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Unit I

Foundation of
Human Relations

Introduction to Human Relations


Human Relations- is the ability to interact effectively with diverse
others in a variety of situations.
Developing this ability is a process:

An effective human relation is at the core of successful


relationship in both our personal and professional life.

Although interpersonal skills ,such as communication , listening ,


and conflict resolution skills , are important components of
human relations ,they are only effective when they are applied in
the context of the person , culture ,the relationship and the
situation .Thus a broad understanding of personality ,social and
cultural influences must be develop as well.

The psychological concepts provide the foundation on which we


build effective and artful human relations.

Why study Human Relations?

Effective interpersonal skills is a the single factor most


responsible for success or failure in business and in personal
relationships

Context is the personalities cultural backgrounds ,and situational


factors involved in each interaction

Think of a skill that you know well and list some of the ways that
context is important in mastery of this skills

Culture
Culture - a set of values, shared by a group of people shared which
shape and influence the norms, attitude beliefs, expectation,
perceptions and behaviours of the group members.

Most researchers agree that a group s culture norms develop as


a result of its particular survival challenges , such as scare
natural resources , population density , or climate .Whatever
strategies turn out to be the most effective at mastering these
challenges become embedded in the culture of that group and
are
passed down through successive generations because
human need other to survival , smaller social groups based on
such factors as age , gender and education can also be
considered cultural group. Our culture exerts a powerful influence
on our daily lives , our choices ,and our relation to others.

Values

Guiding principles

The key to identifying the values underlying a persons behaviour


is to figure out what positive outcome the person seems to be
working toward.

Take a moment and consider someones behaviour that has


puzzled you. What value might be driving that behaviour?
Remember to frame the value as a positive outcome, rather than
in negative terms such as excitement rather than instability?

Individualism - Collectivism

A value system based on the relative importance of the individual


versus the group or family

Cultures that place a higher value on the group or family are


called collectivist cultures

The group maintain very close ties with grandparents and other
elders throughout their lives ,and family rituals such as
marriage ,baptisms , and especially funerals are attended
faithfully by everyone, no matter how inconvenient it might be ,in
time or distance

A Sample of Individualism-Collectivism rankings

High Individualism - United States, Australia, Great Britain,


Canada, Netherlands, New Zealand

Moderate Individualism - Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden,


France, Ireland, Norway, Switzerland, Germany, South Africa,
Finland

Middle Rankings Austria, Israel, Spain, India, Japan, Argentina

Moderate Collectivism Iran, Jamaica, Brazil, Arab Countries,


Turkey, Uruguay, Greece, Philippines, Mexico, Yugoslavia,
Portugal, East Africa, Malaysia, Hong kong, Chile

High Collectivism Singapore, Thailand , West Africa, El


Salvador, South Korea, Taiwan, Peru, Costa Rica, Pakistan,
Indonesia, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Ecuador, Guatemala

Power Distance

Examines how a culture deals with the basic issue of human


inequality.

High Power Distance cultures stricter hierarchies with greater


distance between each level.

Lower Power Distance cultures de-emphasize hierarchies


strive to reduce distance between various level.

and

Can you think of teachers you have that seemed to be high PD or


low PD? How did their expectations fit with your own ? How did
any discrepancy between your style and your teachers style
affect your learning and general experiences in the classroom?

Uncertainty Avoidance

The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by


uncertain or unknown situations

High uncertainty avoidance culture perceive uncertainty as an


ongoing threat to be resisted

Low uncertainty avoidance cultures perceive uncertainty as


normal and non -threatening

Masculinity - Femininity

The degree of differentiation between the roles of men and


women in a culture.

Basic Information such as :


>Sex .The biological differences between men and women

>Gender. The social or cultural differences between masculinity and


femininity

Masculine culture expect a high degree of separation


between mens and womens role

Feminine culture expects and accepts overlapping roles for


men and women.

Unit 2

Internal Influences
on
Human Relations

The Self in Human Relations

Self-the sum total of who and what you are , both consciously
and unconsciously.

Self Concept- the relatively stable set of perceptions you have


about yourself.

Function of Self-Concepts

Self Verification the human tendency to seek out and retain


information that confirms or verifies our self-concept

Self- enhancement the basic human need to feel good about


ourselves

Possible selves vision both positive and negative of who and


what we might become someday

What are some of your possible selves? Identify at least one


positive possible self and one negative possible self. How do
these possible selves influence your behavior?

Self Esteem

How we feel about ourselves , or the degree to which we are


satisfied with our self concept

Functions of Self Esteem:


- sense of belonging
-sense of meaningfulness

Sociometer Theory

Self esteem acts as a gauge or monitor that measures the level


of acceptance a person feels from his or her social environment.

Think about your most importance relationships and how well


they are currently functioning well , is your self-esteem also
fairly positive ? If they are experiencing difficulties , have you
noticed your self-esteem being negative affected ? Overall , does
the sociometer theory seem to explain your current level of self
esteem?

Development of Self-Esteem

Is strongly influenced by feedback from others . We receive


signals from our environment that tell us if we are good or bad.

Carl Rogers Positive regard:

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is a positive feedback , good feelings , and acceptance.


Two types of positive regards;
1. Unconditional positive regard giving positive regard and
acceptance at all times and in all situations.
2. Conditional positive regard giving positive regard and
acceptance only in certain conditions.
Child a feeling of hopelessness, a feeling that wrongdoing makes
them a bad person in rather permanent sense not surprising lowers self
esteem. Ego boosters and ego busters of a person love and respect
have the power over person self esteem.

Does self-esteem improve school performance?

No, in fact the opposite is true: doing well in school tends to


improve self-esteem.

