, we can
earn net profitability of 409721 with annual cost of
cultivation 100847 with overall holistic B:C ratio of 4.92
under established IFS units. These results reveal that
induction of IFS principles and technological interventions on
the basis of land use planning, the small and marginal farmers
can fetch better gains and livelihood through diversification
of their small and marginal farms.IFS model can act as an
innovative extension tool to transform less remunerative hill
production systems into highly remunerative systems using
available farm resources to generate better farm gains,
livelihood and employment on sustainable basis.
KEYWORDS Integrated farming system model, hill
farming,
land
use
planning,
productivity,
profitability

Choudhary Anil K • Thakur SK • Yadav DS
CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Krishi
Vigyan Kendra Sundernagar, Distt. Mandi, Himachal Pradesh
- 175 019, India
SK Thakur ( )
E mail: skthpkv@yahoo.com

INTRODUCTION
Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh lies in the lap
of north-western Himalayas between 31o13´20´´ to
32o04´30´´ North latitude and 76o37´20´´ to 77o23´15´´ East
longitude (Anon 2006), and endowed with a wide variety of
agro-climatic conditions and soil types that enable the
cultivation of various field crops, vegetables and fruits crops.
Total geographical area in Mandi district is 3,97,000 ha and
arable land area is 95,500 ha, out of which only 16.27 % area
is irrigated (Choudhary et al. 2011). Of the total
geographical area, 43.8 % is covered under forests, 24.2 %
under permanent pasture and 18.6 % is cultivable (Anon
2006). Majority of farmers in this remote hill district have
marginal and small land holdings averaging 0.40 ha (DOA
2009, Anon 2011), coupled with poor socio-economic status
and practicing poor crop management (DOA 2009). In Mandi
district, maize, rice and wheat are the main field crops while
vegetable production is also gaining ground on large scale in
Mandi district especially in Balh valley and wet temperate
high hill region as off-season vegetables. Potato, peas, tomato
and crucifer vegetables are the major vegetable crops of
Mandi district. Crop husbandry, horticulture and livestock
rearing are integral part of hill farming in the district (DOA
2009). Thus, integrated farming is done on small and
marginal farms by the resource poor farmers of the district
but not so remunerative to earn their livelihood.
Crop management in the district is not in scientific
manner resulting in poor crop productivity and profitability
(Anon 2009). The natural resources are fatigued due to
population pressure and poor land use planning. There is a
large scope for crop diversification through fruits, vegetables
and other farm enterprises in the district. Since, Krishi
Vigyan Kendra (KVK) is a district level centre aiming to

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 53 -57, January – June, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Correlation and path analysis studies in bacterial wilt resistant F6
progenies of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
SANJAY CHADHA • AMIT BHUSHAN
Received: Jan 8, 2012; Revised: May 25, 2012; Accepted: June 10, 2012

ABSTRACT Studies on correlation and path coefficient
were conducted in field evaluation trial of 12 bacterial wilt
resistant F6 progenies of tomato along with three resistant
checks viz., Palam Pink, Palam Pride and SUN 7711, planted
in randomized block design with three replications during
summer-rainy season of 2008. Analysis of variance revealed
significant differences among the progenies for all the traits
studied viz., days to 50 % flowering, days to first harvest,
plant height, total fruits/plant, marketable fruits/plant,
average fruit weight, gross yield/plant and marketable
yield/plant. Significant positive correlation of marketable
fruit yield/plant was found with total fruits/plant (0.781 and
0.779), marketable fruits/plant(0.882 and 0.883), gross
yield/plant(0.932 and 0.979) and plant height(0.712 and
0.724) and significant negative association with average fruit
weight(-0.540 and -0.552) at both phenotypic and genotypic
levels. Path coefficient analysis revealed that marketable
fruits per plant had the maximum positive direct contribution
towards marketable yield per plant followed by gross yield
per plant while the maximum negative direct contribution
was of total fruits per plant.
KEYWORDS Tomato, Lycopersicon
correlation, path coefficient, F6 progenies

esculentum,

INTRODUCTION
Tomato is one of the most popular and widely grown
vegetable crops of commerce in the world, ranking second in
Chadha Sanjay• Bhushan Amit
Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSK
Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur,
Himachal Pradesh -176 062, India.
Sanjay Chadha ( )
E mail: schadha_113@yahoo.co.in

