Ecoshell 1

Second Edition
David B South Edited by Freda Parker Illustrated by Merrisa Ramirez

177 Dome Park Place Italy, TX 76651 www.monolithic.com dome@monolithic.com (972) 483-7423

Ecoshell 1
David B South Edited by Freda Parker David B. South is president of Monolithic, Inc. and chairman of the Domes For The World Foundation (DFTW). Monolithic, Inc. is a family of companies with a mutual goal: to improve the lives of people worldwide through the introduction and construction of Monolithic Domes and Monolithic EcoShells, for personal and public use. DFTW is the newest member of that family. Established in 2006, DFTW has been registered as a nonprofit 501(c)(3) with federal tax status. Domes For The World Mission Statement: DFTW will initiate and coordinate efforts to alleviate housing shortages in struggling cultures and impoverished lands. We will seek grants and donations to fund important projects worldwide. We will train local crews in our construction methods and technology. © 2000, 2007 by Monolithic Dome Institute All rights reserved. First edition 2000. Second edition 2007 Printed in the USA

The UniShell is an EcoShell I with a diameter of 20 feet and a living area of 314 square feet, suitable for family habitation in developing nations.

Ecoshell 1
David B South
Many countries beyond the United States can benefit from the construction and use of EcoShells. However, in developing countries with equatorial climates, EcoShells can provide suitable, practical and affordable housing. (Cost does not include labor, windows, doors, exterior coating, interior finishing.) In countries such as the Union of South Africa, India, Pakistan, Korea, Mexico, Ghana, Philippines, Honduras and others, the need for low-cost housing is staggering. Housing shortages range from 500,00 to 1,000,000 in each. So the need for structures is obvious, and the solution is the UniShell. Unfortunately, there is a missing part to that equation: money. For that reason, in 2006 we established Domes For The World (DFTW), a nonprofit organization determined to promote practical, affordable and safe housing in developing nations. To that end, DFTW actively seeks grants, contributions and funding. Monolithic created this step-by-step manual and illustrated it with cartoon-like drawings The EcoShell’s construction method has so that all workers -- regardless of what their also been used to build bridges over small native language may be -- can learn and use rivers and streams. We here at Monolithic these instructions to complete an EcoShell I. think that its applications are virtually unlimited and that, in the future, more ideas An EcoShell’s construction process is a for this construction procedure will be genmodern adaptation of the building of the Pan- erated and implemented. theon and thousands of other domes, erected over the centuries. The ancients built them by Monolithic EcoShells Solve World Houspiling mounds of earth or by creating large, ing Problems false works of timber in the shape of a dome. They then covered these forms with brick, The United Nations has determined that stone or a monolithic layer of concrete. Once an average family habitation in developing the covering settled or set, they removed the areas needs to be about 28 square meters or forms. 302 square feet. Monolithic has substituted an inflatable Airform for the earth work or false work. To construct an EcoShell, concrete and rebar are placed on the outside of the Airform. (This differs from the construction of a Monolithic Dome; it calls for rebar and concrete on the inside of the Airform.)

Monolithic’s Promise One EcoShell design, the UniShell, fits that bill perfectly. The UniShell has a diamWe want to support you in your construceter of 20 feet and a living area of approxi- tion goals. Our website www.monolithic.com mately 314 square feet. is a carefully maintained source of information, that can answer many questions about the Its construction, including the floor and nature and construction of Monolithic Domes, dome shell, requires less than eight yards of Monolithic Crenospheres and Monolithic reinforced concrete -- or 64 sacks of cement EcoShells. EcoShells built for habitation in develop- for a cost of about $320. The price of the ing areas with desert-like or tropical climates aggregate will vary from place to place, But you are also welcome to contact us with are not insulated; nor do they usually need to but assuming that it’s about $10 per yard, your questions and concerns. be. But they may need roof coatings. Never- that adds another $80. The 1,250 pounds of theless, EcoShells make super-strong dwell- rebar will cost about $375. So the total cost The Monolithic Dome Institute ings, impervious to fire, tornadoes, hurricanes, of the materials for a UniShell home, that Phone: (972) 483-7423 earthquakes, and termites. They can be built will last for generations, is about $800. Fax: (972) 483-6662 by native labor for a fraction of the cost of Email: dome@monolithic.com any comparable structure. We estimated that a single Airform can be used to build more than a hundred buildings, thus making the cost of forming negligible. Because the EcoShell is a thin shell, its actual volume of concrete is very small -- far less than that used in conventional buildings (see table). The EcoShell is perfect for any type of building that doesn’t require insulation. (Note: In climates requiring insulation, the uninsulated EcoShell should not be substituted for an insulated Monolithic Dome.) So, in economically developed nations, particularly those with temperate or cold climates, it’s ideal for garages, small warehouses, sheds, storage, grain storage, etc. -but not housing.

