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I.

USEFUL LANGUAGE IN BUSINESS


1. Translate the following sentences into Romanian:

1. He is an auditor as his job is to examine the financial records of companies or


business organizations.
2. Every year the shareholders take part in the General Annual Meeting where the
annual report is presented.
3. Which is the first item on the agenda in todays meeting?
4. Each year the shareholders are sent the companys balance sheet that shows if the
company has been profitable or not.
5. The Board of Directors is presided by a Chairman.
6. The economic crisis may lead to the bankruptcy of many small and medium-sized
companies.
7. The shareholders will have to accept a takeover bid.
8. Increasing taxation further will have bad effects for small companies.
9. The Charter is an official document describing the aims, rights and principles of an
organization.
10. He has never been employed but he has been working as a freelancer for five years.
11. A public companys shares can be bought on the Stock Exchange
12. The Japanese shareholders own 60% percent of this company.
13. The owner of a sole proprietorship or one-man business incurs all the debts of the
company.
14. Our company has just opened a new subsidiary in Latin America.
15. The sleeping partner invests money in a business but does not take part in its
management.
16. This merger will create the biggest airline company in our country.
17. Holland is a country with high levels of bike ownership.
18. What is your companys annual turnover?

19. In a limited partnership the owners are responsible for a limited amount of the
companys debts.
20. The notification will be sent to all employees within two weeks.

auditor
accountant/certified accountant
Shareholder B.E)/stockholder(A.E.)
stakeholder/stake
Shares/stocks
Balance sheet/assets and liabilities
To go bankrupt/bankruptcy
A failed company
To take over/takeover
To merge/merger
Bid/bidder
Bid bade - bidden/forbid forbade forbidden
auction
Taxes
Taxation
Fee tuition fee (doctor, dentist, lawyer)
To incur debts/losses/expenses
Fare/air fare, bus fare
fair/ trade fair
Stock Market/ Commodity market/Commodity Exchange/Stock exchange
Self-employed/freelancer
Private company/public company
Equity
To notify/notification

To employ/to hire/to take on staf


Employer/employee
Employment/work/labor

unemployment/labour laws

To be unemployed/to be jobless/to be out of work


To fire/to give the sack/to dismiss
To make redundant/ to lay of
Labour laws
Labour market
A private company can go public if it is listed on the Stock Exchange.
2. Translate into English:
1. Bursa de valori joaca un rol esential in lumea afacerilor in zilele noastre.
2. The Stock Exchange plays a vital role in todays business world.
3. Toate problemele importante vor fi incluse pe ordinea de zi.
4. All the important items will be included on the agenda.
5. Comitetul director se va intruni nu mai tarziu de 15 aprilie a.c.
6. The Board of Directors will meet no later than 15th April
7. Presedintele Comitetului director se va intalni cu toti actionarii pentru a le
expune noile conditii cerute pe piata inernationala.
8. The Chairman of the Board of Directors will meet all the shareholders to
present/to let them know the new terms required on the international
market.
9. Intreprinderile mici si mijlocii pot primi fonduri nerambursabile din partea
Uniunii Europene pentru a se dezvolta.
10.
The small and medium-sized companies can receive nonrefundable funds from the EU in order to develop.
11.
Expertii contabili au obligatia sa verifice bilantul contabil din sase in
sase luni.
12.
The certified accountants have the obligation to check the
balance sheet every six months.

13.
Rezultatele filialei noastre din Asia sunt incurajatoare datorita
cresterii venitului net cu 20% fata de anul anterior.
14.
The results of our Asian subsidiary are encouraging due to the
increase in the net income by 20% compared to the previous year.
15.

Cifra de afaceri a companiei petroliere s-a triplat anul acesta.

16.

The oil company turnover has trebled this year.

17.
ani.

Facem afaceri cu aceasta firma de comert exterior de mai bine de 10

18.
We have been doing business with this foreign trade company for
more tan 10 years.
19.

Activele unei companii constau in cladiri, terenuri si utilaje.

20.

The assets of a company consist in buildings, fields and equipment.

21.

Mai multe firme mici pot da faliment din cauza crizei economice.

22.
Several small companies can go bankrupt due to the economic
crisis.
23.
Profiturile inaintea impozitarii obtinute de compania suedeza au
crescut anul acesta datorita masurilor luate de partenerul strain.
24.
Profits before taxation obtained by the Swedish company have
grown this year due to the steps taken by the foreign partner.
25.

Unele companii straine au dreptul la scutiri de taxe considerabile.

26.
Some
exemption
27.

foreign

companies

are

entitled

to

considerable

tax

Partenerii nominali nu pot lua parte la conducerea companiei.

28.
The sleeping partners cannot take part in the company
management.
29.
Costurile de exploatare au scazut anul acesta cu 15% fata de anul
trecut.
30.
The operation costs have decreased this year by 15% compared to
the previous year.
Nowadays/in zilele noastre

To be exempt from/a fi scutit de


3. Translate into English:
1. Imaginea noastra de marca se imbunatateste in continuu.
2. Our brand image keeps improving.
3. Mai devreme sau mai tarziu va trebui sa abandonam acest produs. Cu cat
mai devreme cu atat mai bine.
4. Sooner or later well have to give up this product. The sooner the better.
5. Studiul motivatiei nu a fost foarte concludent.
6. The motivation study was not very clear.
7. Ca agent exclusiv, el ar trebui sa se intereseze mai mult de noile noastre
produse.
8. As an exclusive agent he should take more interest in our latest products.
9. To take greater interest in/to be more concerned about
10.Lansarea va avea loc mai intai local, apoi la scara nationala.
11.The launch will take place at local level/locally first, then nationally/at
national level/
12.Am convocat pe toti reprezentantii nostri la o sedinta de marti intr-o
saptamana.
We have summoned
representatives
13.Obiceiurile in ceea ce priveste cumparaturile variaza mult in functie de
grupele de varsta.
Buying habits/consumer habits
14.Rezistenta consumatorilor la noile produse este ingrijoratoare.
15.Aceasta o sa creeze o competitie (rivalitate) intre diversii responsabili de
produs.
16.This will give rise to competitiveness/rivalry among the various resposibles
of prodects.
17.Este o greseala de tipar in instructiunile de folosire.
Misprint/users instructions
18.Concurenta pentru piata Americana este din ce in ce mai acerba.
Competitiveness/fierce
19.Acesta este genul de defect care va face imediat sa reactioneze asociatiile
de consumatori.
20.Acest articol va fi progresiv retras de pe piata in urmatorii trei ani.
Gradually/to withdraw money
21.Este o regiune unde suntem foarte prost aprovizionati./This is a very badly
supplied region.
Supplier/Supply and demand
22.Aceasta imbunatatire tehnica ar trebui sa ne ajute sa sporim vanzarile.
Technical improvement/Technique
Architect
To increase/to boost

23.Ne-am indeplinit obiectivul (de plan).


24.In total, concurentii nostri par sa aiba un mic avantaj.
Our competitors
25.Sunt prea multi intermediari intre clienti si noi.
middlemen
26.Ne aflam in fata unei probleme de reaprovizionare.
To buy=to purchase/Buyer=purchaser
27.Ar trebui sa tinem mai strans legatura cu distributorii nostri si sa-i
informam mai temeinic.
28.Usoara crestere de preturi nu pare sa fi incetinit vanzarile.
Increase in
29.Gama noastra (de produse) este prea redusa pentru a ne asigura o pozitie
dominanta pe piata./leading position
Range of products
To assure/to ensure
This course will ensure you a better job.
I want to ensure my son a better life.
To insure/insurance
Quality assurance
Q+have/has+S+V3
How long has Peter been the CEO?
CEO=Chief Executive Officer
How long has your company had the same logo
to have=to possess=to own
to owe money
How long have you own Telekom shares?
How long have you known A.
How long have you lived in this town?
4. Translate into English:

Marfurile pot fi vandute direct de la producator sau de la fabricant catre


consumatori. Dar in general serviciile unui intermediar sau angrosist
cum este numit sunt necesare. El dispune de mijloace de stocare si
depozitare pe care un detailist obisnuit nu si le poate permite. El vinde o
gama considerabila de marfuri si poate sa acorde conditii de creditare
avantajoase.jk

Vanzarea catre marele public poate fi facuta prin comis-voiajori sau prin
comanda prin posta. Dar cea mai mare parte a oamenilor isi fac
cumparaturile, de obicei, in magazine de desfacere cu amanuntul,
cum ar fi supermarket-urile amplasate la periferia oraselor, magazinele in
retea sau la pravalia din colt. Si asociatiile cooperatiste pot detine si
exploata retele de comercializare cu amanuntul.
Intr-un supermagazin sau un magazin cu autoservire, cumparatorii se
pot servi de pe rafturi si tejghele si isi transporta cumparaturile intr-un
carucior. Ei platesc la punctul de control si plata de la iesirea din
magazin, care a inlocuit traditionala casa de plata.
Astazi tendinta in randul detailistilor independenti este de a forma asociatii
voluntare capabile sa lupte impotriva concurentei marilor magazine cu
stocuri si suprafete comerciale extinse.
Indiferent de modul de vanzare, normele privind afisarea preturilor,
etichetarea marfurilor si indicarea continutului real al cutiilor de
conserve si al ambalajeor de alt tip tind sa fie tot mai drastice, sub
presiunea asociatiilor de consumatori, al caror putere este in crestere.