importance to potato but tops the list of processed vegetables
(Choudhary 1996). Of late, area under tomato cultivation has
been extensively increased (nearly 300 %) from 2366 ha in
1990-91 to 9386 ha in 2007-08 in Himachal Pradesh. The
summer-rainy season crop grown in lower and mid-hill
pockets of the north-western hills fetches high prices being
off-season crop of the plains. Bacterial wilt is one of the most
important constraints in humid tropical and sub-tropical areas
causing huge losses. Hence, identification and development
of new improved disease resistant cultivars is very important
to further boost up the production and productivity of the
crop in wilt prone areas of Himachal Pradesh. In order to
select superior genotypes, the knowledge regarding the nature
of association of the characters in question with other
relevant trait is important. Path analysis provides an effective
means of finding out direct and indirect causes of association
and permits a critical examination of given correlation and
measures the relative importance of each factors. Information
in literature on these aspects in tomato involving bacterial
wilt resistant varieties/lines is limited. Hence, the present
study was undertaken on 12 bacterial wilt resistant F6
progenies of tomato along with three resistant checks to
measure the degree of association of characters under study
and path coefficient for marketable fruit yield and component
traits.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The material comprised 12 bacterial wilt resistant
F6 progenies of tomato viz., (BRH-2 × SUN 7611)-1-1-2-1,
(BRH-2 × SUN 7611)-1-1-2-2, (BRH-2 × SUN 7611)-1-3-21, (BRH-2 × SUN 7611)-1-3-B-1, (SUN 7721 × Hawaii
7998)-3-2-1-2, (SUN 7721 × Hawaii 7998)-3-B-1-3, (Hawaii
7998× SUN 7611)-2-2-1-2, (Hawaii 7998× SUN 7611)-5-21-1, (BT 18 × SUN 7611)-5-1-B-1, (BT 18 × SUN 7611)-62-1-2, (BT 18 × SUN 7611)-6-3-1-B and (BT 18 × SUN

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 58 - 61, January – June, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Physico-chemical evaluation and acceptability of RTS beverage and
concentrate prepared from apricot
REENA • YS DHALIWAL • APARANA SHARMA
Received: Dec 22, 2011; Revised: March 30, 2012; Accepted: April 15, 2012

ABSTRACT The evaluation of ready- to- serve (RTS)
beverage and concentrate prepared from apricot, revealed that
with the increase in acidity level, the reducing sugar, nonreducing sugar, total sugar and pH decreased in the RTS
prepared from apricot pulp whereas, with the increase in TSS
level of concentrate, there was significant increase in the
reducing, non-reducing and total sugar as well as anthocaynin
content. The overall acceptability of the concentrate prepared
from apricot was higher when fortified with ascorbic acid.
KEYWORDS Apricot, RTS, concentrate, TSS, acidity
INTRODUCTION
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is a stone fruit
grown in the temperate regions of the world. It holds its
origin in China and is grown best in the areas of altitude
ranging between 900-1200 m above sea level. Turkey, Italy,
Greece, Spain, USA and France are major producers of
apricot (Gorpade et.al. 1995). The production of apricot in
the world is 3758.9 thousand tonnes whereas India produces
10,000 meteric tonnes of apricots (FAO 2011). In India,
Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttranchal are
major apricot producers. Himachal Pradesh produces 1947
metric tonnes of apricot fruits annually from an area of 3588
Reena1 • Dhaliwal YS2 • Sharma Aparana2
1

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Berthin, Distt Bilaspur, Himachal
Pradesh – 174 029, India
2
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Home
Science, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya,
Palampur, Himachal Pradesh – 174 029, India
Reena ( )
E mail: ravinderberthin@gmail.com

hectare (Anon 2010). Solan and Sirmour districts are major
apricot producing areas of Himachal Pradesh (Singh et.al.
1990).
Apricot fruits are highly perishable and have a
shelf life of about 3-4 days at ambient temperature and 2-4
weeks at 0oC and 90-95 % relative humidity (Sharma et al.
1992). Approximately ninteen % of total apricots produced
are dried (Sharma et al. 1993). Some are utilized in the
preparation of value added products including RTS beverage,
concentrate, canned apricots, jam, chutney, sauce and others.
Apricot being the major stone fruit produced in Himachal
Pradesh, the present study was conducted to utilize these in
the preparation of RTS beverage and concentrate. The
beverages were evaluated for their physico-chemical
characteristics and sensory attributes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present investigation was carried out in the
Department of Food Science and Nutration, College of Home
Science, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya,
Palampur. The fresh fruits of apricot were procured from
Bogtu Farm of Department of Horticulture, Kinnaur and
Department of Horticulture Farm of CSK Himachal Pradesh
Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, respectively for chemical
evaluation and acceptivility of RTS beverage and
concentrate. Other raw materials such as sugar, preservatives
as well as containers were procured from the local market.
Preparation of RTS RTS beverage was prepared using
apricot pulp. Two variations viz TSS and acidity were
undertaken. The TSS of RTS beverages were adjusted at
10.0, 12.5, 15.0 and 17.5 °Brix, whereas, the acidity (% as
citric acid) of each lot varied from 0.30, 0.35 and 0.40 in each
RTS beverage. The filtered RTS beverages were bottled and
kept after pasteurization for further use and analysis.