Conventional buildings require 200% to 300% more concrete, 300% to 400% more reinforcing bar and double the labor of comparably sized EcoShells. Ironically, EcoShells are far stronger and better able to withstand natural disasters.

Clear all obstructions, debris and organic material, such as trees, bushes and grass, off the ground on which the EcoShell will be built.

Then level the ground. Ecoshell I 3

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The ground should have approximately the same firmness completely across it. This can be done using a hand tamp or mechanical approximately the same firmness The ground should have equipment. completely across it. This can be done using a hand tamp or Tamp the ground with amechanical equipment. hand tamp or mechanical equipment until

has an even, all-over firmness.

it

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Drive the center stake in the center of the structure, then the perimeter can be marked using the center stake. Drive the center stake in the center of the Set a stake into the center of thecan be marked using the center stake. structure, then the perimeter site that the EcoShell will occupy.

This center stake will act as a guide for marking the perimeter.

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Set a nail into the middle of the center stake. Using a tape or pole, measure the distance from the center stake to points on the perimeter where the forming stakes will be placed.

Set a nail in the center of the center stake. Measure from the center point to the outside stakes with a measuring device such as a tape or pole. Set a nail in the center of the center stake. Measure from the center point to the outside stakes with a measuring device such as a tape or pole.

6 6 Drive the forming stake at the appropriate distance from the center. These stakes should be carefully measured to the correct distance from the center. Be sure to allow for the thickness of the forming material Drive the forming stake at the appropriate distance from the center. forming These stakes should be carefully measured to the correct at the same distance stakes into the ground. All forming stakes should be distance from the center. Be sure to allow for the thickness of the forming material

Drive the from the center so that a circle is formed. Be sure to allow for the thickness of the forming stakes.ECOSHELL 3 Ecoshell I 5
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Space the by the forming stakes, outlines the site for the foundation/floor slab edge of the EcoShell.

The perimeter (forming stakes) outline where the foundation/floor slab edge will be. They should be spaced about every 2 feet around the perimeter. The perimeter (forming stakes) outline where the foundation/floor slab edge will be. They should be spaced about every 2 feet around forming stakes about 2 feet apart around the perimeter. That perimeter, created the perimeter.

2ft or 60cm 2ft or 60cm

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Drive the
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The perimeter stakes should be driven deep enough to hold the concrete pressure even after the footing trench is dug around the perimeter. The perimeter stakes should be driven deep enough to hold the concrete pressure even so that they will hold under the concrete’s forming stakes deep enoughafter the footing trench is dug around the perimeter.

even after the footing trench is dug around the perimeter.

pressure Ecoshell I 6

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Remember that the forming stakes must all be at the same distance from the center stake plus the thickness of the forming boards. Center stake and forming stakes should all be at the same level.

Remember the forming stakes (perimeter stakes) must be the distance from the center plus the thickness of the forming boards. distance Remember the forming stakes (perimeter stakes) must be theIt helps if they of level. from the center plus the thicknessare the forming boards. It helps if they are level.

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Check level and distance for each stake. Instead of trying to drive the forming stakes all to the same depth, mark the set stakes and cut them at the level you need.

Check level and distance each time. Level can be marked on the Check stakes rather thaneach time. Levelthe specified level. level and distance driving them to can be marked on the stakes rather than driving them to the specified level.

