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Internal Combustion Engines

IC engines can be categorized into many groups under following criteria.


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Number of Strokes
Fuel
Cylinder Arrangement
Number of Cylinders
Engine Speed

A. Number of strokes
There are basically 2-stroke & 4-stroke engines. Here, Stroke means a single
reciprocal movement of the piston (top to bottom).
In a 4-stroke engine, following cycle takes place completing 2 rotations of the
crank-shaft.

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P
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Four Strokes : Intake-Compression-Power-Exhaust

Intake :

Piston moves downwards while intake valve opens and lets fuel (air mixture)
come in. Here, Exhaust valve is kept closed.

Compression :
Intake valve is closed & piston moves upwards compression the fuelair mixture.
Power :

The mixture is ignited, causing the developed sudden high pressure to push
down the piston.

Exhaust :

Inertia of the flywheel lets the piston move up, while the cam-shaft opens
the exhaust valve, letting the burnt fuel to leave the chamber

Now, lets see whats going on inside a 2-stroke engine.

Exhaust valve

By-pass
channel

intake valve

As seen here, there are only 2 strokes (one upward & one downward motion) in a given
cycle.
1 - Fuel above the piston volume is squeezed closing the Exhaust Valve. Meanwhile the
vacuum beneath the piston is filled with fuel mixture taken from in-take valve
2 - Compressed fuel mixture is ignited with a spark plug & causes the piston to gush
downwards, opening both by-pass channel & Exhaust valve. When the crank-link
chamber is compressed, the in-took new fuel mixture is gushed into the upper volume
through by-pass channel, allowing the exhaust air to leave out.
Applications : Chainsaw, motor boats, high performance motorcycles, scooters,
snowmobiles, lawnmowers
Nowadays, 2-stroke engines are replaced by 4-stroke engines due to 2-stroke engines fuel
inefficiency and environmental pollution due to emission of incompletely burnt carbons.

B. Fuel Type
There are basically Petrol Engines and Diesel Engines which denominate the ignition
method.
In Petrol Engines, theres a spark plug to ignite the fuel-air mixture after the volume
above piston is compressed. (Compression Stroke). This is known as Spark Ignition.
In Diesel Engines, there exists no Spark Plug. Ignition takes place by letting in diesel
vapor to the compressed air in the camber, firing up diesel due to the heat generated
at compression stroke. So, it is called Compression Ignition.

C. Cylinder Arrangement

There are 4 types of commonly seen arrangements.


A). In-Line
B). V-type
C).Opposed
D).Radial

Heres a brief overview of each type.

IN LINE :- A common arrangement for both automotive and truck applications. It is


commonly built in four- and six-cylinder configurations.
V-TYPE :- A common arrangement for both automotive and truck applications. The
V-type engine in a six-cylinder configuration is suitable for front-wheel drive cars
where the engine is mounted transversely.
HORIZONTAL OPPOSED :- This engine is designed to fit into compartments
where height is a consideration. It is used for air-cooled configurations.
RADIAL :- This engine is designed almost exclusively for an aircraft engine.

D. Number of Cylinders

More number of cylinders means more power. If the automobile is


supposed to carry more load, then it needs more cylinders to produce more torque.

E. Engines Speed
Low speed engines.
Medium speed engines.
High speed engines.