METAL FORMING – DEFORMATION PROCESSES

Metal forming includes a group of manufacturing
processes in which plastic deformation is used to change
the shape of metal workpiece.

The tool, usually called a die in metal forming, applies
stresses that exceed the yield strength of the metal.

Stresses applied to plastically deform the metal are
usually compressive. However some forming processes
stretch the metal, while others bend the metal, and some
apply shear stress of the metal.

To be successfully formed, a metal must posses low yield
strength and high ductility.
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 Use for large production quantities.  Material is simply moved or rearranged to produce the shape. there is no need to handle molten material or deal with the complexities of solidification. 2 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .  Since all processing is done in solid state.  High forces are required.  Machinery and tooling cost is high.METAL FORMING – DEFORMATION PROCESSES  Ductility is increased and yield strength is reduced when work temperature is raised. the amount of waste can be substantially reduced.

2. Bulk deformation  Rolling  Forging  Extrusion  Wire and bar drawing Sheet metalworking  Bending  Deep drawing  Cutting  Miscellaneous processes 3 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .BASIC TYPES OF DEFORMATION PROCESSES 1.

 Starting work shapes include cylindrical billets and rectangular bars.  "Bulk" refers to workparts with relatively low surface area-to-volume ratios. 4 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .BULK DEFORMATION PROCESSES  Characterized by significant deformations and massive shape changes.

BULK DEFORMATION PROCESSES Rolling Extrusion Forging Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan Drawing 5 .

which distinguishes these from bulk deformation. strips. and coils.SHEET METALWORKING  Forming and related operations performed on metal sheets.  High surface area-to-volume ratio of starting metal.  Often called pressworking because presses perform these operations:  Parts are called stampings  Usual tooling: punch and die 6 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .

SHEET METALWORKING (a) bending (b) drawing (c) shearing 7 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .

TEMPERATURE IN METAL FORMING  Any deformation operation can be accomplished with lower forces and power at elevated temperature  Three temperature ranges in metal forming:  Cold working  Warm working  Hot working 8 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .

ROLLED PRODUCTS MADE OF STEEL 1 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .

DIAGRAM OF FLAT ROLLING Draft = thickness reduction: d t o tf Conservation of Volume: t o wo L o t f w f L f t o wo v o t f w f v f 2 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .

(c) 4-high.ROLLING MILLS Various configurations of rolling mills: (a) 2-high. (d) cluster mill. (b) 3-high. (e) tandem rolling mill Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan 3 .

OTHER ROLLING OPERATIONS Thread Rolling Ring Rolling 4 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .

ROLLING 5 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .

ROLLING Backing rolls Strip rolling in four stand continuous mill Use of front and back tension to reduce friction in rolling 6 Production Engineering – I / Erum Khan .