Marfurile pot fi vandute direct de la producator sau de la fabricant catre


consumatori. Dar in general serviciile unui intermediar sau angrosist cum
este numit sunt necesare. El dispune de mijloace de stocare si depozitare
pe care un detailist obisnuit nu si le poate permite. El vinde o gama
considerabila de marfuri si poate sa acorde conditii de creditare
avantajoase.
The goods can be sold directly from the producer or manufacturer to the
consumers. But in general the services of a middleman or wholesaler - as
he is called are necessary. He has storage and warehouse means which a
common retailer cannot afford.
Wholesale wholesaler
Retail retailer
He sells a wide range of goods and he can grant advantageous crediting
terms.
To grant a credit/a loan

Vanzarea catre marele public poate fi facuta prin comis-voiajori sau prin
comanda prin posta. Dar cea mai mare parte a oamenilor isi fac
cumparaturile, de obicei, in magazine de desfacere cu amanuntul, cum ar
fi supermagazinele amplasate la periferia oraselor, magazinele in retea sau
la pravalia din colt. Si asociatiile cooperatiste pot detine si exploata retele
de comercializare cu amanuntul.
The sale to the great public can be done/performed through door-to-door
salesmen or through mail order. But most people usually do their shopping
in retail outlets such as the supermarkets located in the outskirts of the city,
chain stores or at the corner shop.
The cooperative associations can also own and operate retail networks.

Intr-un supermagazin sau un magazin cu autoservire, cumparatorii se pot


servi de pe rafturi si tejghele si isi transporta cumparaturile intr-un
carucior. Ei platesc la punctul de control de la iesirea din magazin, care a
inlocuit traditionala casa de plata.
In a supermarket or in a self-sevice shop, the buyers/purchasers can
help themselves from the shelves and counters and they carry their
shopping in a trolley.They pay at the check-out point which has replaced
the traditional cashdesk.
Astazi tendinta in randul detailistilor independenti este de a forma asociatii
voluntare capabile sa lupte impotriva concurentei marilor magazine cu
stocuri si suprafete comerciale extinse.
Nowadays the trend among independent retailers is to form volunteering
associations capable to fight against the great stocked, extended shops
competition.
Indiferent de modul de vanzare, normele privind afisarea preturilor,
etichetarea marfurilor si indicarea continutului real al cutiilor de conserve
si al ambalajeor de alt tip tind sa fie tot mai drastice, sub presiunea
asociatiilor de consumatori, a caror putere este in crestere.
No matter the way of selling, the regulations concerning the price listing,
the goods labelling and the indication of the real contents of cans/tins and
of other types of packaging tend to be more and more severe, under the
pressure of the consumer associations whose power is increasing./irrespective
of

5. Make the family words starting from the following:

COMPETITIVE

to compete
competition
competitor/ fierce competitiveness

CONSUMER

to consume
consuming (time consuming)
consumption/consumer society

INVESTMENT

to invest

investor

LEADERSHIP

to lead-led-led

leader
leading product

PRODUCTION

to produce/manufacture

Producer/manufacturer

product

SUPPLIER

to supply

supply (and demand)

BENEFICIARY

to benefit/beneficial

ADVERTISING

to advertise

advertisement (ad)/to place an ad

MANAGEMENT

to manage

manager managerial

II. E-mails and faxes

Many companies do business with vendors and other clients by using a large amount of paper.
They will write up an invoice on paper and even send physical billing statements to their
clients. Instead of doing this, you can set up an online system to take care of this process.
Many companies are now going to online order processing systems that can avoid using paper
in most cases. This is especially applicable if you are an online retailer. You can set up a
system where clients can make purchases from your website and they will be able to receive
an e-mailed receipt or statement. By doing this, you will be able to eliminate the majority of
the paper that you consume every year. It is cheaper and more effective than verbal
conversation when passing technical information. If you need to get feedback as you
communicate, then you can employ the use of instant messenger e.g. Yahoo Messenger. This
is very cheap and as effective a phone call. If you are not comfortable typing, you can make a
PC to PC call using SKYP or a similar online facility.
Retail/retailer
Wholesale/wholesaler
Purchase=to buy
Purchaser=buyer

Formatting Business Email


When using email in business, most of the guidelines for standard formatting in business
letters apply. Here are a few differences:

Choose a subject line that is simple and straightforward. Refrain from using
key words that might cause an email to go into another person's trash box.

Repeat the subject line in the body of the email, beneath the salutation (as
with a letter).

Use the "cc" address line to copy more than one person with your
correspondence.

You can request a receipt for important letters. The system will
automatically let you know when someone has opened your email.

Instead of a signature, include your typed name, and below it include your
email address, business name and address, phone and fax number, and
website if appropriate.

Remember that people often print out emails, so your own email address
and the subject line would be lost if you had not included them in the body
of the email.

The characteristics of one email


One email should contain several parts such as: subject line,
opening, introducing subject of the mail, necessary clarifying
points, body of the mail and of course the closing.
1.The subject line
It is important to write a short and clear subject line as when
the people look for old emails in their folders they must find
them easily and quickly
Example: Notice about the changed prices of ABC
company
2. Opening
In different situations you can begin with Hi/Hello + first name
or no name at all starting the message immediately.
Examples of starting messages:
Happy to meet you yesterday.
It was nice to encounter you last week.
Hope youre well.
3.Introducing the subject of the email
Of course follows the reason for writing. Especially when you
are replying to anothers person email. Phrases you can say:
Thank you for your last email asking for information
Thank you for your decision. Sorry for the delay in
answering back to you sooner
Further to your call.........
Following our call from Monday..
Regarding/About our call.

When you need it helps to establish a context mentioning the


name of a third party who you both know:
I was given your email address by Mr. Smith at Google
Networks.
I understand from Mrs. Copperfield that.
I received your email address from your General Manager
yesterday..
Also if there is no previous context we can begin simply with:
Just a short resume as I promised you two days ago.
Im writing about our meeting ..
4. Clarifying
If you dont understand what the other person wants, needs or
is talking about your first response is to make things clear.
I understand that you want me to help you to buy this
company cheaper. Is this right?
Are you saying that you want to extend your business?
Thank you for your email, but Im not sure what action
you want me to take. Can you please clarify?
5. Body of email
There can be different phrases according to needs such as:
asking for action/help, asking for information, giving
news, offering action/help, apologizing, promising
action, suggesting action, giving information, attaching
a document, etc.
a) Asking for action/help
Could you? Could you do me a favour?
Many thanks Id really appreciate your help on this matter.
b) Asking for information

Id like to know if it is possible to.I particular.


Could you/Please send me urgently..
I need as soon as possible..
c) Giving news
I have some excellent news. Youll be happy to hear that.
Bad news! Unfortunately we lost our money yesterday
d) Offering action/help
Do you want me to help you in this problem?
Shall I call the Bank?
Shall I do anything else to help you?
e) Apologizing
Ill make sure it doesnt happen again.
Sorry about.. It was my fault entirely.
I apologize for my last action
f) Promising action
Ill look into it.
Ill try to discover the facts
Ill chase it up to discover the truth.
Ill find out what is being done to our company by our partners.
g) Suggesting action
Perhaps you could
We might also need help What is your opinion
How about..
Let me know what you think.

h) Giving information
Have a look at the figures. Then please send me back again an
email with your opinion.
Referring the info you wanted here is what I found
Ive spoken to Mr. Smith and he says that the company will
agree with..
i) Attaching a document
Please find attached Could you have a look and let me know
what is your opinion? Id be happy for any answer.

6. Closing
Make a reference to the future contact:
See you at the next meeting!
Lets talk soon.
Ill be in touch soon.
Ill give you a call sometimes in two days.
If appropriate, show your availability for helping your client:
Please contact me again if you need more specific details.
If you need any help, just let me know.
The final line can be written like this:
Best wishes/Best regards/Kind regards + your name or just your
first name.

