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DETAILED PROJECT REPORT

(REVISED)
FOR

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


IN

AGRA, UTTAR PRADESH

PREPARED BY:

rcues
Regional Centre for Urban & Environmental Studies
(Estd. by Ministry of Urban Development)
Government of India,
Adjacent Registrars Office,
University of Lucknow,
Lucknow

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,,Uttar Pradesh

List of Contents
Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

rcues

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.
Table of Contents
List of Annexures
List of Drawings
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Abbreviations

TOC - 1
TOC - 7
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Executive Summary

ES 1-4

Chapter
1

INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT


1.1
Definition of Solid Waste Management
1.2
Problems Due to Solid Waste
1.3
Current Status of SWM in India
1.4
Initiatives to Improve SWM
1.4.1
Honorable Supreme Court of India
Recommendations
1.4.2
Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules
1.4.3

1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal


Mission
1.4.4
Twelfth Finance Commission
Recommendations
Project Background
Project Objectives
Scope of Study
Approach and Methodology
Problem Identification
1.8.1
Primary and secondary data collection
1.8.2
Data Collation and Analysis
1.8.3
Gap analysis
1.8.4
Evaluation & Proposal, Detailed engineering,
1.8.5
BOQ and Cost estimates of the MSW
Management Plan

THE PLAN AREA-SITUATION ANALYSIS


2.1
Location and Extents
2.2
Population
2.3
Landuse
2.4
Physical Infrastructure

Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

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2.5

2.6

2.7
3

2.4.1
Roads
2.4.2
Storm Water Drains
2.4.3
Sewage Drains
2.4.4
Water Supply System
2.4.5
Electricity
2.4.6
Industries
Social Infrastructure
2.5.1
Career/Education
2.5.2
Health Services
2.5.3
Fire Fighting Services
2.5.4
Communication Services
Financial Status of Nagar Nigam Agra
2.6.1 Sources of Funds
2.6.2 Uses of Funds
Administrative Setup for MSW Management

STATUS OF EXISTING SWM SYSTEM


3.1
Waste Generation
3.1.1
Approach adopted for estimation of Waste
Generation
3.1.2
Waste being collected at Open Dumps and
Dustbins
3.1.3
Waste Reaching the Existing Dumping/
Trenching Site
3.1.4
Residential and Commercial Establishments
3.1.5
Industrial Establishment
3.1.6
Hospitals & Nursing Homes
3.1.7
Hotels/ Restaurants/ Banquet Hall
3.1.8
Slaughter Houses
3.1.9
Street Sweeping
3.1.10
Drain Silt
3.1.11
Construction and Demolition Sites
3.1.12
Recyclables
3.2
MSW Collection System in Agra City
3.2.1
Primary Waste Collection Systems
3.2.2
Secondary Waste Collection System
3.2.3
MSW Transportation System in Agra City
3.3
Waste Processing and Disposal Mechanisms
3.3.1
Recyclable Wastes
3.3.2
Bio-degradable wastes
3.3.3
Non-biodegradable Waste
3.4
Status of Present Disposal and Proposed Landfill site
3.5
Quantification and Characterization of Waste

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3.6
3.7

MSW Management System in Agra City


Expenditure on MSW Management

3-29
3-30

3.8

Gaps in Existing MSWM with respect to MSW Rules


2000
3.7.1
No Segregation practice at source
3.7.2
Primary collection of solid waste is not
Appropriate
3.7.3
Secondary storage of solid waste is
unorganized
3.7.4
Solid waste is Transported in Open Vehicles
3.7.5
Slaughter House Waste is mixed with MSW
3.7.6
Biomedical waste is not managed properly
in all health care facilities
3.7.7
Collection and disposal of construction
waste is not appropriate
3.7.8
Disposal of solid waste is not appropriate
3.7.9
Manual handling of solid waste

3-31

3.7.10

Lack of awareness among city residents and


civic authorities

PROPOSED MSW MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


4.1
Basis of Design for Proposed SWM Plan
4.2
Proposed MSW Management Plan
4.2.1
Primary Waste Collection System
4.2.2
Secondary Waste Storage System
4.2.3
Transfer Station
4.2.3.1 Waste Transportation System
4.3
Summary of Collection & Transportation
Infrastructure
4.4
Operation and Maintenance Costs (O&M costs) for
Collection and Transportation System
WASTE TO COMPOST PLANT
5.1
Introduction
5.2
Basis of Compost Plant Design
5.3
Process Design for Proposed MSW Composting Unit
5.3.1
Waste Receipt and Storage
5.3.2
Waste Pre-Processing
5.3.3
Windrow (Mechanical) Composting
5.3.4
Curing and Drying
5.3.5
Compost Refinement, Bagging and storage
5.4
Design of Compost Plant Infrastructure and
Equipments

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5.4.1

5.5
6

Receipt, Handling, and Pre-processing of


MSW (Tipping Area)
5.4.2
Composting
5.4.3
Curing Shed
5.4.4
Compost Drying Area
5.4.5
Sizing and Refinement Tower
5.4.6
Packing and Baggage Area
5.4.7
Finished Product Godown
5.4.8
Control Room
5.4.9
Administrative Building
5.4.10
Roads and Other Facilities
5.4.11
Water Supply and Sprinkling system
5.4.12
Electric Power
5.4.13
Green Belt and Garden Area
5.4.14
Compost Rejects
5.4.15
Total Area Requirement
Cost Estimates for Proposed Compost Plant

