1. Lekcja pierwsza


jeden, jedna, jedno one. pierwszy, pierwsza, pierwsze first hydraulik plumber. Wodnik Aquarius

Znaki Zodiaku signs of the Zodiac. The signs of the Zodiac at the beginning of each lesson are based on a series of regular-issue Polish postage stamps. Konwersacje Conversations: A. CzeÊç! Meeting and greeting. Informal style. B. Dzieƒ dobry! Meeting and greeting. Formal style. C. Co to jest? Asking what something is. D. Kto to jest? Asking who someone is. E. Autobus Waiting for the bus. Informal introductions.


1.A. CzeÊç! Informal style. Two class-mates meet somewhere near or on campus. Agata: CzeÊç, Andrzej! Andrzej: CzeÊç, Agata! Jak si´ masz? Agata: Tak sobie. Co s∏ychaç? Andrzej: Nic nowego. Gdzie teraz idziesz? Agata: Id´ na zaj´cia. Jak zwykle, jestem spóêniona. Andrzej: A ja id´ do domu, to na razie. Agata: CzeÊç, do zobaczenia! Hi, Andrzej! Hi, Agata! How are you? So-so. What's new? Nothing new. Where are you going now? I'm going to classes. As usual I'm late. And I'm going home, so see you. Hey, see you!


For active knowledge and dictation practice: Co s∏ychaç? Id´ do domu Do zobaczenia! Gdzie teraz idziesz? Id´ na zaj´cia Jak si´ masz? Jak zwykle, jestem spóêniony (f. spóêniona). Na razie! Nic nowego. CzeÊç! Tak sobie.

Pytania questions (for both written and oral responses) Questios: co what? czy yes/no? gdzie where? jak how? kiedy when? kto who? 1. Gdzie teraz idzie Agata? Where is Agata going now? Gdzie idzie Andrzej? Where is Andrzej going? 2. Jak si´ ma Agata? How is Agata? Co s∏ychaç u Andrzeja? What's new with Andrzej? 3. Kto jest spóêniony? Who is late? Czy Agata jest zwykle spóêniona? Is Agata usually late? 4. Kto idzie na zaj´cia? Who is going to class? Kto idzie do domu? Who is going home? Answer 'yes' tak or 'no' nie: 1. Agata jest spóêniona. 2. Andrzej idzie na zaj´cia. 3. Agata idzie do domu. 4. Andrzej jest spóêniony.

Uwagi notes co s∏ychaç? what's up, literally, 'what's to hear?' czeÊç hi, bye. An informal greeting. do zobaczenia see you, so long iÊç to go. id´ I go, idziesz you go, idzie he, she, it goes (on foot) jak zwykle as usual jestem I am. jesteÊ you are, jest he, she, it is. na razie so long. Literally, 'for the moment, for the time being'. on he, ona she spóêniony (f. spóêniona) aj late to (here): so, then


GRAMATYKA 1.A. REVIEW OF POLISH CONSONANT SOUNDS AND LETTERS. a. Equivalent Polish/English sounds using the same letters: p b f m t d s z n k g. b. Equivalent Polish/English sounds using different letters: w "v", ∏ "w", j "y", ch "h". Polish ch, also sometimes spelled h, is more heavily aspirated than English "h". c. More or less equivalent Polish/English sounds, but pronounced noticeably differently: r (trilled r, rolled on the tip of the tongue); l (soft l, like r, pronounced on the tip of the tongue). d. Sounds which are considered double (two sounds) in English, but single (one sound) in Polish: c "ts", dz "dz". e. Special letters and letter-combinations for the hushing sounds and ƒ: "soft" ç (ci-) Ê (si-) ê (zi-) dê (dzi-) ƒ (ni-) "hard" cz sz rz or ˝ d˝ closest English sound "ch" "sh" "zh" "j" "ni" in onion

For a more thorough treatment of the consonants, with examples, see the Introduction. NOTES ON CERTAIN CONSONANTS ch The letter-combination ch is similar to English "h", but with slightly more friction. Do not pronounce ch like English ch in cheese or patch because this is interpreted as Polish cz. The difficulty with the sound ch is partly visual; however, it also has to do with the fact that the English "h" sound does not occur between vowels and at the end of words, as Polish ch does, so English speakers do not expect it to occur there. Practice: chyba probably, chory sick, cichy quiet, ucho ear, dach roof, szachy chess, niech let, Êmiech laughter, orzech nut, kuchnia kitchen, ruch movement, traffic, duch spirit. c Before the letter i, the letter c (without any mark above it) is pronounced like ç: , ciasto "çasto" dough, cicho "çicho" quiet. Otherwise, c is pronounced like English ts in cats. Do not pronounce c like "hard English c" in cough, because this is inerpreted as Polish k. The difficulty with this sound is partly visual, but it also has to do with the fact that the English "ts" sound does not occur between vowels and at the beginning of words, as c does in Polish. Practice: co what, ca∏y "CA-∏y" whole, cena "CE-na" price, cudzy "CUdzy" foreign, cyrk circus, taca "TA-ca" tray, dziecko "DèEC-ko" child, koc blanket, noc night, nic nothing. z Before the letter i, the letter z (without any mark above it) is pronounced like ê: ziarno "êarno" grain, zima "êima" winter. Otherwise, z is pronounced just like English z in zoo. While the letter z is not frequent in English, the letter and sound "z" is common in Polish. Do not slur plain Polish z, for this becomes confused with the Polish sound ê. Practice: za in