INTERNET MESSAGE 1

FROM: Gordon Smith

To: Michel Bordas, Executive Director

Sent: 25 April 2014


Subject: Visit to France

Message:
Ive booked your flight to France. Youre leaving on
Monday 25th at 8.00 in the morning, so youll arrive in Paris
before lunch. My secretary will be at the airport with a car to
meet you. She will drive you to your hotel to have your
breakfast and to accommodate. Your first meeting is with Mr.
Francois Gabin, General Manager, and you are seeing him at 1
pm at our local office. Hell take you out to lunch. It will be a
business lunch. After lunch you arent doing anything until 6
pm, so youll have time to rest to the hotel. You are staying at
the Hilton Hotel, which is in a very fancy location, near the
Louvre Museum. Im going to the travel agents to pick up the
tickets this morning, so Ill send them to you tomorrow.
Best regards,
Gordon Smith

INTERNET MESSAGE 2

FROM: Tony Simpson


MarketingOfficer

To: Eric Dubois, Chief

Sent: 22 May 2014


Subject: Preparation for the Versailles International Fair - France
Message:

Following our discussion on last Monday, Ive made


some comments on the documents, brochures, catalogues,
flyers, pictures, C.D.s of our company. I think that we need
some extra pictures with our products as well more catalogues.
Im attaching it again here with my comments underlined and
written in red colour. If you need any other kind of information
please do not hesitate to send me another email or call me if it
is urgent. After correcting the mistakes please forward the
attachment to everyone who will be attending the International
Fair at Versailles France

Best
regards

Tony
Simpson

INTERNET MESSAGE 3

FROM: Brad Churchill

To: Orson Douglas , Sales Director

Sent: 3 June 2014


Subject: Preparing a new contract with Shibba Harry Ltd
Message:
Hi Orson,
Our future Malaysian clients asked me a lot of questions
about prices, about customization of our new medicine for the
Malaysian market. Also they are confident that our products
will be sold in large quantities as their people have great need
of our medicine. They have the support of their government to
import our medicine being excepted of any taxation. Our

contract is duly signed. Please send the great news to all our
partners to prepare themselves to produce large quantities of
our medicine. I thank you in advance.
Best regards,
Brad Churchill

INTERNET MESSAGE 4
Writing task: Here is an answer to Kirk Monroes email asking
for some names and titles as well as for some more photos.
Imagine a situation and write the initial email.
FROM: Barbara Cooper
Developer Designer

To: Kirk Monroe , Webmaster

Sent: 9 July 2014


Subject: Preparing the new website with International Web
Company
Message:
Dear Sir,
Thank you for your email of July 1st 2014 and sorry for not
getting back to you.
Here I send you the names and the titles of everyone who will
be on the renewed web site of our company. Also I send you
now in the attachment more new photos with our new
products. Please enclose them in the presentation site you
design for us. Its important to meet us next Monday so as to
analyze your work and decide if any other modifications are
necessary. If you require any other supplementary information
please do not hesitate to contact me.
Best regards,

Barbara Cooper

INTERNET MESSAGE 5

FROM: Mira Melisse


To: Pierre Gaudard, Technical Director
Sent: 14 March 2014
Subject: Visit to Slovenia
Message:
Ive booked your flight to Slovenia. Youre leaving on
Tuesday 3rd at 8.45 in the morning, so youll arrive in Ljubljana
before lunch. Someone will be at the airport to meet you. Your
first meeting is with Aleksander Presekar, and you are seeing
him at 1 pm at our local office. Hell take you out to lunch. After
lunch you arent doing anything until 4 pm, so youll have time
to go to the hotel. You are staying at the Intercontinental, which
is in a very central location. Im going to the travel agents to
pick up the tickets this afternoon, so Ill give them to you
tomorrow.
Stimate domnule Smith,
V-am rezervat deja zborul pentru Londra. Plecati miercuri
dimineata la ora 7.30 asa ca veti ajunge la Londra inainte de
pranz. Veti fi intampinat la aeroprt de unul dintre colegii nostri
din compania londoneza. Prima intalnire va fi cu directorul
general si il veti vedea la ora 12 in sediul central al companiei.
Veti lua pranzul impreuna. Dupa pranza veti avea cateva ore
libere asa ca puteti sa mergeti la hotel sa va odihniti sau puteti
iesi la o plimbare in centrul Londrei. Hotelul va fi intr-o locatie
centrala, la un sfert de ora de mers pe jos de Hyde park. Voi
merge la agentie sa ridic biletele in seara aceasta si vi le voi
trimite maine dimineata.

Dear Sir,
I have already booked/reserved your flight for London. You are
leaving on Wednesday morning at 7:30 so wou will arrive in
London before noon/lunch.
You will be met at the airport by one of our colleagues from the
Londonese company.
One of our colleagues from the company will meet you at the
airport.
You will first meet the CEO and you will see him at the
company headquarters at 12 oclock. He will take you out to
lunch. After that you will have a few free hours so you can go to
the hotel for a rest or you can go out for a walk in the center of
London. the hotel will be in a central location, within a quarter
of an hours walk from the H. P. I am going to the travel agency
to pick up the tickets this evening and I will send them to you
tomorrow morning.

INTERNET MESSAGE 6
FROM: John Dawn
To: Catherine Laval, Technical Director
Sent: 14 March 2014
Subject: Visit to London
Message:
Ive booked your flight to London. Youre leaving on
Monday 5 at 9.40 in the morning, so youll arrive in London
before lunch. Someone will be at Heathrow airport to meet you.
Your first meeting is with Jack Roberts and you are seeing him at
1 pm at our local office. Hell take you out to lunch. After lunch
you arent doing anything until 4 pm, so youll have time to go
to the hotel. You are staying at the Red Lion hotel, which is in a
th

very central location. Im going to the travel agents to pick up


the tickets this afternoon, so Ill give them to you tomorrow.
INTERNET MESSAGE 7
FROM: John Dawn
To: Catherine Laval, Technical Director
Sent: 14 March 2003
Subject: Visit to London
Message:
Ive booked your flight to London. Youre leaving on
Monday 5 at 9.40 in the morning, so youll arrive in London
before lunch. Someone will be at Heathrow airport to meet you.
Your first meeting is with Jack Roberts and you are seeing him at
1 pm at our local office. Hell take you out to lunch. After lunch
you arent doing anything until 4 pm, so youll have time to go
to the hotel. You are staying at the Red Lion hotel, which is in a
very central location. Im going to the travel agents to pick up
the tickets this afternoon, so Ill give them to you tomorrow.
th

Exercises
Complete the e-mail using phrasal verbs from the list
below that mean the same as the words in brackets.
Three verbs need to be put into an ing form.
Back up break down call on
draw up
drop of
find out
get by
keep downlook through print outring up
sort out
turn up
sign in
From: David R. To: Simon Sent: 25 May.
Subject: Things to do
Message: 1. Mr. Yamanaka
Mr. Yamanaka will be arriving at the airport at 10.30
tomorrow. Can you (1).
pick him up (collect by car) from there and (2)drop him
off (leave) at
his hotel? Hes staying at the Marriott. I wont be able to
(3) turn up (arrive) there

until about 1 p.m., so perhaps you could stay with him


and make sure there are no
problems (4) signing in (registering) etc. Then Ill be
with Mr. Yamanaka for
most of the afternoon, so Mike and Kath will have to (5)
get by (manage)
without me in the sales meeting.
Back up break down call on
draw up
drop of
find out
get by
Keep down look through print outring up
sort out
turn up sign in
make up
2. Spain trip
Im trying to (6) sort out (organise) the itinerary for my
trip to Spain next
Month. Can you (7) draw up (think about then write) a
list of all our Spanish customers by (8) looking through
(examining) our customer accounts database? Id like to
know exactly who I need to (9) call on (visit). Also the
flight needs to be booked-can you (10) ring up
(telephone) the travel agency and check flight times
and prices? Were trying to (11) keep down (control to
stop them increasing) travel expenses at the moment
so just (12) find out (discover) prices for Eurotraveller
class.
3. March Spreadsheet
The printer keeps (13) breaking down (stopping
working), and I didnt have a chance to (14) print out
(print) the spreadsheet for last months figures. Can
you do it and then (15) back up (make a copy) the file
onto a disk for me to use my laptop?
Thanks
1) You have just received the e-mail below from Ms Smith, confirming
some arrangements for a meeting. Unfortunately, your plans have
since changed. Reply to Ms Smith and do the following:

- thank her for the message


- apologize, and explain that you will have to change the
arrangement (give a reason)
- suggest a new date
- apologize again
- end the message appropriately.
MEETING NEXT WEEK
RE: MEETING NEXT WEEK
I just wanted to confirm the arrangements we made for next week. Ill be arriving at
Terminal 2, and my flight should arrive at 11.45, but it may be later because there
may be a strike by the air traffic controllers. I hope to be at your office at around
13.30. Dont worry about organizing any food, as Ill have eaten on the plane. Id be
grateful if you could send me an agenda for the meeting (particularly informationsharing and decision-making) before I leave so that I can bring with me any
documents that might be useful. Well, I think thats everything, and I look forward to
seeing you on Tuesday.
Best regards, Anne Smith