LANDFILL DESIGN
6.1
Conceptual Design
6.1.1
Waste to be Handled
6.1.2
Access Road
6.1.3
Land Area
6.1.4
Evaluation of Geology and Hydrology of the
site
6.1.5
Surface Drainage Facilities
6.1.6
Operational Plan
6.1.7
Layout of the MSW Landfill
6.1.8
Completed Waste Fill Features
6.1.9
Estimation of Landfill Capacity
6.1.10
Selection of Liner Systems
6.1.11
Selection Of Leachate Control Facilities
6.1.12
Effluent Treatment Plant Design
6.1.13
Selection Of Landfill Gas Control Facilities
6.1.14
Aesthetic Considerations
6.1.15
Monitoring Facilities
6.1.16
Determination of Equipment Requirements
6.1.17
Design Life
6.1.18
Post Closure Care
6.2
Technical Specifications
6.3
Cost Estimates

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OTHER OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE ASPECTS

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7.1

7.2

7.3
7.4
7.5

Management Information System


7.1.1
Objective
7.1.2
Waste Generation
7.1.3
Waste Collection
7.1.4
Waste Transportation
7.1.5
Waste Processing and Disposal
7.1.6
Performance Monitoring Indicators
Complaint Handling System
7.2.1
Essential features of a complaint handling
system
7.2.2
General Rules for Handling Complaints
7.2.3
Complaint handling system for Agra
Environment, Health and Safety Aspects
Project Benefits Assessment
Outcomes of the Projects

COST OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM

FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK
9.1
Project Financial Structuring
9.2
Project Financial Sustainability/O&M Framework and
Planning
9.2.1
Framework of the proposed PPP model
9.2.2
PPP in operation of collection, segregation
and storage of waste
9.2.3
PPP in transportation of waste to compost
plant and landfill
9.2.4
PPP in operation of compost plant
9.2.5
PPP in operation of landfill site
9.2.6
PPP in setting up of a Waste to Energy Plant
and its O&M thereafter
9.2.7
Users Charges/Revenue Generation /
tipping fee
9.2.8
Improvement in Revenue/Tipping Fee over
a period of time through PPP
9.2.9
Inspiration.

10

11

PROPOSED INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK


10.1
Recommendations for Institutional Strengthening
10.1.1
Public Private Partnership
10.2
Proposed Institutional Framework For Operation
And Maintainance
IEC & Capacity Building of NNA For Sustainable MSWM
11.1
Introduction

Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

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11.2
11.3

11.4

11.5

12

Objectives
Public Participation And Awareness Through IEC
Programmes
Approach of IEC plan
11.3.1
Strategy for creating Awareness
11.3.2
Training and Capacity Building of Nagar Nigam Agra
for MSW management
11.4.1
Objective
11.4.2
Specific Activities in Regard to
Training/Capacity Building Programmes
11.4.3
Some Proposed Tools/Methods
Awareness and Capacity Building of Schedule and
Activities Costing

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11.6
11.7
11.7
11-8

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

LIST OF ANNEXURES
Annexure-I

Annexure-II
Annexure-III

Recommendation of Honourable Supreme Court of India for


Solid Waste Management Practices for Class I Cities
Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules published by the
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEOF)
Objectives of Jawahar Lal Nehru national Urban Renewal
Mission
Twelfth Finance Commission recommendation on Local
Bodies grants & Inter state distribution

Chronological Record of Meetings & Visits

Minutes of the Stakeholders Meeting


Projected Population

Annexure-IV
Annexure-V
Annexure-VI

Ward wise Details and Break up of Waste Generation in Agra (2006)


Questionnaire Formats for Primary Survey
Sheet 1 : Compilation and Analysis of Open Dumps Survey Data
Sheet 2 : Compilation and Analysis of Dustbins Survey Data
Sheet 3: Waste characterization by SGS India Pvt. Ltd
Sheet 4: Calculation of Total Waste Generation in Agra City
Sheet 5: Photographs of Open Dumps and Dustbins

Annexure-VII
Annexure-VIII

Weigh slips of Waste Transportation vehicle


Household Survey photographs and Summary Sheet

Annexure-IX

Year wise Waste Generation In Agra


Compostable Waste
Lanfillable Waste
Technical Specifications for Waste Collection and Transportation
Infrastructure
Detail Cost Estimates of Construction Of New Dhalao
Detail Cost Estimates of Transfer Stations
Summary of Financial Statement
Cost estimates of Landfill & Quotations
Technical Specifications for Landfill Site
Details of Twelfth Finance Commission Grant for solid waste
management
Confirmation Letters for Land for Sanitary Landfill Facility and
Transfer station

Annexure-X
Annexure-XI
Annexure-XII
Annexure-XIII
Annexure-XIV
Annexure-XV
Annexure-XVI
Annexure -XVII