exchange for, zebra zebra, zysk profit, ze mnà "ZE-mnà" with me, faza phase, beze mnie "be-ZE-mƒe" without me. In word-final position, z is pronounced "s": bez "bes"without, p∏az "p∏as" reptile, raz "ras" once, wóz "vus" cart, car. LETTER-COMBINATIONS WITH z cz The letter-combination cz represents a sound similar to "tch" in English watch. Practice: czas time, cz´sto often, oczy eyes, uczyç teach, poczta mail, post-office. dz Before the letter i, the letter-combination dz is pronounced like dê: dziób "dêup" beak, dziki "dêiki" wild. Otherwise, the letters dz (without any mark above the z) are pronounced like English dz in adze. Practice: chodz´ "CHO-dz´" I walk, widz´ "WI-dz´" I see. In word-final position, dz is pronounced "c": wódz "wuc" leader. rz The letter-combination rz is an alternate way of spelling the same sound as ˝ (similar to s in treasure). The words morze sea and mo˝e maybe are pronounced exactly the same. Practice: rzeka river, dobrze "DO-b˝e" fine, twarze "TFA-˝e" faces, orze∏ "O-˝e∏" eagle. In final position, and after t, p, k, the letter-combination rz is pronounced "sz": trzeba "TSZE-ba" one must, przepraszam "psze-PRA-szam" excuse me, krzes∏o "KSZE-s∏o" chair, twarz "tfasz" face. The basis for spelling rz or ˝ has to do with etymology. The sound spelled rz is etymologically related to r, which will often be found in related words; see morze "MO-˝e" sea, related to morski maritime. sz The letter-combination sz is pronounced close to English "sh" as in shop. Practice: kasza ""KA-sza" buckwheat groats, szampan "SZAM-pan" champagne, szukam "SZU-kam" I am searching, tusz mascara. NOUNS AND NOUN GENDER. Polish nouns may be of masculine, feminine, or neuter gender. Gender is a purely grammatical property of nouns, with little or no meaning. However, from the point of view of grammatical correctness, gender is of great practical importance, because modifiers and some verb endings agree with a noun in gender, i.e., they change endings according to the gender of the noun. 1. MASCULINE NOUNS usually end in a consonant: budynek building, d∏ugopis ball-point, dom house, home, hotel hotel, obraz picture, o∏ówek pencil, samochód car, automobile, stó∏ table, sufit ceiling, uniwersytet university, zeszyt notebook. A good many masculine names for persons end in -a: kolega colleague, class-mate, m´˝czyzna man. 2. FEMININE NOUNS usually end in -a: kobieta woman, kole˝anka f. colleague, class-mate, kreda chalk, ksià˝ka book, lampa lamp, light, mapa map, Polska Poland, pod∏oga floor, szko∏a school, Êciana wall, tablica blackboard. Some feminine nouns end in consonants: noc night, rzecz thing, twarz face. 3. NEUTER NOUNS usually end in -o: biurko desk, drzewo tree, dziecko child, krzes∏o chair, ∏ó˝ko bed, okno window, pióro pen, feather, radio radio, s∏owo word. Some neuter nouns end in -e: pytanie question, zadanie assignment, zdanie opinion, sentence, ˝ycie life; some end in -´: imi´ first name, zwierz´ animal; and a few end in -um: muzeum museum, laboratorium laboratory.


Masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns: stó∏, lampa, ∏ó˝ko.

4. NOUNS REFERRING TO PEOPLE are generally masculine or feminine according to sex; and many personal nouns have separate male and female forms: kolega (m.), kole˝anka (f.) colleague, class-mate, lektor (m.), lektorka (f.) language teacher, nauczyciel (m.), nauczycielka (f.) (school)teacher, student student (m.), studentka (f.) student, sàsiad (m.), sàsiadka (f.) neighbor, uczeƒ (m.), uczennica (f.) school-boy/girl. However, the word osoba person is simply a noun of feminine gender. It always takes feminine agreement, whether it refers to a man or woman. The word profesor professor does not have special male and female forms. Instead, one distinguishes reference if necessary by prefacing the word with the titles pan or pani: pan profesor (m.), pani profesor (f.). 5. ADJECTIVAL NOUNS are adjectival in form, but have the function of nouns in sentences. They usually refer to people. Examples are krewny (f. krewna) relative, znajomy (f. znajoma) friend, acquaintance. ABSENCE OF DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLES. Polish does not have correspondents to the English definite and indefinite articles a(n), the. One determines the definiteness of an item from context: Tu jest d∏ugopis. Here is a/the ball-point. Tu jest ksià˝ka. Here is a/the book. Tu jest krzes∏o. Here is a/the chair. The pronominal adjective ten (m.) ta (f.) to (n.) may be used for definite emphasis: Gdzie jest ten d∏ugopis? Where is this/that ball-point? Gdzie jest ta ksià˝ka? Where is this/that book? Gdzie jest to krzes∏o? Where is this/that chair? The modifier tamten (m.) tamta (f.) tamto (n.) is used for especially contrastive emphasis: 'that other one', 'that one over there'. Ten dom jest nowy, a tamten jest stary. That house is new, while that one is old.


MODIFIERS (ADJECTIVES AND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES). An adjective is a word which modifies a noun as to quality or type. Adjectives and most pronominal modifiers (like 'this', 'that', 'our', etc.) agree with the modified noun according to the noun's gender. In practice, this means that the adjective or pronominal modifier changes endings according to the gender of the noun modified. The adjective endings are -y (m.), -a (f.), and e (n.). Adjectives are cited in dictionaries in the masculine form. dobry good du˝y big, large ∏adny pretty ma∏y small mi∏y nice m∏ody young nowy new pierwszy first stary old wa˝ny important z∏y bad masculine dobry du˝y ∏adny ma∏y mi∏y m∏ody nowy pierwszy stary wa˝ny z∏y feminine dobra du˝a ∏adna ma∏a mi∏a m∏oda nowa pierwsza stara wa˝na z∏a neuter dobre du˝e ∏adne ma∏e mi∏e m∏ode nowe pierwsze stare wa˝ne z∏e

See also interesujàcy -a -e interesting, wymagajàcy -a -e demanding, wspania∏y -a -e great, marvelous, and so on, for all adjectives. Examples: nowy dom new house wspania∏y hotel a great hotel nowa lampa new lamp wspania∏a szko∏a a great school nowe pióro new pen wspania∏e muzeum a great museum. After k and g, the ending -e: drogi expensive jaki what kind, what sort taki such (a), so ending -y is respelled -i; and -i- is added before the drogi jaki taki droga jaka taka drogie jakie takie

Pronominal modifiers may have slightly different masculine or neuter endings from adjectives: ten this, that ten ta to tamten that over there tamten tamta tamto jeden one jeden jedna jedno nasz our nasz nasza nasze Examples: m. ten nowy samochód that new car f. ta nowa szko∏a that new school n. to nowe s∏owo that new word m. nasz nowy lektor our new language instructor f. nasza nowa szko∏a our new school n. nasze nowe zadanie our new assignment


m. jeden dobry student one good student (m.) f. jedna dobra osoba one good person n. jedno ma∏e dziecko one small child. Masculine nouns for persons ending in -a take masculine gender agreement: nasz nowy kolega our new class-mate, colleague. 'HERE' AND 'THERE' The word for the adverb 'here' is tu or, slightly emphatically, tutaj. The word for 'there' is tam. Both these words answer questions posed with gdzie where: Nowa szko∏a jest tutaj. The new school is here. Tu jest nasz dom. Here is our house. Tam jest nasz nowy lektor. There's our new language-teacher. Note that 'existential' there in English is not translated by tam in Polish, but is included in the sense of jest (there) is: Tu jest dobre muzeum. There is a good museum here.

CzeÊç! Poles tend to shake hands more often than Americans when meeting chance friends and acquaintances .


åWICZENIA 1.A. 1.1. Give a logical response: CzeÊç! Jak si´ masz? Co s∏ychaç? Do zobaczenia! Gdzie teraz idziesz? JesteÊ spóêniona? Idziesz na zaj´cia? Na razie.

