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Master of Petroleum Engineering

Production Technology
Coning in Vertical & Horizontal Wells

Aug 2008

Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

R.F. for Various Drives


Dimension of Water Production Problem

7 bbls water / bbl of oil - in US


3 bbls water / bbl of oil worldwide
Water treatment cost: US$ 40b / year
0.4 $/bbl of water

Goodwater / Bad Water

Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Where in the Oil Column to Place a Well?


Vertical Well: Where in the oil column do we perforate?

Objectives of perforations/well placement


Communication of the well with reservoir fluid
High productivity
Delay gas/water brekthrough
 Improve recovery
All within the constraints of Reservoir Management
Plan (RMP)

Summary of the objectives: Improved well/field


economics

Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

An Example of Horizontal Well Placement (small gas


cap, strong aquifer)

Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Coning Related Calculations


1. Critical Coning Rate
2. Breakthrough Time
3. Post Breakthrough Production Performance

How to Delay Coning Breakthough?

Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Theory of Coning

WELL

pmax = 0.433 ( w o )h
H

WATER CONE

Maximum drawdown of the well without water


entering the well
A rough estimate (not very accurate)

Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Water Coning

WELL

WATER CONE

Assumption kv=kh

Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Theory of Coning

pmax = 0.433 ( w o )h

0.00708k o h( p e p w )
Qo =
PR
o Bo [ln(re / rw ) + S ]

PR = f 1 + 7 rw / (2 fh ) cos f 90 o

)]

f = fractional penetration (or


perforation) = hp/h
1.

1.

Original
GOC

Assumption kv=kh

O
i
l

1.

Original
OWC

Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Water Coning

Assumption kv=kh
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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Critical Coning Rate Analytical Solutions (Vertical Wells)

Muskat & Wyckoff (Laplace Eqn)


Chaney / Cheirici (Potentiometric Methods)
Wheatley (considers influence of cone shape on oil potential)

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Water Coning - Muskat & Wyckoffs Critical Coning Rate

kh
qc = G
Bo o

Originally derived for isotropic reservoir / water coning

Can also be used for anisotropic reservoir & gas coning problem

G = dimensionless factor =f(kv/kh; geometry)


h = oil zone thickness

Assumptions

Single phase, SS flow Laplace Eqn applies

Uniform-flux boundary condition

Potential distribution in the oil phase not influenced by the cone


shape

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Critical Coning Rate Correlations (Vertical Wells)

Meyer-Garder (isotropic)
Hoyland-Papatzacos-Skjaeveland (based on simulation
runs)

Chaney et al. (isotropic; extend Meyer-Garder; math+potentiometric)


Chaperon (anisotropic)
Schols (Lab & Numerical Simulation; isotropic)
Chierici-Ciucci (potentiometric; anisotropic )

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Meyer-Garder Correlation (Isotropic; vertical well)

Gas coning
Water coning
Combined gas and water coning

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Meyer-Garder Correlation (Isotropic; vertical well)


Water coning

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Meyer-Garder Correlation (Isotropic; vertical well)


Gas coning

g ko 2
4 o

h (h Dt )2
Qoc = 0.24610
r oBo
ln e
rw

(Eq. 7.4)

Water coning

2
2
4 w o k o

h h p
Qoc = 0.246 10
r o Bo
ln e
rw

(Eq. 7.5)

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Meyer-Garder Correlation (Isotropic; vertical well)


Simultaneous Gas & Water Coning

o g
h hp
4 k o
( w o )
Qoc = 0.246 10


g
o Bo ln(re / rw )
w
2

g
+ ( o g )1 o


w
g

(Eq. 7.6)

Optimum Distance from Gas Cap, Dt

o g
Dt = (h h p ) 1

w g

(Eq. 7.6)
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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Meyer-Garder Correlation (Isotropic; vertical well)

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Hoyland- Papatzacos-Skjiaeveland Method


(anisotropic, vertical well)
Water Coning
2

h
t
( w o )k h
4
Qoc = 0.246 10
q CD
o Bo

where,
kh = horizontal permeability, mD
qCD = dimensionless critical flow rate
ht = total reservoir thickness, ft
qCD = f (rD and fp)

rD

re
=
h

kv
kh
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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Hoyland- Papatzacos-Skjiaeveland Method


(anisotropic, vertical well)
Water Coning

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Hoyland- Papatzacos-Skjiaeveland Method


(anisotropic, vertical well)
Water Coning

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Chaperons Method (anisotropic, vertical well)


Water Coning

Qoc = 0.0783 10 4

k h (h h p ) 2

o Bo

[ ]qc*

q c* = 0.7311 + (1.943 / " )

"= (re / h) k v / k h

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Chierici-Ciucci Method (anisotropic, vertical well)


Water & Gas Coning

rDe

re
=
h

kh
kv
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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Chierici-Ciucci Method (anisotropic, vertical well)


Water & Gas Coning

Qow = 0.492 10

h ( w o )
(k ro k h )w (rDe , , w )
Bo o
2

h ( o g )
2

Qog = 0.492 10

Bo o

(k ro k h )g (rDe , , g )

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

OG
=1
WO

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

OG
=1
WO

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

OG
=1
WO

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

OG
=1
WO

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

OG
=1
WO

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

OG
=1
WO

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

OG
=1
WO

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Chierici-Ciucci Method (anisotropic, vertical well)


Water & Gas Coning

Given reservoir & fluid properties, hp (), =>


critical production rate
Given reservoir & fluid properties, , Q, =>
Optimum completion interval by trial & error method
 Assume hp, ; know fluid properties => Q()

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Cone Breakthrough Time


The Sobocinski-Cornelius Method
The Bournazel-Jeanson Method

Post Breakthrough Production Performance

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Cone Breakthrough Time


The Sobocinski-Cornelius Method (Experimental Data)
Dimensionless cone height Z:

Z = 0.492 10

(t D )BT

( w o )k h h(h h p )
o B o Qo

4 Z + 1.75Z 2 0.75Z 3
=
7 2Z

t BT =

20,325 o h (t D )BT

( w o )k v (1 + M )
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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Cone Breakthrough Time


The Sobocinski-Cornelius Method (Experimental Data)

(k rw )Sor o

M =

(k ro )Swc w
= 0.5 for M 1 and = 0.6 for 1 < M 10

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Cresting in Horizontal Wells

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Critical Coning (Cresting) Rate for Horizontal Wells


1. Chaperons Method
2. Efros Method
3. Karchers Method
4. Joshis Method

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Breakthrough Time for Horizontal Wells


1. The Ozkan-Raghavan Method
2. Papatzacos Method

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Figure (7.20) Dimensionless time for two-cone case.


(After Paptzacos, P. et. Al.)
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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Figure (7.21) Optimum well placement for two-cone case.


(After Paptzacos, P. et. al.)

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Practical Issues with Coning Calculations

Analytical solutions are based on simplified assumptions


Assume khomogenous etc
Scarcity of data
Data quality & consistency
Quality of core data?
RFT data (density etc) matching with lab data
Oil density graduation in reservoir
Permeability sequencing (fining/coarsening trend)
Kv?

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Coning in Horizontal & Vertical Wells

Solution to Practical Issues

Analytical tools are still powerful in understanding the


physics of multiphase flow

Be practical & beaware of the assumptions and limitations

Perform sensitivity analysis define range of uncertainty

A range of outcome with various probability

Identify most likely / risked outcome

Be guided by analogy / experience / probability

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