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

LIST OF DRAWINGS
Serial
Number

Drawings

Description

3146/Agra/01

City Plan of Agra Showing Nagar


Nigam And Ward Boundaries
Waste Collection Centre (DP Bins)&
Route Plan
Waste Collection Centers (Open
Dumps & Route Plan)
Map Showing Various Waste
Generating Areas in Agra City
Proposed Waste Collection System
Drawing for construction of WSD
(Dhalao)

3146/Agra/02

3146/Agra/03

3146/Agra/04

5
6

3146/Agra/05
3146/ Agra/Chap 4/01

3146/ Agra/Chap 4/02

3146/ Agra /Chap5

9
10

3146/ Agra /Chap6./01


3146/ Agra /Chap6./02

11

3146/ Agra /Chap6./03

12

3146/ Agra /Chap6./04

G.A. Drawing of Weigh Bridge, Scale


Room

13

3146/ Agra /Chap6./05

G.A. Drawing for Office Building and


MCC Room

14

3146/ Agra /Chap6. /06

15

3146/ Agra /Chap6./07

G.A. Drawing for Temporary Storage


Shed/
Segregation Area
G.A. Details of Tyre Washing Facility

16

3146/ Agra /Chap6./08

17
18
19

3146/ Agra /Chap6./09


3146/ Agra /Chap6./10
3146/ Agra /Chap6./11

Layout of MSW Transfer Station At


Agra
Layout Plan of Aerobic Compost Unit
(350 TPD) for Agra
Layout Plan of MSW Landfill for Agra
Leachate Collection System for MSW
Landfills
G.A. Drawing of Security Room

Typical Drawing for Construction of


WSD (Dhalao)
Sectional Details of MSW Landfill
Top Cover Plan
Leachate Treatment scheme for
Sanitary landfill

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

LIST OF TABLES
S.NO.

DESCRIPTION

Table 2.1

Population and Growth Rate-Agra

2-2

Table 2.2

Sex ratio of Agra City

2-2

Table 2.3

Existing Land use of Agra Development Area 2001

2-4

Table 2.4

Proposed Land Use as Per Master Plan 2021

2-4

Table 2.6

Type of SSI Unit

2-9

Table 2.7

Cash Flow Statement for NNA

2-11

Table 3.1

Calculation of Waste Collection at Secondary Waste


Collection Points

3-3

Table 3.2

Field survey result of per capita waste generation

3-4

Table 3.3

Waste Generation in Households

3-5

Table 3.4

Waste from Commercial Establishments

3-6

Table 3.5

Waste generation from Hospital

3-8

Table 3.6

Number of Hotels/Restaurants/Banquet Halls

3-11

Table 3.7

Waste from Hotels

3-11

Table 3.8

Waste from Restaurants

3-13

Table 3.9

Waste generation from banquet halls

3-14

Table 3.10

Details of Transportation Equipments

3-22

Table 3.11

Quantity and Characterization of MSW in Agra

3-28

Table 3.12

Physical Characterization of MSW as per CPHEEO


Manual

3-29

Table 3.13

Summery of Physical Waste Characteristics by SGS

3-29

Table 3.14

Manpower engaged for MSW management

3-30

Table 3.15

Expenditure on SWM in NNA in 2005-06

3-30

Table 4.1

Population estimates, waste quantities and waste


characterization of year 2006

4-2

Table 4.2

Classification of Non-biodegradable waste Year 2006

4-2

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Table 4.3

Primary waste collection system

4-4

Table 4.4

Required Infrastructure for collection of House Hold


Waste

4-6

Table 4.5

Infrastructure Required for Primary waste Collection and


Transportation

4-13

Table 4.6

Proposed ward wise secondary collection locations

4-15

Table 4.7

Quantity and cost estimates for secondary storage


infrastructure

4-20

Table 4.8

Quantity and cost estimates for transportation


infrastructure

4-23

Table 4.9

Summary of collection and transportation infrastructure

4-24

Table 4.10

O&M cost for waste transportation collection


infrastructure and personnel

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Table 5.1

Cost estimate for composting unit

5-10

Table 6.1

List of facilities Provided at Agra Landfill

6-4

Table 6.2

Capacity Calculation for MSW Landfill

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Table 6.3

Leachate Pipe sizing

6-11

Table 6.4

Monitoring Plan

6-14

Table 6.5

Summary of Cost Estimates

6-18

Table 6.6

Operation and Maintenance Cost

6-19

Table 7.1

Measures to guage performance of MSWM system

7-4

Table 8.1

Breakup of Cost of the Proposed Scheme

8-1

Table 8.2

Phased Implementation of Landfill Site

8-2

Table 9.1

Financial Plan

9-3

Table 9.2

PPP in MSW Management

9-5

Table 9.3

O&M cost/ annum of waste transportation infrastructure

9-7

Table 9.4

Profitability of Compost plant in 2009-10

9-8

Table 9.5

Summary of annual O & M Cost per annum at landfill

9-10

Table 9.6

User Charges / Revenue Generation /Tipping Fee

9-14

Table 9.7

Assumption and Profitability for Compost Plant

9-18

Table 9.8

Profitability Projections for Compost Plant

9-19

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Table 9.9

Cash Flow Statement for Compost Plant

9-20

Table 9.10

Projected balance Sheet for Compost Plant

9-21

Table 10.1

Specific roles and responsibilities of institution involved


in implementation and O&M

10-1

Table 11.1(A)

Awareness schedule & costing

11-8

Table11.1 (B)

Training and capacity building

11-9

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LIST OF FIGURES
S.NO.