Does self-esteem improve your social relationship?

No, people with high self-esteem claim to have better


relationship , but empirical research does not support that
claim .Self esteem appears to have no impact on relationship
quality or longevity

Do people with high self-esteem make better leaders?

Yes and no. Self-esteem has both benefits and drawback to


leadership. On the other hand, people with high self-esteem are
more assertive and does more likely to express their viewpoint,
even if it involve criticism. On the other hand, people with high
self-esteem show more bias toward their own group, members,
and thus maybe more prone to exhibiting prejudice and
discrimination.

Does high self-esteem prevent children from experimenting with


risky behaviors, such as drinking, smoking, drugs and sex?

No In fact, the opposite maybe true. Some research indicates


that the children with high self esteem are more comfortable
experimenting with new things

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Does high self-esteem promote health?

Sometimes .High self esteem does reduce the risk of bulimia


in women. Low self-esteem predicts depression and even physical
illness in a certain circumstances.

Can you recall


a specific time when thought someone was
giving you feedback that was overly positive, possibly in an
attempt to make you feel better about yourself?

Self esteem fluctuate in childhood, it become more stable


throughout adolescence and remain relatively stable throughout
adulthood.

Stability of Self-Esteem
Two different types or level of self esteem:
1. Trait self-esteem is an individual s generate pattern of self
-esteem over a lifetime.
2. State self-esteem is the type of self-esteem which is vulnerable to
momentary fluctuations.

Culture and Self-Esteem

Culture influences our values ,which in turn motivate us to act in


away that is consistent
with those
values.
Culture > Values > Behavior > Self-Esteem

Self-Efficacy: Where Self-Concept and Self Esteem


Intersect

Self efficacy is extent to which we believe we are capable of


achieving our goals.

Self concepts reflects what we think about our self ,

Self esteem reflects how we feel about our self

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So it bridges the gap between these concepts, in that our beliefs


that can achieve a goal have both cognitive and emotional
components.

Self efficacy can be global (general) or specific.

Knowledge of what action we need to take to achieve the desire


outcome, along the ability, desire and motivation to carry out
that action.

High efficacy includes knowing what you need to do and being


able to do it.

Benefits of Self-Efficacy

Beliefs contribute to better grades and achievement of academic


goals.

Positive affect mental and physical health.

Lower levels of depression, more success in programs geared


toward losing weight or giving up smoking and overall better
physical health.

True key to improvement is to tell people that you can do it

Development of Self-Efficacy

Begin to develop in childhood and continues to be influenced by


their experiences.

Teaching them to set high but achievable goals.

Message that they receive from others can have an effect.

Culture and Self Efficacy

Individualistic cultures, the self is perceived primarily as an


independent beings , with ultimate goal of personal achievement
or excellence.

Individualistic culture highly valued than collectivistic culture.

Type of culture social situations tends to perceived as


opportunities to achieve by doing something to control or
influence the situation or the group.

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Self-Knowledge

Is the conscious knowledge you have about your motivations ,


beliefs , expectation s ,values , strengths and weaknesses

Accuracy of your self-concepts

It can be improved in several ways

Self-Comparison

Evaluating yourself based on how you think you compare to


others.

It could help to improve self-awareness or the accuracy of his self


concepts

Can lead to distorted perception and consequently inaccurate


self-concepts.

Self-esteem may suffer as her distorted perceptions affect he


emotions and sense of worthiness.

Culture and Self-Comparison

Differences between individualistic and collectivist


social comparisons :

in terms of

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1. Collectivists engage in social comparison more often than their


individualist counterpart.
2. Collectivist are more likely to make upward comparisons while
individualist comparison downward in which they make emphasis on
personal excellence while collectivist do so for the benefits of the entire
group.

Self-Perception

Is the assumptions about ourselves based on


observations of our behavior, thoughts, and feelings

our

own

Self Perception Theory is the process of drawing conclusions


about yourself based on your own observations of your
behaviour, has helped increase her self-awareness in terms of her
job satisfaction.

Consider the feedback you have recently received from others,


either in your personal life or at work. Are you aware of any
distorted or obsolete information that you may not have noticed
at the time? If so, do you need to modify yourself concepts to
compensate for the distortion?

The Johari Window

A visual representation of the parts of yourself that are known to


you and known to others .

Four Areas in the Johari Window:


1. Open Area which represent all that you know about yourself
that is also known to others.
2. Hidden Area which represents all that you know about
yourself that is private and not known to others
3. Blind Area which represents the part of yourself that others
can see ,but that you are not aware of
4. Unknown Area which represent the part of yourself that is
hidden from others and also hidden from yourself.

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Self-Presentation

Private Self is the part of our self that is known only to us.

Public Self the image we present to the world.

Self-Monitoring we utilize different parts of our self ,or


different public selves , in different situations.

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Unit 3

Personality
Influences
Human Relations

Theory of Self through Adulthood


Erikson Theory

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1. Intimacy vs. Isolation which is to establish and maintain an


intimate relationship with a life partner.

Identity the unique sense of self which requires individuating


from the family

Inherent in this idea is honesty and trust

2. Generativity vs. Stagnation which is to nurture the next


generation , or to raise children in a way that helps them master their
environments and establish their own identities.
3.Integrity vs. Despair which is the challenge of looking back on
ones life and feeling a sense of satisfaction at a life lived well.

Lavinsons Theory
1. Early adult transition the major task of adolescence forming
an identity and working towards becoming an independent ,selfreliant person.
2. Age 30 transition- a period of four to five years when a man
questions the choices he has made so far , considering what
modification he might make to build a more stable and fulfilled
life.
3. Midlife transition - a period of reflection and questioning
regarding the life choices he has made so far.