1.2. Demonstrative pronoun ten ta to. Gender agreement. biurko: to biurko that desk. budynek, d∏ugopis, imi´, kobieta, kolega, kole˝anka, kreda, krzes∏o, ksià˝ka, laboratorium, lektor, m´˝czyzna, muzeum, noc, obraz, osoba, pytanie, radio, rzecz, sàsiad, s∏owo, stó∏, szko∏a, zadanie, zeszyt, znajoma, znajomy, zwierz´. 1.2. 1.3. 'our nasz nasza nasze. From Exercise 1.2, choose at least six appropriate nouns of different genders to use with 'our'. nasze zadanie our assignment 1.3. 1.4. What sort of jaki jaka jakie. biurko: Jakie jest to biurko: What's that desk like? Use the vocabulary of exercise 1.2, choosing at least six words. 1.4. 1.5. Identity statements with to jest. In b, use the adjective 'new', or any other adjectives that makes sense. lampa: a. To jest lampa. That's a lamp. b. To jest nowa lampa. That's a new lamp. tablica, sufit, krzes∏o, kreda, stó∏, zeszyt, o∏ówek, biurko, Êciana, obraz, szko∏a. 1.5.


1.6. 'Here' tu 'there' tam; adjective and modifier agreement. Vary the adjective. szko∏a: a. Tu jest dobra szko∏a. Here's a good school. b. Tam jest nasza nowa szko∏a. There is our new school. stó∏, samochód, radio, muzeum, ksià˝ka, uniwersytet. 1.6. 1.7. 'That one over there' tamten tamta tamto. nowa szko∏a: Tamta szko∏a jest nowa. That school over there is new. wa˝ne s∏owo, drogi samochód, ∏adny obraz, interesujàca ksià˝ka, wspania∏e muzeum. 1.7. 1.8. 'one' jeden jedna jedno. In b., supply your own adjective. krzes∏o: a. jedno krzes∏o. b. Tu jest jedno dobre krzes∏o. Here is one good chair. lampa, radio, o∏ówek, drzewo, szko∏a, student, zdanie, d∏ugopis, imi´, lekcja. 1.8. 1.9. such a taki taka takie. du˝e krzes∏o: To krzes∏o nie jest takie du˝e. That chair is not so large. ∏adny obraz, drogi hotel, interesujàca ksià˝ka, wymagajàca szko∏a, dobry student, ∏adne imi´, wa˝ne s∏owo. 1.9.

Ticket from the Battle of Grunwald Museum, outside Olsztyn. Grunwald was the site of a renowned late medieval victory of Polish Commonwealth troops over the Knights of the Teutonic Order, in 1410.


Dzieƒ dobry! Hello!

A man and woman, maybe neighbors or old acquaintances, have an encounter on the street. In Poland, people often stand closer to one another when speaking than in the U.S.



1.B. Dzieƒ dobry! Formal style. Two older people out shopping, casual acquaintances, meet on a street corner. Pan Karol: Dzieƒ dobry pani! Hello (madam)! Pani Maria: Dzieƒ dobry panu! Jak Hello (sir)! How are you? si´ pan ma? Pan Karol: Dobrze, dzi´kuj´. A Fine thanks. And you? pani? Pani Maria: Te˝ dobrze. Co pan tu Also fine. What are you doing here? robi? Pan Karol: Robi´ zakupy. I'm doing (some) shopping. Excuse me, but I'm in a big <a bit of a> Przepraszam, ale bardzo <troch´> si´ hurry. Êpiesz´. I have to go too. So good-bye. Pani Maria: Ja te˝ musz´ iÊç. To do widzenia. Pan Karol: Do widzenia. Good-bye.

For active knowledge and dictation practice: Bardzo si´ Êpiesz´. Dzieƒ dobry panu! Co pan(i) tu robi? Ja te˝ musz´ iÊç. Do widzenia. Jak si´ pan(i) ma? Dobrze, dzi´kuj´. Przepraszam. Dzieƒ dobry pani! Robi´ zakupy.


Pytania (for both written and oral responses) In your anwers, you may want to make use of the phrases Tak yes. Nie no. Chyba tak probably so. Chyba nie probably not. Nie wiemy we don't know. 1. Jak si´ ma pan Karol? A jak si´ ma pani Maria? 2. Co robi pan Karol? A co robi pani Maria? 3. Kto si´ Êpieszy? Kto robi zakupy? 4. Kto musi ju˝ iÊç? Tak/Nie 1. Pan Karol robi zakupy. 2. Pan Karol bardzo si´ Êpieszy. 3. Pani Maria te˝ robi zakupy. 4. Pan Karol musi ju˝ iÊç.

Uwagi co pan (pani) tu robi? What are you doing here? Literally, 'what is sir (madam) doing here?'. An ordinary level of formality with casual acquaintances. do widzenia good-bye dzieƒ dobry hello. Literally, 'good day'. This greeting is used as a general all-purpose greeting in the morning, daytime, and early evening. In the late evening one uses dobry wieczór good evening. dzieƒ dobry panu (pani). literally, 'good day to you, sir (madam)'. The expression uses Dative-case forms of pan and pani. ja te˝ I too ("me too") jak si´ pan(i) ma? how are you? A fairly earnest inquiry about someone's health. Informal jak si´ masz is more frequent (see conversation B). musz´ iÊç I have to go. musz´ wracaç I have to be getting back. Pan Karol Mr. Karol, Pani Maria Ms. Mary. The titles Pan Mr. and Pani Ms. are used with first names in normal friendly conversation. pan gentleman, sir. pani lady, madam (southern U.S. ma'am) These are forms of polite address, used as de facto 2nd-person pronouns in the sense "you". dzieƒ dobry panu/pani. Dative case forms of pan/pani (Lesson 7). przepraszam excuse me, I'm sorry, I beg your pardon. The lettercombination prze- is pronounced "psze-": "prze-PRA-szam". robiç to do robi´ I do robisz you-sg. do robi he, she, it, sir, madam does. Êpieszyç si´ to be in a hurry Êpiesz´ si´ I am in a hurry Êpieszysz si´ you are in a hurry, Êpieszy si´ (s)he is in a hurry. bardzo si´ Êpieszs´ I'm in a big hurry. troch´ si´ Êpiesz´ I'm in a bit of a hurry te˝ also u pana, u pani with you, in your world (to a man, woman).