DESCRIPTION

Figure 1.1

Approach and methodology

1-5

Figure 2.1

Proposed Land use as Per Master plan 2021

2-4

Figure 2.2

Distribution of SSI Units

2-9

Figure 2.3
Figure 5.1
Figure 5.2
Figure 5.3
Figure10.1

Organization Structure of Agra Nagar Nigam


Classification of Biological Treatment Methods
Process Design for MSW Composting
Windrow Turner
Proposed Institutional Framework

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CPCB

Central Pollution Control Board

Cu.ft.

Cubic feet

cum

Cubic meter

GIS

Geographical Information System

GPS

Geographical Positioning System

km

kilometer

NNA

Nagar Nigam Agra

MIS

Management Information System

MoEF

Ministry of Environment and Forest

MSW

Municipal Solid Waste

MT

Metric Ton

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

RCUES

Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies

RM

Running meter

Rs

Rupees

sqm

Square meter

sq. km.

Square kilometer

SWM

Solid Waste Management

TPD

Tonnes per day

Percentage

TFC

Twelfth Finance Commission

JnNURM

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission

IDSMT

Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns.

AUWSP

Accelerated Urban Water Supply Program

O&M

Operation and maintenance

PPP

Public Private Participation

CSS

Collection, Segregation and Storage.

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RCUES

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,,Uttar Pradesh

Executive Summary
Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

rcues

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies (RCUES), Lucknow has
been appointed Nodal agency by Government of Uttar Pradesh and entrusted with
responsibilities of managing all activities concerning to Municipal Solid Waste
Management in towns/cities of Uttar Pradesh.
As per the scope of work specified, RCUES has prepared a detailed project report
(DPR) and allied Engineering Drawings on Solid Waste Management Plan for Nagar
Nigam Agra (NNA) on an integrated approach inline with the guidelines of
MoEF/CPCB and MSW Rules 2000.
The detailed project report covers an introduction to project, background of the
planning area, status of the existing solid waste management system, proposed
MSW management system with cost estimates, equipment specifications and route
plans, design of waste (350 TPD) to compost plant with cost estimates, conceptual
design of sanitary landfill with cost estimates and engineering drawings, operational
and maintenance aspects, cost of proposed system, financial framework including
public private participation in the various components of MSW, proposed
institutional framework and details of community participation through IEC.
The option of waste to energy as an alternative to compost and the contribution of
rag pickers in keeping Agra clean have been discussed in detail in the detailed
project report.
Agra has a population of 14.26 lacs with a slum population of about 9.5%. It is
spread in an area of 141 sq. kms. The length of roads is about 1724 kms. There are
200 open dumps, 9 dhalaos, 116 dustbins spread all over the city. NNA has about
2865 safai karamcharis which includes 650 safai karamcharis on contract basis and a
fleet of 96 vehicles of different type/age to carry out the MSWM activity. The waste
in the city is being dumped at one authorized site a few kilometers away from the
city. The rag picking community of close to 6000 people spread all over the city is
involved in removing recyclable waste.
NNA incurs an expenditure of about Rs 28.1 crores annually on MSWM. The entire
expenditure on this activity is financed mainly from the funds it received from the
State Finance Commission.
An analysis of the extensive survey data indicates that a total quantity of 709.03 TPD
waste is generated in Agra out of which 43.9% (311.26 TPD) is organic, 21.2% (150.31
TPD) is recyclable, 8.5% (60.27 TPD) is drain silt, 5.0% (35.45 TPD) is street sweeping
waste, 16.1% (114.15 TPD) is construction waste and remaining 5.3% (37.58 TPD) is
mixed waste. The calculations also suggest that per capita per day waste generation
is around 497 gms/ capita/ day.

Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

rcues

Executive Summary

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

The following gaps were found in the existing MSW management with respect to
MSW Rules 2000 in Agra:

The existing state of the open dumps in the city, road side dumps, clogged
nallahs reflect the inefficiency of the present system. The safai karamcharis
also dump the drain silt and waste at open dumps.
There is a lack of awareness among city residents and civic authorities.
Awareness for segregation of waste at source was very low and no
segregation of waste was practiced at source
Primary collection of solid waste was not appropriate. There was only limited
door to door collection of waste.
Secondary storage of solid waste is unorganized and efficient. The dustbins
were broken or rusted. There were no closed dhallaos and main collection
points were all open dumps. Animals strayed on open dumps, collection bins
overflowed and waste collection appeared to be poor. There was no marking
for segregation of waste into separate bins.
Solid waste is transported in open vehicles like tipper trucks. Safai
karamcharis involved in this activity do not use any personal protection
equipment (PPE) for their protection
Slaughter house waste is mixed with the MSW. Biomedical waste is not
managed properly in all health care facilities.
Collection and disposal of construction waste is not appropriate. In EWS and
LIG houses it is mixed with household waste
Disposal of solid waste is not appropriate as waste was being thrown at
unauthorized dump yards.

