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SCOTT CONNECTION OF TRANSFORMERS

VIVA-VOCE:
1. What is mean by Scott connection and way it is used?
Ans:

A Scott connected transformer is a type of circuit device used to convert a threephase supply (3-, 120-degree phase rotation) to a two-phase (2-, 90-degree phase
rotation), or vice-versa.
The Scott connection evenly distributes a balanced load between the phases of the source.

2.

If the two transformers are identical, then the teaser primary winding must have

tapping of 86.6%
3. What is mean by main transformer and teaser transformer?
Ans: Main transformer: one transformer having tappings 50% is called main
transformer
Teaser transformer: one transformer which is having 86.6% tappings is known as
teaser transformer
What are the applications of Scott connection of transformers?
4. Transformation ratio of main transformer is K.I2m
2. Transformation ratio of teaser transformer is 1.15KI2T
3. What is phase relation between load current and secondary voltages?
4. What is phase angle of one-half transformer primary winding?
A: 90 degrees
5. What is phase angle of second-half transformer primary winding?
A: 90 degrees
6. What is phase angle of teaser transformer primary winding?
7. Between primary winding and secondary winding of the main transformer which
winding has more volt-ampere capacity?

NO LOAD AND BLOKED ROTOR TESTS ON THREE PHASE


INDUCTION MOTOR

VIVA VOCE:
1. What is the significance of Circle diagram?
Ans: using circle diagram all the performance characteristics of an induction motor like
power factor, efficiency, stator losses, rotor losses, maximum output, maximum torque
etc
2. What is p.f. of I.M. running on no-load?
Ans: a very low power factor
3. The blocked rotor test is similar to short circuit test of transformer.
4. The curve between stator current and applied voltage is ___________
5. How rotor is held firmly in wound rotor?
Ans:In this test , the rotor is locked and it is not aloowed to rotate. Thus the slip s=1 if the
motor is slip ring induction motor then the windings are short circuited at the slips.
6. The magnetizing reactance in induction motor is lower than as in transformer.
7. Write relation between Isc and Vsc
Ans:cos(phi)=wsc/root3 vsc isc
8. How various losses can be determined from circle diagram?
Ans: The circle diagram for an induction motor can be drawn from the data of the no load and block
rotor test conducted on a 3-phase induction motor. from the circle diagram we can determine the various
losses

9.In the blocked rotor test wattmeter readings are stator copper loss ,rotor copper loss
10.The stator winding of 3phase induction motor is Delta connected.

REGULATION OF A THREE PHASE ALTERNATOR BY SYNCHRONOUS


IMPENDANCE AND MMF METHODS
VIVA VOCE:
1. Define regulation?
2. Difference between EMF & MMF method is--The electro magnetic force is the potential difference not all of this is translated to
Magnetic motive forces due to several losses including slip reluctance etc..
the potential is always Higher than the motive.

3. How to measure armature resistance of alternator?


4. What are the tests to be performed to determine regulation of alternator by MMF
& EMF methods?
5. How the armature reaction is considered in MMF method?
6. How the armature reaction effect is considered in EMF method?
7. What is the name given to MMF & EMF methods?
8. Which method gives high values of synchronous impedance with that of actual
values?
9. For leading power factors the regulation of an alternator is__________
10. For lagging power factors the regulation of an alternator is__________
PARALLEL OPERATION OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMERS

VIVA-VOCE:

1. What is meant by parallel operation?


Ans: the transformers are connected in parallel when the load on them is more then the
rating of the individual transformers .
2. What are the conditions to be satisfied for parallel operation of 1-phase transformers?
Ans: For single phase transformers:
o

Same polarity of transformers

Same voltage ratio

3. What are the conditions to be satisfied for parallel operation of 3-phase transformers?
Ans: For 3 phase transformers:
o

Same polarity

Zero relative phase displacement

Same phase sequence

Same voltage ratio

4. What are the advantages of star connection over delta connection?


Ans: The reason for favoring delta is this: there can be no "zero-sequence" currents in a
delta system, therefore the protection mechanisms are simpler and the overall system

design is lower in cost as delta requires only three conductors whereas wye requires four
conductors.
Remember, three-phase ultimately displaced two-phase largely because two-phase required
four ungrounded conductors whereas three-phase required only three ungrounded
conductors.

5. Is it possible to connect 2 1-phase transformers to give a 3-phase output from a 3phase input?
Ans: It should be noted that it is impossible to create a perfect current balance on a 3 phase
supply when feeding a single phase load. Consequently there are several different methods of
producing a single phase output each of which may be suitable for different circumstances.