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 62-64, January – June, 2012
SHORT COMMUNICATION

Blood cellular responses in Sarcosystis tenella infected lambs treated with
Toltrazuril
SANJAY CHAUDHARY • ANJALI CHAUDHARY
Received: October 15, 2011; Revised: February 6, 2012; Accepted: April 15, 2012

ABSTRACT Sheep husbandry contributes immensely to
Indian agricultural economy in the form of wool, mutton,
leather, milk and casing production. Sarcosystis has recently
been recognized as most prevalent and highly pathogenic
protozoan infection in sheep in India with a high prevalence
rate of up to 80 % . Out of four species of sarcosystis,
Sarcosystis tenella is found to be the most pathogenic species
which may cause major health problem. There is no other
information on sarcocystosis of lambs from India. Thus, in
the present investigation an attempt has been made to study
the clinico- pathological and haematological alterations in
sarcosystis infected lambs. The present study also showed
partial efficacy of anti-coccidial drug Toltazuril in
sarcosytosis.
KEYWORDS Sarcosystis, protozoan, clinico- pathological,
haematological, Toltazuril
Sheep husbandry is immensely important to Indian
agricultural economy with its contribution of approximately
Rs. 80 million annually to the national income. The main
hurdle in raising healthy sheep is susceptibility of this species
to many infections and contagious diseases particularly those
of parasitic origin due to their grazing habit and under poor
management practices. Sarcosystis tenella is a dog sheep

Chaudhary Sanjay • Chaudhary Anjali
College of Forestry and Hill Agriculture, GB Pant University
of Agriculture and Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri,
Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand – 249 199, India
Sanjay Chaudhary ( )
E mail: sanjali.deep@gmail.com

protozoan parasite, causing a wild spread enzootic muscle
parasitosis and neurological disease mainly in lambs (Rodrige
et al. 2009). This parasite is pathogenic to sheep and thus
important to the economical production of sheep. Out of 4
species of sarcosystis viz. Sarcosystis tenella is found to be
most pathogenic species which may cause major health
problem (Dubey et al. 1989, Banerjee 1998 and Adriana et
al. 2008). The information about the occurrence of
sarcosystosis in lambs from India is less. Thus, in the present
study an attempt has been made to study the
clinicopathological and haematological alterations in
sarcosystosis infected lambs. The efficacy of anti-coccidial
drug toltazuril was also assessed in sarcosystosis.
Fifty samples of diaphragm and esophagus were
collected from sheep slaughtered at Delhi and Deharadun
abattoirs. The differentiation of Sarcosystis tenella sarcosyst
from its other species was done by the method of Dubey et al.
(1989) at Parasitology Laboratory, College of Veterinary
Sciences, Pantnagar. The microsarcosysts were measure up to
1000 µm in length with 1were separated from tissue debris and whole intact mature
sarcocysts were collected for experimental infection in one
to 2 months of age healthy pups. The pups were maintained
on boiled milk and bread and routinely screened for any
parasitic infection of the digestive tract. Each pup was fed
orally with approximately 1000 sarcosystis tenella sarcosysts
obtained after digestion of muscles of the infected sheep. The
pups started shedding sporocysts/oocysts at 8-9 days post
infection (DPI). The pups were enthused after 3 days of first
appearance of sporocysts/oocyst in their faeces for collection
of maximum number of oocysts/sporocysts as per the method
described by Banerjee (1998). Twelve healthy lambs (4-6
months of age) treated with closantel (to avoid any
helminthic infection in the digestive tract) were taken and
randomly divided into 4 group viz A, B, C and D each with
three lambs.