GRAMATYKA 1.B. THIRD-PERSON SINGULAR PRONOUNS. The 3rd-person pronouns on he, it, ona she, it, ono it refer to nouns according to grammatical gender, not according to sex. Hence one refers to szko∏a school with ona she, to hotel hotel with on he, and to muzeum museum with ono it. See: To jest nasz hotel. On jest nowy. That is our new hotel. It is new. To jest nasza szko∏a. Ona jest nowa. That is our new school. It is new. To jest nasze muzeum. Ono jest nowe. That is our new museum. It is new. The 3rd-person titles pan sir, Mr. and pani madam, lady, Mrs., Ms. are used in the sense of 'you' when addressing strangers and persons with whom one is on a formal basis. They never mean 'he', 'she'. These de facto 2nd-person pronouns take the 3rd-person form of the verb: Co pan (pani) robi? What are you doing? (formal; literally, 'what is sir/madam doing?'). Contrast with: Co robisz? What are you doing? (informal). When preceded by modifiers, especially by the pronominal modifiers ten and ta, these words acquire the meaning 'gentleman', 'lady' or, more generally, 'man', 'woman': Ten pan jest bardzo stary. That man (gentleman) is very old. Ta pani jest bardzo mi∏a. That woman (lady) is very nice. VERBS; FORMAL VS. INFORMAL ADDRESS (INTRODUCTION). Verbs are listed in the glossary in the infinitive (the form that means 'to go', 'to do', and so on). Next to the infinitive are the 1st person singular (the "I" form) and the 2nd person singular (the "you" form): verb (infinitive): byç be iÊç go (on foot) mieç to have mówiç say myÊleç think pytaç ask robiç do 1st pers. sg. jestem id´ mam mówi´ myÊl´ pytam robi´ 2nd pers. sg. jesteÊ idziesz masz mówisz myÊlisz pytasz robisz he, she, formal 'you' on, ona, pan(i) jest on, ona, pan(i) idzie on, ona, pan(i) ma on, ona, pan(i) mówi on, ona, pan(i) myÊli on, ona, pan(i) pyta on, ona, pan(i) robi

For all verbs except byç to be, the 3rd pers. sg. may be derived from the 2nd pers. sg. by subtracting -sz: 2nd pers. sg. idziesz you go pytasz you ask robisz you do, and so on. 3rd pers sg. idzie he, she, it goes pyta he, she, it asks robi he, she it does


The 1st pers. and 2nd pers. forms of a verb are usually used without any pronoun; robi´ all by itself means 'I do, I am doing', and robisz means 'you do, you are doing'. The 2nd pers. sg. form of a Polish verb is used for informal address, with persons with whom one is on a familiar, first-name basis (family members and close friends). Otherwise, one uses pan sir or pani madam in combination with the third-person singular form of the verb: Informal: Co robisz? Gdzie idziesz? Jak myÊlisz? Co mówisz? O co pytasz? and so on. Formal: Co pan(i) robi? What are you doing? Gdzie pan(i) idzie? Where are you going? Jak pan(i) myÊli? What (how) do you think? Co pan(i) mówi? What are you saying? O co pan(i) pyta? What are you asking (about)?

åWICZENIA 1.B. 1.10. Respond logically: Dzieƒ dobry! Jak si´ pan(i) ma? Co pan(i) tu robi? Przepraszam, musz´ iÊç. Gdzie pan idzie? Czy pan robi zakupy? Bardzo si´ Êpiesz´. Do widzenia!

1.11. Formal versus informal verb use. Use either pan or pani. Jak si´ masz? Jak si´ pani ma? How are you (formal) Gdzie idziesz? Czy robisz zakupy? Co robisz? Czy idziesz na zaj´cia? Gdzie jesteÊ? Jak myÊlisz? Czy jesteÊ spóêniona? Jak si´ masz? Bardzo si´ Êpieszysz? JesteÊ spóêniony (spóêniona)? 1.11. 1.12. Logical adjective use; gender agreement. Use of third-person pronouns. Choose from: dobry, drogi, du˝y, interesujàcy, ∏adny, m∏ody, ma∏y, mi∏y, nowy, spóêniony, stary, wa˝ny, wspania∏y, wymagajàcy, z∏y: dom: a. Jaki jest ten dom? What's that house like? b. On jest nowy. It is new.

krzes∏o, obraz, s∏owo, sàsiadka, profesor, osoba, uniwersytet, lekcja, zwierz´, radio, sufit, ksià˝ka, pytanie, muzeum, hotel. 1.12.


1.13. Give the verb in the 1sp person sg. iÊç: id´ I am going. robiç, myÊleç, byç, pytaç, mieç, mówiç. 1.13.

stara szko∏a old school. Sign outside a school in the old part of Toruƒ



Hotel i Casino “Centrum” The Centrum Hotel and Casino in Lódê. The word casino is pronounced and usually spelled "kasyno". 1.C. Co to jest? Two people walking along the street, one a local, the other a stranger. Mietek: Co to jest? What's that? Ma∏gosia: Gdzie? Where? Mietek: Ten budynek tam <tutaj>. That building there <here>. Ma∏gosia: To jest nowy hotel <nowa That's a new hotel <new school, new szko∏a, nowe muzeum>. museum>. Mietek: On <ona, ono> jest wspania∏y It's marvelous. <wspania∏a, You think so? wspania∏e>. Yes. Ma∏gosia: Tak myÊlisz? Well I think it's ordinary. Mietek: Tak. Ma∏gosia: A ja myÊl´, ˝e jest zwyczajny<zwyczajna, zwyczajne>.


For active knowledge and dictation practice: Co to jest? Ja myÊl´, ˝e on jest zwyczajny. Jak myÊlisz? On jest wspania∏y. Ona jest wspania∏a. Ono jest wspania∏e. Tak myÊlisz? To jest nowa szko∏a. To jest nowe muzeum. To jest nowy hotel.

Pytania (refer to the picture on the preceding page) 1. Co to jest? Jaki jest ten budynek? Czy jest du˝y czy ma∏y? Czy jest nowy czy stary? 2. Kto mówi, ˝e hotel jest wspania∏y? 3. Jak myÊlisz: czy ten hotel jest wspania∏y czy zwyczajny?

Tak/Nie 1. To jest nowe muzeum. 2. Ten budynek jest ma∏y. 3. Ten budynek jest stary. 4. To jest i casino, i hotel. Uwagi budynek building jak myÊlisz? what do you think? Ma∏gosia. Diminutive or familiar form of Ma∏gorzata Margaret. Mietek Diminutive or familiar form of Mieczys∏aw. nowy hotel new hotel, nowa szko∏a, new school, nowe muzeum new museum. on he, it, ona she, it, ono it. These items refer to nouns by grammatical gender, not by sex; hence hotel: on; szko∏a: ona; muzeum: ono. myÊleç: myÊl´, myÊlisz think. jak myÊlisz? what do you think? tak myÊlisz? you think so? nie myÊlisz? don't you think so? wspania∏y (wspania∏a, wspania∏e) great, 'neat', 'swell' (uncritical approval) zwyczajny aj ordinary


