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Ali Amirzadeh

Jan/11/2014

Class: 11 A
Investigation: Periodic Trends
Assessing: Ontario Criteria
Introduction:
The periodic table is more than just a simple list of elements. These elements are
arranged in a way such that trends and relationships can be observed and
predicted.
Purpose:
To graph and investigate the relationships between the elements in the periodic
table.
Procedure:
1) Download the Periodicity Element Properties App and open it in Excel.
2) Plot 4 graphs comparing properties (two at a time) of the elements of your
choice (choose strategically) and observe the patterns. (Note: you can plot
melting point OR boiling point, but not both).
3) Describe the observed trends/relationships.

Graph One

Period 2: First Ionisation Enegry VS Electronegativity


4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5

Electronegativity

2
1.5

f(x) = 0x + 1.99
R = 0

1
0.5
0
400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

First Ionisation Energy in kJ/mol

The general trend between the First Ionisation Energy and Electronegativity is both
increases from left to right. The noble gas Ne in this case has a complete valence shell and

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Ali Amirzadeh

Jan/11/2014

Class: 11 A
does not attract electrons, so the electronegativity of Neon isnt available and thats why it is on
the X-axis. The First ionization energy of Li is the lowest and Ne the highest in period 2 but
unfortunately there is a dip in the trend. The reason for the dip is because of the atomic structure.
For example Be (Beryllium) has a first ionization energy of 898 KJ/mol but B (Boron) has a first
ionization energy of 799 KJ/mol this is because Berylliums atomic structure is 1s22s2 but Boron
has an atomic structure of 1s22s22p1, which means its easier to remove that one electron in the p
orbital than moving an electron from the s orbital. Nitrogen has 3-2p electrons, each in their own
orbital. Oxygen has 2 lone electrons in separate orbits and two in the same orbit which means
there is a pair of electrons. The addition of the second electron into an already occupied orbital
creates repulsion between the electrons therefore it is easier to remove. That is the explanation of
the dip in the ionization energy between Nitrogen and Oxygen.
Graph Two

Period 2: Relative atomic mass VS Electronegativity


12
10
f(x) = 0.49x
R = 1

Electronegativity

6
4
2
0
6

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Releative atomic mass

As you can see the trend in period 2 of the periodic table between Relative atomic mass and
Electronegativity is proportionally positive. This means as the Relative atomic mass increases
the electronegativity increases as well. Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom
to attract electrons. Also as the Relative atomic mass increases across period 2 so does the
number of electrons in the different elements. So we know that Li (Lithium) has one lone
electron and F (Fluorine) has seven lone electrons. Li isnt going to gain the seven electrons from
F to become balanced but it would lose the lone electron to become balanced because it requires
less energy to do so. Li has the lowest tendency in period 2 to gain electrons making its

Ali Amirzadeh

Jan/11/2014

Class: 11 A
electronegativity value the lowest and F has the highest tendency in period 2 to gain electrons
making its electronegativity value the highest.

Graph Three

Group 2: Atomic Radius VS First Ionisation Energy


1000
900
800

f(x) = - 3.62x + 1308.51


R = 0.99

700
600

First Ionisation Energy in KJ/mol

500
400
300
200
100
0
100

120

140

160

180

200

220

Atomic Radius in pm

When going down group 2 from Be (Beryllium) to Ra (Radium) the atomic radius increases
but the first ionization energy decreases. The atomic radius increases because as you move down
the group the number of electrons in each element increases and electrons move around on the
orbits. As the number of electrons increase the force of repulsion increases between the electrons
pushing the orbitals farther apart from one another and from the nucleus of the atom. Thats why
the atomic radius of Ra is the largest in group 2 because it has the most electrons in the group
which push the orbitals away from one another and the nucleus of the atom. Also this is why first
ionization energy decreases as you move down the group because the electrons are farther from
the pull of the protons which are located in the nucleus. This means that the attraction force
between the electrons that are farther apart from the nucleus is weaker so its easier to remove
them. The atomic radius of Be is the smallest but it has the highest first ionization energy in
group 2 because the electrons are very close to the nucleus which means the attraction force
between the electrons and the nucleus is very high making it harder to remove the electrons. In
Radiums case because it has the largest atomic radius in group 2 the electrons are shielded from

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Ali Amirzadeh

Jan/11/2014

Class: 11 A
the nucleus making the attraction force between the electrons and nucleus weak which means its
easier to remove the electrons.

Graph Four

Group 2: Atomic Radius VS Melting Point


1400
1200
1000

f(x) = - 4.11x + 1597.06


R = 0.58

800

Melting Point in oC

600
400
200
0
100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

Atomic Radius in pm

In this case as you go down group two the Atomic Radius increases but the Melting Point
decreases. This is because of the attraction force between the electrons (Negative charge) of the
element with the nucleus which is where the protons (positive charge) is located. When the
atomic radius of an element is small the attraction force between the electrons and the nucleus is
very high so in order to overcome that force and to break the particles apart a lot of energy is
required, therefore the element would have a very high melting point. For example take Be
(Beryllium) and Ra (Radium); Be has the smallest atomic radius but the highest melting point in
group 2 because of the attraction force between its electron and nucleus is very high. On the
other hand Ra has the largest atomic radius in group 2 but a low melting point because the
attraction force between its electrons and nucleus is lower; therefore its easier to break apart

Ali Amirzadeh

Jan/11/2014

Class: 11 A
Ras particles. The outlier from this trend is Mg (Magnesium) and this is because there is a
change in crystal structure between magnesium and calcium.
Bibliography:
Chemguide. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2014.
The following information was used from this website. "There is a change in crystal structure between
magnesium and calcium.
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/group2/properties.html