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11 Consider using screws to attach the form boards. Nailing to the stakes will sometimes knock the stakes out of alignment. The forms are to contain the floor/footing. They do not have to be perfect.

The forming stakes will contain the floor/footing. While they do not have to be perfect, it helps to have them all as level as possible.

Consider using screws to attach the form boards. Nailing to the stakes will sometimes knock the stakes out of alignment. The forms are to contain the floor/footing. They do not have to be perfect.

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12 The floor is necessary for the EcoShell to hold the Airform down as it is being inflated. A 20’ (6m) diameter EcoShell inflated may have an uplift of 15,000 lb.. (7,000 kgs).

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The floor will hold the Airform down as it is inflated. When inflated, the Airform for an EcoShell with a 20-foot (6m) diameter may have an uplift of 15,000 pounds (7,000 kgs).
The floor is necessary for the EcoShell to hold the Airform down as it is being inflated. A 20’ (6m) diameter EcoShell inflated may have an uplift of 15,000 lb.. (7,000 kgs).

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may require deeper and wider footings. After the forming stakes are driven in and leveled, they should get a final diameter check.

These instructions are for a small to moderate size EcoShell. Larger EcoShells may require deeper and wider footings. After the stakes are driven they should have a final diameter check. These instructions are for a small to moderate size EcoShell. Larger EcoShells may require deeper and moderate size After the stakes These instructions are for a small to wider footings. EcoShell. Larger EcoShells are driven they should have a final diameter check.

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Next a footing trench approximately 8”x 8” (20 cm x 20 cm) on the inside of the perimeter stakes. Next a footing trench approximately 8”x 8” (20 cm x 20 cm) on the inside of the perimeter stakes.

Dig a footing trench approximately 8” x 8” (20 cm x 20 cm) on the inside of the forming stakes.

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12in or 30cm 12in or 30cm

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Forming material is needed. Usually this is plywood cut into 12” (30 cm) widths. Many other products will work such as heavy sheet metal, plastic panels, siding, etc. Forming material is needed. Usually this is plywood cut into 12” (30 cm) widths. ManyForming material is needed. as heavy sheet metal, plastic into 12” (30 cm) widths. But other products will work such Usually this is plywood cut panels, siding, etc. many other products, such as heavy sheet metal, plastic panels, siding, etc., will also work.

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Plywood is the generally used material. Wetting the plywood will allow the wood to form to desired shape. Also multiple layers of more pliable material may be used. Plywood is the generally used material. Wetting the plywood will allow the wood to form to desired shape. Also multiple layers of more pliable material may be used. Wet 8 ECOSHELLthe plywood. Wetting allows you to bend the plywood

into the shape you need. If plywood is not available, multiple layers of a pliable material may be used. Ecoshell I 10

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The plywood used for forming may need to be manually bent. This may require the plywood be soaked for a day or two. Usually 1/2” (10 to 12 mm) plywood works best. Manually bend the plywood. Before bending, the manually bent. need to be The plywood used for forming may need to be plywood may This may require or plywood be soaked for a 12 or two. Usually 1/2” soaked for a day thetwo. Usually, 1/2” (10 to day mm) plywood works best. (10 to 12 mm) plywood works best.

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Place NOTE: Each end staples can also be used. Fasten together the ends with screws, but nails orof the plywood is fastened together so it doesn’t move of the forming when concrete is placed inside boards so that they will not move when concrete is poured inside.

The formed boards should be placed on the inside of the stakes and fastened, preferably with screws, but nails or staples con be used in place of screws. The formed boards should be the plywood is fastened together so itand NOTE: Each end of placed on the inside of the stakes doesn’t move fastened, preferably with screws, but nails or placed inside be used in when concrete is staples con place of screws. the formed boards inside the forming stakes and fasten them to the stakes, preferably ECOSHELL 9

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This is what it looks like with the plywood all the way around.

With plywood all the way around, the footing perimeter looks like this.

This is what it looks like with the plywood all the way around.

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Check for proper trench diameter and be sure the floor is level. After the reinforcing is placed it is very difficult to make changes. Check for proper trench diameter and be sure the floor is level. After the reinforcing is placed it is very difficult to make changes.