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Sheehys Theory
Our cultural and societal environment interacts with age to produce
unique goals and interests for different cohort at the same
chronological age
Cohort - a group of people born at about the same time in history, so
that they share common experiences in society at about the same time
and age.

1. Tryout twenties a feeling of freedom to try out different


roles in life, both occupationally and in close relationship.

2. Turbulent thirties a time in which young adults are


juggling multiple roles, often including raising children, building a
career and maintaining an intimate relationship with a partner.

3.Flourishing Forties-characterized by the recognition that 40


doesnt feel old ,which prompts middlescence.

4.Middlescence- a time of reflection on life so far and


reassessment of goals , values ,and identity . Signals the
transition from First Adulthood to Second adulthood.

5. Flaming Fifties-a time to build on and enjoy pursuit of the


new goals set during middlescence

6. Serene Sixties characterized by a sense of inner harmony ,


usually a result of a sense of living in a manner consistent with
ones ideal self.

7.Sage Seventies-successful 70 something stay mentally and


physically in shape and continue to find missions in life.

8.uninhibited eighties characterized by direct expression of


thoughts and opinion and feeling as if there is no reason to hold
back .

9.Noble Nineties- a time of generosity of mind and spirit , and


ability to forgive

10. Celebratory Centitenarian typically mentally active and


engaged in life , optimistic ,and with a good sense of humor.

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Personality Influences Human Relations


Personality is a unique pattern of thoughts , feelings , and behaviors
in an individual that is consistent over a time and across situations

Psychoanalytic theory a theory which suggests that our


personality is shaped by an ongoing internal struggle between
two or more conflicting needs

Freud struggle between three forces


1. The desire to satisfy our most basic urges.
2. The need to adhere to societys laws and rules.
3. The goal of living ones own personal moral code.

Mind as an Iceberg

Conscious the portion of our mind that we are aware of at any


given time

Unconscious is the large portion of our mind including thoughts,


feelings, memories , and expectations , that we are not aware of.

Preconscious is the part of the unconscious that can be brought


into consciousness by focusing on it.

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The Three Components of Personality

ID is the part of personality concerned with satisfying our basic


instincts and urges

Ego is the part of personality concerned with meeting the needs


of the ID in a way that is realistic , and fits with the laws rules of
society.

Superego is the part of personality concerned with making sure


that the id and the ego function in a way that is consistent with
the persons own moral code.

Defense Mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms strategies our unconscious uses to resolve
anxiety

1.
Rationalization-creating
justification for our behavior

rational

explanation

or

2.Repression
unacceptable.

3.Displacement redirecting a negative feeling toward a safe


target

completely suppressing a feeling which is

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4.Projection having an acceptable impulse or thought , but


instead of seeing it in ourselves , we think we see it in others.

5.Reaction Formation-acting in a way that this is completely


opposite to an unacceptable thought or impulse.

6.Regression psychologically retreating to an earlier , less


mature time

7. Sublimation- channeling an unacceptable feeling or urge into


a positive ,or more socially acceptable direction.

Behaviorist Theory

Is a theory which suggests that our personality is shaped


exclusively by our experiences.

Conditioning learning from our experience.

Classical conditioning is a type of learning that relies on


associating a neural stimulus with a natural, biological stimulus.

Process Works of Conditioning

Unconditioned stimulus (US) a stimulus which produces a


natural , biological response with no prior learning

Unconditioned response (UR) a natural , biological response


to a stimulus with no prior learning

Natural stimulus (NS) a stimulus which is not meaningful

Conditioned stimulus (CS) a previously neutral stimulus that


has become associated with an unconditioned stimulus

Conditioned Response (CR) a learned response to conditioned


stimulus

Generalization When a conditioned response occurs upon


exposure to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned

Watsons Ethical Standards

Phobias irrational fear

Extinction the phase of classical conditioning that involves


eliminating the conditioned response.

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Spontaneous Recovery occasional , unpredictable recurrence of a


conditioned response that has become extinct.

Think about first impressions of people , and how we sometimes


meet someone who reminds us of someone else.

Operant Conditioning

A type of learning based on associating


consequences they have previously produced.

behaviors

with

Law of effect behaviors followed by positive consequences are


more likely to be repeated , and behaviors followed by negative
consequences are less likely to be repeated

Reinforcement a consequences that increases likelihood of the


behavior being repeated

Positive Reinforcement a consequence that increases


likelihood of a behavior by adding something pleasant.

Negative reinforcement a consequence that increases


likelihood of a behavior by taking away or avoiding something
unpleasant

Identify three aspects of your relationships that have been


shaped by positive reinforcement

What example can you find in your own life either at work or at
home of negative reinforcement?

Punishment

Anything that decreases the chances of the behavior being


repeated.
Problem with Punishment:
1. Punishment often does more harm than good
2. Punishment is that it often ends up teaching the person to
avoid getting caught, rather than eliminating the unwanted
behavior.
3. Most dangerous problem with punishment is that when
punishment is physical ex. Spanking.

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4. Most expert do not considered punishment the most effective


means of changing behavior in most situations. Instead
recommended that people look for positive behaviors and
reinforce them so it will not need reinforcement.

Observational Learning

The process by which we learn behaviors by watching others


engage in them. Also known as modeling.

Can you think of three behaviors or attitudes you have learned by


observations?

Modelling Process

Is a type of learning that relies on mental activity, a cornerstone


of social learning theory?

Social learning disagree with behaviourists theory that did not


acknowledge the role of the mind in learning ;they strictly
focused on behaviour result of environmental stimuli

Social learning theorist argue that some behaviours can be


learned through mental activity only, such as in modelling.