In the DPR, the MSW management, operation, primary & secondary collection and
transportation system are proposed in accordance with the guidelines issued by
CPCB/ MoEFF, actual site conditions as depicted from the extensive surveys
conducted and in line with MSW Rules 2000.
New rickshaws, wheelbarrows, containers and bins have been proposed for primary
collection and secondary storage of waste. Along with the utilization of some of the
existing vehicles, modern transport vehicles have been proposed for waste
transportation.Apart from this Waste Infrastructure Depot (WID) in each sanitary
ward is proposed for storage of MSW infrastructure in use and also for available
additional / backup infrastructure.
For the design of sanitary landfill, important issues like waste to be handled, access
road , land area, evaluation of geology and hydrology of the site, surface drainage,
operational plan, layout of MSW landfill, completed waste fill features, estimation of
landfill capacity, embankment, foundation, selection of liner systems , selection of
leachate control facilities, selection of landfill gas control facilities, aesthetic
considerations, post closure care, ground water protection, monitoring facilities,
determination of equipment requirements, estimated cost of the project design life
have been carefully analyzed and a rational concept has been developed.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Design has also been developed for waste (350 TPD) to compost plant. For design
due consideration has been given to basis of compost plant design, curing shed,
compost drying area, sizing and refinement tower, packing and baggage area,
finished product godown, control room, administrative building, roads and other
facilities, water supply and sprinkling system, electric power, weigh bridge, green
belt and garden area, compost rejects etc The cost estimates are prepared and area
requirement worked out.
The DPR envisages for IEC & capacity building of stakeholders, program
implementation,
approach to IEC implementation covering program
communication, social mobilization, identification of areas where community
participation, methodology for conducting training programs with schedule are
provided in details.
The total project outlay is estimated at Rs 3393.3 lacs as detailed below:
Cost of the Proposed Scheme
Particulars
- Collection

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.

Total
Outlay
Rs in lacs
500.45

- Storage
340.65
- Transportation to site/plant
571.88
Sub total of above
(Collection/Storage/Transportation)
Compost plant
Landfill site (for use during the first 5 years):
Contingencies @ 3% on A to C
Capital Cost (A+B+C+D)
Preparing of Detailed Project Report @1.5% of E
Capacity Building , IEC @ 1.5% of E above
Efficiency @ 1% of E above
Innovative Approach @ 1 % of E above
Incentives (F+G+H+I+J)
Third Party Project Monitoring and Evaluation @ 5% of
E above
Total Cost of the Proposed Scheme (E+J+K)

1412.98
772.46
808.73
89.82
3083.99
46.26
46.26
30.84
30.84
154.20
154.20
3393.3

The tools, equipment, machinery and fleet of vehicles for collection, segregation,
storage and transportation for waste are proposed to be upgraded and/or replaced.
The investment on account aggregates to Rs 1412.98 lacs.
The capital outlay for the 350 TPD waste to compost plant is proposed at Rs 772.46
lacs.

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The total proposed investment in landfill for a life of 25 years is estimated at Rs 3299
lacs. Out of this the cost of landfill site development for use during the first 5 years
estimated at Rs 808.73 lacs has been considered in the capital cost outlay.
The total cost of the scheme is proposed to be financed by grants under the Jawahar
Lal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM), Twelfth Finance Commission, funds
from the State Government , NNA as would be approved by the competent
authority.
As per the recommendations of the GoI, PPP has been proposed in the O&M of the 4
areas of MSW. It has been found from the earlier experiences of PPP that it leads to
more efficient and reliable operations as the governance remains in the hands of
government and operation is the hands of Private organizations. For this contracts
should be finalized after calling for tenders and private partners with good financial
background and related experience should be inducted. Incentives by way of reward
and punishment should be a part of the PPP agreement.
The activity of street sweeping and silt removal would be done by the existing staff
of the NNA. The door to door collection of waste will be brought under PPP in a
phased manner, ward wise. The operation of the compost plant and the landfill site
should be brought under PPP from the startup of these facilities. NNA should also
address the social concerns of the rag picker community who play a major role in
segregating waste and cleaning the city.

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Executive Summary

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,,Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 1

Introduction to the Project


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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 1
1.1

INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT

Definition of Solid Waste Management

Solid Waste Management (SWM) is an organized process of storage, collection,


transportation, processing and disposal of solid refuse residuals in an engineered
sanitary landfill. It is an integrated process comprising several collection methods,
varied transportation equipments, storage, recovery mechanisms for recyclable
material, reduction of waste volume and quantity by methods such as composting,
waste-to-power and disposal in a designated engineered sanitary landfill.
The selection of a suitable SWM process is driven by the source and quality of waste
produced. Solid waste is generated from a number of sources which include
households (kitchen and yards), commercial areas (shops, hotels, and restaurants),
industries (raw material and packaging), institutions (schools, hospitals, and offices),
construction and demolition sites, wild and domesticated animals (carcasses of dead
animals, manure), parks (fallen branches, leaves from trees) and streets (sand, silt,
clay, concrete, bricks, asphalt, residues from air deposition and dust).