FAX TRANSMISSION
From..
To..
For the attention of

Page 1 of
Date
To fax no
From fax no

Message
a)

rooms hotel I to some would like reserve at your

b)

in 15 August. We on Albena are arriving

c)

ten hope stay to We for nights leaving 25 August on

d)
and husband like room I My double balcony a would with
preferably a

e)

require Our a two teenage daughters twin room

f)

are all en-suite that We understand your bedrooms

g)

you this confirm Could?

h)

a sea view possible Is have it room to with a?

i)

available if me let you Please for know dates these rooms have

j)

grateful if I be would also me you could tell room each price the
of

k)

from I forward look you to hearing

Message
I would like to reserve some rooms at your hotel. We are
arriving in Paris on 28 July. We hope to stay for ten
nights leaving on 27 July. My husband and I would like a
double room, preferably with a balcony. Our two teenage
daughters require a twin room. We understand that all
your bedrooms are en-suite. Could you confirm this?
Please let me know if you have rooms available for these
dates. I would also be grateful if you could tell me the
price of each room. I look forward to hearing from you.
III. Useful language: Discourse markers in writing

To begin with, As far as I am concerned, In my opinion, I think, I believe

First of all/Firstly, Secondly, Thirdly, Finally,

In addition to, Besides, Moreover, Furthermore, What is more

Along with, As well as,

Apart from, except for

Likewise, Equally,

However, Nevertheless, Nonetheless, Yet,

On the one hand, On the other hand,

As regards, Regarding, Concerning, With reference to

For example, For instance, Such as, /e.g./i.e.

Especially, In particular

Actually, In fact, As a matter of fact,

On the whole, In general

Although/though,

Even if/though,

Despite, In spite of

Overall, All in all, In conclusion, To conclude, To sum up, In summary

Briefly

Thus, Therefore, Consequently, As a result

Otherwise

e.g.=exemplae gratie
i.e.=id est

to appoint: He was appointed prime minister.


fortunately/unfortunately
moving on to
in the end=finally=eventually
at the end of the road
In the first
In fact=as a matter=actually
as regards/regarding/concerning/as far as
As far as I am concerned
As far as robotics is concerned

concerned

As far as our company is concerned


for instance/for example/such as.e.g./i.e.
On the whole/in general/overall/all in all/generally speaking
Obviously/Clearly
its obvious
In addition/Besides/Moreover/Furthermore
because of this/due to the fact that
owing to
as a result
However/nevertheless/nonetheless/yet
Yet, he is my best friend.
The taxi hasnt arrived yet.
In short/briefly/in summary
apart from/except for
despite the fact that/in spite of the fact that
in the end/finally/eventually
I mean/or rather
especially/in particular

IV. NOUNS + PREPOSITIONS


ability in
advantage of
advice on
alternative to
benefit of/from
cause of
cost of
difficulty with

example of
experience of/in
hope of
knowledge of
lack of
matter with
method of
opinion of

agreement with/about
agreement with/about
belief in
comparison with
complaint about
decision about/on
division into

insurance against
investment in
invitation to
knowledge about
objection to
payment for
protection from

price of
reason for
reply to
solution to
substitute for
success at/in
tax on
trouble with

focus on
information about
insistence on

reference to
responsibility for
wait for

awareness of
certainty about
disappointment with
doubt about
excitement about
fear of
interest in
involvement in

opposition to
optimism about
pessimism about
preparation for
satisfaction with
similarity to
suitability for
worry about

V. BUSINESS LETTER WRITING

B. Writing Business Letter Essentials


Here are a few practical tips on writing business letters to help you when
writing your correspondence:

Consider your Reader


Who is the reader?
In a business letter, the reader is usually represented by employees, customers, suppliers or
the public. When you are writing a business letter, imagine that you are in the readers'
position. Are they happy, frustrated or merely inconvenienced? What essential information
does that person need to know through this communication? What are their expectations when
they open the letter? Have you addressed all of these issues? By doing this, you will show the
reader that you can relate to them and the situation. This will build a relationship between the
two of you.
Be Responsive
If you are responding to or with a letter, address the inquiry or problem. Most of the time,
companies rely too much on a handful of form letters to answer all situations. This shows that
you do not understand their needs. When you have considered you reader as above, you will
be able to respond to them.
Be Personal
Letters are written by people to people. Don't address it "to whom it may concern" if it is
possible. Whatever you do, do not use a photocopied form letter. Please see how to use a form
letter for the proper use of form letter if you have to use it. You cannot build a relationship

with canned impersonal letters. But also don't be too informal. Avoid using colloquial
language or slang such as "you know" or "I mean" or "wanna".
If you start your letter with Dear Sir/dear Madam, you will finish it with Yours
faithfully
If you start your letter with Dear Mr./Mrs./Miss/Ms. Smith, you will finish it with Yours
sincerely.
Be concise and to the point
When writing a business letter, explain your position in as few words as possible. Spell out
what you can and what they need to do. Use clear and easy to understand language so that any
misunderstanding can be minimized. Think before you write. Ask yourself why you are
writing? What is it that you want to achieve? Use this 5 step process:
1. List out the topics you want to cover. Do not worry about the order.
2. In each topic, list keywords, examples, arguments and facts.
3. Review each topic in your outline for relevance to your aim and audience.
4. Cut out anything that's not relevant.
5. Sort the information into the best order for your readers.

Be friendly, build the relationship


Don't use cold, formal language. Some people have the perception that when writing business
letters, they must use big words. To them this is a sign of literacy. Some 'big words' have no
substitute, but do use the word correctly. You want the reader to feel like they are reading a
letter from someone who cares.
Emphasize the positive
1. Talk about what you can do not what you can't. For example, if a product is
out of stock, don't tell the customer you are unable to fill the order.
Instead, tell them the product is very popular and you have sold out. Then
tell them when you can get the order to them.
2. Stay away from negative words..

Be Prompt
If you cannot respond fully in less than a week, tell them so and say when they can expect a
response from you.
Check Spelling, Grammar & Facts

Always make sure you are 100% correct in spelling, grammar and facts. Use the spelling and
grammar checker from your word processor. If you are not very good or need more help, get
someone to edit the letter.

BRITISH BUSINESS LETTER


PETER SIMPSON & CO LTD
18 East Road, Tottenham, London N12 OWL, England
Telephone: 081-865-0824 Telex: 34521 Fax: 081-865-0765
Your ref. BN/MD
Our ref. ST/JW
12 February 2014
Mr. David Woodward
Head Buyer
Smith&Crawford Ltd.
2 Chester Road
BIRMINGHAM B21 MCQ
Attn. Purchasing Department
Dear Sir,
RE: DELIVERY DATES
Thank you for your letter of February 1st with your order no. 23764.
We are very sorry that there have been problems with deliveries in recent
months and we shall do our utmost to let you have your latest order by the
end of the week.
We have enclosed our new catalogue and price list. If you require any further
information about our new series of products please do not hesitate to contact
us.
Yours faithfully,
Signature
S M Dickson
Assistant Commercial Manager

BRITISH BUSINESS LETTER (fully blocked)


1 = LETTERHEAD
NAME
ADDRESS
TELEPHONE
Telex/Fax/Email
P.O. Box = post office/ mail box number
2. REFERENCE LINE
(your ref. / Our ref.)

3. DATE : 17 April 2014


4. NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE ADDRESSEE (INSIDE ADDRESS)

TITLE : Mr/ Mrs/ Miss/Ms


Messrs.

POSITION IN THE COMPANY


NAME OF THE COMPANY (NAME OF BUILDING)
NUMBER AND STREET
TOWN AND POSTAL CODE

Attn for the attention of

5. SALUTATIONS : Dear Sir/Dear Sirs/Dear Madam/ Dear Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms


Smith/Dear John/Margaret or Dear Professor Jones, Dear Doctor Evans
6. SUBJECT HEADING
Re: ( = with reference to/ relating to)
7. BODY LETTER
8. COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE
Dear Sir/Madam Yours faithfully
(Yours truly)
Dear Mr. Jones Yours sincerely
Sincerely yours
Cordially yours/best regards/best wishes

Dear Bob Sincerely/Cordially, Yours truly


9. SIGNATURE
10. ENCLOSURE/attachement
ENC. (ENC 1, ENC.2)
11. COPIES (=copy to/cc = carbon copy)

SOME KEY SENTENCES:


1)Beginning:
- Thank you for your letter dated/ of 15th April 2014.
- We acknowledge receipt of your order.
- We have the pleasure to inform you that we are sending you under separate
cover the documentation requested/full documentation on our latest products.
- Following this afternoons/yesterdays telephone conversation, we have the
pleasure in confirming that
- Further to your enquiry, please find enclosed/we are sending you a general
brochure on our latest products.
- We regret to say that we still have not received..to date.
- We were interested/pleased to learn that.
- Unless we are mistaken, you have not yet settled our bill of the 12th ins.
To pay/to settle/to foot the bill
2) Main Body:
- If your terms are attractive/satisfactory, we shall place an order with you
rapidly.
Terms of delivery
- If we are satisfied with the transport and delivery, we shall do further business
with you.
- Kindly inform us about any possible delay as soon as possible.
- We (urgently) need this information to make a (rapid) decision.
- We were sorry to hear about that incident.
- We would be (most) grateful if you would give us the reasons for this situation.
- We have duly noted the discount you offer us.
- We have given instructions for the goods to be dispatched in time for your
exhibition.
- Very much to our regret/ We regret that we shall not be able to make the
refund.
- In addition, I wish to point out that

- We enclose the application form to be filled out and returned to us rapidly


- Please note that the closing date for the enrolment/registration is 31st
December.
- Replies must be postmarked no later than midnight, April 30th.
To send/to dispatch/to forward/to ship
To point out/to highlight
3) Ending:
- Please let us know your answer as soon as you can.
- Again we apologize for this incident.
- Thank you in advance/anticipation for your kind letter.
- Kindly reply/We would be most grateful if you would reply by return of
post/mail.
- We look forward to your reply/your instructions/your visit.
- We can assure you that we shall do our utmost/best to give you satisfaction.
- We hope that we will hear from you soon.
- We look forward to hearing from you soon.
- Should you want any further details, we are at your complete disposal.
- Yours faithfully/Yours sincerely.