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Check for proper trench diameter and be sure the floor is level. Keep in mind that changes/corrections are hard to make once reinforcing rebar is placed. Ecoshell I 12

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To install plumbing, sewer, or electrical, a trench should be dug ForTo install plumbing, sewer, or electrical, a trenchashould be dug plumbing, plywood electrical installations, dig the utility will underneath the sewer or perimiter toto the spot wheretrench under the underneath the plywood perimiter the spot where the utility will plywood perimeter to thebe installed. the utility will be placed. be spot where installed.

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The “pipe” is is slid in the trench and placed in the proper position. The “pipe” slid in the trench and placed in the proper position.

Slide pipe into the trench and up to its proper position. Ecoshell ECOSHELL 1111 13 ECOSHELL I

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Two continuous reinforcement bars 1/2” (12 mm) in diameter should Two continuous reinforcement bars 1/2”may be spliced with a 12” overlap (30 be placed in the trench. They (12 mm) in diameter should be placed Place two continuous rebarsspliced with a 12”diameter details. trench. in the trench. larger may be 1/2” (12mm) engineering(30 the cm). For a They EcoShell see specific in overlap into cm). For a larger EcoShell see spliced with a 12” (30 cm) overlap. Rebars may be specific engineering details.

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See fig. 38 See fig. 38

The perimeter rebar (ring beam tendons) should be held up off the The perimeterby 3” and bebeam tendons) should be — minimums. Next the dirt rebar (ring 2” in from formed edge held up off the dirt by 3” and be 2” in from floor rebar can be placed. Next the formed edge — minimums. floor rebar can be placed.

Use bricks to hold perimeter rebar (ring beam tendons) 3” off the dirt and at least 2” in from the formed edge. Then place the floor rebar. Ecoshell I 14

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See fig. 38 See fig. 38 25 25 The floor rebar should be in the middle of the slab. A cross pattern of #3 [3/8”(10cm)] rebar 15”(35cm) on center is adequate for most floors. Hold about 2” (5 cm) from edge. The floor rebar shouldthe slab. A cross pattern slab. A cross pattern rebar 15” Place floor rebar in the middle of be in the middle of the of #3 (3/8” or 10 cm) of #3 [3/8”(10cm)] rebar 15”(35cm) on center is adequate for most (35 cm) on center is adequate for most floors. Stop from edge. 2” (5cm) from edge. floors. Hold about 2” (5 cm) rebar about

Mix: 1 bag cement 6 buckets of rock 4 buckets of sand 2 cement Mix: 1 bagbuckets of water -----------------------6 buckets of rock 1 batch of cement 4 buckets of sand 2 buckets of water -----------------------1 batch of cement

26 26 This is what is needed for the footing mix. Cement type I or II, 5 gallon buckets (21 liters), and a screen with 25mm holes for sifting.

Materials for the footing mix: Cement Type I or II, several 5 gallon (21 liters) buckets, a sifting screen with 25 mm holes

This is what is needed for the footing mix. Cement type I or II, 5 gallon buckets (21 liters), and a screen with 25mm holes for sifting. ECOSHELL 13

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3ft 3ft

6ft 6ft

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To use the screen for sifting, the unsifted dirt should be thrown at the use thethe screen and as itthe unsifted bottom the proper mixat To top of screen for sifting, rolls to the dirt should be thrown the the of the throwing willit rolls to the bottom of proper mix and as fall through. Sift top dirt by screensizethe unsifted dirt at the topthe the screen. As size will fall through.

the dirt falls to the bottom, the proper mix size will fall through.

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You can either mix the concrete in a wheelbarrow or a mixing box. You can either mix the concrete in a wheelbarrow or a mixing box.

Mix the concrete in a wheelbarrow or a mixing box.
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29 The mixing box is made with a sheet metal floor. The sheet metal can be anything, however, 22 guage galvanized is recommended. The box is made larger for two people. Exact dimensions are not important.

Mixing sheet metal can be anything, but 22-gauge galvanized steel is recommended.

