Print ISSN: 0976-7606

Online ISSN: 2230-7338

Journal of
Hill Agriculture
Volume 3, No. 2 July – December, 2012

Sharing Knowledge for Prosperity

Indian Society of Hill Agriculture,
G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
Pantnagar, Distt Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand – 263 145 (INDIA)
Website: www.ishaindia.in

INDIAN SOCIETY OF HILL AGRICULTURE (Regd. 2010)
URL: www.ishaindia.in
Sharing Knowledge for
Prosperity

JOURNAL OF HILL AGRICULTURE
(Print ISSN 0976-7606, Online ISSN 2230-7338)

Journal of Hill Agriculture (JHA) is an international journal and an official
publication of Indian Society of Hill Agriculture (ISHA). It publishes the original research in all branches
of agriculture and allied science that is of primary interest to the agricultural development, especially in
hill and mountain regions of the world. The publication is open to the members of Indian Society of Hill
Agriculture but it also accepts papers from non-members if all authors become the annual/life member
when a paper is submitted / accepted for publication. The journal publishes various types of articles, i.e.
(i) Strategy / Policy paper (exclusively by invitation from the personalities of eminence), (ii) Review
papers, (iii) Research papers and (iv) Short communications. The manuscripts may be submitted through
e mail to editorinchiefjha@gmail.com or by online submission through ISHA’s website www.ishaindia.in
or www.indianjournals.com.
For print version of journal of hill agriculture, subscribers may write to the editor-in-chief (JHA) and the
online version may be accessed through www.indianjournals.com

Editor-in-Chief
Dr SK Sharma, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, INDIA (editorinchiefjha@gmail.com)
Associate Editor (s)
Dr KC Sharma, CSKHPKVV, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA
Dr Birendra Prasad, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, INDIA
Associate Editor & Business Manager
Dr AK Pandey, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, INDIA (businessmanagerjha@gmail.com)
EDITORIAL BOARD (2012)
Dr Ajay Gupta, SKUAST, Jammu, INDIA
Dr Amit Jasrotia, SKUAST, Jammu, INDIA
Dr Asgar Ebadollahi, Ardabil, IRAN
Dr Bijayalaxmi Mohanty, National Univ of SINGAPORE
Dr Davide Spadaro, Univ of Torino, ITALY
Dr Gulzar Singh Sanghera, SKUAST(K) Anantnag, INDIA
Dr J P Sharma, SKUAST(J) Jammu, INDIA
Dr Pankaj Panwar, CSWCRTI, Chandigarh, INDIA
Dr Prashant Bakshi, SKUAST Jammu, INDIA
Dr Rakesh Sharma, Univ of Hort. & Fty. Solan, HP, INDIA
Dr Shachi Shah, IGNOU, New Delhi, INDIA
Dr S K Maurya, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, INDIA
Dr VR Karoshi, Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA
Dr Sucheta Singh, Haridwar, INDIA
Dr Udit Kumar, RAU, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar, INDIA

Dr Alkesh Kandoria, PSCST, Chandigarh, INDIA
Dr Anchal Dass, IARI, New Delhi, INDIA
Dr Ashok Thakur, Univ of Hort. & Fty. Solan, HP, INDIA
Dr BM Pandey, VPKAS, Almora, Uttarakhand, INDIA
Dr HSR Kotturi, Univ Central Oklahoma, USA
Dr Lala Iswari Prasad Ray, CAU, Meghalaya, INDIA
Dr M Shakila Banu, Coimbatore, INDIA
Dr Rajesh Kaushal, CSWCRTI, Dehradun, INDIA
Dr Rakefet David-Schwartz, Volcani Center, ISRAEL
Dr Rashmi Yadav, NBPGR, New Delhi, INDIA
Dr Sushil K Sharma, DSR, Indore, INDIA
Dr VP Zambare, SDSMT, South Dakota, USA
Dr Yun Kong, Beijing University of Agriculture, CHINA
Dr Tsering Stobdan, DIHAR, Leh (INDIA)
Dr Sanjai Kumar Srivastava, Pantnagar, INDIA

For any queries pertaining to Indian Society of Hill Agriculture (ISHA) or Journal of Hill
Agriculture (JHA) please write to Secretary / Editor-in-Chief (JHA), Indian Society of Hill
Agriculture Secretriat, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 249 199, India
Phone: +91 9412962535, 9412463923
E mail:
editorinchiefjha@gmail.com,
businessmanagerjha@gmail.com
URL : www.ishaindia.in

Journal of Hill Agriculture 2012, Vol 3(2)
CONTENTS
Status of horticulture in Uttarakhand

69-76

AK SHARMA
Standardization of temperature regimes
for better seed germination and seedling
growth of Burdock (Arctium lappa)

77-81

82-86

Phenotypic divergence for
108-111
agromorphological traits among land
races of traditional rice genotypes of West
Bangal
ASHIM CHAKRAVORTY •
PD GHOSH

87-90

DK SHUKLA • TEJ PRATAP •
BIRENDRA PRASAD
Per se performance of bacterial wilt
91-94
resistant F6 progenies of tomato (Solanum
lycopersicum L.) in mid hills of Himachal
Pradesh
SANJAY CHADHA •
AMIT BHUSHAN
Evaluation of different potato based
95-98
cropping sequences under rainfed mid hill
conditions of Uttarakhand
MEENU KUMARI • SP UNIYAL •
MEENAKSHI UNIYAL

103-107

APARNA BHATT • CS CHOPRA

REENA KAUSHAL• YS
DHALIWAL
Productivity of grain amaranth
(Amaranthus hypocondriacus) in relation
to organic nutrition under rainfed
conditions of Western Himalayas

99-102

SUCHETA SINGH • AK
SHARMA
Processing potential of dropped mango
fruits

SHAILESH TRIPATHI •
DEEPAK MEWAR • BIRENDRA
PRASAD • VIKAS KUMAR JAIN
Studies on canning of apricot ( Prunus
armeniaca L.) varieties grown in
Himachal Pradesh

Gender issues for drudgery reduction and
sustainable small holder farming in rice
production system

Standardization of cutting parameters for 112-115
adventitious rooting in Tectona grandis
under protected conditions in new locality
of subtropical Himalayan region
VIPAN GULERIA •
AMOL VASHISHT
Guidelines for authors

i

Common abbreviations used in JHA

iii

Abbreviations used for citing references

iii

Referees of JHA 2012 Vol 3(2)

v

Copyright Transfer Statement

vi

Membership of ISHA

vii

INDIAN SOCIETY OF HILL AGRICULTURE (Regd. 2010)
URL: www.ishaindia.in
Sharing Knowledge for
Prosperity

Indian Society of Hill Agriculture (ISHA) was founded in 2010 having its secretariat at G.B. Pant University
of Agriculture and Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Distt Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India with the main
objective to cultivate and promote research, education and development of agriculture and allied branches of science
with special emphasis on development of hill and mountain regions of the world.