Two primary factors that


consequently our response:

Influence

our

experiences

and

1. Values example reward like high grade


2. Expectations about the outcome of a particular behavior also
shape our personalities.

Humanist Theory

The theory which suggests we are all born with an innate drive to
reach our potentials as good, contributing persons to our society.

Carl Rogers Self Theory which resolved around development


of self-esteem. He believes that self esteem developed through
unconditional positive regards.

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Fully Functioning Person

One who gets along well with others by offering unconditional


positive regard and genuinely caring about them.

Give some examples of unconditional and or conditional positive


regard that you have received in your life .How did you feel as a
result of these messages?

Maslows Need Hierarchy

Self-Actualization when the individual has developed a


complete sense of who she is and what her strengths are, and
routinely acts in a way that is consistent with that

Maslow s need hierarchy a model which suggests that lower


order needs must be met before we can focus on higher order
needs.

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Personality Traits

Is a characteristic that predict a persons behavior consistently


across a wide range of situations.

Big Five Theory is a theory which suggests that personality


can be measured on five major dimentions.

Think of someone you know well and guess how high that person
might score on each of the five traits .How does this information
help you predict how the person might react in a particular
situation?

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The Big Five Model

Extraversion/Introversion-a personality traits based von a


persons preferences for social or contemplative environments.

Neuroticism- a personality trait characterized by anxiety,


nervousness, self consciousness, and moodiness.

Openness to experience a personality traits characterized by


originality,
imagination,
independence,
curiosity
and
broadmindedness.

Conscientiousness-a personality traits characterized by


dependability, efficiency, persistence, and a strong sense of
order.

Agreeableness- personality traits which includes behavior such


as kind, sincere, courteous, helpful, patient, honest, and
cooperative.

Unit 4

Emotions, Stress and


Human Relations

Prepared by: Cantara, Carlowen Jr

Activity:
The participants were asked to fold a piece of paper into 4 parts.
Then, they were asked to write on the top left part of the paper the
word Sadness, and then on the top right portion, write the word
Anger, on the lower left portion write the word Happiness and on
the lower right portion of the paper write the word Stress.

On the part assigned for sadness answer the following questions:


1.
2.
3.
4.

What makes you sad?


Why does it make you sad?
For how long does this make you sad?
What do you do to combat/relieve sadness?

And then, on part assigned anger answer the following questions:

1.
2.
3.
4.

What makes you angry?


Why does it make you angry?
For how long does this make you angry?
What do you do to combat/relieve anger?

Next, on part assigned happiness answer the following questions:


1.
2.
3.
4.

What makes you happy?


Why does it make you happy?
For how long does this make you happy?
What do you do to keep yourself happy?

Lastly, on part assigned stress answer the following questions:


1.
2.
3.
4.

What makes you stressed?


Why does it make you stressed?
For how long does this make you stressed?
What do you do to combat/relieve stress?

The answers of the participants will be read during the discussion of


the reporter and will be compared to the facts that are written in the
book, and will be evaluated if the answers of the participants will be
congruent to what is presented on the book.

Introduction

For centuries, most European and American societies have


considered emotion to be a bothersome aspect of human nature ,
and one that can wreak havoc on the logical, rational thought
that we so value.
On recent times, psychologists have been recognizing the
importance of how emotions influence our behaviour in a wide
variety of contexts and situations.
Evolutionary Psychologists seems to provide support for the idea
that our emotions not only are interferences, but on the contrary,
are actually an important contributor to our survival and growth
as species.
What causes emotions?
o Recent research offered little part of answers to this very
complex question.

A research has shown that amygdala is a region of


the brain responsible to accurately assess danger.
According to a research, the left hemisphere of the
brain is critical to positive emotions such as
happiness while the right hemisphere is critical to the
negative emotions.
Temperature affects brain chemicals on emotion.
Facial expression can prompt emotions.

How thoughts influence emotions


o Although different researchers in the area of emotion may
have differing views on what causes emotion, almost all
psychologists believe that our emotions are inextricably
linked to our thoughts.
o Essentially our emotions result not from the situation we
are in, but on how we interpret that situation.
Activating event- stimulus or the event meaningful
to the person.
Cognitive event processing or the interpretation
of an event in the context of our individual belief
system, expectation, needs and past experiences
Self-talk focusing of the internal thoughts that
reinforce our interpretation of an activating event.

Fantasies
Beliefs

and

Nightmares:

Seven

Irrational

o Emotions are a wonderful element to our humanity. By their


nature, though, they are in direct contrast to rational
thinking. Because of this we typically fall prey to some
irrational beliefs that, when tied to our emotions, can result
in some real problems in our human relations. These
irrational beliefs could either be fantasies about how the
world should be that can turn into nightmares that in either
way result to self-talking ourselves into panic.

Catastrophizing- exaggerating the importance of a


negative event.
Overgeneralization- Exaggerating the frequency of
an event, or making broad assumptions based on
limited evidence.

Myths of Causation- Belief that one persons


emotions are the direct result of another persons
actions.
Need for approval- Belief that you are okay only if
everyone else approves of you.
Tyranny of Shoulds- Belief that other people or the
world in general, ought to think and in a way that fits
your belief system.
Perfectionism- Expecting yourself to achieve
perfection in everything you do, or in many things.
Myth of Helplessness- Assuming that you are stuck
in a bad situation and cannot do anything about it.