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(1): 65-67, January – June, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Prediction of runoff from Nagwa watershed using SCS-Curve Number
method
SAURABH SINGH • PS KASHYAP • SK SRIVASTAVA
Received: December 10, 2011, Revised: Feb 25, 2012, Accepted: April 24, 2012

ABSTRACT A rainfall-runoff model is a mathematical
model describing the rainfall-runoff relations of a catchment
area, drainage basin or watershed. The soil conservation
service curve number method is used for predicting the runoff
by using the soil information, rainfall, storm duration, soil
texture, type and amount of the vegetation cover and
conservation practices. The CN method is one of the most
widely used techniques in watershed hydrology. This method
has been further simplified by introducing an assumption on
initial abstraction which is represented by the potential
retention capacity (S) of the watershed. The extensive use of
the method is based on convenience and simplicity. For the
prediction of runoff soil conservation service curve number
method (SCS-CN) is applied to a large set of rainfall-runoff
data (24 storm events) obtained from Nagwa watershed. The
predicted runoff was compared with the measured runoff and
exhibited strong linear relationship R2 = 0.899.
KEYWORDS Curve number, Rainfall, Runoff, Watershed.
SCS-CN
In catchments with agricultural lands, American
Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Runoff Curve Number
Method is widely used for planning the structures aimed at
water storage and erosion and flood control. United States

Singh Saurabh1•Kashyap PS1•Srivastava SK2
1

Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering,
College of Technology, GB Pant University of Agriculture
and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand - 263 145, India
2
Vaugh School of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,
SHIATS, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh - 211 002, India
Saurabh Singh ( )
E mail: saurabh813@gmail.com

Department of Agriculture (USDA), Soil Conservation
Service, developed a method to calculate runoff from small
agricultural catchments with different soil groups, vegetation
covers and land uses by examining measured precipitation
and runoff amounts, and named it as “Soil Conservation
Service Curve Number Method”. The Soil Conservation
Service Curve number (SCS-CN method) is also known as
hydrologic soil group method, which is a versatile and
popular approach for quick runoff estimation and is relatively
easy to use with minimum data and it gives adequate results
(Chatterjee et al. 2001, Ashish et al. 2003, Gupta and
Panigrahy 2008). Generally the model is well suited for small
watersheds of less than 250 km2 and it requires details of soil
characteristics, land use and vegetation condition (Mishra et
al. 2004). Hydrologic soil group number, land use type,
vegetation cover, soil conservation measure, antecedent soil
moisture conditions are the basic catchments characteristics
used for curve number calculation. The Curve Number (CN)
method for estimation of storm runoff volume was developed
in the 1950’s by the Natural Resources Conservation Service
(NRCS) (formerly known as Soil Conservation Service
Curve Number or SCS-CN method), and has been
commonly used (Woodward et al., 2006; Walker et al., 2000;
Soulis et al.,2009). A rainfall-runoff model is a mathematical
model describing the rainfall-runoff relations of a catchment
area, drainage basin or watershed.
More precisely, it produces the surface runoff
hydrograph as a response to a rainfall hydrograph as input. In
other words, the model calculates the conversion of rainfall
into runoff. A rainfall-runoff model can be really helpful in
the case of calculating discharge from a basin. The
transformation of rainfall into runoff over a catchment is
known to be very complex hydrological phenomenon, as this
process is highly nonlinear, time-varying and spatially
distributed.