6. When a bank of two single phase transformers are connected in an open delta
arrangement to supply a 3-phase load ,do they supply their rated output?
7. Is it possible to connect phasor group-I and phasor group II transformers in parallel?
8. What happens when transformers with different electrical characteristics are
connected in parallel?
Ans: sometimes two transformers with different kVAs and the same percent impedances are
connected to one common bus. In this situation, the current division causes each transformer to
carry its rated load. There will be no circulating currents because the voltages (turn ratios) are the
same.

9. What is the advantage of delta connection of transformers?


Ans: The reason for favoring delta is this: there can be no "zero-sequence" currents in a
delta system, therefore the protection mechanisms are simpler and the overall system
design is lower in cost as delta requires only three conductors whereas wye requires four
conductors.

10. What are the advantages of parallel operation of transformers?


Ans: It enables an existing transformer to be upgraded to meet an increase in load, without
having to remove that transformer and replace it with a 'larger' (expressed in volt amperes) one.
It provides an useful way of using up a stock of smaller transformers.

BRAKE TEST ON THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR


VIVA VOCE:
1. In which type of induction motor, considerably high starting torque can be
achieved?
Ans: slip ring induction motor
11. 2. How high starting torques are obtained in slip ring induction motors?\
Ans: in the case of a slip ring induction motor, makes the rotor resistance high when
starting, thus the rotor current is low and the starting torque is maximum. Also the slip

necessary to generate maximum torque is directly proportional to the rotor resistance

12. 3. Why the rotor of an induction motor cannot run at synchronous speed, if it did so
then what happens?
Ans: induction motor never runs at synchronous speed, if it does so there would
not be any relative speed between stator flux and rotor and no emf will induce in
rotor and we can not apply motor principle as we need current carrying conductor
in magnetic field.

13. 4. If the fuse in one of the phases burn, what happens to the running motor?
Ans: No. The 3 phase motor will not start and the the motor will burnt out due to flow of
high locked rotor (short circuit) current.
However, if the motor was running and one of the fuse blows off, the motor will continue
running drawing high current, ultimately burning out.
This is called single phasing of 3phase induction motor. Use single phase preventor to
protect against such faults.

14. 5. Why core losses are neglected in blocked rotor test and copper losses are
neglected in no load test?
Ans:As the voltage is reduced,the iron losses which is propotional to voltage are neglibly
small in block rotor test.and current is neglibly small in no load test so copper losses are
neglected in no load test.
15. 6. Why we multiply DC resistance to get AC resistance with a value of 1.2 to 1.6?
16. 7. Why we are using LPF wattmeter incase of no load test?
Ans:In case of no load only magnetizing current is flowing which is somewhere around 75
degree out of phase and so the power factor is very low.

17. 8. What precautions we have to take before switching on the supply in case of noload test and blocked rotor test.
Ans: all the connections should be neat and tight
Connecting leads should be perfectly insulated
There is should be no error in ammeter and voltmeter
18. 9. If two induction motors are identical in all aspects. if motor A has lesser air gap
then motor B. Explain which of the motor will have a) poor no load power factor b)
better full load power factor

DETERMINATION OF Xd AND Xq OF A SALIENT POLE


SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
VIVA VOCE:
1. Conditions to be taken care before conducting slip test on an alternator?
2. What is the value of current if the m.m.f is on direct axis?
3. What is the value of current if the m.m.f is on quadrature axis?

4. What is the value of voltage if the m.m.f is on direct axis?


5. What is the value of voltage if the m.m.f is on quadrature axis?
6. Give the formulae for Xd , Xq by using the slip test results?
7. What is the value of Xd, Xq in case of cylindrical rotor machine?
8. What is the main cause for Xd , Xq in case of salient pole machine?
9. Give the relation between Xd , Xq in case of salient pole machine?
10. Give the formula for percentage efficiency?
11. Give the voltage equation for each phase of the armature based on the tworeactance concept?

12. SCOTT CONNECTION OF TRANSFORMERS


VIVA-VOCE:
1. What is mean by Scott connection and way it is used?
2. If the two transformers are identical, then the teaser primary winding must have
tapping of ___________
3. What is mean by main transformer and teaser transformer?
4. What are the applications of Scott connection of transformers?
5. Transformation ratio of main transformer is __________
6. Transformation ratio of teaser transformer is __________
7. What is phase relation between load current and secondary voltages?
8. What is phase angle of one-half transformer primary winding?
9. What is phase angle of second-half transformer primary winding?
10. What is phase angle of teaser transformer primary winding?
11. Between primary winding and secondary winding of the main transformer which
winding has more volt-ampere capacity?