Disrupting Irrational beliefs


o In addition to help us understand how irrational thoughts
can lead to negative emotions, cognitive psychology offers
a solution to the problems caused by irrational beliefs
(Beck, 1987).
Recognize strong emotional reaction to an activating
event.
Take a few moments to examine your self-talk.
Identify which irrational beliefs are intensifying your
emotional reaction.
Consider a more rational interpretation of the
activating event.
Create new, more effective self-talk that supports the
more rational interpretation.

Sadness

o Feeling down, usually in a short


period of time
o When intensified becomes grief
o From loss or disappointment
o Can be adaptive because it promotes a
reflective period which we can mourn
for the loss.
Depressed or Merely Sad?
o Depression
o Common cold of psychological disorder.
o Most widespread psychological disorder in our society.
o Difference with sadness is
Duration- usually for a long period of time

Intensity- involves low self-esteem and hopelessness.


o Other symptoms includes:
Changes in eating and sleeping habits
Crying
Inability to think clearly or solve problems
Loss of pleasure activities that used to be enjoyable.
Thoughts of suicide
If several of these symptoms on a daily basis
for several weeks or more, it is advisable to
seek medical or psychological advise.

Causes and Consequences of Depression

o Causes
Believed to be a self-perpetuating system
When sad people focus more on their negative
characteristics
and
support
their
negative
perceptions with memories of negative events
Selectively attuned to the worst of times rather than
the best of times
Appears to be contagious.
o Consequences
Dissatisfaction in their relationships
In return their partner feels dissatisfied too
Friends of depressed people often feels depressed
too
Treating Depression
o Cognitive Therapy
Helps the depressed person understand how their
thinking affects their emotions by adjusting their
thinking
Cognitive therapists like Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis
have reported excellent results with their cognitive
therapies for years.
o Behavioural Therapy
For low level depression
Aims to lift depression by taking action geared
toward distracting a sad or depressed person from his
or her depressive thoughts.
Most common form is socializing.

Anger

o Like sadness is an emotion with which


virtually everyone is familiar.
o Isnt necessarily a bad thing, but in
fact adaptive
Means that you are offended or
violated in some way
Could signal being blocked from
a goal
Indication of giving too much in
a relationship
o Could be in two forms
Direct Expression of Anger
Expressing directly to the object of your anger
Indirect Expression of Anger
Involves channelling your anger in a direction
other than toward the object of your anger.

Direct Expression of Anger


o Carries implicit assumption that the relationship is strong
enough to withstand and work through the conflict.
o Direct (constructive) expression of anger is a message that
you trust the other person enough to deal with your anger
openly.
o It takes trust, patience and skill to deal with anger
constructively and openly, if these are absent in either one
of you, the relationship can be damaged.
o Could be:
Destructive
Constructive
Destructive
o Expression of anger directly which involves physical and
verbal aggression
Verbal Aggression
Involves evaluative judgment or labelling
o They are overgeneralization, and sounds
judgmental
Physical Aggression
Involves touch and physical force.
Constructive
o Expressing your anger directly involve describing the
problem in factual manner
Tips for Direct Expression of anger

o Timing is critical when expressing your anger directly.


o Counting 1-10 could be a good advice.
o Remember that anger is an emotion and is an emotion and
is running strong, it can overcome our ability to think
clearly.
o Think carefully before deciding what to do with your anger
and how to do it.
o Do not ambush the person with your anger.
o Best way to deal with this powerful emotion in some cases,
you might decide that the risks involved in direct
expression outweigh the potential risks.
Indirect expression of anger
o Destructive
Excessive alcohol intake, drug abuse and physical
violence.
Even if violence is aimed at an inanimate object.
Catharsis- idea of releasing pent-up hostilities will
return to peaceful state.
o Constructive
Exercise, relaxation, psychological detachment,
cognitive restructuring.
Meditation/prayers

Happiness

o Our society seems to be obsessed with


the pursuit and acquisition of wealth or
material goods.
o Factors affecting happiness
Having a sense of personal
control over ones life (freedom)
Happy
people
tend
to
be
optimistic.
People with high optimismless likely to take precaution
Happiness also comes from having close relationship
with others

Tips
o
o
o

for increasing Happiness


Keep yourself busy with challenging but manageable tasks
Count your blessings
Actively seek out social network that can provide you with
potential for close relationship.
o Try to look on the bright side of things

o Exercise regularly
o Laugh

Emotional Intelligence
o Goleman (1995) in his book Emotional Intelligence
IQ only measures thinking ability
IQ is an overrated tool for predicting success and only
account for 20% whether a person will be successful
Interpersonal Intelligence/Emotional Intelligence
Determines a large part who succeeds in life
and who doesnt.
Has 5 components
o Self awareness
o Emotional self control
o Persistence
o Empathy
o Social competence
Self awareness
o Ongoing attention to ones internal states Goleman 1995
o One is able to monitor feelings objectively, almost as an
unbiased observer in the mind.
o I am feeling angry about this
o Foundation of emotional intelligence in that we cannot
hope to control our emotions if we are not aware of what
they are when we are experiencing them.
o Crucial to the second component of emotional intelligence.
Ability to Regulate Self Emotion
o Managing the intensity and duration of feelings and the
ability to delay gratification.
o The idea is to manage them and not to suppress them
o We must control the duration of the feeling or how long will
it last.
o Delaying Gratification
Experiment with 4 y/o children with marshmallows,
children were told that if they did not eat the
marshmallow for the span of 15-20 minutes, they will
receive double number of marshmallows as reward.
15-20 minutes- more assertive, motivated by
challenges, self reliant and dependent
Less than 15 minutes more upset, disabled by
frustration, less trusting, more prone to
temperamental outbursts and indecisive.
Persistence

o Continuing to work goals despite setbacks and frustration


o Characteristics that facilitates persistence
Optimism
One of the key to happiness
Positive thinking
Flow
Refers to a state that we are one with what we
are doing.
Anxiety by its very nature prohibits the
unconscious rhythm of flow.
More experienced flow even once, we are more
motivated further to achieve a certain thing.
Empathy
o Feeling and understanding the emotions of another person
o Having an understanding of what it feels like to be in that
position
Sympathy feeling for the person
Empathy feeling with the person
o According to Goleman true empathy includes cognitive or
intellectual component called perspective thinking.
o Putting aside your beliefs for a short time and trying to put
yourself into others shoes
Social Competencies
o Ability to organize groups
o The talent to meditate conflict and negotiate solutions
o Empathy necessary to make personal connection to people
o The ability to accurately analyze others feelings, motives
and concerns