i

GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS
Journal of Hill Agriculture (JHA) is an international journal and an official publication of Indian Society of Hill
Agriculture (ISHA). It publishes the original research in all branches of agriculture and allied science (as mentioned below) that is of
primary interest to the agricultural development, especially in hill and mountain regions of the world. The publication is open to the
members of Indian Society of Hill Agriculture but it also accepts papers from non-members if all authors become the annual/life
member when a paper is submitted / accepted for publication. The journal publishes four types of articles, i.e. (i) Strategy / Policy
paper (exclusively by invitation from the personalities of eminence), (ii) Review papers (full and short), (iii) Research papers and (iv)
Short communications. The manuscripts should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief (JHA) by e-mail as attached file saved in MS
Word to editorinchiefjha@gmail.com or by online submission on our website www.ishaindia.in or through indianjournals.com. The
status of manuscripts can also be checked online. Each manuscript must be typed doubled spaced on one side of an A4 size page.
Clearness, brevity and conciseness are essential in form, style, punctuation, spelling and use of English language. Manuscripts should
conform to the SI system for numerical data and data should be subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. On receipt of an article at
the Editorial Office, an acknowledgement giving the manuscript number is sent to the corresponding author. This number should be
quoted while making any future enquiry about its status.
MAJOR FIELDS/SUBJECTS COVERED UNDER JHA
a)
Plant Improvement with reference to genetics, plant breeding, production, cytogenetics, physiology, biotechnology and
biochemistry of various crops including fruits, vegetables, flowers, medicinal plants and forest plants.
b)
Plant Protection including entomology, plant pathology, nematology, microbiology and agro-chemicals
c)
Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences including Natural Resource Management, Soil Sciences, Water Management,
Environmental Sciences, Agronomy, Seed Science, Meteorology and Agroforestry.
d)
Animal Sciences including Veterinary Science and Fishery
e)
Agricultural Engineering including Farm machinery, Soil & Water Conservation Engineering, Energy Management,
Postharvest Technology, Food Technology and Dairy Processing
f)
Social Sciences including Statistics, Economics, Extension, Home Sciences, Nutrition, Research Management
TYPES OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN JHA
a. Strategy paper. These papers are invited exclusively by invitation from the personalities of eminence to give their opinion on the
trends of agricultural development and future of various sectors of agriculture and allied disciplines and related development issues
all over the world especially in hill and mountain regions.
b. Review paper It should be comprehensive, critical and updated on a recent topic of importance. The maximum page limit is of 14
double spaced typed pages including Tables and Figures. It should cite latest references and identify some gaps for future. It should
have a specific Title followed by the Name(s) of the author(s), Affiliation, Abstract, Key words, main text with subheadings,
Acknowledgements (wherever applicable) and References.
c. Research paper. The paper should describe a new and confirmed findings. Should not generally exceed 12 typed pages including
Tables/Figures etc. A paper has the following features. Please consult previous issues of JHA for your reference and help.
Title followed by author (s) and affiliation: address of the institution (s) where the research was undertaken and e mail
address of corresponding author.
Abstract: Entire work along with the highlights of the findings must be given concisely in 200 to 300 words.
Key words: About 5- 6 keywords to be indicated.
Introduction: This must highlight importance of the problem and its relevance to hill agriculture including pervious work
done and gaps thereof.
Materials and Methods: Describe the materials used in the experiments, year of experimentation, site etc. Describe the
methods employed for collection and analysis of data in short.
Results and Discussion: This segment should focus on the fulfillment of stated objectives as given in the introduction and
contain findings presented in Tables, Figures and photographs. Data should be statistically analyzed following suitable
experimental design. Same data should not be presented in the table and figure form. Avoid use of numerical values in
findings, rather mention the trends and discuss with the available literatures. At the end give short conclusion.
Acknowledgements: (wherever applicable).
References: Reference to literature should be arranged alphabetically as per author's names, should be placed at the end of
the article. Each reference should contain the names of the author with initials, the year of the publication, title of the
article, the abbreviated title of the publication according to the World List of Scientific Periodicals, volume and page(s). In
the text, the reference should be indicated by authors’ name and year of publication in brackets. eg. (Smith 1979, Sharma
and Nautiyal 2009, Raghav et al. 2010). If there are more than two or more references mentioned together in one bracket
they should be written in chronological order.
d. Short communication: The text including Table(s) and Figure(s) should not exceed 5 pages. It should have a short title, followed
by name of author(s) and affiliation and References. There should be no subheadings, i.e. Introduction, Materials and Methods etc.
The manuscript should be in paragraphs mentioning the brief introduction of the of the topic and relevance of the work, followed by