The mixing box is made with a sheet metal floor. The sheet metal can be anything, however, 22 guage galvanized is recommended. The box boxes are larger for two people. Exact dimensions are not important. is made made with sheet metal floors enclosed in wood frames. The

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A piece of sheet metal measuring 36” by 72” ( 1m by 2m) is adequate for two people. Often it can have a factory bend made where it is purchased. If not it can be field bent.

For 2 people, often be made at time of purchase. If not, the sheet metal can be field bent.

A piece of sheet metal measuring 36” by 72” ( 1m by 2m) is adequate for two people. Often it can have a factory bend made where it is purchased. x not it can 2m) is adequate. Factory bends sheet metal measuring 36” If72” (1m x be field bent.

can

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Fasten age, place screws close together. First batch of concrete that’s mixed will stop leakage.

The The sheet metal should be fastened with screws.can be nailed — — sheet metal should be fastened with screws. It It can be nailed especially withwith ring shank nails. Keep screws close together to to especially ring shank nails. Keep the the screws close together minimize leakage. Leakage will stop ring shank nails. To sheet metal to wood frames with screws orstop with first batch.minimize leakminimize leakage. Leakage will with the the first batch.

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Any Any will work for mixing. The The best hoes large and havehave the hoe hoe will work for mixing. best hoes are are large and the double holes. ThisThis creates a “double” mixing as it is dragged double holes. creates a “double” mixing as it is dragged through the mixture. through the mixture.

Mix concrete using a hoe. Any hoe will work, but the best hoes for mixing concrete are large and have double holes that provide twice the mixing action.
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Mix concrete for the floor, by hand if you like. Concrete should be placed fast enough to The floor can be hand mixed as prevent cold joints. Keep putting hand mixed well. It should beconcreteagainst way around. fresh concretewell. It should placed fast the all as against older be placed enoughTheprevent “cold joints”. Keep putting fresh concrete fast to floor can be
enough to prevent “cold joints”. Keep putting fresh concrete against the older all the way across. the older all the way across.

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Use care in concrete so that maintain the the middle not knock Use care slab. Checkthe the placement to rebar of theinrebar in doesmiddleslab. Check to in pouring to make sure the placing stays concrete the of the of the slab. Check to make sure the placing of the concrete does not knock make sure that the placing ofthethe forms out alignment. the forms out of alignment. theforms outdoes not knock concrete of of alignment.

Use care in the placement to maintain the rebar in the middle of the

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Place concrete placing on one side and continue placing by moving across to opposite side.

If the concrete is hand mixed and poured over a considerable amount of time always is hand mixed side across to the other. Do not do as If the concrete pour from one and poured over a considerable amount shown above from all side across can be placed quickly. of time always pour unlessone of the floor to the other. Do not do as concrete. If placing of all of the concrete cannot be done in 15 quickly. start the shown above unless all of the floor can be placed minutes,

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Level the ahead or removed. As concrete hardens, it can be troweled to a finer finish.
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As the concrete is being poured, it should be leveled with a screed board as shown. Excess can be moved ahead or with a As the concrete is being poured, it should be leveled removed. As the concrete hardens it can be trowelled to a or removed. screed board as shown. Excess can be moved aheadfiner finish. As the concrete hardens it can be trowelled to Excess can be concrete with a screed board as it’s being poured. a finer finish. moved

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Important: Before the concrete floor/footing sets up, the uprights must placed. Important: Before the concrete floor/footing sets up, the uprightsbeaboutbe from must 1” placed. These are #3 rebar (3/8” or 10 mm). The short leg goes in the floor These are #3 rebar (3/8” or 10 mm). The short leg goes in the floor about 1” from the edge. It should be turned as much as short leg into the center.about 1” possible towards the floor Uprights are #3 rebar (3/8” or 10 mm). Place the towards the center. the edge. It should be turned as much as possible from the edge and turn it, as much as possible, toward the center.

Important: Before the concrete floor/footing sets up, the uprights must be placed.

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The placement shown is for a 10 to 20-foot diameter EcoShell. The placement shown may have different engineering. EcoShell. 20-foot diameter Always Larger structures is for a 10 to with a 10’ to 20’ diameter. check for Placement shown is for an different Larger structures may have EcoShell engineering. Always check Larger for accuracy. accuracy. structures may require different engineering. Always check for accuracy.