Stress Response

o GAS General Adaptation System


o Is called adaptation response because it is something our
bodies and minds have developed over time as a way of
adapting to or handling stress or threats
o Fight or Fight response

Stressors- stressful events or


situations.
Acute
stressors

stressful situations that


require
immediate
response and are short
term.
Chronic
stressors

stressful situations not


resolved quickly that are
long term.
General Adaptation System
o Alarm Phase
Fight or flight response
Body launches into protective phase and prepares to
combat the stress.
o Resistance Phase
Our bodies work to keep our immune system at a
peak to repair damage while we continue to combat
the threat.
o Exhaustion Phase
Our body resistance level drops to a point that is
below normal because our resources have been
depleted and can no longer combat the threat.

Moderators of Stress
o Stress is the feeling of arousal and the resulting
physiological and psychological effects of being exposed to
the stressor.
o Personality traits that moderate Stress
Control- general belief that you can influence your life
and others
Optimism- the tendency to focus on the positive
aspects of the situation.
Hardiness- A personality style that consists of three
components
Control
Commitment tendency to become fully
involved in whatever activities or events in
which we are engaged.
Challenge- refers to the perception that change
is somewhat unnerving.

Coping Styles and Stress


o Problem-focused coping- taking specific action geared
toward reducing the threat presented by the stressor.
o Emotion-focused coping- an attempt to regulate the
emotional impact of the stress.
Social Support and Stress
o The awareness that one is cared for, valued, and part of a
network of communication and mutual support.
Coping Effectively with Stress
o Stress is often caused or exacerbated by our thinking
processes, so what we have learned about overcoming
irrational belief can help us cope effectively with stress as
well.
o Downward comparisons identifying and acknowledging
situations in which people are worse off than you are.
o According to Salvatore Maddi developed a training program
of unique hardiness that includes both problem-based and
emotion-based approach.
Situational reconstruction imagining ways the
situation could be worse, ways the situation could be
better, and forming an action plan that lists steps to
take to improve the stressful situation
Focusing digging deep into feelings about a
situation in search of new insights that may lie at the
heart of what is causing the stress.
Compensatory
self-improvementIdentifying
something related to the stressor that was previously
ignored and taking in consideration in that related
area.
o Exercise can reduce stress, humour can buffer stress
o Process in Stress Management Programs
Teach participants to recognize the stressors in their
own lives
Work on building a variety of skills geared toward
coping with the stress
Practice new skills and monitor their effectiveness in
coping with real life stressors.

Unit 5

The Role of
Perception in
Human Relations

Prepared by: Macalalad, Mark Gerald

Unit 6

Social Influence in
Relation with Others

Prepared by: Pantas, Rio Marie

STANFORD Prison Experiment

A classic study of social influence on behavior and perceptions.

Zimbardo - Stanford Prison Experiment


by Saul McLeod published 2008

Aim: To investigate how readily people would conform to the


roles of guard and prisoner in a role-playing exercise that simulated
prison life.
Zimbardo (1973) was interested in finding out whether the
brutality reported among guards in American prisons was due to the
sadistic personalities of the guards or had more to do with the prison
environment.
Procedure: Zimbardo used a lab experiment to study conformity.
To study the roles people play in
prison

situations,

basement

of

the

Zimbardo
Stanford

converted

University

psychology building into a mock prison. He


advertised for students to play the roles
of prisoners and guards for a fortnight. 21
male college students (chosen from 75
volunteers) were screened for psychological normality and paid $15 per
day to take part in the experiment.
Participants were randomly assigned to either the role of prisoner
or guard in a simulated prison environment. The prison simulation was
kept as real life as possible.Prisoners were arrested at their own
homes, without warning, and taken to the local police station.
Guards were also issued a khaki uniform,
together with whistles, handcuffs and dark
glasses, to make eye contact with prisoners
impossible.

No

physical

violence

was

permitted. Zimbardo observed the behavior of


the prisoners and guards.

Here they were treated like every other criminal.

They were

fingerprinted, photographed and booked. Then they were blindfolded


and driven to the psychology department of Stanford University, where
Zimbardo had had the basement set out as a prison, with barred doors
and windows, bare walls and small cells. Here the deindividuation
process began.
When the prisoners arrived at the prison they were stripped
naked, deloused, had all their personal possessions removed and
locked away, and were given prison clothes and bedding. They were
issued a uniform, and referred to by their number only. Their clothes
comprised a smock

with their number

written on it,

but no

underclothes. They also had a tight nylon cap, and a chain around one
ankle.
There were 3 guards to the 9 prisoners, taking shifts of eight
hours each (the other guards remained on call)
Findings: Within a very short time both guards and prisoners
were settling into their new roles, the guards adopting theirs quickly
and easily.
Within hours of beginning the experiment someguards began
to harass prisoners. They behaved in a brutal and sadistic manner,
apparently enjoying it. Other guards joined in, and other prisoners were
also tormented.
The prisoners were taunted with insults and petty orders, they
were given pointless and boring tasks to accomplish, and they were
generally dehumanized.
The prisoners soon adopted prisoner-like behavior too.