ii
a short description of the materials and the methods employed, results and discussion based on the data presented in 1 or 2
table(s)/figure(s) and a short conclusion at the end. References should be maximum seven at the end.
STANDARD REFERENCE WRITING PATTERN FOR JHA
Research and Review Papers
Sharma KD, Kumar R, Kaushal BBL 2004. Mass transfer characteristics, yield and quality of five varieties of osmotically dehydrated
apricot. J Food Sci Tech 41(3): 264-274.
Ponnuswami V, Kumar AR 2009. Crop improvement and management strategies in paprika – a review. J Hill Agr 5(1): 460-466.
Books and Book Chapters
Sharma SK 2010. Postharvest Management and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables – Instant Notes. New India Pub Agency, New
Delhi, 395p.
Babu A, Gupta HS 2006. Approaches to improvement in maize. In: Sustainable Production from Agricultural Watersheds in North
West Himalaya. Gupta HS, Srivastava AK, Bhatt JC (eds). Vivekanand Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora,
Uttaranchal, pp 124-138.
Symposium / Seminar/ Conference Publications
Dhillon BS, Rana JC 2004. Temperate fruits genetic resources management in India – issues and strategies. In: Proceedings of the
Seventh International Symposium on Temperate Zone Fruits in the Tropics and Subtropics. Jindal KK, Sharma RC,
Rehalia AS (eds), International Society of Horticultural Sciences, Belgium, pp 139-146.
Mohsin F, Singh O 2010. Studies in intercropping of cash crops in Populus deltoides plantation. National Symposium on
Conservation Horticulture (21-23 March, 2010, Dehradun, India), Book of Abstracts, pp 131.
Arora VPS 2010. Indian horticulture – marketing and export issues. National Symposium on Conservation Horticulture (21-23
March, 2010, Dehradun, India), Souvenir, Singh SS, Singhal V, Pant K, Dwivedi SK, Kamal S, Singh P (eds), pp 80-87.
Patent
Schmidt GR, Means WJ 1986. Process of preparing algin/calcium gel-structured meat products. US Patent 4 603 054.
Thesis
Bisht R 2007. Studies on the multiplication and utilization of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae salicifolia D.Don), M Sc Thesis, GB Pant
University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, US Nagar, Uttarakhand, India.
Website
Kumar S 2009. Rearing rabbits in the mid hills of Himalaya. http://www.rabbitrearing.com/. Accessed March 10, 2009.
General instructions to the authors
All the manuscript should be typed double spaced on one side of A4 size paper with proper margin of 1 inch on all 4 sides.
Generic & specific names should be italicized throughout manuscript. Similarly, the vernacular/ local names are to be italicized.
Tables should be typed on separate sheets, each with a heading. Tables should be typed with the first letter (T) only capital. All
Tables and Figures should be properly numbered. All measurements should be in metric units.
Each illustration must be referred to in the text.
On the first page address of the corresponding author and E-mail Id. etc. may be specified.
Revised manuscript is acceptable only as soft copy (attached file in MS Word) of the corrected version through e mal sent to
Editor-in-Chief.
The paper after publication shall be sent as pdf file version of the whole issue of the journal to the authors.
Article forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief for publication is understood to be offered to JOURNAL OF HILL AGRICULTURE
exclusively and not for any other journal.
It is also understood that the authors have obtained a prior approval of their Department, Faculty or Institute in case where such
approval is a necessary.
Acceptance of a manuscript for publication in Journal of Hill Agriculture shall automatically mean transfer of copyright to the
Indian Society of Hill Agriculture. The authors shall also have to provide a copy of the Copyright Transfer Statement duly
signed by all or the corresponding author on behalf of all the authors.
The Editorial Board takes no responsibility for the fact or the opinion expressed in the Journal, which rests entirely with the
author(s) thereof.
All the authors of a paper have to become annual/life member of the ISHA for publication of paper.
All papers should be sent to Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Hill Agriculture, through e mail as attached file to
editorinchiefjha@gmail.com
Check List
1. Complete manuscript in MS Word format
2. Names and details (including complete postal address alongwith Phone No. and e mail) of at least three potential referees
who might be interested to review your paper. The format for the same may be downloaded from ISHA website Visit
http://www.ishaindia.in/JHA%20Format%20for%20suggesting%20Potential%20Referees%20names.doc
3. Copyright transfer statement on separate page
4. Membership Number (if fee is paid already)/ Membership fee

iii
COMMON ABBREVIATIONS USED IN JHA
above mean sea level
at the rate
centimeter,centimeter
degree centigrade
et caetera, et coetera or et cœtera
exampli gratia

amsl
@
cm
°C
etc
e.g.

Figure
Gram
Hectare
hour(s)
international unit
it is or that is
Kilogram
kilometer, kilimetre
lesser than, greater than

Fig
g
ha
hr
IU
i.e.
kg
km
<, >

Limited
litre or liter
Messrs
meter, metre
milligram
parts per million, parts per
billion
per cent
per ha or per litre or per kg
second(s)
square meter, cubic meter etc
such as
volume by volume
weight by volume
weight by weight
tonne(s), ton

Ltd
l
M/S
m
mg
ppm, ppb
%
ha-1 or l-1 or kg-1
sec
m2, m3 etc
i.e.
v/v
w/v
w/w
t

Abbreviations for citing references
Abstract
Academy
Acta
Advances
Agriculture
Agricultural
Agronomy
America, -an
Analytical, Analysis
Annals
Animal
Annual
Applied
Asian
Archives
Associate(s), -ed
Association
Australian
Austrian
Beverage
Biochemistry
Biology
Biotechnology
Botany
Breeding
British, Britain
Bulletin
Bureau
Canada, -ian
Center, Centre
Chemical
Chemistry
Circular

