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# Master of Petroleum Engineering

Production Technology
Coning in Vertical & Horizontal Wells

Aug 2008

## R.F. for Various Drives

Dimension of Water Production Problem

## 7 bbls water / bbl of oil - in US

3 bbls water / bbl of oil worldwide
Water treatment cost: US\$ 40b / year
0.4 \$/bbl of water

## Where in the Oil Column to Place a Well?

Vertical Well: Where in the oil column do we perforate?

## Objectives of perforations/well placement

Communication of the well with reservoir fluid
High productivity
Delay gas/water brekthrough
 Improve recovery
All within the constraints of Reservoir Management
Plan (RMP)

economics

## An Example of Horizontal Well Placement (small gas

cap, strong aquifer)

## Coning Related Calculations

1. Critical Coning Rate
2. Breakthrough Time
3. Post Breakthrough Production Performance

## Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Theory of Coning

WELL

pmax = 0.433 ( w o )h
H

WATER CONE

## Maximum drawdown of the well without water

entering the well
A rough estimate (not very accurate)

Water Coning

WELL

WATER CONE

Assumption kv=kh

## Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Theory of Coning

pmax = 0.433 ( w o )h

0.00708k o h( p e p w )
Qo =
PR
o Bo [ln(re / rw ) + S ]

PR = f 1 + 7 rw / (2 fh ) cos f 90 o

)]

## f = fractional penetration (or

perforation) = hp/h
1.

1.

Original
GOC

Assumption kv=kh

O
i
l

1.

Original
OWC

Water Coning

Assumption kv=kh
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## Muskat & Wyckoff (Laplace Eqn)

Chaney / Cheirici (Potentiometric Methods)
Wheatley (considers influence of cone shape on oil potential)

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kh
qc = G
Bo o

## Originally derived for isotropic reservoir / water coning

Can also be used for anisotropic reservoir & gas coning problem

## G = dimensionless factor =f(kv/kh; geometry)

h = oil zone thickness

Assumptions

shape

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## Critical Coning Rate Correlations (Vertical Wells)

Meyer-Garder (isotropic)
Hoyland-Papatzacos-Skjaeveland (based on simulation
runs)

## Chaney et al. (isotropic; extend Meyer-Garder; math+potentiometric)

Chaperon (anisotropic)
Schols (Lab & Numerical Simulation; isotropic)
Chierici-Ciucci (potentiometric; anisotropic )

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## Meyer-Garder Correlation (Isotropic; vertical well)

Gas coning
Water coning
Combined gas and water coning

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Water coning

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Gas coning

g ko 2
4 o

h (h Dt )2
Qoc = 0.24610
r oBo
ln e
rw

(Eq. 7.4)

Water coning

2
2
4 w o k o

h h p
Qoc = 0.246 10
r o Bo
ln e
rw

(Eq. 7.5)

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## Meyer-Garder Correlation (Isotropic; vertical well)

Simultaneous Gas & Water Coning

o g
h hp
4 k o
( w o )
Qoc = 0.246 10

g
o Bo ln(re / rw )
w
2

g
+ ( o g )1 o

w
g

(Eq. 7.6)

o g
Dt = (h h p ) 1

w g

(Eq. 7.6)
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## Hoyland- Papatzacos-Skjiaeveland Method

(anisotropic, vertical well)
Water Coning
2

h
t
( w o )k h
4
Qoc = 0.246 10
q CD
o Bo

where,
kh = horizontal permeability, mD
qCD = dimensionless critical flow rate
ht = total reservoir thickness, ft
qCD = f (rD and fp)

rD

re
=
h

kv
kh
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## Hoyland- Papatzacos-Skjiaeveland Method

(anisotropic, vertical well)
Water Coning

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## Hoyland- Papatzacos-Skjiaeveland Method

(anisotropic, vertical well)
Water Coning

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## Chaperons Method (anisotropic, vertical well)

Water Coning

Qoc = 0.0783 10 4

k h (h h p ) 2

o Bo

[ ]qc*

## q c* = 0.7311 + (1.943 / " )

"= (re / h) k v / k h

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## Chierici-Ciucci Method (anisotropic, vertical well)

Water & Gas Coning

rDe

re
=
h

kh
kv
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## Chierici-Ciucci Method (anisotropic, vertical well)

Water & Gas Coning

Qow = 0.492 10

h ( w o )
(k ro k h )w (rDe , , w )
Bo o
2

h ( o g )
2

Qog = 0.492 10

Bo o

(k ro k h )g (rDe , , g )

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OG
=1
WO

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OG
=1
WO

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OG
=1
WO

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OG
=1
WO

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OG
=1
WO

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OG
=1
WO

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OG
=1
WO

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## Chierici-Ciucci Method (anisotropic, vertical well)

Water & Gas Coning

## Given reservoir & fluid properties, hp (), =>

critical production rate
Given reservoir & fluid properties, , Q, =>
Optimum completion interval by trial & error method
 Assume hp, ; know fluid properties => Q()

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## Cone Breakthrough Time

The Sobocinski-Cornelius Method
The Bournazel-Jeanson Method

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## Cone Breakthrough Time

The Sobocinski-Cornelius Method (Experimental Data)
Dimensionless cone height Z:

Z = 0.492 10

(t D )BT

( w o )k h h(h h p )
o B o Qo

4 Z + 1.75Z 2 0.75Z 3
=
7 2Z

t BT =

20,325 o h (t D )BT

( w o )k v (1 + M )
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## Cone Breakthrough Time

The Sobocinski-Cornelius Method (Experimental Data)

(k rw )Sor o

M =

(k ro )Swc w
= 0.5 for M 1 and = 0.6 for 1 < M 10

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## Critical Coning (Cresting) Rate for Horizontal Wells

1. Chaperons Method
2. Efros Method
3. Karchers Method
4. Joshis Method

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## Breakthrough Time for Horizontal Wells

1. The Ozkan-Raghavan Method
2. Papatzacos Method

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## Figure (7.20) Dimensionless time for two-cone case.

(After Paptzacos, P. et. Al.)
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## Figure (7.21) Optimum well placement for two-cone case.

(After Paptzacos, P. et. al.)

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## Analytical solutions are based on simplified assumptions

Assume khomogenous etc
Scarcity of data
Data quality & consistency
Quality of core data?
RFT data (density etc) matching with lab data
Permeability sequencing (fining/coarsening trend)
Kv?

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## Analytical tools are still powerful in understanding the

physics of multiphase flow

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