Chapter 1: Chemistry—The Science of Change

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1.1 The Study of Chemistry
Chemistry: the study of matter and the changes it undergoes
Matter: anything that has mass and occupies space

Scientific Method: scientists’ set of guidelines
1) Gather data
2) Summarize findings with a law when a pattern is found
3) Formulate a hypothesis
4) If hypothesis is correct, it can evolve into a theory
Edward Jenner: helped eliminate smallpox by using the scientific method
1.2 Classification of Matter
Matter: classified as either a substance or a mixture of substances
Substance: form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct
properties such as color, smell, and taste
States of Matter:
 Solid
o Particles held close together with little freedom to move
o Does not conform to the shape of its container
 Liquid

3 The Properties of Matter   Substances are identifies by their properties as well as by their composition  Properties may be quantitative (measured and expressed with a number) or qualitative (not requiring precise measurement  . or gases  Do not have a universal constant composition  Homogeneous or heterogeneous o Homogeneous mixture: composition of mixture is uniform  Ex: dissolving sugar in water o Heterogeneous mixture: composition is not uniform  Ex: mixing sand with iron filings  Can be separated into the substances it contains without changing the identities of those substances o Ex: sugar recovered from sugar-water  Can evaporate mixture to dryness  Sugar will be left behind and water can be recovered by condensing (gas to liquid) the water vapor o Physical processes: the processes used to separate mixtures  Does not change identity of any substance   1. liquids. o Particles close together but not held in place—free to move past one another o Conforms to the shape of its container Gas o Particles separated by distances that are very large compared to the size of the particles o Conforms to the shape and volume of its container   Mixtures: combination of 2 or more substances in which each substance keeps its identity  Can be solids.

boiling point. physical state  Physical change: the state of matter changes but the identity of the matter does not o Ex: melting Chemical Properties  Chemical Property: one that changes the identity of the substance o Chemical change or chemical process must occur       After a chemical change. the original substance no longer exists  Cannot recover the substance with a physical process Extensive and Intensive Properties  Extensive property: depends on the amount of matter o Ex: mass (more matter means more mass) o Values of the same extensive property can be added together  Intensive property: does not depend on amount of matter o Ex: density. melting point. temperature o Not additive 1.4 Scientific Measurement .   Physical Properties  Physical property: a property that can be observed and measured without changing identity of substance o Ex: color.

15 F=(9F/5C) * (temperature in C) + 32 F Derived Units: Volume and Density  Volume o mL or cm^3 o L or dm^3 o m^3 or cm^3  Density .  Atomic mass unit: expresses masses of atoms      Angstrom (A): a measure of length that equals 1*10^-10 m            Temperature: Celsius  Freezing point (0) and boiling point (100) Kelvin  Known as absolute temperature because lowest theoretical temperature is 0K A degree Celsius is equivalent to a Kelvin Fahrenheit  Freezing point (32) and boiling point (212) Important Equations: K=C + 273.

001 g/mL 1.5 Uncertainty in Measurement Significant Figures: meaningful digits in a reported number .o Relationship of mass to volume o d=m/V          1 g/cm^3=1 g/mL=1000 kg/m^3 1 g/L=0.

27/08/2014 15:58:00  .

27/08/2014 15:58:00  .