OFFICE BEARERS
Chief Patron:
President:
Vice President (s):

Secretary:
Joint Secretary:

Editor-in-Chief, J Hill Ag
Associate Editor
Associate Editor & Business Manager:
Treasurer:

Vice Chancellor, GBPUAT Pantnagar
Dr PS Bisht, Dean, Bharsar
Dr AK Sharma, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr SK Thakur, CSKHPKVV, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh
Dr VK Rao, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr PJ Handique, Guwahati, Assam
Dr MS Mir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
Dr VK Yadav, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr Sanjeev Sharma, CPRI, Shimla
Dr Sunil Kumar, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr OC Sharma, CITH, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
Dr Vinod K Sharma, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr Mayank Rai, CAU, Manipur
Dr Satish K Sharma, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr KC Sharma, CSKHPKVV, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh
Dr AK Pandey, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr Chandra Dev, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD
Members from India

Dr Mangla Rai, Former, President NAAS and Former Secretary DARE, Govt. of India
Dr P L Gautam, Former, Chairperson, PPVFRA, Govt. of India
Dr Anwar Alam, Former Vice Chancellor, SKUAST(K), Srinagar, J&K
Dr KM Bujarbaruah, Vice Chancellor, AAU, Jorhat, Assam
Dr KR Dhiman, Former Vice Chancellor, Dr YSPUHF, Solan, HP
Dr Bhag Mal, Former South Asia Coordinator, Biodiversity International, New Delhi
Members from Abroad Dr JDH Keatinge, Director General, AVRDC, World Vegetable Centre, Taiwan
Dr Md. Yousuf Mian, Director General, BARI, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Dr C Kole, Clemson University, South Carolina, USA
Prof (Dr) FG Schroeder, Dresdan, Germany
Dr G Paliyat, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Dr Ramesh Thakur, Michigan Technical University, Houghton, USA

EXECUTIVE COUNCILLORS
Dr AK Singh, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
Dr AK Singh, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr BL Attri, CITH (ICAR), Mukteshwar, Uttarakhand
Dr SP Uniyal, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr Vandana A Kumar, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr VK Joshi, Dr YSPUHF, Solan, Himachal Pradesh
Dr VK Sah, GBPUAT, Uttarakhand
Dr VK Wali, SKUAST (J), Jammu and Kashmir

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(2): 69 -76, July – December, 2012
STATUS PAPER

Status of horticulture in Uttarakhand
AK SHARMA
Accepted: August 12, 2012

ABSTRACT Special topography of Uttarakhand endows it
with natural potential for the development horticulture.
However, for the most part this potential remains untapped.
This is unfortunate because the largest consumer market for
horticulture products could have been well exploited by the
state to the advantage of its farmers. Prosperity of the kind
enjoyed by the farmers of neighbouring Himachal Pradesh
could also have been enjoyed by the farmers of Uttarakhand
instead of the current picture of economic outmigration.
Fortunately, even today it is possible to achieve our potential.
We know what needs to be done and the basic resources like
state nurseries/gardens and central government fundings are
adequately available. However, it is necessary for the state
government to match its repeated statement that horticulture
is a thrust area with adequate budgetary and policy support.
This will enable the Department of Horticulture to deliver on
its mandate if it is assisted with a favourable policy climate
enabling it to employ competent officers, leverage the state
gardens with the help of revolving funds and attract
additional central government funding.
KEYWORDS Horticulture, Uttarakhand,
development, long term strategy, present status

livelihood,

INTRODUCTION
The importance of horticulture in the economic
development of Uttarakhand cannot to be over emphasized.
Nature has endowed Uttarakhand with a wide range of agro
climatic conditions which enable a large number of
horticulture commodities like fruit crops, flowers, vegetables,
mushrooms, tea, medicinal and aromatic plants to be grown
under various agro-climatic conditions in the state.
Sharma AK
Department of Horticulture, Government of Uttarakhand,
Chaubattia, Ranikhet, Uttarakhand - 263 651, India
E mail: directoraksharma@gmail.com

The special topography and agro-climatic
conditions of the state limits the scope for production of field
crops, but offers suitable conditions for horticultural crops,
particularly of temperate fruits. Nevertheless, productivity
levels are comparatively poor vis a vis many developed
countries. Thus a huge untapped potential of temperate fruit
production exists in the state. Therefore, Uttarakhand
government has identified horticulture, particularly in the
hilly region as a thrust segment for overall development of
the state. In the state, fruits, vegetables and flower can be
exploited for off season supplies to the plains. Other ancillary
activities like mushroom and beekeeping can emerge as
sources of income for landless farmers of the state. The
horticulture industry could thus play an important role in the
amelioration of rural economy of the state by providing a
sustainable model of livelihood for small and marginal
farmers as well as a source of income and employment
generation.
WEATHER AND SOIL OF UTTARAKHAND
Uttarakhand is located in the outer Himalayan
region, which is known for diverse soil and weather
conditions comprising of 18 agro-ecological situations. The
soil of hilly terrains of the state is rich in organic matter and
high acidic in nature. In general, soils of the hill state are low
nitrogen and phosphorus level and medium in potassium
content.
It would be important to note here that the accuracy
of the data and the statistics maintained and provided by the
district and the state horticulture departments is not beyond
doubt. In general, figures of area as well as production do
certainly seem inflated. For example, there is hardly any
doubt over the fact that Himachal Pradesh is way ahead of us
in the horticulture at present. Both have similar kind of agroclimatic conditions comparable in the area under cultivation.
While in Himachal Pradesh, the total area under fruit
cultivation as per the official figures stands at 2.05 lakh ha, in
Uttarakhand, the total area under fruit cultivation as per the

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(2): 77 - 81, July – December, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Standardization of temperature regimes for better seed germination and
seedling growth of Burdock (Arctium lappa)
SHAILESH TRIPATHI • DEEPAK MEWAR • BIRENDRA PRASAD • VIKAS KUMAR JAIN
Received: May 12, 2012, Revised: August 22, 2012, Accepted: August 30, 2012

ABSTRACT The present investigations were carried to
standardize the optimum temperature for better seed
germination and subsequent seedling growth of Burdock
(Arctium lappa). The seeds were soaked in fresh water for 24
hours, then subjected at 16oC, 18 oC, 20 oC, 24 oC and 26 oC of
different batches in the seed germinator. The results revealed
that the seeds of Arctium lappa exposed to 22 oC gave better
responses for germination, seedling growth along with other
vigor parameters in term of peak value, germination value
and germinative energy as compared to temperature regime
of 16 oC, 18 oC, 20 oC, 24 oC and 26 oC. The significantly
maximum germination (89.01%), root length (4.97 cm), shoot
length (7.36 cm), peak value (4.23), germination value
(17.02) and germinative energy (0.86) was observed in seeds
exposed at 22 oC followed by 20 oC. Thereby, indicating the
22 oC temperature was found optimal for getting higher seed
germination and seedling vigor for Burdock (Arctium lappa).
KEYWORDS Arctium lappa, seed germination, temperature
regime, seedling vigor, medicinal plants
INTRODUCTION
Of about 15,000 species of flowering plants found in
India, about 17 % are considered to be of medicinal value
(Nadkarmi 1954, Jain 1968, Pei 2001).
Tripathi Shailesh1 • Mewar Deepak1• Prasad Birendra2•
Jain Vikas Kumar1
1
Department of Horticulture, 2Department of Genetics and
Plant Breeding, GB Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145, India
Vikas Kumar Jain ( )
E mail: vikasjkumar88@gmail.com