1.2

Problems Due to Solid Waste

Accumulation of solid waste in open areas is an eyesore, diminishing real estate and
property value, a breeding ground for insects and other vectors (rats and mice, wild
and domesticated animals, as well as humans who may come in contact with
contaminated wastes). It also causes odour nuisance, reflects the unorganized nature
of the community and creates a poor environment for growing children.
Improper and unorganized disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in open areas
and landfills have a negative impact on the living conditions of human beings as
well as the overall environment. It results in spread of communicable and noncommunicable diseases among human beings and animals, thus affecting the
welfare, livelihood and economic productivity. In addition, it causes contamination
of soil, surface water, ground water and generation of toxic and green-house gases.
However, using adequate information, resources and efficient management
practices, one can turn solid waste into a useful resource.

1.3

Current Status of SWM in India

Management of Solid Wastes is of growing


concern to the general public at large, local
authorities and business communities in
cities and citys across India. The problem is
exacerbating in urban areas due to rapid
strides in population growth coupled by an
economic boom that encourages the

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Average Rate of MSW


MSW generated in small, medium, and
large cities and citys in India is about
0.1 kilograms (kg), 0.3-0.4 kg, and 0.5
kg per capita per day, respectively
(Central Pollution Control Board
[CPCB]).

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

consumption of goods and hence waste generation. As per Census 2001, the urban
population accounts for 28-percent of the total Indian population.
The Local Governing Bodies (LGBs) viz. Nagar Nigam and Nagar Palika Parisad are
responsible for providing SWM services in
the urban areas. In most of the urban areas, Average Composition of MSW
insufficient funds, use of obsolete and/or MSW primarily comprises of 30-35%
inefficient technologies, lack of public of organic fraction, 3-6% of
recyclables (paper and plastic), 40awareness/
training,
and
improper
45% of inert material, and less than
infrastructure have resulted in a poor state of one-percent glass and metal (National
SWM.
Environmental Engineering Research
Institute [NEERI]).

1.4

Initiatives to Improve SWM

In the recent years, Government of India has taken several initiatives so as to


improve the existing SWM practices in the country. Some of the key initiatives and
recommendations are discussed as under:

1.4.1 Honorable Supreme Court of India Recommendations


In recent years, the current SWM system in India has got considerable attention from
the Central and State Governments and local municipalities. The first initiative was
taken by the Honorable Supreme Court of India in 1998, which resulted in formation
of a Committee to study the current status of SWM in Indian cities. This Committee
identified the deficiencies/ gaps in the existing SWM system in the country and
prepared the Interim Report on SWM Practices in Class I cities. Class I cities are
cities with a population ranging between one lakh to ten lakhs (1, 00,000 to 10,
00,000). The recommendations of the Committee that pertain to MSW design criteria
are provided in Annexure I of this report.

1.4.2 Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules


As a second initiative, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF),
Government of India, published Municipal Solid Waste (Management and
Handling) Rules 2000 (MSW Rules 2000). These rules were developed in
conformance with Sections 3, 6 and 25 of the Environment Protection Act, 1986 and
aim at standardization and enforcement of SWM practices in the urban sectors.
These rules dictate that Every municipal authority shall, within the territorial area
of the municipality, be responsible for the implementation of the provisions of these
rules and infrastructure development for collection, storage segregation,
transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid wastes. In addition, the
CPCB shall coordinate with State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) and Pollution
Control Committees (PCCs) in the matters of MSW disposal and its management
and handling. A summary of the SWM rules of 2000 document is provided in
Annexure I

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

1.4.3 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission


The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) is the third
notable initiative undertaken by Government of India. JNNURM provides funding
for urban infrastructure development in 63 cities and citys of the country. This
mission has been initiated in 2006 and is slated to continue until 2011. The objectives
of this mission are included in Annexure I

1.4.4 Twelfth Finance Commission Recommendations


The Twelfth Finance Commission (TFC) under Department of Expenditure,
Government of India, has recommended measures to augment the Consolidated
Funds of the States to supplement resources of the Rural Local Bodies (RLBs)
(Panchayats) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) (Municipalities). These funds are
allocated to the the RLBs and ULBs based on the recommendation made by the State
Finance Commissions (SFCs). In addition, in accordance with the recommendations
made by the TFC, sum of Rs.20, 000 crores and Rs.5, 000 crores has been allocated for
RLBs and ULBs, respectively, for the period 2005-10.
The funds allocated to the RLBs are being utilized for providing water supply and
sanitation in rural areas while the funds allocated to the ULBs are being utilized for
enhancing the solid waste management services in urban areas under public-private
partnership. In addition, municipalities with population of over 100,000 (as per 2001
census) are required to prepare a comprehensive scheme including composting and
waste to energy systems to be undertaken in the private sector for appropriate
allocation of funds. The main recommendations by the TFC are summarized in
Annexure I

1.5

Project Background

As a part of the TFC, Agra intends to enhance the existing SWM system for Agra and
thus improve the health and living standards of its residents. For this purpose, NNA
has assigned Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies (RCUES),
Lucknow, with the task of preparing a Detailed Project Report (DPR) for Solid Waste
Management for Agra.