GRAMATYKA 1.C. INTRODUCING AND IDENTITY STATEMENTS. One asks what or who something "is", i.e. what is their identity, with the constructions Co to jest? What is that? and Kto to jest? Who is that?, respectively. One answers both kinds of questions with the construction To jest --- That is (a, the) ---. To jest acts as a unit; the item to never changes according to the gender of the thing or person being introduced: Co to jest? What is that? To jest nasz nowy obraz. That is our new picture. Kto to jest? Who is that? To jest nasza nowa lektorka. That is our new language instructor. The word jest is frequently omitted (the item to may never be omitted in a statement of identity): To nasza sàsiadka. That's our neighbor. To jest AS A LINKING PHRASE. The phrase to jest may be used to link two nouns, in case the second noun is used to identify the first: Ten pan to (jest) nasz sàsiad. That man is our neighbor. Ta pani to (jest) nasza lektorka. That woman is our language-teacher. PREDICATE ADJECTIVES. Adjectives which are linked to the subject of a sentence with the verb 'be' are called PREDICATE ADJECTIVES. They agree in gender with the subject-noun referred to: Ten pan jest bardzo mi∏y. That man is very nice (masculine agreement). Ta pani jest doÊç m∏oda. That woman is fairly young (feminine agreement). To radio nie jest zbyt stare. That radio is not too old (neuter agreement). A predicate-adjective question can be formed with jaki jaka jakie what (kind of) in combination with the to jest construction; jest may be omitted: Jaki to (jest) dom? What house is that? Jaka to (jest) osoba? What person is that? Jakie to (jest) radio? What radio is that? This construction is more or less the equivalent of the more frequent construction Co to jest za ___, in which only the item under question changes; jest may be omitted. Co to (jest) za budynek? What sort of building is that? Co to (jest) za szko∏a? What sort of school is that? Co to (jest) za muzeum? What sort of museum is that? While it might seem like a subtle distinction, there is a difference between asking, say, Jaka to (jest) szko∏a? What school is that? with a possible answer To (jest) szko∏a podstawowa. That's an elementary school, and Jaka jest ta szko∏a? What's that school like? with a possible answer Ona jest bardzo dobra. It's very good.


The first kind of question, with co to jest za, asks for an identification, while the second question, with jaka jest, takes the identity for granted and asks for a descriptive answer. Co to jest za budynek?

Zamek królewski w Warszawie The Royal Castle, Warsaw . The Royal Palace in Warsaw was one of the first objects bombed in World War Two. In 1944, it was dynamited to the ground by the retreating Nazi army. Beginning in the 1960s, it was painstakingly rebuilt; it was opened to the public as a museum beginning in 1971. YES-NO QUESTIONS AND STATEMENTS. Questions expecting 'yes' or 'no' for an answer are usually preceded by the interrogative particle czy, literally meaning 'whether'. It is important to remember that czy does not mean or substitute for the verb "is"; it simply signals a following yes-no question. One answers a yes-no question with either tak yes or nie no. -Czy ten obraz jest nowy? Is that picture new? -Tak, on jest nowy. Yes, it is new. -Nie, on nie jest nowy. No, it is not new. Czy also means 'or' in choice-questions of the type Czy to jest stó∏ czy biurko? Is that a table or a desk? The word tak, besides meaning 'yes', can mean 'thus, so, as': Ten samochód nie jest tak stary. That car isn't so old. The word nie, besides meaning 'no', can mean 'not': Adam nie jest spóêniony. Adam is not late.


åWICZENIA 1.C. 1.14. For each of the objects in the picture below, point to it, repeat a., and answer with a statement of form b. ksià˝ka book: a. Co to jest? What is that b. To jest ksià˝ka. That's a book.

biurko desk, d∏ugopis ballpoint, dom house, krzes∏o chair, ksià˝ka book, mapa map, o∏ówek pencil, okno window, pióro pen, stó∏ table, tablica blackboard, zeszyt notebook.


1.15. Identity statements. yes-no questions and answers. lampa: a. To jest lampa. That's a lamp. b. Czy to jest lampa? Is that a lamp? c. Tak, to jest lampa. Yes, that is a lamp. d. Nie, to nie jest lampa. No, that is not a lamp. tablica, sufit, krzes∏o, kreda, stó∏, zeszyt, o∏ówek, biurko, Êciana, obraz. 1.15. 1.16. Logical adjective use. Choose a meaningful adjective. dom: a. To jest nowy dom. That's a new house. b. Czy ten dom jest nowy? Is that house new? muzeum, osoba, praca, radio, hotel, zadanie, uniwersytet, ksià˝ka, budynek, samochód, mapa. twarz, laboratorium,

1.16. 1.17. Gender agreement with adjectives and pronominal modifiers. You may keep the adjective nowy -a -e: lektor: To jest nasz nowy lektor. That is our new language-teacher. szko∏a, stó∏, krzes∏o, lektorka, muzeum, dom, sàsiadka, profesor, znajomy, kole˝anka. 1.17. 1.18. Identity statements. Choose between ten pan and ta pani. lektor: Ten pan to nasz nowy lektor. That man is our new language-teacher. sàsiad, kolega, kole˝anka, lektorka, sàsiadka, profesor. 1.18. 1.19. 'a little too' troch´ za. Think of a logical adjective. lektor: Ten lektor jest troch´ za wymagajàcy. That teacher is a little too demanding. dom, osoba, uniwersytet, samochód, muzeum. 1.19.



Kazimierz Wielki Kazimierz the Great (1310-1370), ruler at the time of the great architectural expansion of Kraków and founder of the Kraków Academy, now known as Jagiellonian University. The portrait hangs in the Royal Castle in Warsaw, and is taken from its brochure. 1.D. Kto to jest? On campus, two students talk about their new teacher. Magda: Kto to jest? Marek: Kto? Gdzie? Magda: Tamten pan (tamta pani). Marek: To jest nasz nowy lektor (nasza nowa lektorka). Magda: On (ona) jest raczej <troch´ za> stary (stara), nie myÊlisz? Marek: Skàd. On (ona) nie jest taki stary (taka stara). Magda: Podobno jest bardzo wymagajàcy (wymagajàca). Who is that? Who? Where? That gentleman (lady) there. That's our new instructor (m./f.). S(he) is rather <a little too> old, don't you think? Not-at-all. (S)he's not so old. Supposedly (s)he is very demanding.


For active knowledge and dictation practice: On jest doÊç stary. Ona jest doÊç stara. Kto to jest? Nie myÊlisz? Ta pani to nasza nowa lektorka. Ten pan to nasz nowy lektor. On jest troch´ za m∏ody. Ona jest bardzo wymagajàca. Raczej nie. On nie jest taki stary. Ona nie jest taka stara. To prawda.