Abstr
Acad
Acta
Adv
Agr
Agrl
Agron
Amer
Anal
Ann
Animal
Annu
Appl
Asian
Arch
Assoc
Assn
Austral
Aust
Bev
Biochem
Biol
Biotechnol
Bot
Breeding
Brit
Bul
Bur
Can
Ctr
Cheml
Chem
Circ

Congress
Contribution(s)
Conservation
Cooperative
Culture
Current
Cytology, -ical
Department
Development
Digest
Disease
Dissertation
Distribution
Division
Ecology, -ical
Ecosystem(s)
Economy, -ic, -ics
Education
Egypt
Egyptian
Electronic
Encyclopedia
Engineers, -ring
Enology
Entomology, -ical
Environment
Environmental
Enzyme (s)
Enzymology
Experiment
Experimental
Microscopy
Molecule, ar

Congr
Contrib
Conserv
Coop
Cult
Curr
Cytol
Dept
Dev
Dig
Dis
Diss
Distrib
Div
Ecol
Ecosyst
Econ
Educ
Egypt
Egyptn
Electronic
Encycl
Eng
Enol
Entomol
Environ
Environl
Enzym
Enzymol
Expt
Exptl
Microsc
Mol

iv
Citriculture
Climatology, -ical
College
Colloquium
Commonwealth
Communication
Conference
Extension
Europe
European
Fertilizer
Food(s)
Forestry
Gazette
General
Genetics
Government
Handbook
Heredity
Horticulture
Horticultural
Horticulturae
Human
Husbandry
India
Indian
Industry
Industrial
Information
Institute, -ion
Institution
International
Irrigation
Japanese
Journal
Laboratory, -ies
Leaflet
Letters
Magazine
Management
Market
Marketing
Meeting
Meteorology, -ical
Methods
Scientific
Series
Service
Society
Soil

Citricult
Climatol
College
Colloq
Cmwlth
Commun
Conf
Ext
Europ
Europn
Fert
Food
For
Gaz
Gen
Genet
Govt
Hdbk
Hered
Hort
Hortl
Hortic
Human
Husban
India
Indian
Ind
Indl
Info
Inst
Instn
Intl
Irr
Jpn
J
Lab
Lflt
Lett
Mag
Mgt
Mkt
Mktg
Mtg
Meteorol
Methd
Scientific
Ser
Serv
Soc
Soil

Monograph
Mycology, -ical
National
Nature
Natural
National
Nematology, -ical
Netherlands
New York
New Zealand
Newsletter
Note(s)
Nucleic
Nutrition
Nutritional
Official
Opinion
Pathology, -ical
Photosynthesis
Physics, -ical
Physiology, -ical, -ia
Phytology, -ical
Phytochemistry
Phytopathology, -ical
Plant
Planta
Plantae, -arum
Pomology, -ical
Poultry
Proceedings
Products
Production
Progress, progressive
Propagation
Protection
Publication(s)
Quarterly
Region, al
Report(s)
Reporter
Research
Resources
Review(s), Revue(s)
Science(s)
Scientia
Thesis
Theory
Theoritical
Transactions
Tropical

Monogr
Mycol
Natl
Nat
Natl
Natnl
Nematol
Neth
NY
NZ
Nwsl
Note
Nucl
Nutr
Nutrl
Off
Opinion
Pathol
Photosyn
Phys
Physiol
Phytol
Phytochem
Phytopathol
Pl
Planta
Plant
Pomol
Poult
Proc
Prod
Prodn
Progress
Prop
Protect
Publ
Qrtly
Reg
Rpt
Rptr
Res
Resources
Rev
Sci
Scientia
Thesis
Theor
Theorl
Trans
Trop

v
Special
Standard
Station
Statistics
Statistical
Supplement(s)
Symposium
Technical, -que
Technology, -ical
Temperature
Temperate

Spec
Stnd
Sta
Stat
Statl
Suppl
Symp
Tech
Technol
Temp
Temperate

United States
University
Universe
Universal
Variety, -ies
Vegetable(s)
Virology
Viticulture
Workshop
Yearbook