FORMAL/INFORMAL LETTER
Reservation Manager
Red Lion Hotel
23, Palace Road
Edinburgh
SW 321
September 23
Dear John/Sir or Madam,
I am writing/This is just a note to confirm a reservation that was made/I asked you for this
morning by telephone. The reservation, for a couple of/two days, is for me and my wife/ my
wife and myself, Jane and William Brown.
I want/I would like a double room with a bathroom from 9-11 inclusive.
I will be taking part in/having negotiations with our business partners from China and
visiting the Trade Fair which is being held/is going on in Edinburgh in this period.
Do you think you could give me/Would it be possible for me to have a room on 2nd floor?
I think/I am afraid the room I was given two months ago was rather/very noisy.
Thank you/Thanks for sending me the brochure/leaflet about/regarding your conference
facilities which I got/received last week. They are of utmost interest/great for me. I regret I
cant provide you with some/I am sorry I cant give any definite dates now/at the time
being, since/because we have yet to finalize/to sort out the details of our next meeting.
But/However, I will announce/ Ill let you know as soon as possible/I can.
I look/Im looking forward to meeting you on 15 October.
Best wishes/Yours sincerely.
William Brown

C. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS


1. LETTERS OF INVITATION
MAIN PARTS: 1) MAIN IDEA (the invitation request)
2) THE BODY
all details that the reader will
appreciate and
need (Ws
who, when,
where, why)
3) THE ENDING PARAGRAPH
action

state clearly the desire


of the reader

For what kind of events are invitations used in business?


invitations to different events (wedding, engagement, baptize, funeral)
invitations to official meetings, conferences, congresses, symposia)

INVITATION
1. I have the pleasure to invite you to.
2. It is a great pleasure to extend to you an invitation to.
3. On behalf ofI have the pleasure of extending to you an
invitation to
4. We cordially/sincerely invite you to
5. It is a great pleasure and honour to invite you to
6. It would give me very much pleasure if you would accept this
invitation.
7. It would be very much appreciated if you could reply to this
invitation.
8. I trust you will kindly accept this invitation.
9. We invite you to visit
10. Please let me know the date of your visit.
11. I intend to make a tour of your country.
12. I hope you enjoyed your stay in this country.
13. I will be visiting early next month. I hope to have the pleasure
of seeing you then and renewing the pleasant contact of a year ago.

14. I am looking forward with pleasure to welcome/welcoming you in


my country.

ACCEPTING THE INVITATION

1. It is a great honour and privilege for me to accept your invitation


to..
2. I have the pleasure of accepting the kind invitation of the
Scientific Committee to deliver one of the main scientific lectures at
the Congress to be held in.
3. It gives me great pleasure to accept your invitation to participate
in the work of the..
4. I very much appreciate your kind invitation to participate in . to
be held in

DECLINING THE INVITATION

1. I greatly regret that owing to my illness I am unable to accept


your kind invitation to..
2. I very much regret that I have to decline your.
3. I am awfully sorry that I am obliged to decline your..
4. I must apologize to you for having to decline your.
5. I am sorry that I am unable to comply with your request.
6. It is with regret that we learn from your letter that you are not in a
position to accept our proposal.
7. I have just received your letter of with a request to attend the
congress in April. I am extremely grateful for your kind invitation.
However, I am afraid I shall have to decline it, as I cant leave my
country before.
9. I still regret not being in a position to comply with your request at
present as I must make a second lecturing tour of a fortnight.

SAMPLES
1) Invitatie la un dineu de afaceri
Stimate domn,
As dori sa discut cateva probleme legate de noul nostru contract in timpul
sejurului mereu la Paris. V-as propune o cina neoficiala la restaurantul libanez
vineri, 5 februarie la ora 19.

2) Invitatie la cina adresata unui prieten apropiat


Draga Doris,
Ce-ai spune sa luam cina impreuna data viitoare cand vii la Londra?
Mi-ar face placere sa ne revedem cat mai curand posibil.
Astept vesti de la tine.

3) Draga Tom,
Iti multumesc pentru scrisoarea in care ne impartaseai intentia de a veni in vizita
la Varsovia. Noi nu vom fi in oras cand vei sosi, insa am fi incantati, atat eu cat si
sotia mea daca ai veni sa petreci un weekend in casa noastra de la tara aflata la
50 de km de oras. Am putea discuta acolo mai in voie propunerea ta de afaceri si
am putea face un plan.
Astept raspunsul tau cat de curand.
4) Invitatie adresata unui prieten
Draga Paul,
Eu si sotia mea vom petrece cateva zile in New York in luna mai. Sejurul nostru
face parte dintr-o calatorie de trei saptamani in care am dori sa imbinam afacerile
cu distractia. Nu iti pot da numele si adresa hotelului inca deoarece rezervarile nu
au fost confirmate, insa iti voi telefona imediat ce ajungem pentru a cina
impreuna la hotelul nostru.
Complimente.
5) Invitatie adresata unui prieten strain
Draga Michael,
Corespondam de mai bine de un an si inca nu ne-am intalnit. Schimbul de idei cu
privire la cele doua tari in care traim a fost foarte interesant. Vacanta de vara se
apropie si as dori sa te invit la mine la inceputul lunii iulie ca sa iti arat o parte a
tarii mele.
Te-ar interesa sa petreci doua saptamni intr-o familie de elvetieni?
Cu prietenie.

6) Invitatie de participare la o intrunire


Stimate profesor Elvis,

Am dori sa va informam ca intrunirea comitetului executiv va avea loc la Praga pe


data de 5 septembrie.
Ordinea de zi a intrunirii este urmatoarea:
1..
2
3.
Daca aveti sugestii, va rugam sa ne scrieti imediat astlef incat sa le putem
transmite si celorlalti membrii ai comtetului.
Astept cu interes sa va revad la intrunire.
Cele mai bune urari,
Al dumneavoastra,
7) Scrisoare de raspuns - acceptarea invitatiei
Stimate domnule
Confirm primirea scrisorii dumneavoastra in care imi anuntati intrunirea
comitetului executiv. As dori sa va informez ca voi participa si ca voi sosi la Praga
pe data de 4 septembrie.
Va rog sa aveti amabilitatea sa imi faceti rezervarea la un hotel de 4 stele.
Gasiti alaturat cateva sugestii pe care comisia noastra doreste sa le faca.
Complimente,
Al dumneavoastra,
8) Scrisori de acceptare ale unei invitatii
Stimate domn,
Imi face mare placere sa accept invitatia de a participa la lucrarile intrunirii pe
care o prezidati.
Va voi anunta data sosirii mele cat mai curand posibil.
Astept cu interes sa ne intalnim si sa vad multi alti colegi.
Cele mai bune urari,
Al dumneavoastra,
9) Scrisori de refuz
a) Stimate domn,