Pytania (direct your attention to some unknown person you can see, or to some picture). You may find helpful the following phrases using myÊleç myÊl´ myÊlisz think: Jak myÊlisz? What (literally, 'how') do you think? Tak myÊlisz? You think so? Dlaczego tak myÊlisz? Why do you think so? MyÊl´, ˝e… I think that… as in MyÊl´, ˝e on jest doÊç m∏ody. I think that he's rather young. Note: do not omit the subordinating conjunction ˝e. MyÊl´, wi´c jestem.I think, therefore I am.. 1. Jak myÊlisz: kto to jest? 2. Czy on (ona) jest stary (stara) czy raczej m∏ody (m∏oda)? 3. Jak myÊlisz: co on(a) robi? Jaki (jaka) on(a) jest? 4. Kto to jest na obrazie-on the picture? Czy on jest m∏ody czy raczej stary?

Uwagi lektor (f. lektorka) lecturer. Used to refer to one's language instructor. Magda. Familiar form of Magdalena. podobno supposedly raczej rather (contrastive) skàd not at all, by no means, what do you mean? Slightly slang. Literally, 'from where'? tamten pan that gentleman, tamta pani that lady. to jest nasz lektor (f. nasza lektorka) that's our (language)instructor.


GRAMATYKA 1.D. 'SAY THAT', 'ASK WHETHER'. The verb 'say' (mówiç: mówi´, mówisz) is followed by subordinating conjunction ˝e that when reporting speech: On mówi, ˝e bardzo si´ Êpieszy. He says that he is in a big hurry. Ona mówi, ˝e idzie do domu. She says that she's going home. the

The verb 'ask' (pytaç: pytam, pytasz) is followed by various question words, just as in English, especially czy whether: Marek pyta, czy Agata idzie na zaj´cia. Marek asks whether Agata is going to class. On pyta, gdzie ona idzie. He asks where she is going. Agata pyta, co on robi. Agata asks what he is doing. Observe how one uses 3rd-person verb forms in reporting on the words of others: Asking (2nd person): On: - Gdzie idziesz? Where are you going? Telling (1st person): Ona: - Id´ na zaj´cia. I'm going to class. Reporting (3rd person): On pyta, gdzie ona idzie. Ona mówi, ˝e idzie na zaj´cia. He asks where she is going. She says she is going to class. NEGATING PREDICATE ADJECTIVES One negates a predicate-adjective statement by placing the negative particle nie directly before the verb 'be': Ten dom nie jest taki stary. That house is not so old. Ta osoba nie jest mi∏a. That person is not nice. Adjectives may be negated by using nie as though it were a negative prefix similar to English un- or in-: Ta osoba jest niemi∏a. That person is not nice ("unnice"). Ta ksià˝ka jest niez∏a. That book is not bad. One may form adjective opposites in this way: wa˝ny important, hence niewa˝ny unimportant; interesujàcy interesting, hence nieinteresujàcy uninteresting; and so on. 'VERY', 'RATHER', 'TOO', 'NOT TOO', 'A LITTLE TOO'. The item bardzo very is used to intensify predicate adjectives: Nasz lektor jest bardzo stary. Our language-teacher is very old. Ta studentka jest bardzo m∏oda. That student (f.) is very young. The adjective modifiers doÊç rather and niezbyt not too function in a positive/negative reciprocal relationship: To pytanie jest doÊç wa˝ne. That question is fairly important.. To pytanie nie jest zbyt wa˝ne. That question is not too important. The word zbyt can also be used in the sense 'excessively': On jest zbyt wymagajàcy He is too (excessively) demanding.


The word za is the usual correspondent of English too, especially in combination with troch´ a little, hence the phrase troch´ za a little too: Ten hotel jest troch´ za drogi. That hotel is a little too expensive. SOME OTHER FUNCTION WORDS 'AND' and 'BUT' 1. The conjunction i and indicates pure additive conjunction: Marek i Agata Marek and Agata, kreda i o∏ówek chalk and pencil. stó∏ i krzes∏o table and chair, Warszawa i Kraków Warsaw and Krakow. 2. If there is any contrast implied, that is, if a conjunction can be translated as either 'and' or 'but', or possibly as 'while', then the correct conjunction is a and, but, while: To jest pióro, a to jest o∏ówek. That's a pen and (but, while) that's a pencil. 3. A strong contrast as to logical expectation is indicated with ale but: Ten hotel jest nowy i drogi, ale nie jest zbyt dobry. That hotel is new and expensive, but it is not especially good. 4. The sense of 'but' in a sentence like That's not a pen but a ball-point is usually expressed with tylko only; however, ale but may also be used: To nie jest pióro, tylko (ale) d∏ugopis. That's not a pen but a ball-point. 'BOTH... AND...', EITHER... OR...', 'NEITHER... NOR...' 1. The idea of 'both... and...' is expressed with i..., i...: Ona jest i mi∏a, i ∏adna. She is both nice and pretty. 2. 'Either... or...' is expressed with albo... albo...: To jest albo o∏ówek, albo d∏ugopis. That's either a pencil or a ball-point. 3. 'Neither... nor...' is expressed with ani... ani...: Ona nie jest ani m∏oda, ani stara. She is neither young nor old. 4. Questions of the type 'is that an X or a Y' are formed with czy... czy...: Czy to jest pióro, czy d∏ugopis? Is that a pen or a ball-point? 'AS… AS…The 'as' of comparison is expressed with ' tak, jak: Ten budynek nie jest tak du˝y, jak tamten. That building is not as large as that other one. QUESTION TAG prawda? right? Polish often places prawda 'right, true' (literally, 'truth') as a tag at the end of a sentence, as if encouraging agreement: Nasz lektor jest doÊç wymagajàcy, prawda? Our language teacher is rather demanding, right?


åWICZENIA 1.D. 1.20. 'either/or' albo, albo, 'neither/nor ani, ani', 'not X, but Y' nie, ale/tylko. stó∏, krzes∏o: a. Czy to jest stó∏, czy krzes∏o? Is that a table or a chair? b. To nie jest ani stó∏, ani krzes∏o. That's neither a table nor a chair. c. To jest albo stó∏, albo biurko. That's either a table or a desk. d. To nie jest stó∏, tylko biurko. That's not a table but a desk. sufit, pod∏oga; Êciana, tablica; o∏ówek, d∏ugopis; student, studentka; lektor, student; ksià˝ka, zeszyt. 1.20. 1.21. Modifiers of predicate adjectives: doÊç and niezbyt. stary uniwersytet a. Ten uniwersytet jest doÊç stary. That university is fairly old. b. Ten uniwersytet nie jest zbyt stary. That university is not too old. m∏oda osoba, drogi hotel, du˝e krzes∏o, nowy dom, wymagajàca praca, interesujàcy obraz, wa˝ne s∏owo, stary samochód. 1.21. 1.22. Modifiers of predicate adjectives: taki taka takie so ∏adne imi´: To imi´ nie jest takie ∏adne. That first-name is not so pretty. z∏a ksià˝ka, nowy uniwersystet, drogi hotel, mi∏a pani, ma∏y budynek, dobre zadanie, m∏oda osoba, wymagajàcy lektor, wspania∏y budynek, wa˝ne pytanie. 1.22. 1.23. Use the cues of exercise 22: ∏adne imi´: To imi´ nie jest takie ∏adne, jak tamto. This name isn't as pretty as that one. 1.23. 1.24. Informal address from formal: Jak si´ pani ma? Jak si´ masz? How are you? Gdzie pan idzie? Czy pani robi zakupy? Co pani robi? Czy pan idzie na zaj´cia? Gdzie pan jest? Jan panÊ myÊli? Czy pani jest spóêniona? 1.24.