Many species (1,745) are from the Indian Himalayan region,
and most of these are found in Uttarakhand (Bentley and
Trimen 1980, Kirtikar and Basu 1933, Nadkarni 1954,
Chopra 1956). People in this region are partially or
completely dependent on forest resources for medicine, food,
and fuel (Gaur 1999) and medicinal species are gradually
diminishing due to anthropogenic activities (Chhetri et al.
2005). The Garhwal Himalaya is one of the richest floristic
zones of India and provides more than 300 species of
medicinal plants (Gaur 1999, Parandial et al. 2005, Bhatt and
Negi 2006). Uttarakhand is the treasure of such high value
plants providing ample agro-climatic conditions for their
utilization and distribution and committed for their
commercial exploitation to achieve the vision of herbal state.
Burdock being prominent in the area holds indispensable
position in terms of distribution and utilization.
Arctium lappa is an erect herb, branched, biennial
or perennial, up to one meter or more in height. Arctium has
been used therapeutically in Europe, North America and Asia
for hundreds of years. In the seeds, some active compounds
possess anti-inflammatory effects, and have potent inhibitory
effects on the growth of tumors such as the pancreatic
carcinoma. The roots contain a hexasaccharide, arctose, a
mucilaginous substance, tannins, volatile oil, stigmaterol and
sitosterol and a sulphur containing acetylenic acid called
arctic acid which are particularly effective and valuable in
eliminating heavy metals from our body (Yu et al. 2003).
The performance of any crop depends upon the quality
of seed, environmental factor, type of cultivar and cultural
practices (Shukla et al. 2011). However, the main constraint
in its commercial cultivation the supply of poor quality seed
material, i.e. poor seed germination percentage and lack of
knowledge about the seed rate for nursery raising/direct
sowing and viability period under storage conditions. Some
of the pre-treatments can be use to overcome this (Rawat et

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(2): 82 -86, July – December, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Studies on canning of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties grown in
Himachal Pradesh
REENA KAUSHAL • YS DHALIWAL
Received: Dec 22, 2011; Revised: April 22, 2012; Accepted: May 15, 2012

ABSTRACT Amongst temperate fruits, apricot has
considerable importance in Himachal Pradesh. The fresh
fruits of two varieties namely ‘Shakarpara’ and ‘New Castle’
were procured for studies on canning from Bogtu farm,
Department of Horticulture, District Kinnaur and Horticulture
farm of CSK HPKV Palampur, respectively and were
evaluated for their suitability for canning. Results revealed
that the apricot canned in 45oB syrup had better quality and
the addition of citric acid in the syrup improved the colour,
texture, mouth feel and overall acceptability and the citric
acid in combination with calcium chloride improve the
texture of canned apricot.
KEYWORDS Canning, heat preservation, apricot, quality,
storage, Prunus armeniaca
INTRODUCTION
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is a delicate fruit
and is well known for its perishable nature as it does not
stand long transportation and sustain intransit losses. It is
originated in Western China and grown in areas of altitude
ranging from 900 to 2000 m amsl. In India, Jammu and
Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and hills of Uttarakhand are the
major apricot producing areas.
Kaushal Reena1 • Dhaliwal YS2
1

Krishi Vigyan Kenda, Berthin, Distt Bilaspur, Himachal
Pradesh – 174 029, India
2
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Home
Science, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya,
Palampur, Himachal Pradesh – 174 029, India
Reena Kaushal ( )
E mail: ravinderberthin@gmail.com

Among different states of India, Himachal Pradesh
has made tremendous progress in horticulture. In Himachal
Pradesh its production is 10000 metric tonnes annually in an
area of 3588 ha (Anon 2010). Solan and Sirmour districts are
major apricot producing areas of Himachal Pradesh (Singh et.
al. 1990). The fresh fruits of apricot are very attractive and
highly nutritious, but are also highly perishable. The
perishability of various temperate fruit crops has also been
previously reported (Sharma et al. 2004a,b, Sharma et al.
2010). The fruits are rich source of vitamin A, minerals and
sugars, but fresh fruits are highly perishable. The apricot
season is short, once they are picked, they must be processes
immediately. Therefore, the fruits are utilized for the
preparation of jam, chutney, sauce, beverages, canned and
dried apricots. Canning of fruits and vegetable is a big
industry and largely acceptable by the consumers. These are
canned in the season when the raw material is plenty. The
canned products are preferably consumed in the off season
and give better returns to the growers (Singh et. al. 1992,
Sharma 2010). The investigation, therefore, conducted to
examine the varieties for their suitability as canned products.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The fresh fruits of two apricot varieties namely
‘Shakarpara’ and ‘New Castle’ were procured from Bogtu
farm, Department of Horticulture District Kinnaur and
Horticulture farm of CSK HPKV Palampur, respectively.
Other raw materials as sugar, citric acid, calcium chloride etc.
used for preparation of canned apricots were purchased from
the local market. The fruits of Shakarpara and New Castle
varieties were washed, sorted and destonned. The halves of
the fruits were used for canning. The steps followed in
canning are as below:

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(2): 87 - 90, July – December, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Productivity of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypocondriacus) in relation to
organic nutrition under rainfed condition of Western Himalayas
DK SHUKLA • TEJ PRATAP • BIRENDRA PRASAD
Received: November 2, 2012, Revised: November 15, 2012, Accepted: December 21, 2012

ABSTRACT A field experiment was conducted with an
objective to find out suitable organic sources and their dose
for optimum nutrient management in grain amaranth. The
experiment was laid out with 15 treatments consisting of
different rates of organic sources in randomized block design
with three replications. Yield attributes and yields of grain
amaranth were significantly influenced by various organic
sources during both the years of experimentation except
straw yield in 2008. The highest yield attributes and grain
yield of amaranth (20.37 and 22.58 q/ha during 2007 and
2008, respectively) were recorded with application of
recommended dose of fertilizers (60 kg N and 40 kg P2O5)
which was at par with vermicompost 2.5t/ha + chullu cake
2.5 t/ha during both the years. Yield attributes followed same
trend. Successive increase in dose of organic manures
increased the yield attributes and yields of grain amaranth.
Highest B: C ratio (3.93) was recorded when recommended
dose of fertilizers was applied followed by FYM 8.0 t/ha
(2.63) and chullu cake 2.5 t/ha+ FYM 4.0 t/ha (2.18).
Vermicompost 2.5t/ha + chullu cake 2.5 t/ha treatment can be
economical when the produce will be sold as organic produce
with high selling price.
KEYWORDS Yield attributes, yield, grain amaranth
(Amaranthus hypocondriacus), organic manures, economics