US
Univ
Univer
Univerl
Var
Veg
Virol
Viticult
Wkshp
Yrbk

REFEREES OF JOURNAL OF HILL AGRICULTURE, 2012 Vol 3(1)

Dr Alkesh Kandoria, PSCST, Chandigarh
Dr Anil Dixit, CIPHET Ludhiana
Dr Anil Kumar GBPUAT Pantnagar
Dr Birendra Prasad. GBPUAT Pantnagar
Dr Deepji Bhat, SKUAST, Jammu
Dr Faizan Ahmed, SKUAST (K) Kargil, Jammu and Kashmir
Dr KC Sharma, CSKHPKVV, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh
Dr Lakshmikant Sharma, KVK, Bajaura, Kullu, HP
Dr Manisha Mangal, IARI, New Delhi
Dr Om Chand Sharma, CITH, Srinagar, J&K
Dr Rakesh Sharma, Solan Himachal Pradesh
Dr Rashmi Yadav, NBPGR, New Delhi
Dr Sangita Bansal, CIPHET Ludhiana
Dr Sanjay Srivastava, GBPUAT Pantnagar
Dr Sanjeev Sharma, Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh
Dr Shachi Shah, IGNOU, New Delhi
Dr SK Maurya, GBPUAT Pantnagar
Dr Vijay Yadav IGFRI, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh
Dr Vinod Sharma, Katrain, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh
Dr VK Rao, GBPUAT, Pantnagar

vi

COPYRIGHT TRANSFER AGREEMENT
Journal Name: JOURNAL OF HILL AGRICULTURE (Print ISSN 0976-7606, Online ISSN 2230-7338)
Please provide us with the following information, review our policies, and confirm your acceptance of the
terms of the attached article publishing agreement by signing this form, with respect to the following work submitted
to Journal of Hill Agriculture.
Manuscript Title :
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vii

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viii

Sharing Knowledge
for Prosperity

INDIAN SOCIETY OF HILL AGRICULTURE
G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar,
Uttarakhand – 263 145
Phone: +91 94124 63923, 94129 62535
Website: www.ishaindia.in
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Journal of Hill Agriculture 2012, Vol 3(1)
CONTENTS
Soil acidity tolerance in cereals – basis and
approach

1-7

WRICHA TYAGI • MAYANK RAI
An overview of recent developments in poultry 8-15
production in north eastern region of India
SANTOSH HAUNSHI •
SV RAMARAO
Irrigation scheduling at specific growth stages
of onion (Allium cepa L.) under variable
fertilizer rates in different soil types in
Gumselassa (Tigray), Ethiopia

16-23

24-28

AK JOSHI • VK CHAUHAN •
PANKAJ MITTAL
Effect of processing and storage on the colour 29-36
characteristics of milkcake – a traditional Indian
milk product
ANIL KUMAR • GR PATIL •
RRB SINGH • AA PATEL • NC SHAHI
Yield and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.)as 37-41
influenced by rainwater management treatments
and crop establishment methods under high
rainfall areas of Himachal Pradesh
AJAY GUPTA • VISHAL SHARMA •
DINESH BADIYALA
Problems in marketing of ginger in Uttarakhand 42-45
CHANDRA DEV • VIRENDRA SINGH
• BK KHANDURI

ANIL K CHOUDHARY •
SK THAKUR • DS YADAV
Correlation and path analysis studies in bacterial 53-57
wild resistant F6 progenies of tomato (Solanum
lycopersicum L.)
SANJAY CHADHA •
AMIT BHUSHAN

NEGASH AREGAY • ATUL KUMAR
Evolving nursery production technology for
summer vegetables under foggy conditions

Development of integrated farming system
46-52
model for marginal and small farmers of Mandi
district of Himachal Pradesh – an innovative
extension tool

Physico-chemical evaluation and acceptability 58-61
of RTS beverage and concentrate prepared from
apricot
REENA • YS DHALIWAL •
APARNA SHARMA
Blood cellular responses in Sarcosystis tenella
infected lambs treated with Toltrazuril

62-64

SANJAY CHAUDHARY •
ANJALI CHAUDHARY
Prediction of runoff from Nagwa watershed
using SCS – Curve Number method

65-67

SAURABH SINGH • PS KASHYAP •
SK SRIVASTAVA
Guidelines for authors

i

Common abbreviations used in JHA

iii

Abbreviations used for citing references

iii

Referees of JHA 2012 Vol 3(1)

v

Copyright Transfer Statement

vi

Membership of ISHA

vii