#  By

the end of this lesson, the student be able to:  State the principle of superposition  Explain the interference of waves  Draw interference patterns  Interpret interference patterns  Solve problems involving λ = ax/D

 What

happens to the surface of the water when a stone is thrown into it?

 Circular

waves moving radially outwards are produced.

 What

may happen if two stones are thrown into the water at the same time?

 What

happens when two pulses travel simultaneously in opposite directions along the same spring slinky?

 When

meet,

two pulses

they overlap

then continue to move in their original directions.

 The

combination of two or more waves to form a resultant wave is referred to as superposition

 The

principle of superposition states that when two or more waves combine at a point, the resultant amplitude is the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves.

 When

two or more waves meet, they superpose or combine at a particular point.  The waves are said to interfere. This phenomenon is called interference.

 Interference

is the superposition of two waves originating from two coherent sources.  Wave interference occurs when two waves meet while propagating along the same medium.

 The

waves from coherent sources have the same frequency (f), same wavelength and same phase difference.

 What

may happen when two crests travelling simultaneously in opposite directions meet?

 When

the two crests meet, they superpose.  The resulting wave has a bigger amplitude which is equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves.  This is called CONSTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

 What

may happen when two troughs travelling simultaneously in opposite directions meet?

 When

the two troughs meet, they superpose.  The resulting wave has a bigger amplitude which is equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves.  This is called CONSTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

 Constructive

Interference occurs when the crests or troughs of both waves coincide to produce a wave with crests and troughs of maximum amplitude.

 What

happens when a crest propagating from left meet with a troughs coming from the right?

 When

a positive amplitude adds to the negative amplitude, a zero amplitude results.  This is called DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

 Occurs

when crest of one wave coincide with the trough of the other wave, thus canceling each other with the result that the resultant amplitude is zero.

 Each

crest has an amplitude 1 unit.  The two crests propagating in the opposite directions.

 When

the two crests meet, the resulting crest has an amplitude of 2 units.  This is a CONSTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE.

 Each

trough has an amplitude 1 unit.  The two troughs propagating in the opposite directions.

 When

the two troughs meet, the resulting crest has an amplitude of 2 units.  This is a CONSTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE.

A crest has an  When a crest meet amplitude +1 unit. a trough, the A trough has resulting amplitude amplitude -1 unit. is zero.  The crest & the trough propagating  This is a DESTRUCTIVE in the opposite INTERFERENCE. directions.

 Two

dippers are connected to the same motor.  The two sets of continuous circular waves produced have the same frequency and have same phase.

 Sources

that produce waves of the same frequency and have same phase difference are called coherent sources.

 The

two sets interfere with each other.  Bright and dark regions can be seen.  The bright and dark regions are points of interference.

Constructive interference

Destructive interference
 At

these points, the water moves up and down with a large amplitude.  There are also regions where destructive interference occurs. At these point, the water is actually still.

 Points

A, B, C and D represent points of constructive interference. These points are called antinodes.

 Points

W,X, Y and Z represent points of destructive interference. These points are called nodes.

 The

points where constructive interference occur are called antinodes.

 The

imaginary lines that connect the antinodes are called the anti nodal lines

 The

points where destructive interference occur are called nodes

 The

lines that connect the nodes are called the nodal lines.

 Solve

problems involving

λ = ax D

a

= the separation between the two coherent sources.

x

= the distance between a nodal line to the next nodal line or between an antinodal line to the next antinodal line

D

= the distance between the source and the position x.

Interference of light

 When

two light waves interfere, an interference pattern of bright and dark fringes is seen on the screen.

When a crest from one source meets a crest from another source, or trough from one source meets a trough from another source, constructive interference occurs.  Bright light is formed.

 When

a crest from one source meets a trough from another source, destructive interference occurs.  Dark fringes are formed.

Interference of sound waves

 What

happens when two sound waves interfere?

 Alternate

loud and soft sounds can be heard as one moves from point X to Y

Factors affect the interference patterns
 The

interference pattern depend on the value of x  When x changes, the interference pattern also changes

 As

a becomes larger, x becomes smaller

 The

distance between 2 consecutive anti nodal lines or nodal lines, x, is inversely proportional to the distance between 2 sources, a  D and λ are contant

1 x a

 As

D increases, x also will increase.

 The

distance between two consecutive node lines or anti nodal lines, x is directly proportional to the distance from the two sources to the point of measurement of x, D  a and λ are constant

xD

 Low

frequency, large λ and x is larger

 High

frequency, small λ , so x will become smaller.

The distance between two consecutive node lines or anti nodal lines , x is directly proportional to the wavelength of the wave , λ .

D

and a are constant

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