Shukla DK1 • Pratap Tej1 • Prasad Birendra2
1

Department of Agronomy, 2Department of Crop
Improvement, G B Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal,
Uttarakahnd - 249 199, India
DK Shukla ( )
E mail: shukladk1974@rediffmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypocondriacus) an
important ancient multifarious-utility cash crop particularly
in hills can be used as a high protein grain or as a leafy
vegetable, and has potential to use as forage crop. In India, it
is cultivated in Hilly regions as well as in the plains covering
the entire Himalayan region, southern India and in some part
of a Gujarat, Maharashtra, Orissa and Eastern UP (Bhag
1994). Amaranth grain is said to be highly nutritious having
high amount of protein. Protein content varies from 12-14%
and quality is equivalent to fish protein. Its grain flour has 10
times higher calcium, 3 times higher fat and 2 times higher
iron than wheat flour. The critical amino acid ranging from
0.73 to 0.84% of the total protein content (Bressani et al.
1987) and could be a potential supplement with traditional
cereals. High in fibre content and low in saturated fats make
enable its use by the health food market in a big way.
In rainfed Himalayan region the crop is cultivated
widely by resource poor farmers with very little locally
available inputs. High cost and unavailability of fertilizers,
farmers are force to apply organic manures for growing of
this crop. Lack of awareness about proper dose of organic
manures causes under nourishment of crop. Due to this
region the productivity of grain amaranth in this area is very
low. Judicious application of organic and inorganic fertilizers
is essential for obtaining higher productivity in grain
amaranth by resource poor farmers (Pratap and Dutta, 2010).
Considering the importance of the crops and their proper
nutrition present study was undertaken to find out optimum
dose of organic manures of grain amaranth under rainfed
condition of Himalayan regions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif
2007 and 2008 at College of Forestry and Hill Agriculture,

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(2): 91 - 94, July – December, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Per se performance of bacterial wilt resistant F6 progenies of tomato
(Solanum lycopersicum L.) in mid hills of Himachal Pradesh
SANJAY CHADHA • AMIT BHUSHAN
Received: April 15, 2012; Revised: June 29, 2012; Accepted: July 10, 2012

ABSTRACT Twelve bacterial wilt resistant F6 progenies of
tomato along with three standard checks were studied for the
extent of genetic variability with respect to fruit yield and
contributing traits. Analysis of variance indicated sufficient
amount of variability among the genotypes for all the traits.
High PCV and GCV estimates were observed for total and
marketable fruits per plant. High heritability along with high
genetic advance was observed for total and marketable fruits
per plant and locules per fruit.
KEYWORDS Tomato, variability, heritability, genetic
advance
INTRODUCTION
Tomato crop is highly susceptible to diseases,
insect-pests, nematodes and abiotic stresses. Among diseases,
bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (syn.
Pseudomonas solanacearum) is one of the most important
diseases in humid tropical and sub-tropical areas causing
huge losses. In some specific pockets of Zone I and Zone II
(Kangra Valley and surrounding areas of Mandi and Chamba
districts) of Himachal Pradesh, bacterial wilt has become a
limiting factor in the cultivation of tomato. This disease has
also been reported from traditional tomato growing areas of
Solan and Kullu Valley. Gupta et al. (1998) confirmed the
pathogenicity of Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato growing
areas of Solan district.
Chadha Sanjay • Bhushan Amit
Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSK
Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur,
Himachal Pradesh -176 062, India.
Sanjay Chadha ( )
E mail: schadha_113@yahoo.co.in

Gradually, the disease is further spreading to other
districts like Kullu, Bilaspur and Hamirpur (Sood et al.
2002). Besides Himachal Pradesh, the disease is also
prevalent in other states like Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra,
Orissa, Bihar, Sikkim, West Bengal and Andaman and
Nicobar islands. Kanjilal et al. (2000) reported high incidence
of bacterial wilt in North-West Bengal districts having acidic
sandy soils than in nearly neutral loam soils of other districts
of the state. The chemical control measures and manipulation
of agronomic practices are not effective to control the
disease. Hence, identification and development of new
improved disease resistant cultivars is very important to
further boost up the production and productivity of the crop
in wilt prone areas of Himachal Pradesh. Hence, the present
study was undertaken to evaluate 12 bacterial wilt resistant
F6 progenies developed in the Department of Vegetable
Science and Floriculture, CSK HPKV, Palampur along with
three resistant checks.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Twelve bacterial wilt resistant F6 progenies of
tomato developed at CSK HPKV, Palampur viz., (BRH-2 ×
SUN 7611)-1-1-2-1, (BRH-2 × SUN 7611)-1-1-2-2, (BRH-2
× SUN 7611)-1-3-2-1, (BRH-2 × SUN 7611)-1-3-B-1, (SUN
7721 × Hawaii 7998)-3-2-1-2, (SUN 7721 × Hawaii 7998)-3B-1-3, (Hawaii 7998× SUN 7611)-2-2-1-2, (Hawaii 7998×
SUN 7611)-5-2-1-1, (BT 18 × SUN 7611)-5-1-B-1, (BT 18 ×
SUN 7611)-6-2-1-2, (BT 18 × SUN 7611)-6-3-1-B and (BT
18 × SUN 7611)-7-1-2-2 along with three bacterial wilt
resistant standard checks [Palam Pink (Determinate), Palam
Pride (Indeterminate) and SUN 7711 (Hybrid)] and two
susceptible checks (Roma and Solan Gola). These were
grown in randomized block design with three replications at
Vegetable Research Farm of CSK HPKV, Palampur
(Himachal Pradesh) during 2008 following recommended
package of practices. Susceptible checks were planted as

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(2): 95 - 98, July – December, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Evaluation of different potato based cropping sequences under rainfed
mid-hill conditions of Uttarakhand
MEENU KUMARI • SP UNIYAL • MEENAKSHI UNIYAL
Received: August 25, 2012, Revised: November 11, 2012, Accepted: November 20, 2012

ABSTRACT In order to assess the yield performance and
profitability of eight potato based crop sequences viz., potatovegetable pea, potato-french bean, potato-palak, potatovegetable rai, potato-radish, potato-cauliflower, potatocabbage and potato-amaranthus, an investigation was under
taken during spring-summer (potato), rainy (french bean,
palak, radish, cauliflower, cabbage) and rainy-autumn
(vegetable pea, vegetable rai and amaranthus) seasons of
2010-11. Crop sequence potato-cabbage, proved the best with
respect to Potato Equivalent Yield (PEY) (473.91 q ha-1) and
net profit (Rs. 68,441.66 qha-1). This sequence had recorded
an additional net income of Rs. 62,587.50 ha-1 over
conventional sequence, potato-amaranthus. In terms of
production efficiency (PE), potato-french had given the
highest yield per hectare per day(2.51 q).
KEYWORDS Potato, rainfed, crop sequencing, Uttarakhand
yield, economics
INTRODUCTION
Potato, the most efficient tuber crop belongs to
family Solanaceae. Being a wholesome food, it is one of the
world’s major non-cereal crops that changed history and is
now grown in about 148 countries, i.e. why, it has been
recognized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations as the “food for future”.

