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You are on page 1of 41

Production Technology

Coning in Vertical & Horizontal Wells

Aug 2008

Dimension of Water Production Problem

3 bbls water / bbl of oil worldwide

Water treatment cost: US$ 40b / year

0.4 $/bbl of water

Vertical Well: Where in the oil column do we perforate?

Communication of the well with reservoir fluid

High productivity

Delay gas/water brekthrough

Improve recovery

All within the constraints of Reservoir Management

Plan (RMP)

economics

cap, strong aquifer)

1. Critical Coning Rate

2. Breakthrough Time

3. Post Breakthrough Production Performance

Theory of Coning

WELL

pmax = 0.433 ( w o )h

H

WATER CONE

entering the well

A rough estimate (not very accurate)

Water Coning

WELL

WATER CONE

Assumption kv=kh

Theory of Coning

pmax = 0.433 ( w o )h

0.00708k o h( p e p w )

Qo =

PR

o Bo [ln(re / rw ) + S ]

PR = f 1 + 7 rw / (2 fh ) cos f 90 o

)]

perforation) = hp/h

1.

1.

Original

GOC

Assumption kv=kh

O

i

l

1.

Original

OWC

Water Coning

Assumption kv=kh

9

Chaney / Cheirici (Potentiometric Methods)

Wheatley (considers influence of cone shape on oil potential)

10

kh

qc = G

Bo o

Can also be used for anisotropic reservoir & gas coning problem

h = oil zone thickness

Assumptions

shape

11

Meyer-Garder (isotropic)

Hoyland-Papatzacos-Skjaeveland (based on simulation

runs)

Chaperon (anisotropic)

Schols (Lab & Numerical Simulation; isotropic)

Chierici-Ciucci (potentiometric; anisotropic )

12

Gas coning

Water coning

Combined gas and water coning

13

Water coning

14

Gas coning

g ko 2

4 o

h (h Dt )2

Qoc = 0.24610

r oBo

ln e

rw

(Eq. 7.4)

Water coning

2

2

4 w o k o

h h p

Qoc = 0.246 10

r o Bo

ln e

rw

(Eq. 7.5)

15

Simultaneous Gas & Water Coning

o g

h hp

4 k o

( w o )

Qoc = 0.246 10

g

o Bo ln(re / rw )

w

2

g

+ ( o g )1 o

w

g

(Eq. 7.6)

o g

Dt = (h h p ) 1

w g

(Eq. 7.6)

16

17

(anisotropic, vertical well)

Water Coning

2

h

t

( w o )k h

4

Qoc = 0.246 10

q CD

o Bo

where,

kh = horizontal permeability, mD

qCD = dimensionless critical flow rate

ht = total reservoir thickness, ft

qCD = f (rD and fp)

rD

re

=

h

kv

kh

18

(anisotropic, vertical well)

Water Coning

19

(anisotropic, vertical well)

Water Coning

20

Water Coning

Qoc = 0.0783 10 4

k h (h h p ) 2

o Bo

[ ]qc*

"= (re / h) k v / k h

21

Water & Gas Coning

rDe

re

=

h

kh

kv

22

Water & Gas Coning

Qow = 0.492 10

h ( w o )

(k ro k h )w (rDe , , w )

Bo o

2

h ( o g )

2

Qog = 0.492 10

Bo o

(k ro k h )g (rDe , , g )

23

OG

=1

WO

24

OG

=1

WO

25

OG

=1

WO

26

OG

=1

WO

27

OG

=1

WO

28

OG

=1

WO

29

OG

=1

WO

30

Water & Gas Coning

critical production rate

Given reservoir & fluid properties, , Q, =>

Optimum completion interval by trial & error method

Assume hp, ; know fluid properties => Q()

31

The Sobocinski-Cornelius Method

The Bournazel-Jeanson Method

32

The Sobocinski-Cornelius Method (Experimental Data)

Dimensionless cone height Z:

Z = 0.492 10

(t D )BT

( w o )k h h(h h p )

o B o Qo

4 Z + 1.75Z 2 0.75Z 3

=

7 2Z

t BT =

20,325 o h (t D )BT

( w o )k v (1 + M )

33

The Sobocinski-Cornelius Method (Experimental Data)

(k rw )Sor o

M =

(k ro )Swc w

= 0.5 for M 1 and = 0.6 for 1 < M 10

34

35

1. Chaperons Method

2. Efros Method

3. Karchers Method

4. Joshis Method

36

1. The Ozkan-Raghavan Method

2. Papatzacos Method

37

(After Paptzacos, P. et. Al.)

38

(After Paptzacos, P. et. al.)

39

Assume khomogenous etc

Scarcity of data

Data quality & consistency

Quality of core data?

RFT data (density etc) matching with lab data

Oil density graduation in reservoir

Permeability sequencing (fining/coarsening trend)

Kv?

40

physics of multiphase flow

41

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