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Place two uprights on each side of a doorway, but do not place any uprights within the doorway. Dig aPlace two trench approximately 1” (25 small DoDo not place uprights doorways. Place two extra upright on on each side of doorways. mm) wide not place uprights in in doorways. small extra upright each side of doorways. A A small trench approximately 1”(25 mm)the fresh ¾ 1”(25 mm) deep should be dug in the fresh andtrench approximately 1”(25 mm) wide andto to 1”(25 mm) deep should be uprights, except for 3/4” to 1” deep into wide and ¾ concrete between the dug in the fresh concrete between the uprights. This trench will 2” wide and 1” 1” deep larger buildings. concrete between the uprights. This trench will bebe 2” wide and deep on on larger buildings. doorways. For larger structures, this trench should be 2” wide and 1” deep.

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Remove the form boards once the concrete sets -- usually the next day. Provide a safe and clean job site by cleaning and stacking the form boards for future use.
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After the concrete set — usually the next day, the form boards After the concrete is is set — usually the next day, the form boards can be removed. To provide a safe and clean job site, clean and can be removed. To provide a safe and clean job site, clean and stack the form boards for future use. stack the form boards for future use.

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Mark a guidelineedgeof the Airform is to be for the EcoShell. the edge(25 mm)Airform isuprights. Guideline indicates the 1” of the from the to be for the EcoShell. where the edge of the EcoShell’s Airform will be.

A guide line 1” (25 mm) from the uprights is marked. This is where A guide line 1” (25 mm) from the uprights is marked. This is where

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Place the Airform as shown. Use 1, 2 or 3 concrete anchors as Place the Airform as shown. Use 1, 2 or 3 concrete anchors as needed. The anchors can be aascrews (Tapcons), or aawedge foot needed. shown. Use 1, 2 or 3 concrete(Tapcons), or wedge foot be screws anchors Place Airform as The anchors canIt must be removable. as needed. Anchors anchor. It must be removable. anchor.

can be screws (Tapcons) or a wedge foot anchor. It must be removable.

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43 43 Continue to place clamp angles along the guide line. Care must be taken to stretch the fabric along the line to keep it even. If not there will not be enough to go all the way around. Continue to place clamp angles along the guide line. Care must be fabric along the guideline, distributing the fabric evenly all around. If taken to stretch the fabric alongalongline to keep it even. If notbe Continue to place clamp angles the the guide line. Care must not stretchedwill not be enough to gobeline to keepgo even. If not taken there evenly, there may not allenough to it all the way around. to stretch the fabric along the the way around. there will not be enough to go all the way around.

Continue placing clamp angles along the guideline. Carefully stretch the

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After the clamp angles are all in place the joint must be sealed. This can be done with caulking (must be cleaned up); or by using plastic wrap and sand. Both will work. After the clamp angles are all in place the joint must be sealed. This can thedone with caulking (must be cleaned up); or by using After be clamp angles are all in place the joint must be sealed. plastic wrap and place, the cleaned This all clamp angles are insand. Both joints must be sealed. Clean After can be done with caulking (must bewill work.up); or by using plastic wrap and sand. Both will work.

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the joints and seal them with caulking or with plastic wrap and sand. Ecoshell I 24

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As placement They will needworkersout through theclampprovided. will often helpful continues, need to placing the sleeve angles It is It is up inside inside.inside. They willto crawl crawl out through the sleeve provided.windoften helpful of to saw a saw horse or bracing device to have ahave horse or crawlother throughto hold the fabricsleeve. installers. the Airform. Workers can other out bracing deviceprovided fabric off the installers. or the to hold the off the A saw horse other bracing device used to hold the fabric off the workers is helpful.