Potato is a unique crop which can supplement the
food need of our country in a substantial proportion. Being a
short duration vegetable crop, it has capability of fit well in
any crop sequence. As there is limited scope for availability
of addition good land under cultivation, hence total
production per unit area can be increased by increasing
cropping intensities following different cropping sequences.
Potato is also an important vegetable crop of Uttarakhand in
north-west Himalayan region. The mid and high hills of
Uttarakhand which cover maximum area under potato
cultivation, due to its limited growing period, off-season
nature of crop and higher economic return per unit area, it
finds a suitable place in the crop sequences. Depending on
availability of capital and resources, traditions, expected
profits and farmer’s perception, the cropping systems vary
from region to region. Further, we should have specific
policies for the development of agriculture in the hills (Pratap
2011). Intercropping and rotation is not only important in
vegetable cultivation but is also of significance in forage
crops (Singh 2011). Potato being important short duration
off-season crop in hilly area can also fit well in most of the
crop sequences. Moreover, unlike most of the cereal crops, it
can be harvested at pre-mature stage too, which
accommodates easily the next crop. Thus an attempt has been
made to assess various potato based cropping sequences
under the agro-climatic conditions of mid-hills of
Uttarakhand.

Kumari Meenu • Uniyal SP • Uniyal Meenakshi
Department of Vegetable Science, GB Pant University of
Agriculture and Technology, Hill Campus Ranichauri, tehri
Garhwal, Uttarakhand – 249 199, India
Kumari Meenu ( )
E mail: spu.veg@gmail.com

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was carried out during springsummer, rainy and rainy-autumn seasons of 2010 at the
Vegetable Research Block of College of Forestry and Hill
Agriculture, Hill Campus, Ranichauri, of the G B Pant
University of Agriculture and Technology, located at an
elevation of 2000 m amsl with 30o15’N latitude and 78o50’E
longitude. The soil of experimental field was largely clay

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(2): 99 - 102, July – December, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Gender issues for drudgery reduction and sustainable small holder farming
in rice production system
SUCHETA SINGH • AK SHARMA
Received: September 20, 2012, Revised: November 5, 2012, Accepted: November 10, 2012

ABSTRACT Gender is one of the most important factors
often ignored in agriculture sector. Women have been
involved in agriculture related activities from time
immemorial. However, little significance is given about their
contribution in agriculture and other ancillary industries.
Agriculture has been the joint venture of male and female
members of the family. The role played by female members
including girl children has, however been enormous but
underscored. The women share goes as high as 40 % to
overall crop production besides the absolute responsibility of
her home and animals. They participate in almost all
activities of crop production and animal rearing. The
objective of the study was to conduct the survey for
quantitative assessment of the components of transplanting
which revealed that on an average a woman planted 1350
hills per hour and bent 10.50 times per hour for about 6
minutes each time while performing transplanting operation.
The side movement toward left and right side each was
estimated to be 76.25 cm distance at each step. The total area
covered per women per hour was estimated to be 42.5 m2.
Therefore, the issues mainly involved were the duration of
the operation, unnatural body actions and unfavorable
environment. Thus, the need was felt for intervention of
improved implements like drum seeder, transplanter, etc. for
different body postures according to ergonomic parameters of
women.
Singh Sucheta1 • Sharma AK2
1

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhanauri, Haridwar, Uttarakhand 247 667, India
2
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jakhdhar, Rudraprayag, Uttarakhand246 171, India
Sucheta Singh ( )
E mail: drsuchetasingh@gmail.com

KEYWORDS Gender issues, sustainable farming, rice
production system
INTRODUCTION
Developing countries account for 95 % of the total
production, with China and India alone responsible for nearly
half of the world output (Crawford et al. 1998, Xiao et al.
2006). Indeed, paddy availability and food security have long
been synonymous in Asia. The India who had to beg with
food bowl in the 1950-60’s to feed her teeming millions, has
become the world’s second largest producer of paddy
preceded only by China (Mohanty et al. 2008, Anon 2011).
For about 65% of the people living in India, paddy is a staple
food for them; therefore, paddy is essential to life in India. It
is a part of nearly every meal, and it is grown on a majority of
the rural farms. In India, paddy occupies about 41.85 million
hectares, which is nearly 40 % of the total cereals
(FAOSTATS 2010). Paddy fields are a common sight
throughout India, be they be northern gangetic plains or
southern peninsular plateaus. Paddy is cultivated at least
twice a year in most parts of India, the two seasons being
known as Rabi and Kharif respectively. The former
cultivation is dependent on irrigation, while the latter depends
on Monsoon. Uttarakhand is one of the states exporting
Basmati paddy in the country. The success story is a vivid
example of the contribution of science and technology
advances in cropping systems, fertilizer responsive high
yielding crops, expanding irrigation, land reclamation and
selective mechanization (Vajpayee 2004).
In agriculture sector women play an important role
by contributing as active labour workforce. According to
FAOSTATS (2010) gender in the agricultural labour force
suggests that women constitute over 32 % of the total
agricultural labour force in the world. The world wide food
production contributed by women is 43.88 %. In India
women carry out as much as 80 % of the work in paddy

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(2): 103 - 107, July – December, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Processing potential of dropped mango fruits
APARNA BHATT • CS CHOPRA
Received: April 24, 2012, Revised: November 11, 2012, Accepted: November 20, 2012

ABSTRACT This investigation was conceived and executed
to adjudge the processing potential of dropped mangoes of
Langra varieties on the basis of physico-chemical
characterIics of fruits dropped at three different stages of
their physiological maturity. Results revealed that fruits
dropped at the III stage of development (Average fruit weight
65.27±5.86g) may be preferred for making value added
products mainly because of their highest content of edible
portion (67.55±3.49 %), TSS (9.13±0.16 %) and acidity
(3.33±0.10 %, as anhydrous citric acid). Moreover, at this
stage fruits are sufficiently large (65.27±5.86g) and can be
peeled easily as peeling of smallest size (11.82-0.84g) mango
fruits dropped at I stage of development was troublesome.
KEYWORDS Mango, unripe mango, mango fruit dropping,
physico-chemical composition, mango processing
INTRODUCTION
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) also called as ‘King
of tropical fruits’, is one of the most delicious fruits of
commercial importance. India, a leading mango growing
country in the world with a production of 15.18 million ton
fruits grown over an area of 2.29 million ha, is the largest
producer of mango. Thus our country has huge potential to
emphasize a strong presence in the global mango market
(NHB 2011).
Bhatt Aparna1 • Chopra CS2
1
Department of Home and Food Science, Surajmal Agarwal
Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Kichha, US Nagar, Uttarakhand –
263 153, India
2
Department of Food Science and Technology, GB Pant
University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, US
Nagar, Uttarakhand -263 145, India
CS Chopra ( )
E mail: cs_chopra2000@yahoo.co.in