Apreciez amabila dumneavoastra invitatie de a participa la congresul care se


va tine la Paris. Imi pare foarte rau ca ratez ocazia de a veni in tara
dumneavoastra si de a ma intalni cu colegii mei.
Daca invitatia dumneavoastra ar fi ajuns mai devreme as fi putut sa-mi anulez
angajamentul anterior.
Sper sa ne vedem cu alta ocazie cat de curand.
Al dumneavoastra,

b) Stimate domn,
Tocmai am primit scrisoarea dumneavoastra din data de 10 aprilie cu
rugamintea de a contribui la intrunirea pe care o organizati pe probleme
economice. Mi-e teama ca va trebui sa va refuz deoarece am fost invitat sa tin o
prelegere in strinatate pe data de 7 aprilie.
Imi exprim inca o data regretul de a nu putea participa la aceasta intrunire,
Al dumneavoastra,
c) Stimate Profesore Hill,
In primul rand trebuie sa imi cer scuze pentru intarzierea cu care raspund
scrisorii dumneavoastra din 2 noiembrie. Nu am avut timp sa va scriu deoarece
pe 3 noiembrie am parasit Bucurestiul pentru o calatorie de afaceri care a durat
10 zile.
Regret ca nu pot sa dau curs invitatiei dumneavoastra de a participa la
congresul pe care il organizati la inceputul lunii ianuarie anul viitor, dar voi fi
plecat intr-o calatorie de afaceri in strainatate pentru inca doua saptamani in luna
ianuarie.
Mii de scuze,
Va rog sa transmiteti complimentele mele sotiei si fiicei dumneavoastra.
Cele mai bune urari,
Al dumneavoastra,
1)Invitation to a business dinner
Dear Sir,

I would like to discuss a few points concerning our new contract with you during
my stay in Paris. Might I suggest that we meet for an informal dinner at the
calypso restaurant on Friday 5 February at 7 oclock pm.
2) Invitation to dinner with a close friend
Dear Doris,
How about coming round for dinner when you come to London next time?
It would be nice to see you again as soon as possible.
I am looking forward to hearing from you.
3) Invitation to spend a weekend
Dear Tom,
Thank you for your letter telling us of your plans to visit us in Warsaw. We will not
be in the city when you come, but we would be delighted, both my wife and I, if
you would come to spend a weekend in our country house situated within 50
kilometers from the city. There we could have a relaxed talk about your business
proposition and we could make a plan together.
I am looking forward to your answer as soon as possible.
4) Invitation to a friend
Dear Paul,
My wife and I will spend a few days in New York in May as part of a three-week
trip in which we would like to combine business with pleasure. I cant give you
the name and address of our hotel yet as our reservations havent been
confirmed, but I will call you as soon as we arrive to fix dinner together at our
hotel.
Best regards,
5) Invitation to a foreign friend
Dear Michael,
We have been writing to each other for more than one year and we havent met
yet. It was very interesting to exchange views on our two countries/on the two
countries we live in. The summer holidays are drawing near and I would like to
invite you to my house at the beginning of July to show you a part of my country.
Would you be interested in spending a week in a Swiss family?
6 Invitation to a meeting
Dear Professor Elvis,

We would like to inform you that the meeting of the Executive Committee will
take place in Prague on 5 September.
The agenda of the meeting is the following:
1..................................................................
2.................................................................
3.................................................................
if you have any suggestions to make kindly write to us at once so that we could
send them to the other members of the Committee.
Best wishes,
Yours sincerely,
7) Accepting an invitation
Dear Sir,
I acknowledge receipt of your letter by which you announce about the meeting of
the Executive Committee. I would like to inform you that I will arrive in Prague on
4 September.
I kindly ask you to make a four-star hotel reservation for me.
Please, find enclosed some suggestions that our Committee would like to make.
Best regards,
Yours faithfully,
8) Accepting an invitation
Dear Sir,
It gives me great pleasure to accept your kind invitation to participate in the
works of the meeting whose chairman you are.
I will let you know the date of my arrival as soon as possible.
I look forward to meeting you and many other colleagues.
Best wishes,
Yours faithfully
9) Declining an invitation
a) Dear Mr. Smith,

I very much appreciate your kind invitation to participate in the congress which
will be held in Paris. I am awfully sorry to miss the opportunity of coming to your
country and meeting my colleagues.
Had your invitation reached me earlier, I could have cancelled my previous
engagement.
Hoping to see you on another occasion,
Yours sincerely,
b) Dear Sir,
I have just received your letter of 10 April with the request of contributing to the
meeting you organize on economic issues. I am extremely grateful to you for this
kind invitation. However, I am afraid I shall have to decline it, as I have been
invited to give a lecture abroad on 7 April and I have already accepted.
Once again I express my regret that I am unable to take part in this meeting.
Yours faithfully,
c) Dear Professor Hill,
First of all I must apologize for the delay taken in answering your later of 2
November. I didnt have time to write to you as on 3 November I left Bucharest on
a business trip which lasted for ten days.
I regret not being in the position to comply with your invitation of participating in
the Congress you organize at the beginning of January next year, but I will be
away on a business trip abroad for a fortnight in January.
A thousand apologies!
Kindly send my regards to your wife and your daughter.
With best wishes,
Yours sincerely,

B. LETTERS OF ENQUIRY/REPLIES TO INQUIRIES


INQUIRIES FOR GOODS
An enquiry (also spelt inquiry) is sent when a businessman wants some
information about:
-

the supply of goods


leaflets or catalogues
quotations or prices
terms and discounts
availability of goods

delivery times and deadlines


method of transport
insurance

Flyer/leaflet/brochure/catalogue
MAIN PARTS
1. How you got to know the company and the potential supplier
2. Some information about your company, and the reasons for which you
decided to write the letter
3. General request for information
4. Specific questions
5. Close, perhaps some reference to a future successful business.
Dear Sirs,
1) We had the opportunity to see your latest products at the International
Trade Fair in Madrid last week. We were particularly interested in the
electronic dishwasher C&C 2011 and might possibly also be interested in
other electronic equipment which you manufacture.
2) We specialize in importing state-of-art household electrical appliances
and selling them to luxury kitchen designers in Central and Eastern
Europe.
3) We would be grateful if you would send us your catalogue with full
technical specifications. Please state your best export prices, terms of
payment and earliest date for overseas orders.
4) We look forward to hearing from you soon.
Yours faithfully
Other phrases:
1) We have just received your brochure/circular letter introducing your
range of new products.
We were given your name by one of our clients, Mr. Smith and are
looking for a supplier of garden equipment such as you manufacture.
You were recommended to us by the London Chamber of Commerce
and we would like to know if you could supply us with the following
goods:
We have seen your advertisement in.
2) We have recently set up more sales outlets and would like to extend our
range of British goods.
We want to launch a new line of products all over Europe.
We have been dealing in this kind of products since 1887.

For various reasons, we want to change suppliers and are looking for a
suitable replacement.
3) Could you please forward full details of your complete products.
We would be pleased if you would let us have your current price list as
well as your terms of sale.
Please let us know if your goods can be shipped immediately.
Prompt delivery is essential in our type of business. What is your usual
overseas delivery time?
Could you let us have the address of a local distributor/agent/dealer?
Before placing an order, we would like to receive some samples.
4) If your prices are competitive we shall place a large order.
Retail-retailer

wholesale wholesaler

Trade trader

sample

Commerce

to supply/supplier

to provide with

Invoice customs to place an order customer


To manufacture manufacturer
To advertise advertising

advertisement/ad

Advertisement (to place an advertisement/ad with a newspaper)


Mind the typical vocabulary in formal inquiries:
-

We are retailers/importers/wholesalers in the ..trade and would like to


get in touch with suppliers/manufacturers of.
We are in the market
We are interested in importing.
We know about your product from.
Please send us prices and samples of
We would like you to send us a firm offer for/your current catalogue
showing.
We read your advertisement and we require.for immediate delivery of
..
We are interested in buyingand would like to have further
details
about.and would like to know if you can provide us with
Would you kindly quote us your best/lowest prices and terms of
payment for.
What qualities/quantities are you able to supply from the stock
If your prices are competitive/if the quality of the goods comes up with
our expectation/If samples meet our customers agreement we can
probably place regular orders with you

We look forward to receiving your quotation/prices/reply by return/as


soon as possible
Thank you for the information you can provide to us.
An early reply would be appreciated.
We usually settle accounts/make payments by..
Payment will be made by.
Please send us a pro-forma invoice for customs purposes.
To settle a bill/to foot the bill

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

REPLY TO AN INQUIRY
Thank you line and reference to the inquiry for goods
Reference to the attachment to the letter if any.
Highlight several key points.
Answer any specific questions.
Close the letter with the promise to supply any further information

Dear Sirs,
1) We were delighted to receive your inquiry about the hairdressers
equipment and supplies we manufacture, and are sending you a copy of
our latest fully illustrated catalogue and price list.
2) We are also enclosing a few samples of our shampoos, hair dyes and
hair treatment products which are some of our specialities. We would like
to point out that we also deal in natural cosmetics.
3) We have adequate stocks of most of the products featured in our catalogue
and can supply them within one week of receiving an order. We can grant a 5%
discount for orders over $ 50,000. All our prices are quoted delivered at frontier.
Our usual terms for overseas trade are bank draft against pro forma invoice.
5) We are sure you will be delighted with the quality of our products, which
sell throughout the world. We look forward to the pleasure of doing
business with you.
Yours faithfully,
Bank draft

1) With reference to your telephone enquiry of yesterday, we are very


pleased to hear that you want to launch a line of Spanish-made
products in your area.
Thank you for your enquiry concerning the equipment we sell. We
regret that we no longer provide
We have pleasure in submitting the following quotation.