As the placement continues, the man or men placing the clamp will wind up As the placement continues, the man or men placing the clamp anglesangles will wind up

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After all workers off. asexited, roll up and tie off theas the placement of the Airform as air tight as have air as air tight as possible. as the sleeve, of clamp clamp off. Make Make tight as possible. Note: Note: placementmaking anglesangles progress, it is helpful toangles progresses, ventilate under the Airform. by starting possible. progress, it is often often helpful tothe blowers to ventilate under under the Airform As placement of clamp start start the blowers to ventilate the Airform. the inflators. Thisisis especially a large fanif used only for this is used only for this phase. to EcoShell The This especially a large useful is a large fan phase. The blower blower used to This is especially useful ifuseful if fan is used only for this phase. The EcoShellEcoShellmust bemust be used inflate the Airform EcoShell’s Inflator must be used to properlythe EcoShellEcoShell Airform for construction. properly inflate thefor construction. Airform for construction. properly inflate
ECOSHELL ECOSHELL 2325 23 Ecoshell I

After After the workmen have exited through the sleeve becan be rolled up and tied the workmen have exited through the sleeve it can it rolled up and tied

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Start 2’ (45 to 60 cm) in diameter. Place the ring in and center of rebar to the perimeter.on the outthe hang the the Airform’s top and, the middle top of the Airform side of the Airform, hang the starter rebar from the center ring to the perimeter.

Start the rebar hanging with a few rebar tightly bent around a center ring (1.5 to 2 ft in diameter (45 to 60 cm). Place the ring in Start the rebar few the rebar hanging withhangingrebar a hang rebar tightly the perimeter. few with tightlythe rebar to bent around a a center the middle top of the aft in diameter (45 bent aroundPlace the ring 1.5’ to center ring (1.5 to 2Airform and to 60 cm). ring in

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Tie the starter rebar as shown to the uprights. Do an even layout. The layout will vary depending on the size of the dome. Maintain a maximum spacing of Tie the starter rebar as shown to the uprights. Do an even layout. The layout 10” (25 cm) each against the even layout. Tie will vary depending to the uprights as shouldMaintain a maximum spacing of Dependthe starter rebar way. Vertical rebardome. laycreating anAirform. on the size of the shown, 10” size of the way. Vertical rebar should lay Maintain a maximum spacing ing on the (25 cm) each dome, the layout will vary.against the Airform.

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of 10” (25 cm) each way. Vertical rebar should lay against the Airform.

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Cut out the pieces that make up the augmentations from plywood or boards. Scribe them to fit the Airform. They can be leaned against the Airform and fastened to the rebar. Cut out the pieces that that up the augmentations from plywood or From plywood or boards, cut piecesmake will make up the augmentations. Scribe them boards. Scribe them to fit the Airform. They can be leaned against to fit the Airform. Then lean Airform and fastened to the rebar. them to the rebar. the them against the Airform and fasten

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When the vertical rebar is more than 10” (25 cm) start another vertical. These should be attached to the horizontals. Always place the horizontal bars on the outside.

Position vertical rebars 10” (25 cm) apart.the horizontals. Always place vertical. These should be attached to Place horizontal rebars over the horizontal bars on the outside. the outside of the vertical rebars. Attach horizontals to verticals.

When the vertical rebar is more than 10” (25 cm) start another

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Rebar should be placed around the augmentations. It should tie back to the shell rebar. Leave the existing shell rebar in place. should tie cut out the shell Rebar should be placed around the augmentations. andIt can to the shell later. Place rebar around the augmentations It tie it be back to rebar. rebar. Leave the existing shell rebar in place. It can be cut out later.

Leave existing shell rebar in place; it can be cut out later.

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Place two or more extra rebars on top of and on the sides of the opening in the shell.
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Place two or more pieces of extra rebar on top and the sides of opening in rebar on Place two or more pieces of extra the shell. top and the sides of opening in the shell.

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The shotcrete mix is stronger than the floor mix. It is designed as 4000 psi (280 kg/ cm!) concrete. If the sand has coarse material in The shotcrete mix is stronger of the floor mix. It is designed as it add another pail than out Shotcrete mix is stronger than the it, and leave has the rock. 4000 in (280 If the sand coarse as 4000 psi (280 kg/ cm!) concrete. floor mix. It’s designedmaterial psi kg/ cm3) it add another pail of it, and leave material, add another pail of concrete. If sand contains coarse out the rock.

sand and omit the rock. Add nylon fibers and Kel-Crete to the mix.