They

talked about prison issues a great deal of the time. They told tales on
each other to the guards. They started taking the prison rules very

seriously, as though they were there for the prisoners benefit and
infringement would spell disaster for all of them. Some even began
siding with the guards against prisoners who did not conform to the
rules.
Over the next few days the relationships between the guards and
the prisoners changed, with a change in one leading to a change in the
other.

Remember that the guards were firmly in control and the

prisoners were totally dependent on them.


As the prisoners became more dependent, the guards became
more derisive towards them. They held the prisoners in contempt and
let the prisoners know it. As the guards contempt for them grew, the
prisoners became more submissive.
As the prisoners became more submissive, the guards became
more

aggressive

and

assertive.

They

demanded

ever

greater

obedience from the prisoners. The prisoners were dependent on the


guards for everything so tried to find ways to please the guards, such
as telling tales on fellow prisoners.
One prisoner had to be released after 36 hours because of
uncontrollable bursts of screaming, crying and anger. His
thinking became disorganized and he appeared to be entering the early
stages of a deep depression. Within the next few days three others also
had to leave after showing signs of emotional disorder that could have
had lasting consequences. (These were people who had been
pronounced stable and normal a short while before.)
Zimbardo (1973) had intended that the experiment should
run for a fortnight, but on the sixth day he closed it down.
There was real danger that someone might be physically or mentally
damaged if it was allowed to run on. After some time for the

researchers to gather their data the subjects were called back for a
follow-up, debriefing session.
Conclusion: People will readily conform to the social roles they
are expected to play, especially if the roles are as strongly stereotyped
as those of the prison guards. The prison environment was an
important factor in creating the guards brutal behavior (none of the
participants who acted as guards showed sadistic tendencies before
the study). Therefore, the roles that people play can shape their
behavior and attitudes.
After the prison experiment was terminated Zimbardo interviewed the
participants. Heres an excerpt:
Most of the participants said they had felt involved and
committed. The research had felt "real" to them. One guard said, "I was
surprised at myself. I made them call each other names and clean the
toilets out with their bare hands. I practically considered the prisoners
cattle and I kept thinking I had to watch out for them in case they tried
something." Another guard said "Acting authoritatively can be fun.
Power can be a great pleasure." And another: "... during the inspection
I went to Cell Two to mess up a bed which a prisoner had just made and
he grabbed me, screaming that he had just made it and that he was
not going to let me mess it up. He grabbed me by the throat and
although he was laughing I was pretty scared. I lashed out with my
stick and hit him on the chin although not very hard, and when I freed
myself I became angry."
Most of the guards found it difficult to believe that they had
behaved in the brutalizing ways that they had. Many said they hadnt
known this side of them existed or that they were capable of such
things. The prisoners, too, couldnt believe that they had responded in
the submissive, cowering, dependent way they had. Several claimed to
be assertive types normally. When asked about the guards, they

described the usual three stereotypes that can be found in any prison:
some guards were good, some were tough but fair, and some were
cruel.
Ethics: The

study

has

received

many ethical

criticisms,

including lack of fully informed consent by participants and the level of


humiliation and distress experienced by those who acted as prisoners.
The consent could not be fully informed as Zimbardo himself did
not know what would happen in the experiment (it was unpredictable).
Also, participants playing the role of prisoners were not protected
from psychological and physical harm. For example, one prisoner
had to be released after 36 hours because of uncontrollable bursts of
screaming, crying and anger.

Social influence

CONFORMITY
COMMITMENT
OBEDIENCE

Conform
- To behave, dress etc. in the way that most other people do.
Conformity
- A voluntary change in a belief or behavior with the intent to
follow a perceived social norm.

Motives of conformity

Normative social influence when we conform in


order to fit in with a certain group
Informational social influence when conformity
helps us make the right decision in a situation where we
are not sure what to do.

Situational conditions influencing conformity

Ambiguity of the situation


Group size
Culture

We live in a social world, and thus we are subject to a constant


barrage of forces that have the potential to influence our perceptions
and behaviors. The lowest level is conformity, whereby we
voluntarily adapt our behavior to match what others seem to be doing
in that situation. When we conform to enhance our sense of belonging
to the group, normative social influence is at work. When we
conform to increase our accuracy, informational social influence is
at work. Conformity is typically greater when the situation is
ambiguous, when the group size is about 5, and in collectivistic
cultures.

Compliance
-

Agreeing to a specific request


It is still voluntary behavior but it is in response to an overt
request.

Basic principles of compliance


Reciprocity pay back
Commitment a small initial commitment to a person or
idea increases the likelihood that we will make a more
significant commitment later.
Social proof a.k.a. consensus. Going along a belief or
behavior because it looks like many others are doing the
same thing.
Liking agreeing to do something because the person
making the request is likable.
Authority we are more likely to agree to a request made
by an authority figure.
Scarcity people or products seem more important when
their availability seems limited.
Theory of Psychological reactance Human has a strong need to
control our own destinies and choices, and when these freedoms are
threatened, we exert extra effort to hang onto them.
Although these principles of social influence can work to enhance
our relations with others, they can also induce us to act in many ways
that are not in our best interest or that we might regret later. The best
way to avoid being misled by principles of compliance is learn to
recognize them, take a time-out, and consciously ask
yourself if the choice you are about to make is a good one.

OBEDIENCE
-

Agreeing to a request from an authority figure, when there is a


negative consequence for refusal.