We can offer a large range of articles at attractive/competitive prices.


For your information we are about to launch an advertising campaign
for our brand/make of products.
2) We can supply large quantities of goods with as little delay as
possible/at 3 weeks
notice.
For orders of 100 items or more we allow/grant a special discount of 5%
/we send free gifts.
Please note that prices quoted are guaranteed only until 31 st December.
In addition we provide a reliable after-sales service all over Europe.
3) We hope to hear from you soon and can assure you that your order will
be dealt with promptly.
We can guarantee each article is produced with the utmost care.
Should you wish to have further details we are at your complete
disposal.
Should you be interested, our representative for your area, Mr, can
call on you.
To hear from
To deal with a problem/customer/order
To grant a discount/to grant a loan
You can call on me/you can call in at my office

After-sales service
To deal with an order/clients/problem
Further details

to do further business

Representative
Visit/visitor

to invest/investor/investment

tourist
OFFERS/QUOTATIONS
Mind the typical phrases use in quotations and offers:
Phrases:
-

Thank you for your interest/inquiry in/about.

We are pleased to submit our lowest prices/to enclose our latest price
for the goods you inquired about.
We can make a firm order for
This offer is firm subject to acceptance by.
Kindly remember: this offer expires on.
Subject for prior sale
Prices subject to change without notice.
The goods you inquired about are sold out, but we can offer you a
substitute.
Please let us have your order as soon as possible, since supplies are
limited.
While stocks last.
We look forward to receiving a trial order from you.

Discounts:
-

For a quantity of 60 or more we allow/grant you a special discount of


20% on the prices quoted.
The quantity discounts vary according to the size of the order.
Your initial order is subject to a special discount of
We can grant you % discount on orders exceeding in value/on
repeat orders.
We quoted special prices, therefore the offer is not subject to the usual
discounts.

Terms of payment:
-

Cash in advance.
Cash on delivery (c.o.d.)
Cash with order (c.w.o.)
Our usual terms are cash against documents (c.o.d.)/pro-forma invoice.
We can allow you three months credit for future orders.
As our prices are so favourable, our terms of payment are 30 days net.

Delivery terms:
- c.i.f./C.I.F. (cost insurance and freight)
- c&f/CF (cost and freight)
- f.o.b./FOB (free on board)
- f.a.s./FAS (free alongside ship)
- franco domicile, free (buyers address)
- ex works/ex factory
- Prices are warehouse.
- Freight and insurance to be paid by buyer/you.
- Delivery can be made from stock/is not included in the price.
- Delivery will be made within two months of receipt of your order.
Ofers for hotel accommodation:
-

We are able to accommodate all the members of your group in single


and double rooms.
The rooms at the back of the hotel are very quiet.
There is an extra charge of for private bathrooms.
Please let us know your expected date of arrival and the duration of
your stay.

We shall reserve accommodation for you accordingly.

C. LETTERS OF COMPLAINT/REPLIES
Mild:
I hope you will replace
I would like to complain about the poor quality of service I recently received from your company.
I feel/believe that I am entitled to a replacement/refund.
I am writing in connection with a faulty appliance which I recently purchased from your store.
I hope this matter can be resolved/dealt with promptly.
I would appreciate it if you could look into this matter as soon as possible.
Strong:
I insist on/I demand a full refund/ an immediate replacement/etc or shall I be forced to take legal
action/the matter further
to sue=to take to court
I wish to make a serious complaint regarding your inefficient staff.
I hope that I will not be forced to take further action.

Useful phrases for Letters of Complaint


1 Regretam ca trebuie sa ne

exprimam nemultumirea fata


de calitatea..

3
4

In cazul in care nu vom primi


un raspuns satisfacator la
reclamatia facuta, ne vedem
obligati sa recurgem la
mijloacele legale.
Dvs. ne-ati facturat,
expediat.in loc de.
Voi suporta cheltuielile de
returnare a la domiciliul
meu..
Dupa efectuarea unei anchete
am constatat ca vina va
apartine.
Va rugam sa acceptati scuzele
noastre pentru toate

1.We regret that we have to complain


about the quality of..
2. Unless we receive a satisfactory
reply to our complaint, we shall be
obliged to take legal action
3. You have charged
for/sent..instead of
4. I will incur the costs of returning
the..to my place
5. Upon inquiry we found that there
must have been some
misunderstandings on your side/it
was your fault
6. We must ask you to accept our
apologies for any troubled caused by

inconvenientele cauzate de
aceasta eroare.

this error.

Va asiguram ca acest incident


nu se va repeta .

7. We can assure you that this will not


happen again.

Cu parere de rau am aflat ca


ati fost nemultumiti de .

8. We are sorry to learn that you were


dissatisfied with..

9 Am analizat obiectul
reclamatiei dvs

9. We have looked into the matter of


your complaint..

To sue/to take to court


To incur costs/losses
Satisfied/dissatisfied with
To look into

Letters of Complaint
Reclamatie cumparaturi prin
comanda postala

Complaint mail order purchase

Cu parere de rau va informez ca nu


sunt pe deplin multumit de
televizorul LG pe care mi l-ati
expediat in urma comenzii facute de
mine pe data de 25.09.2013. Am
specificat ca doresc un televizor
avand culoarea neagra. Am primit in
schimb un televizor de culoare alba.
S-ar parea ca greseala este a dvs. si,
prin urmare, va rog sa mi-l inlocuiti
cat mai curand posibil.

I am writing to inform you that I


am not completely satisfied with the
LG TV set that you sent following my
order of 25.09.2013. I had specified
that I wanted a TV set having a black
colour. I received in exchange a TV
set having a white colour. It would
appear that it was an error on your
part and I would be obliged if you
would supply replacement it as soon
as possible.

Va voi inapoia televizorul alb care nu


corespunde celui comandat de mine.
De asemenea cheltuielile de
transport vor fi suportate de catre
firma dumneavoastra

I will return the white TV set which is


not the one I ordered. Also, the
transportation costs will be on your
companys charge/you will incur the
transportation costs.

The answer to the letter of complaint

Raspuns la reclamatia
cumparaturii efectuate prin
comanda postala

Answer to the complaint of a


mail order purchase

Draga Domnule,
Cu parere de rau am aflat ca ati fost
nemultumiti de televizorul pe care vi
l-am livrat.
Ca urmare a reclamatiei
dumneavoastra am efectuat o
ancheta si am constatat ca vina ne
apartine. Veti primi televizorul de
culoare neagra maine dupa-amiaza.
Va rugam sa acceptati scuzele
noastre pentru toate inconvenientele
cauzate de aceasta eroare.

Dear Sir,
With regret we heard that you
were disssatisfied about the TV set
we delivered .
Following your complaint we have
made an inquiry and we found that it
was our mistake. You will receive the
black TV set tomorrow afternoon. We
must ask you to accept our apologies
for any troubled caused by this error.

Va asiguram ca acest incident nu se


va repeta.

We can assure you that this will not


happen again.

Cu stima,

Best regards,

INSURANCE

TO ASSURE: I assure you that he is right.


TO ENSURE: This course will ensure you a better job.
TO INSURE: You must insure both your house and your car.
Translate into English:
1. Tocmai a fost marita prima de asigurare.
The insurance premium has just been raised.
2. Suntem asigurati contra incendiului, inundatiilor,
cutremurelor si furtului.
We are insured against fire, flood, earthquake and theft.

3. Daunele sunt importante, dar nu s-au inregistrat victime.


Damage is extensive but there have been no casualities.
4. Incendiul a distrus numai aripa dreapta a cladirii din fata.
The fire destroyed only the right wing of the front building.
5. Persoana vatamata va fi despagubita in totalitate.
The injured person will be fully indemnified/will receive
complete compensation.
6. Cealalta parte isi declina orice responsabilitate.
The other party declines any responsibility.
7. Conform articolului mentionat mai sus, asiguratorul are
dreptul de a refuza reinnoirea politei.
Under the above mentioned article, the insurer is entitled
to refuse the renewal of the policy.
8. Clauza mentionata de dvs. nu se aplica acestui tip de
dauna/pierdere.
The clause you mentioned does not apply to this type of
damage/loss.
9. Prima devine scadenta la sfarsitul lunii.
The Premium will fall due at the end of the month.
10.
Daunele produse de inghet nu sunt incluse in garantie
(nu fac obiectul garantiei).
Damage due to freezing is not covered by the guarantee.
Cand intra in vigoare contractul?
When will the contract become efective?
11.
Cand intra in vigoare legea?
When will the law come into force?
12.
Contractul poate fi reziliat de asigurator sau de
asigurat sub rezerva unui preaviz de minimum 15 zile.
The contract can be terminated by the insurer or the
insured subject to at least 15 days notice.
13.
Litigiul se va inainta unui cuplu de arbitri.
The litigation will be submitted to two arbitrators.
14.
Unul dintre arbitri este numit de asigurat, celalalt de
asigurator.
One of the arbitrators is called by the insured, the other
by the insurer.
15.
Instiintarea de reziliere a contractului se va face prin
scrisoare recomandata.
The termination of the contract will be notified by
registered letter.