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Make on the outside. Maximum spacing between rebar is 10” (25 cm) each way. ECOSHELL 27
ECOSHELL 27

Make final inspection. Rebar should be close to the Airform with the horizontal bars to the outside. The maximum spacing of the Make final inspection. is 10 inches (25 cm) each way.Airform with rebar Rebar should be close to the the horizontal bars to the outside. The maximum spacing of the rebar is 10 inches on the each way. final inspection. Rebar should lay(25 cm)Airform with horizontal bars

Ecoshell I 29

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First layer can be hand applied. It can be trowelled or “flipped” on by using a small mason trowel. It also can be applied by use of a First layer can be hand applied. Concrete can be hand applied by trowelIt can be trowelled or “flipped” on Apply first layer of concrete. Place only what will “stick”. shotcrete pump. by using a small mason trowel. It also can be applied by use of a

ing or flipping it on,pump. a small mason trowel. It also can be applied shotcrete using Place only what will “stick”. with a Shotcrete pump. Be sure to place only what will stick.

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28 ECOSHELL 28 ECOSHELL

and second is hard before applying third. Keep concrete moist between coats. Ecoshell I 30

Since a second and third coat will be needed, wait until the concrete is Note: A layer to the touchshouldwill be needed, waitcoat. the concretethenew Since hard of concrete beforebe hard to the touch before applyingis a second and third coat applying the next until Try to keep a concrete moist between coats. layerhard to the touch before applying layer is hard beforeto keep the of concrete over it. Be sure first the next coat. Try applying second concrete moist between coats.

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about 24 hours after the final concrete coat has been applied. But in cold weather, curing may take a few days.

After the exterior concrete is cured enough to stand remove the After the exterior concrete is cured enough to stand removehours Airform. Usually the concrete will be strong enough in 24 the Airform. Usually the concrete will be strong enough in fewhours after Airform after take a 24 days. Remove thethe last coat. In cold weather it mayhas a few days. after the last coat. In the exterior concrete cold weather it may take cured -- usually

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Clean the exposed rebar inside of the dome and place a 1/2” layer of concrete over it. Concrete can be troweled or sprayed onto the dome’s interior. ECOSHELL 29
ECOSHELL 29

After the Airform is removed clean the exposed rebar and coat the After the Airform is removed clean the exposed rebar and coat the on inside of the dome. A ½ inch layer should be trowelled or sprayed inside of the dome. A ½ inch layerinterior. trowelled or sprayed on the should be the interior.

Ecoshell I 31

59 59 The interior “plaster” may require two coats. The inner coats can The interior “plaster” may require two coats. The inner coats can have lime included for ease trowelling if the interior will not be have lime included for ease ofof trowelling if the interior will not be subjected to water. Interior plaster may require subjected to water. two coats. If the interior will not be subjected

to water, lime can be added to those inner coats to make the troweling easier.

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30 ECOSHELL 30 ECOSHELL

an elastomeric coating to help with solar reflectance and to protect against possible leaks from hairline cracks. Ecoshell I 32

The EcoShell now structurally complete. It should be coated The EcoShell is is now structurally complete. It should be coated withan elastomeric coating help with solar reflectance and to withan elastomeric coating toto help with solar reflectance and to EcoShell is protect against possible leaks from hair shouldcracks. now structurally complete. Its exterior line cracks. protect against possible leaks from hair line be coated with

Fabric Mixer
The Monolithic Fabric Mixer is simplicity itself -- fast and easy to use. Here’s how it’s used: A cubic foot or less of concrete ingredients are put into the center of this fabric. The fabric is then agitated from side to side by two people. The completed concrete can then be transported to its point of use. Here’s the mix design we suggest for use with the Monolithic Fabric Mixer when building a concrete EcoShell: one container of cement, four containers of sand and water as needed. Start with one liter of cement, four liters of sand and one liter of water. Adjust the water to the conditions. Adjust the sand, if needed, by adding some 3/8 minus pea rock.

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177 Dome Park Place Italy, TX 76651 www.monolithic.com dome@monolithic.com (972) 483-7423

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