1.6

Project Objectives

The purpose of this DPR is to identify the existing SWM practices within Agra,
recognize deficiencies/ gaps in the present system and propose a comprehensive
integrated plan for SWM in Agra in compliance with the MSW Rules 2000.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

1.7

Scope of Study

The scope of work includes the following:

1.8

Detailed survey of the prevailing conditions


o Quantification and characterization of the MSW
o Gap analysis based on the MSW Rules 2000
Design an MSW management system in accordance with MSW Rules, 2000
o Collection and Transportation System (CTS)
o Waste processing system
o Integrated Sanitary Landfill Facility (ISLF)
O & M Plan addressing
o Stakeholders complaints
o Management of Information Systems (MIS)
o Environment, Health and Safety (EHS)
Preparation of Bill of Quantities (BOQ)
Capital and Operation &
Maintenance (O&M) cost estimates
MSW management model including privatization aspects
Approach and Methodology

This DPR proposes a comprehensive SWM management and implementation plan


for Agra city. In order to address each of the problems associated with the current
SWM system in Agra city, a series of steps were adopted, which are summarized in
Figure 1.1.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

Problem Identification

Primary & Secondary Data Collection

Data Collation & Analysis

Gap Analysis

Evaluation of MSW Management Alternatives

Propose MSW Management Plan

BOQs & Cost Estimates

Financial Framework for Project Implementation

Institutional Framework including Privatization Options

Project Implementation Plan

Figure 1.1: Approach and Methodology

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

1.8.1

Problem Identification

With the start of the project, RCUES team interacted with various departments of the
City, viz. Municipal Commissioner, Executive officer, Nagar Nigam Agra(NNA) and
Agra Development Authority (ADA) (the records of meetings are enclosed as
Annexure II this report). The objective of these meetings was to get ourselves
acquainted with the people whom we will be interacting with, in the due course of
the project and to get first hand information about the present waste management
system being practiced in Agra, so as to identify major problem areas. The RCUES
team then explained their understanding and roadmap to execute the project and
understood the point of view of officials in this regard.
Following are the major points of discussion during the problem identification stage:
The total area of the Agra, is 141 square kms
The awareness level of Agra residents, regarding waste management is observed
to be very low.
Transportation of waste using heavy vehicles is very difficult; this is primarily
due to congested roads. It was also found that a ring road may be constructed
around the city. This would be helpful in better transportation planning.
The city of Agra has underground sewerage system. About 17% of area is covered by
sewerage system, of which 50% is not in working condition.

There is one slaughterhouse and a number of unauthorized meat shops in the


City. It was found that these slaughter houses/ shops do not follow clean
methods for possessing meat. The waste from slaughter houses (skin, horns, and
bones) is sold to processing or recycling units, from where it is exported. The
remaining waste such as flesh cuttings are thrown away in open dumps which is
lifted by NNA along with MSW.
For disposal and management of Bio-Medical waste (BMW), an organization,
Dutta Enterprises lifts the waste dumped outside the medical establishments in
dual bins and transports the same to incineration facility operated by them on the
outskirts of the city. However, all the clinics or smaller nursing homes etc are not
registered with the Dutta enterprises and often dump the BMW at open
dumpsites/ dhalaos along with the MSW.
According to NNA estimates, there are around 153 hotels, 700 restaurants and 88
Banquet Halls within the NNA boundary. It is to be noted that many of these
establishments including are unregistered. Hence, NNA is not able to formulate a
detailed plan for waste collection from these places.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

1.8.2

Primary and secondary data collection


From the earlier experience of similar projects, RCUES team anticipated that
to understand the problems of both the NNA and the public, it was essential
to undertake both secondary and primary data collection.
The major source of secondary data for this project was Nagar Nigam Agra
and other government and non-government organizations.
Secondary data was collected after discussions with NNA officials to
understand the present practice of waste management and disposal system in
Agra. Detailed questionnaires were prepared (refer Annexure V of this report
for sample questionnaires) to collect information from these organizations in a
streamlined and organized fashion at macro level. In this regard, following
preliminary information was also collected to help in framing the
methodology for primary data collection.

Map of Agra with Municipal Limits


Census Details Year 2001, 1991, 1981, 1971, 1961, 1951
Organization structure of Nagar Nigam Agra
Total Number of House holds in Nagar Nigam Agra
List of Markets in Nagar Nigam Agra(Commercial Markets, Mandies)
List of Hospitals, Nursing homes in Nagar Nigam Agra, list of Hotels in
Agra Nagar Nigam
List of Industries in Nagar Nigam Agra Ward wise Map
List of Abattoirs, Slaughter Houses in Nagar Nigam Agra , list of Contact
Persons (Sanitary Inspectors, In charge Transportation, Ward Councilors,
Landfill) of Nagar Nigam Agra
Number of persons involved in MSWM
Existing Trenching Location,
Workshop Location
List of Vehicles, Waste transportation equipment
Ward-wise population distribution
Based on the evaluation of available secondary data and the outcome of
discussions with the NNA our strategy and approach to complete each and
every stage of the project was framed.
The major waste quantification was conducted from the Dhalaos/
Dustbins/Open dumpsites of the city from where waste is dumped by
different sections of the society, later the results were compared with the
records available with the NNA and the evaluations of the transportation
system conducted by RCUES team for total waste generation per day.