Raw mango is a valuable source of vitamin C. It is
also a good source of vitamin B1 and B2 and contains
sufficient quantity of niacin. The fruit is well-known for its
medicinal properties both in unripe and ripe states. The
unripe fruit is acidic, astringent and antiscorbutic. The skin of
unripe fruit is astringent and stimulant tonic. Unripe mango is
an excellent fruit remedy for bilious disorders. It tones up
liver, increases elasticity of the blood vessels and helps in the
formation of new blood cells. Unripe mango is also valuable
in the treatment of scurvy.
Jawanda and Singh (1961) reported that among all
the commercially grown varieties of mango, Langra is more
susceptible to drop. Sharif (1962) found that Langra fruit
drop was more abundant than those of Samar BahIa and
Dushehari. Fruit drops results in considerable losses to the
grower which increases further due to erratic weather
conditions. Such huge losses may be minimized if dropped
fruits are utilized appropriately in the processing industry in
production of value added products (Sharma 2010). Fruits
dropped at different physiological stages have varying
physico-chemical characters. Hence, mango fruits dropped at
different stages require screening for their suitability to
produce different products. The present investigation was
therefore undertaken with these facts.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Unripe mango fruit drops of Langra variety used
for the present investigation were procured at the three
different stages of fruit development at an interval of 10 days
from the Horticultural Research Centre, Pattharchatta,
Pantnagar. The procured mango fruit drops following
washing under the gentle stream of tap were blotted gently
using a sheet of an ordinary filter paper. Five fruits taken
randomly from a lot in triplicate were used to assess the
physical characters. Color of external skin and flesh was
determined by visual observations. Fruit length and diameter
were measured by a Vernier caliper. Specific gravity was

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(2): 108 - 111, July – December, 2012
RESEARCH PAPER

Phenotypic divergence for agromorphological traits among land races of
traditional rice genotypes of West Bengal
ASHIM CHAKRAVORTY • PD GHOSH
Received: April 24, 2012, Revised: July 11, 2012, Accepted: August 5, 2012

ABSTRACT A collection of 51 traditional rice cultivars
from germplasm source of Zonal Adaptive Research Station
(Z.A.R.S), Krishnagar, Nadia, West Bengal offered a
valuable gene pool for the utilization in the breeding
programme to improve yield, its components, grain size and
shape. Characterization had been done on 28
agromorphological traits. Qualitative traits were studied using
DUS Test in rice. Among the qualitative traits, considerable
variability has been found for the traits like distribution of
pubescence in leaf, panicle exsertion, colour of ligule and
auricle, awning, leaf senescence, flag leaf attitude, basal leaf
sheath colour etc. Statistical analysis was done and Mean,
S.E. of Mean, GCV, PCV, CV%, Heritability, Genetic
Advance were calculated for each quantitative trait to
estimate the promise of desirable land races that are ideal for
rice improvement programme. Regarding quantitative traits,
leaf length, leaf breadth, plant height (seedling), culm length,
culm number, ligule length, grain length, grain weight
(1000), no. of grains per panicle showed considerable
variability.
KEYWORDS Diversity, variability, DUS test, traditional
rice, agromorphological traits

Chakravorty Ashim • Ghosh PD
Cytogenetics and Plant Breeding Section, Department of
Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal – 741
235, India
PD Ghosh ( )
E mail: pdgbot@yahoo.co.in, pdggene@rediffmail.com

INTRODUCTION
The role of wide genetic base and systematically
characterized germplasm in the crop improvement of
cultivated plants has been well recognized. To meet the
continuously expanding needs of varietal improvements, the
evaluation and characterization of entire existing germplasm
are very much essential. Until a collection has been properly
evaluated, it has little impact for breeding purposes. Most of
the donors bear genetic features with respect to major
diseases, pests, environmental stress and even aromatic
features. India has a rich and diverse genetic wealth of rice
estimated nearly 50,000 germplasms in the country. For the
improvement, selection of traits is a prerequisite for further
progarmme. In this respects, it is a prerequisite to
characterize the germplasm for further exploitation. Keeping
in view of these facts, the present investigation was planned
to characterize a set of aman rice genotypes of West Bengal
to understand in situ variability for different morphological
and agronomical traits.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Twenty one day old seedlings were transplanted
(single seedling /hill-1) in 3m long rows; keeping row to row
and plant to plant distance 20cm and 15 cm respectively.
There were three rows for each test entry. Gap between test
entries was 60cm. Fertilizers (N:P2O5:K2O) @ 50:25:25
Kg ha-1 were applied. Random sample of five competitive
plants was used for observations on different traits.
Field experiment was conducted during October
2006 at the Zonal Adaptive Research Station (Z.A.R.S),
Krishnagar, Nadia. Various morphological and agronomical
characters were studied for 51 cultivars. Observations on
various 16 qualitative and 12 quantitative characters were
recorded at the different stages of growth. Qualitative traits
were studied following the DUS Test formulated by

Journal of Hill Agriculture 3(2): 112 - 115, July – December, 2012
SHORT COMMUNICATION

Standardization of cutting parameters for adventitious rooting in Tectona
grandis under protected conditions in new locality of subtropical
Himalayan region
VIPAN GULERIA • AMOL VASHISHT
Received: July 30, 2012, Revised: September 18, 2012, Accepted: October 5, 2012

ABSTRACT The experiment was conducted to promote the
rooting in different sized shoot cuttings under protected
conditions. Plant characters such as callus formation, rooting
%, No. of leaves and shoot length were studied. The cuttings
of all diameters under study recorded the callus formation of
70 to 93.25 %. The diameter classes <20 mm registered
callusing only and failed to root however, all other diameter
classes registered the rooting and the highest rooting % was
found to be 80 % in cuttings having diameter ranging from
30-40 mm. The rooting response significantly varied with the
diameter classes. However, diameter class with diameter
>40mm recorded the maximum number of leaves and root
length. Correlation coefficient among all the characters was
positive. Overall, the cuttings having initial diameter of 30-40
mm were found to be the best of raising clonal planting stock.
KEYWORDS Tectona grandis L., Teak, rooting, cutting,
propagation

Guleria Vipan1 • Vashisht Amol2
1

Regional Horticultural Research Station, Jachh Distt Kangra,
Himachal Pradesh -176 201, India
2
College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalabar, Rajasthan 326 001, India
Vipan Guleria ( )
E mail: vip_an2003@yahoo.com