Autobus bus

1.E. Autobus Waiting for a bus, two classmates after the first day of class introduce themselves. As classmates, they automatically consider themselves on a first-name basis. Janek: Interesujàce zaj´cia, prawda? Agnieszka: Bardzo. Janek: Janek jestem. Agnieszka: Bardzo mi mi∏o. Agnieszka. Janek: Czekasz na autobus <na tramwaj>? Agnieszka: Tak. Janek: Ja te˝. Mieszkasz tu blisko? Agnieszka: Nie, raczej daleko. <Tak, doÊç blisko.> O, jedzie mój autobus. Janek: To do jutra. Agnieszka: Hej! CzeÊç! Interesting class, right? Very. I'm Janek. Very nice (to meet you). Agnieszka. Are you waiting for the bus <trolley>? Yes. Me. too. Do you live close? No, fairly far. <Yes, rather close.> Oh, here comes my bus. Then till tomorrow. Hey, so long.

For active knowledge and dictation practice: Bardzo mi mi∏o. Czekasz na autobus? Do jutra. Interesujàce zaj´cia, prawda? Ja te˝ czekam na autobus. Janek jestem. Jedzie mój autobus. Mieszkam doÊç blisko. Mieszkam raczej daleko. Mieszkasz tu blisko?


Pytania (for both written and oral responses) 1. Co Agnieszka teraz robi? A Janek? 2. Czy Agnieszka mieszka blisko, czy daleko? A Janek? 3. Dlaczego Janek mówi "to do jutra"? 4. Jakie sà zaj´cia? 5. Czy ty masz interesujàce zaj´cia? Jakie? Czy sà wymagajàce? 6. Mieszkasz blisko czy daleko tu? Uwagi bliski aj near, close. adv blisko. mieszkaç blisko live close by. czekaç czekam czekasz czeka wait. czekam na autobus I'm waiting for the bus daleki aj far. adv daleko. do siebie to one another doÊç rather, fairly hej! (slang) hi!, so-long! Janek jestem I'm Janek. This way of introducing oneself is an invitation to call one by one's first name. jechaç jad´ jedziesz jedzie ride. go, come (of vehicle) jutro av tomorrow. do jutra phr till tomorrow. mieszkaç mieszkam mieszkasz live, reside. mój moja moje pron aj my, mine sà are (agrees with zaj´cia class(es), which is plural).

Jestem-I am (women's magazine cover)


1.E. åWICZENIA 1.25. Give the question that the statement answers; To jest tablica. Co to jest? To jest lektor. Id´ na zaj´cia. Tak, to jest obraz. Robi´ zakupy. Nie, ten obraz nie jest ∏adny. To nie jest ani stó∏, ani biurko. Ta szko∏a jest nowa. To jest nasze nowe muzeum. 1.25. 1.26. Statements and responses based on the conversations. Translate into Polish. Unless otherwise indicated, choose between formal and informal address. 1. Hello! 11. What's new ("What's to hear")? Hello. How are you? Nothing new. 2. What's new with you? Nothing new. 3. What are you doing here? I'm doing some shopping. 4. Excuse me, but I have to go. Well then good bye. 5. Excuse me, I have to go. I'm late. Me too. 6. So long. Bye, see you. 7. What kind of building is that? What building? Where? 8. That's a new hotel. It's marvelous. 9. Hi Marek! Hi, Agata. How are you? 10. How are you? (formal, m. or f.) So-so. And you? 12. Where are you going? I'm going to class(es). 13. Are you in a hurry? Yes, I'm late, as usual. 14. That hotel is marvelous. You think so? 15. Who is that? That's our new teacher (m). 16. That is our new neighbor (f.). She is very pretty. 17. He is very young, don't you think? Not at all. He's not that young. 18. Are you waiting for the bus? Yes. 19. Here comes my bus. Then till tomorrow. 20. Do you live far away? No, rather close.


1.27. Fill in the blanks, translating the English words and using correct Polish forms. 1. Bardzo ---. 22. Ona nie jest ani m∏oda, --- stara. in a hurry nor 2. Co pan (pani) tu ---? 23. Ta lampa nie jest --- droga. are doing so 3. Co to jest za ---? 24. Ta pani jest --- mi∏a. building very 4. Gdzie ---? 25. Ta pani jest --- m∏oda. are you going rather 5. Id´ ---. 26. Ta pani to --- sàsiadka. home our new 6. Id´ ---. 27. Ten dom jest nowy, --- tamten to classes jest stary. and (while) 7. Jestem ---. 28. Ten hotel jest nowy, --- nie jest late dobry. but 8. Musz´ ju˝ ---. 29. Ten hotel jest --- drogi. go a little too 9. No to ---. 30. Ten hotel jest wspania∏y, ---? good-bye don't you think 10. Ona jest bardzo ---. 31. Ten obraz nie jest tak ∏adny, --young tamten. as 11. On jest bardzo ---. 32. Ten uniwersytet nie jest ---. demanding too demanding 12. On nie jest --- m∏ody. 33. To jest albo o∏ówek, --- d∏ugopis. so or 13. To jest ---. 34. To nie jest pióro, --- d∏ugopis. our new teacher-f. but 14. To jest --- muzeum. 35. Ten pan jest raczej stary, ---? a marvelous new right 15. Agata nie jest ---. 36. Ten hotel jest --- drogi. late a little too 16. Co to jest za ---? 37. Bardzo si´ Êpiesz´, ---. a school as usual 17. Czy to pióro jest ---? 38. ---. new Nice to meet you. 18. Czy to jest pióro --- d∏ugopis? 39. Czekasz ---? or for the bus 19. --- jest ta szko∏a? 40. Ona pyta, --- on jest spóêniony. What kind whether 20. --- jest to radio? 41. On mówi, --- idzie do domu. What kind that 21. Ona jest --- mi∏a, i ∏adna. both