The MILGRAM Experiment a classic study of obedience to authority


Situational Factors in Obedience
- Proximity of the victim
- Proximity of experimenter
The most powerful level of social influence is obedience to
authority, which distinguishes itself from compliance by the nature of
its negative consequences for refusal. The strength of the authority
figure has been demonstrated in numerous cultures worldwide, with
the general finding that people from collectivistic cultures tend to
exhibit slightly higher rates of obedience than those in individualistic
cultures.

Unit 7

Prejudice:
Foundations
Causes, Effects and
Remedies

Prepared by: Salvaleon, Argel

Unit 8

Principle of
Effective
Communication

Prepared by: Sidon, Jaypee

Unit 9

Verbal and NonVerbal


Communication

Prepared by: Tabernilla, Christine Mae

VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

The real art of conversation is not only to say the right thing at the
right place but to leave unsaid the rong thing at the tempting
moment. - Dorothy Nevill
VERBAL - means communicating with words, written or spoken. Verbal
communication consists of speaking, listening, writing and reading.
NONVERBAL - - includes all unwritten and unspoken messages, both
intentional and unintentional.
Four Guiding Principles for Effective Communication

Language must be clear.

Language must be responsible.

Language must be context-sensitive.

Language must be congruent.

LANGUAGE MUST BE CLEAR


Abstract language is a language that is vague, a condition that
forms the basis for many misunderstandings. The use of abstract
language often may result to false consensus bias.

Highly abstract (VAUGUE)

School isnt working out.

Little Less Abstract

Im not doing well in school.

Very Clear and Specific (Very


Low Abstraction)

Two types:

Missing the morning classes have


dropped my grades from B average to
barely passing.
Ive been working the late shift at
night missing my morning classes as a
result.

Clearer and More Specific

My work schedule is getting in the way


of school.

More Specific

Im having problem juggling school


with everything else I have going on.

Clearer

Relative language words or phrases that gain their meaning by


comparison.
Static language language that implies that a situation or person is
always the same.

LANGUAGE MUST BE RESPONSIBLE


Fallacy of causation occurs when we blame someone else for our
own feelings.
I-Language vs. You-Language

"You" language: "When you respect and honor and take care of
yourself, you are more able to do the same for others."

"I" language: "When I respect and honor and take care of


myself, I am more able to do the same for others."

"You" language: Youre too clingy.

"I" language: In the past week, youve called me several


times a day. Im feeling a little overwhelmed; thats why I
havent been returning your calls.

Three Components of I-Statement


1. Behavioral Description- clear, specific and factual description
of a persons behavior
2. Emotional Description state of emotion you felt when the
behavior occurred
3. Consequences- the impact the behavior has on you

LANGUAGE MUST BE CULTURALLY SENSITIVE


Monochromic cultures- more often individualist in nature, value time
efficiency most highly
Polychromic culturesrelationships most highly

often

collectivist,

value

interpersonal

High context communication- communication that relies more


heavily on attention to contextual details and less on explicit language
to transmit its message
Low- context communication- relies on clear, concrete and explicit
language
Instrumental Communicationachieving the speakers goal

task-oriented,

and

focuses

on

Affective Communication- person-oriented, and focuses on building


and maintaining good relations between the communicators.

Gender and Communication

High Value on
Achievement and
Status

Problem- solving vs. Empathy

Details vs. Big Picture

Asking for Help

Use of Questions

High Value on
Equality and
Connection

Importance of Nonverbal Communication

-A large portion of the messages we send when communicating is


transmitted nonverbally.

- Nonverbal communication accounts 65% to 90% of the


interpretation of the message. (Burgoon, 1994)

-Nonverbal signals are often unintentional and unconscious.

- One single nonverbal cue cannot be reliably interpreted to


mean the same thing across situations.

- Other cultures may have different interpretations of the same


nonverbal cue.

BODY POSTURE AND ORIENTATION

Posture and how you carry yourself tells a lot about you. How you
walk, sit, stand or hold your head not only indicates your current
mood, but also your personality in general.

How you position your body in relationship to others makes a


statement.

TOUCH

conveys many messages about a variety of relationships

Use also to build rapport or trust


they are speaking

with the person with whom

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

-the way we dress and adorn ourselves also influence the


message we send.

PERSONAL SPACE

Personal distance 1.5 to 3 feet. You might describe this as


keeping people at arms-length.

PARALANGUAGE AND SILENCE

Paralanguage, communication that is verbal, but wordless.

Tone of the voice, sighs, murmurs of agreement and dismay,


volume, inflections, and rate of speech

EYE CONTACT AND FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

Eye contact also establish the nature of relationship

Facial expression can communicate your feelings.

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

- The way we decorate our homes, the cars we drive and the
places we hang out all give important clues about who we are,
and thus influence our communication and interpersonal skills.

CULTURE AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION


Contact Cultures, tend to be engage in more open contact with each
other and use nonverbal cues to signal warmth, closeness, and
availability.

High contact cultures, touch each other more often, maintain


closer personal boundaries and generally more expressive with
their nonverbal behaviors

Low contact cultures

PHILIPPINES
A common Filipino tradition to show respect towards elders is
called pagmamano. The word mano stems from the Spanish meaning
for hand and pagmamano is the act of either kissing an elders hand or
raising their hand to touch your forehead. This act is often done as a
greeting or farewell to the elders of the house. By doing it, you are
asking for their blessing as well as blessing them.

Unit 10

Conflict and NonConflict

Resolution

Prepared by: Tagon, Krinisha

Unit 11

Human Relations in
Love and Work

Prepared by: Tanaleon, Mhayuki

Unit 9

Surviving and
Thriving in
the Workplace

Prepared by: Villamer, Janine