16.
Orice marturie falsa deliberat facuta atrage anularea
contractului/invalidarea contractului.
Any willful misrepresentation will make the contract null
and void/invalidate the contract.
17.
Asiguratul trebuie sa prezinte un deviz estimativ al
pagubei.
The insurer will have to supply an estimate of the damage.
To raise - ed
To rise-rose risen
The government has raised the prices again.
The prices have risen again.
Vocabulary
Insurance premium
renewal of the contract/policy

to renew the

Insured/insurer
notice, to notify

notice/to give a

To insure against
misrepresentation/misrepresent
Damage/loss
to pay for damages
policy/to take out an insurance policy
Casualties
the terms
The injured party
damage
To indemnify/indemnification
To be entitled to compensation
Party/third party

to comply with
to sue for

Liability/to decline any liability (the goods are liable to duty)


Under the article
To fall due/to become mature
Are not included in the guarantee/are not covered by
To become effective/operative
To come into force (law)
To cancel/to terminate a contract/termination
to conclude a contract
Litigation/to settle a litigation/a claim
to settle payments/accounts
Arbitrator/inventor
The contract is null and void
To assess/evaluate/appraise

assessment/evaluation/appraisal

Bancile au jucat un rol foarte important in dezvoltarea economiei moderne inca


de la inceputul activitatilor comerciale. Sucursalele lor au devenit ceva familiar
pe numeroase strazi orasenesti, dar si in sate, pe masura ce tot mai multi
oameni au in prezent un cont intr-o banca nationala sau regionala.
The banks have played a very important role/part in the development of modern economy since the
very beginning of commercial activities. Their branches have become a familiar sight on
many city streets, but also in villages, as more and more people now have an account in a
national or regional bank.
Bancile isi ofera serviciile atat persoanelor particulare cat si
intreprinderilor. Poti sa-ti deschizi un cont current sau un cont de deposit. Primul
permite cuiva sa utilizeze cecul ca plata, in loc de bani gheata, in timp ce al
doilea aduce o mica dobanda. Oamenii pot sa ceara bancii sa le plateasca
cheltuielile curente cum sunt abonamentele, chiriile, notele de plata pt. telefon,
gaz sau lumina electrica. Obiectele pretioase sau documentele oficiale pot fi
incredintate spre pastrare unei banci, platind o anumita taxa. Banca va obtine
devize, emite cecuri de calatorie si scrisori de credit care se platesc la sucursalele
sale sau la alte banci.
individual
business organization

personal account
current account
savings account
foreign currency
foreign trade company
the former/the latter
means of payment
interest/rate of interest
to issue/issuing bank
travellers cheques

The banks offer their services both to private individuals and to businesses/companies/business
organizations. You can open a current account or a deposit account. The former will enable a
person to use a cheque for payment/as means of payment/ instead of cash, whereas the latter
will bring a small interest. People can ask the bank to pay/settle their current expenses, such
as subscriptions, rents, phone bills, gas or electricity bills. Valuables or official documents
can be left in custody/ entrusted to a bank on payment of a certain charge. The bank will
obtain foreign currencies, issue travellers cheques and letter of credit payable at their
branches or at other (corresponding) banks.
Stock Exchange
overdraft

In afara de aceasta, bancile opereaza tranzactii la bursa pt. dumneavoastra si va dau consultatii in
materie de investitii. Ele dau si bani cu imprumut, in general pe termen scurt. Astfel pot sa
acorde facilitati de cont descoperit/sold debitor sau imprumuturi personale; daca evaluarea
creditului dvs. este buna si daca puteti oferi garantii, ele pot avea in vedere un credit pe term
mai lung. Aproape toate acestea se aplica si intreprinderilor, dar ele pot sa ceara bancii si
scontarea efectelor lor de comert: cambii (trate), sau chiar bilete la ordin. In domeniul
comertului exterior, bancile isi pot sprijini clientii prin finantare sau consultanta. Ele pot fi
consultate de una sau alta dintre partile contractante pentru a obtine informatii asupra situatiei
financiare a partenerului in cazul tranzactiilor comerciale.
The banks have played a very important role/part in the development of modern economy since the
very beginning of commercial activities. Their branches have become a familiar sight on
many city streets, but also in villages, as more and more people now have an account in a
national or regional bank.
The banks offer their services both to private individuals and to businesses/companies/business
organizations. You can open a current account or a deposit account. The former will enable a
person to use a cheque for payment/as means of payment/ instead of cash, whereas the latter
will bring a small interest. People can ask the bank to pay/settle their current expenses, such
as subscriptions, rents, phone bills, gas or electricity bills. Valuables or official documents
can be left in custody/ entrusted to a bank on payment of a certain charge. The bank will

obtain foreign currencies, issue travellers cheques and letter of credit payable at their
branches or at other (corresponding) banks.
In afara de aceasta, bancile opereaza tranzactii la bursa pt. dumneavoastra si va dau consultatii in
materie de investitii. Ele dau si bani cu imprumut, in general pe termen scurt. Astfel pot sa
acorde facilitati de cont descoperit/sold debitor sau imprumuturi personale; daca evaluarea
creditului dvs. este buna si daca puteti oferi garantii, ele pot avea in vedere un credit pe term
mai lung. Aproape toate acestea se aplica si intreprinderilor, dar ele pot sa ceara bancii si
scontarea efectelor lor de comert: cambii (trate), sau chiar bilete la ordin. In domeniul
comertului exterior, bancile isi pot sprijini clientii prin finantare sau consultanta. Ele pot fi
consultate de una sau alta dintre partile contractante pentru a obtine informatii asupra situatiei
financiare a partenerului in cazul tranzactiilor comerciale.
Besides, banks will operate transactions on the Stock Exchange for you and give advice on
investments. They also grant loans, generally on a short term basis. Thus they can grant
overdraft facilities or personal loans; if your credit assessment/rating is good and you can
offer some guarantees, they can take into account a long-term credit. Almost all these apply to
businesses/companies, too, but they can also ask for the discounting of their bills: Bills of
Exchange (drafts) or even Promissory Note. In the field of foreign exchange, the banks can
support their clients by financing or advising them. They can be referred by either contracting
party in order to get information about the financial status in commercial transactions.
Bank draft
To check/check/cheque/travellers cheque
To settle an account/to take into account/to give an account
The rate of interest
To subscribe subscription
To grant a loan
Overdraft
The account is overdrawn/is in the red
The account is in the black.

1. Se percepe dobanda pt. toate serviciile bancare.


An interest is charged on all banking services.
2. Ar fi bine sa cereti un descoperit inainte de a vi se epuiza
contul.
Youd better ask for an overdraft before your
account is overdrawn/in the red.
3. Depun intotdeauna obiectele mele de valoare si bijuteriile
sotiei intr-un seif bancar inainte de a pleca intr-o vacanta
de lunga durata.
I always deposit my valuables and my wifes jewels
in a bank safe before going on holiday.
4. Unde pot incasa acest cec?
Where can I cash this cheque?
5. Nu uitati sa inregistrati toate retragerile pe talonul
carnetului dvs. de cecuri.

Dont forget to record all


counterfoils in your cheque book.

withdrawals

on

to withdraw money
To withdraw money/withdrawal/to deposit
6. Ei mi-au propus sa rambursez un imprumut personal de
2000$ in 30 de rate lunare.
They ofered me to refund a $2,000 personal loan
over a 20-month period/in 30 installments.
7. Cand se redacteaza sau se andoseaza un cec, trebuie sa
se evite orice stersatura.
When writing out or endorsing a cheque, one must
be careful to avoid any erasure.
8. Camera de decontari/oficiul de clearing, va centraliza toate
operatiunile care se refera la schimbul interbancar de
efecte de comert si cecuri.
The clearing-house will focus all the operations
referring to the exchange of bills and cheques.
9. Bancile de investitii americane tocmai au crescut rata de
baza a dobanzii la 6, 75%, marind-o cu un sfert de punct.
The US investment banks have just raised their
prime rate to 6.79%, increasing it by point.
10.
S-a confirmat cresterea pretului pt. imprumuturi pe
termen scurt, in timp ce ratele (dobanzii) pe termen lung
raman stabile.
The increase in the price of short-term loans has
been confirmed, whereas long-term rates remain
stable.
11.
Banca centrala functioneaza in calitate de bancher pt.
guvern si alte banci si ca autoritate centrala de emisiune
monetara.
The Central Bank acts as a banker to the
government and to other banks, and as a central
money-issuing authority.
Issuing banks

issue