Tectona grandis L. is the most important timber
tree species of Indian tropical part. Its cultivation has been
extended to the sub-tropical parts of Himachal Pradesh and
Gangatic plains of northern India. It has some peculiar
qualities such as strength, durability and resistance to
termites. Propagation by stem cutting is promising techniques
of vegetative propagation for establishment of clonal teak
plantation on commercial scale. This technique can provide
the adequate supply of superior clones in this sub-tropical
region and has the potential to provide the clonal material for
mass scale propagation for future plantation of the species
with assured wood characters.
Quality teak stumps can be produced from seeds,
however, the seed yield per tree is low, and only few
seedlings are produced per 100 seeds. Therefore, propagation
through cuttings has been widely used to multiply the elite
teak trees obtained from the natural population to exploit the
genetic variability .Attempts have been made to understand
and improve the adventitious rooting efficiency of cuttings in
selected plant species including teak because various intrinsic
as well as extrinsic factors are responsible for root formation
(Leaky 2003, Husen 2003).
Cutting thickness has significant effect on the
rooting per cent of Populus deltoides cuttings (Kachlenz
1958). Cuttings of NE-388 clone of hybrid diameter (Bower
sox 1970). The branch cuttings of 18-22 mm diameter of
Morus alba have shown improved survival, rooting and
growth performance as studied by Dhiman et. al. (1988).
Husen and Pal (2001) and Nautiyal et al. (1991) found the
maximum rooting % and shoot growth in Tectona grandis
Linn. When treated with 2000 ppm IBA before planting. In

i

GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS
Journal of Hill Agriculture (JHA) is an international journal and an official publication of Indian Society of Hill
Agriculture (ISHA). It publishes the original research in all branches of agriculture and allied science (as mentioned below) that is of
primary interest to the agricultural development, especially in hill and mountain regions of the world. The publication is open to the
members of Indian Society of Hill Agriculture but it also accepts papers from non-members if all authors become the annual/life
member when a paper is submitted / accepted for publication. The journal publishes four types of articles, i.e. (i) Strategy / Policy
paper (exclusively by invitation from the personalities of eminence), (ii) Review papers (full and short), (iii) Research papers and (iv)
Short communications. The manuscripts should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief (JHA) by e-mail as attached file saved in MS
Word to editorinchiefjha@gmail.com or by online submission on our website www.ishaindia.in or through indianjournals.com. The
status of manuscripts can also be checked online. Each manuscript must be typed doubled spaced on one side of an A4 size page.
Clearness, brevity and conciseness are essential in form, style, punctuation, spelling and use of English language. Manuscripts should
conform to the SI system for numerical data and data should be subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. On receipt of an article at
the Editorial Office, an acknowledgement giving the manuscript number is sent to the corresponding author. This number should be
quoted while making any future enquiry about its status.
MAJOR FIELDS/SUBJECTS COVERED UNDER JHA
a)
Plant Improvement with reference to genetics, plant breeding, production, cytogenetics, physiology, biotechnology and
biochemistry of various crops including fruits, vegetables, flowers, medicinal plants and forest plants.
b)
Plant Protection including entomology, plant pathology, nematology, microbiology and agro-chemicals
c)
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Environmental Sciences, Agronomy, Seed Science, Meteorology and Agroforestry.
d)
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e)
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Postharvest Technology, Food Technology and Dairy Processing
f)
Social Sciences including Statistics, Economics, Extension, Home Sciences, Nutrition, Research Management
TYPES OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN JHA
a. Strategy paper. These papers are invited exclusively by invitation from the personalities of eminence to give their opinion on the
trends of agricultural development and future of various sectors of agriculture and allied disciplines and related development issues
all over the world especially in hill and mountain regions.
b. Review paper It should be comprehensive, critical and updated on a recent topic of importance. The maximum page limit is of 14
double spaced typed pages including Tables and Figures. It should cite latest references and identify some gaps for future. It should
have a specific Title followed by the Name(s) of the author(s), Affiliation, Abstract, Key words, main text with subheadings,
Acknowledgements (wherever applicable) and References.
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Tables/Figures etc. A paper has the following features. Please consult previous issues of JHA for your reference and help.
Title followed by author (s) and affiliation: address of the institution (s) where the research was undertaken and e mail
address of corresponding author.
Abstract: Entire work along with the highlights of the findings must be given concisely in 200 to 300 words.
Key words: About 5- 6 keywords to be indicated.
Introduction: This must highlight importance of the problem and its relevance to hill agriculture including pervious work
done and gaps thereof.
Materials and Methods: Describe the materials used in the experiments, year of experimentation, site etc. Describe the
methods employed for collection and analysis of data in short.
Results and Discussion: This segment should focus on the fulfillment of stated objectives as given in the introduction and
contain findings presented in Tables, Figures and photographs. Data should be statistically analyzed following suitable
experimental design. Same data should not be presented in the table and figure form. Avoid use of numerical values in
findings, rather mention the trends and discuss with the available literatures. At the end give short conclusion.
Acknowledgements: (wherever applicable).
References: Reference to literature should be arranged alphabetically as per author's names, should be placed at the end of
the article. Each reference should contain the names of the author with initials, the year of the publication, title of the
article, the abbreviated title of the publication according to the World List of Scientific Periodicals, volume and page(s). In
the text, the reference should be indicated by authors’ name and year of publication in brackets. eg. (Smith 1979, Sharma
and Nautiyal 2009, Raghav et al. 2010). If there are more than two or more references mentioned together in one bracket
they should be written in chronological order.
d. Short communication: The text including Table(s) and Figure(s) should not exceed 5 pages. It should have a short title, followed
by name of author(s) and affiliation and References. There should be no subheadings, i.e. Introduction, Materials and Methods etc.
The manuscript should be in paragraphs mentioning the brief introduction of the of the topic and relevance of the work, followed by

ii
a short description of the materials and the methods employed, results and discussion based on the data presented in 1 or 2
table(s)/figure(s) and a short conclusion at the end. References should be maximum seven at the end.
STANDARD REFERENCE WRITING PATTERN FOR JHA
Research and Review Papers
Sharma KD, Kumar R, Kaushal BBL 2004. Mass transfer characteristics, yield and quality of five varieties of osmotically dehydrated
apricot. J Food Sci Tech 41(3): 264-274.
Ponnuswami V, Kumar AR 2009. Crop improvement and management strategies in paprika – a review. J Hill Agr 5(1): 460-466.
Books and Book Chapters
Sharma SK 2010. Postharvest Management and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables – Instant Notes. New India Pub Agency, New
Delhi, 395p.
Babu A, Gupta HS 2006. Approaches to improvement in maize. In: Sustainable Production from Agricultural Watersheds in North
West Himalaya. Gupta HS, Srivastava AK, Bhatt JC (eds). Vivekanand Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora,
Uttaranchal, pp 124-138.
Symposium / Seminar/ Conference Publications
Dhillon BS, Rana JC 2004. Temperate fruits genetic resources management in India – issues and strategies. In: Proceedings of the
Seventh International Symposium on Temperate Zone Fruits in the Tropics and Subtropics. Jindal KK, Sharma RC,
Rehalia AS (eds), International Society of Horticultural Sciences, Belgium, pp 139-146.
Mohsin F, Singh O 2010. Studies in intercropping of cash crops in Populus deltoides plantation. National Symposium on
Conservation Horticulture (21-23 March, 2010, Dehradun, India), Book of Abstracts, pp 131.
Arora VPS 2010. Indian horticulture – marketing and export issues. National Symposium on Conservation Horticulture (21-23
March, 2010, Dehradun, India), Souvenir, Singh SS, Singhal V, Pant K, Dwivedi SK, Kamal S, Singh P (eds), pp 80-87.
Patent
Schmidt GR, Means WJ 1986. Process of preparing algin/calcium gel-structured meat products. US Patent 4 603 054.
Thesis
Bisht R 2007. Studies on the multiplication and utilization of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae salicifolia D.Don), M Sc Thesis, GB Pant
University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, US Nagar, Uttarakhand, India.
Website
Kumar S 2009. Rearing rabbits in the mid hills of Himalaya. http://www.rabbitrearing.com/. Accessed March 10, 2009.
General instructions to the authors
All the manuscript should be typed double spaced on one side of A4 size paper with proper margin of 1 inch on all 4 sides.
Generic & specific names should be italicized throughout manuscript. Similarly, the vernacular/ local names are to be italicized.
Tables should be typed on separate sheets, each with a heading. Tables should be typed with the first letter (T) only capital. All
Tables and Figures should be properly numbered. All measurements should be in metric units.
Each illustration must be referred to in the text.
On the first page address of the corresponding author and E-mail Id. etc. may be specified.
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Editor-in-Chief.
The paper after publication shall be sent as pdf file version of the whole issue of the journal to the authors.
Article forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief for publication is understood to be offered to JOURNAL OF HILL AGRICULTURE
exclusively and not for any other journal.
It is also understood that the authors have obtained a prior approval of their Department, Faculty or Institute in case where such
approval is a necessary.
Acceptance of a manuscript for publication in Journal of Hill Agriculture shall automatically mean transfer of copyright to the
Indian Society of Hill Agriculture. The authors shall also have to provide a copy of the Copyright Transfer Statement duly
signed by all or the corresponding author on behalf of all the authors.
The Editorial Board takes no responsibility for the fact or the opinion expressed in the Journal, which rests entirely with the
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All the authors of a paper have to become annual/life member of the ISHA for publication of paper.
All papers should be sent to Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Hill Agriculture, through e mail as attached file to
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Check List
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who might be interested to review your paper. The format for the same may be downloaded from ISHA website Visit
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3. Copyright transfer statement on separate page
4. Membership Number (if fee is paid already)/ Membership fee