brakujàce wyrazy


VOCABULARY TO LESSON 1 a conj and, but, while albo... albo... conj either... or... ale conj but ani... ani... conj neither… nor… bardzo av very, very much biurko -rek n desk budynek -nku mi building byç be, jestem am, jesteÊ are-sg, jest is ciekawy aj curious, interesting. nic ciekawego nothing of interest co pron what. co to jest? what is that? co s∏ychaç? phr what's to hear? what's new? czeÊç excl hi!, bye! czy part or conj whether, or. yes-no question particle d∏ugopis mi ball-point pen do widzenia phr good-bye do zobaczenia phr see you! dobry aj good dobry wieczór aj good evening! dobrze av fine, well, good dokàd av where to dom mi house, home. do domu to home doÊç av rather, fairly, enough drogi aj expensive drzewo n tree du˝y aj large, big dziecko n child dzi´kuj´ phr thank you dzieƒ dobry! phr hello! gdzie av where hotel mi hotel i conj and. i..., i... both... and... iÊç id´ idziesz impf det go (on foot) imi´ n imienia first name interesujàcy aj interesting ja pron I jak av how, as. jak si´ pan (pani) ma? how are you (formal)? jak si´ masz? how are you (informal)? jak myÊlisz? phr what do you think? jak zwykle phr as usual jaki jaka jakie pron aj what kind? what sort? jeden, jedna, jedno num or pron aj one jestem, jesteÊ, jest. see byç jeÊli conj if kobieta f woman kolega mp colleague, friend, mate. f kole˝anka kreda f chalk krewny mp decl like aj relative. f krewna krzes∏o -se∏ n chair ksià˝ka -˝ek f book kto pron who. kto to jest? who is that? laboratorium n laboratory lampa f lamp, light lecieç lec´ lecisz impf fly, run lekcja f lesson lektor mp language teacher. f lektorka ∏adny aj pretty ∏ó˝ko -˝ek n bed ma∏y aj small, little mapa f map m´˝czyzna mp man mieç si´. see jak si´ pan ma? mi∏y aj nice m∏ody aj young mówiç mówi´ mówisz say, speak, talk muzeum n museum myÊleç myÊl´ myÊlisz think, consider na razie phr for the time being. so long! nasz, nasza, nasze pron aj our, ours nauczyciel mp (school)teacher. f nauczycielka nic pron nothing. nic nowego nothing new nie no, not. nie? isn't it? nie myÊlisz? don't you think so? no interj well. no to... well then... noc f night nowy aj new obraz mi picture


okno okien n window o∏ówek -wka mi pencil on pron he, ona she, ono it osoba osób f person pan title, mp pron you (formal). ten pan mp that gentleman, that man pani title, f pron you (formal). ta pani that lady, that woman pierwszy num aj first pióro n pen, feather pod∏oga -∏óg f floor podobno av supposedly Polska f Poland praca f work, job prawda f truth. prawda? right? profesor mp professor przepraszam phr excuse me, I beg your pardon pytaç pytam pytasz ask pytanie n question raczej av rather, instead radio n radio robiç robi´ robisz impf do, make rzecz f thing samochód -chodu mi car, automobile sàsiad mp neighbor. f sàsiadka skàd av from where. skàd? what do you mean, not at all, why no s∏owo s∏ów n word spóêniony aj late stary aj old stó∏ sto∏u mi table student mp student. f studentka sufit mi ceiling szko∏a szkó∏ f school. szko∏a podstawowa elementary school Êciana f wall Êpieszyç si´ -sz´ -szysz be in a hurry. bardzo si´ Êpiesz´ I'm in a big hurry tablica f black-board, chalkboard tak part or av yes, as, that way tak sobie phr so-so taki, taka, takie pron aj so, such a tam av there tamten, tamta, tamto pron aj that there ten, ta, to pron aj this, that te˝ aj also, too. ja te˝ I also, me too to conj then troch´ quant a little, a bit. troch´ za a little too tu, tutaj av here twarz f face tylko av only uczennica f pupil, school-girl uczeƒ -cznia mp pupil, school-boy uniwersytet mi university wa˝ny aj important wcale nie phr not at all wi´c av so, hence, thus wspania∏y aj great, marvelous wymagajàcy aj demanding za part 1 too. 2 co to jest za dom? what sort of house is that? zadanie n assignment zaj´cia pl form class(es) zakupy pl form shopping zamek -mku castle zbyt part excessively, particularly, too zdanie n opinion, sentence zeszyt mi notebook z∏y aj 1. bad av êle badly 2. angry. znajomy mp decl like aj acquaintance. f znajoma zwierz´ zwierz´cia, pl zwierz´ta animal zwyczajny aj ordinary zwykle av usually. jak zwykle as usual ˝e subord. conj. after reporting verb that ˝ycie n life ˝yç ˝yj´ ˝yjesz be alive, live



SUPPLEMENTARY CONVERSATION. Samochód - Masz samochód w Polsce? <w Ameryce>? - Owszem, mam. - Jaki masz samochód? - Jaki typ? - Tak. - Fiat <Mercedes, Buick>. - Czy on jest nowy czy stary? - Jest raczej stary, ale jest du˝y, szybki i bardzo wygodny. Ameryka f America. w Ameryce in America mercedes mi "mer-TSE-des" mieç mam masz have owszem av why yes, of course Do you have a car in Poland? <America>? Why sure, I do ("I have").. What kind of car do you have? What kind? Yes. A Fiat <Mercedes, Buick>. Is it new or old? It's rather old, but it's large, fast, and very comfortable. Polska f Poland. w Polsce in P. szybki aj fast. adv szybko typ m type, model, sort wygodny aj comfortable

Historical Polish vehicles.

autobus bus, ci´˝arówka truck, samochód automobile


Przygody biura podró˝y "Zefir" Rozdzia∏ pierwszy. Pan Wiktor Or∏owski To jest pan Wiktor Or∏owski. On czeka na autobus. Jedzie do domu po pracy. Pan Wiktor jest bardzo zm´czony. On pracuje jako urz´dnik w biurze w Warszawie. Jego praca nie jest zbyt interesujàca i jego szef, Pan Józef Kowalczyk, nie jest zbyt mi∏y. Jest bardzo wymagajàcy. Wiktor nie mieszka zbyt daleko. Mieszka sam. Nie jest ˝onaty. Nie ma dobrych kolegów. Jego ˝ycie nie jest zbyt szcz´Êliwe. On myÊli, ˝e jest niedoceniany. biuro office. w biurze in an office. biuro podró˝y travel office jako conj as, in the capacity of jechaç jad´ jedziesz ride, drive nie ma dobrych kolegów he doesn't have any good friends niedoceniany unappreciated praca job, work. po pracy after work. w pracy at work przygody adventures rozdzia∏ mi chapter sam sama samo alone szcz´Êliwy happy szef boss urz´dnik clerk, office-worker Warszawa Warsaw. W Warszawie in Warsaw zbyt adv too zefir mi zephyr zm´czony tired, weary ˝onaty married (of man) ˝ycie life Rozdzia∏ pierwszy

Autobus. Painting by B. W. Linke.