iii
COMMON ABBREVIATIONS USED IN JHA
above mean sea level
at the rate
centimeter,centimeter
degree centigrade
et caetera, et coetera or et cœtera
exampli gratia

amsl
@
cm
°C
etc
e.g.

Figure
Gram
Hectare
hour(s)
international unit
it is or that is
Kilogram
kilometer, kilimetre
lesser than, greater than

Fig
g
ha
hr
IU
i.e.
kg
km
<, >

Limited
litre or liter
Messrs
meter, metre
milligram
parts per million, parts per
billion
per cent
per ha or per litre or per kg
second(s)
square meter, cubic meter etc
such as
volume by volume
weight by volume
weight by weight
tonne(s), ton

Ltd
l
M/S
m
mg
ppm, ppb
%
ha-1 or l-1 or kg-1
sec
m2, m3 etc
i.e.
v/v
w/v
w/w
t

Abbreviations for citing references
Abstract
Academy
Acta
Advances
Agriculture
Agricultural
Agronomy
America, -an
Analytical, Analysis
Annals
Animal
Annual
Applied
Asian
Archives
Associate(s), -ed
Association
Australian
Austrian
Beverage
Biochemistry
Biology
Biotechnology
Botany
Breeding
British, Britain
Bulletin
Bureau
Canada, -ian
Center, Centre
Chemical
Chemistry
Circular

Abstr
Acad
Acta
Adv
Agr
Agrl
Agron
Amer
Anal
Ann
Animal
Annu
Appl
Asian
Arch
Assoc
Assn
Austral
Aust
Bev
Biochem
Biol
Biotechnol
Bot
Breeding
Brit
Bul
Bur
Can
Ctr
Cheml
Chem
Circ

Congress
Contribution(s)
Conservation
Cooperative
Culture
Current
Cytology, -ical
Department
Development
Digest
Disease
Dissertation
Distribution
Division
Ecology, -ical
Ecosystem(s)
Economy, -ic, -ics
Education
Egypt
Egyptian
Electronic
Encyclopedia
Engineers, -ring
Enology
Entomology, -ical
Environment
Environmental
Enzyme (s)
Enzymology
Experiment
Experimental
Microscopy
Molecule, ar

Congr
Contrib
Conserv
Coop
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REFEREES OF JOURNAL OF HILL AGRICULTURE, 2012 Vol 3(2)

Dr Birendra Prasad. GBPUAT Pantnagar
Dr Deepji Bhat, SKUAST, Jammu
Dr Faizan Ahmed, SKUAST (K) Kargil, Jammu and Kashmir
Dr KC Sharma, CSKHPKVV, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh
Dr Lakshmikant Sharma, KVK, Bajaura, Kullu, HP
Dr Om Chand Sharma, CITH, Srinagar, J&K
Dr Rakesh Sharma, Solan Himachal Pradesh
Dr Rashmi Yadav, NBPGR, New Delhi
Dr Sanjay Srivastava, GBPUAT Pantnagar
Dr Shachi Shah, IGNOU, New Delhi
Dr Vijay Yadav IGFRI, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh
Dr Vinod Sharma, Katrain, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh
Dr VK Rao, GBPUAT, Pantnagar

US
Univ
Univer
Univerl
Var
Veg
Virol
Viticult
Wkshp
Yrbk

vi

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Sharing Knowledge
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INDIAN SOCIETY OF HILL AGRICULTURE
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Journal of Hill Agriculture 2012, Vol 3(2)
CONTENTS
Status of horticulture in Uttarakhand

69-76

AK SHARMA
Standardization of temperature regimes
for better seed germination and seedling
growth of Burdock (Arctium lappa)

77-81

82-86

Phenotypic divergence for
108-111
agromorphological traits among land
races of traditional rice genotypes of West
Bangal
ASHIM CHAKRAVORTY •
PD GHOSH

87-90

DK SHUKLA • TEJ PRATAP •
BIRENDRA PRASAD
Per se performance of bacterial wilt
91-94
resistant F6 progenies of tomato (Solanum
lycopersicum L.) in mid hills of Himachal
Pradesh
SANJAY CHADHA •
AMIT BHUSHAN
Evaluation of different potato based
95-98
cropping sequences under rainfed mid hill
conditions of Uttarakhand
MEENU KUMARI • SP UNIYAL •
MEENAKSHI UNIYAL

103-107

APARNA BHATT • CS CHOPRA

REENA KAUSHAL• YS
DHALIWAL
Productivity of grain amaranth
(Amaranthus hypocondriacus) in relation
to organic nutrition under rainfed
conditions of Western Himalayas

99-102

SUCHETA SINGH • AK
SHARMA
Processing potential of dropped mango
fruits

SHAILESH TRIPATHI •
DEEPAK MEWAR • BIRENDRA
PRASAD • VIKAS KUMAR JAIN
Studies on canning of apricot ( Prunus
armeniaca L.) varieties grown in
Himachal Pradesh

Gender issues for drudgery reduction and
sustainable small holder farming in rice
production system

Standardization of cutting parameters for 112-115
adventitious rooting in Tectona grandis
under protected conditions in new locality
of subtropical Himalayan region
VIPAN GULERIA •
AMOL VASHISHT
Guidelines for authors

i

Common abbreviations used in JHA

iii

Abbreviations used for citing references

iii

Referees of JHA 2012 Vol 3(2)

v

Copyright Transfer Statement

vi

Membership of ISHA

vii