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The major reasons for considering the Dhalaos/Dustbins/open dumpsite as


the best suited location for primary data collection for quality and quantity of
waste are:
It was highlighted during the meetings & transacts of different wards
made by RCUES project team that most of the waste, including the
MSW, BMW, and Waste from eating joints/ Hotels/ Restaurants/
Dhabas/ Guest Houses/ Banquet Halls, waste from slaughter houses,
is being dumped in the Dhalaos/ Dustbins/Open dumpsites.
If only, door to door survey would have been conducted, the results
would have been based only on the information provided by the
respondents and may have had errors.
Door to door survey would also not have included drain silt, street
sweeping, construction waste etc, which are responsible as an
important and a large part of waste to be transported in the City.
Hence, primary data were collected from these dhalaos. In addition to this,
primary survey has also been conducted at Hospitals, Hotels, and commercial
centers and at house hold level also. (Refer Annexure V for sample survey
formats). Results are provided in chapter 3 of this report.
During the primary survey, the RCUES team interacted with nearby
residents, took photographs of the site and conducted waste quantification
and characterization. Dhalao/dustbins/Open dumps have been selected and
detailed survey of these sites has been carried out. (The Dhalao survey
photographs are enclosed as Annexure VI for ready reference).
This was followed by waste quantification at site and waste characterization
(physical) by quarter tine method. Details of the method are provided in
chapter 3 of this report.
Following are the activities undertaken under this task:
Survey of waste storage centers (Dhalaos/Open dumps/Bins) to access the
quantity of waste generated in each ward and total waste generated in NNA
boundary
Comparison of default per capita waste generation factors with total waste
generated
Physical Characterization of waste percentage wise as
Sr. No
1

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Waste Category
Inert Waste

Constituents
Bulky wastes like mats &
beddings,
Stones
Mud (from street sweepings)

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Porcelain & Sanitary ware


Ash

Organic Waste

leaves,
Fruits and vegetable peals,
Rotten veg and fruits,
Left over food,
Organic wastes from kitchens and
markets
and Horticulture wastes.

Drain Silt

Silt from drain including blackish


matter that includes waste which
is not visible as it is either
decomposed or cant be
differentiated.

Recyclable

Construction Debris

Plastics
Metals
Papers
Glass
Plastic bags
Clothes
Cardboards
Cartoons
Boxes
Rubber
Packaging
Disposal materials from restraints
Broken Concrete
Brick
Sand
Stone & Aggregates

Chemical Characterization of Waste for following parameters


1
2
3
4
5

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Moisture Content
Calorific value
Bulk Density
Ph
Conductivity

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6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

c/n ratio
Organic Carbon
Total Solids (% by mass)
Lignin Content (% by mass)
Total Volatile Solids (1:5) Rat
Loss on Ignition
Total Potassium (as k.mg/kg)
Nitrogen (% by mass)
Phosphorous ( % by mass)
Sulphur (as S, % by mass on dry basis)
Iron
Copper
Zinc
Nickel
Manganese
Chromium
Cadmium
Mercury
Lead
Selenium
Arsenic
Pesticide

Apart from the Dhalao/Dustbin/Open dump site survey, the City was
surveyed thoroughly and areas were traced as per density of population and
standards of living of the people. Similarly, survey of major waste generation
sources, waste storage centers in the city and landfill sites were carried out to
assess the present waste storage infrastructure, frequency of waste collection,
segregation of waste, recycle and disposal practices in Agra city. Waste
collection and transportation fleet management system was studied; fleet
maintenance measures and route plans of waste transportation system were
traced.
1.8.3

Data Collation and Analysis


The waste quantity and characterization details gathered during primary
survey were compiled and analyzed. The quantities were also compared with
the waste transported from each sanitary ward. The data was duly compiled
and details are provided in chapter 3 of this report
Waste quantities are also analyzed and calculated to provide a break up for
each ward and arrive at per capita per day waste generation figures. The
results are also compared with the per-capita waste generation figures as
provided by the NNA.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

The Census 2001 figures of population for Nagar Nigam Agra are used to
calculate the population projections for each ward. The Projections are done
using the methods recommended in CPHEEO Manual. Waste generation
figures are also calculated on the basis of these projected figures and the per
capita waste generation figures. The same are enclosed as Annexure IX of this
report.

1.8.4

Gap analysis
Gaps in the existing waste management system were identified with reference
to the MSW Rules 2000, the information provided by the NNA officials and
the existing scenario as per the results of the primary survey.
During the survey awareness level of general public in regard to segregation
of waste and other environmental friendly waste management practices was
accessed
Backup fleet and equipments with the Nagar Nigam Agra were also analyzed
by conducting meetings with NNA officials and the present conditions of
these equipments were also assessed.
Following are the highlights of this exercise

Comparison of default per capita waste generation factors with per capita
waste generation figure as derived from the survey.
Adjudging the availability and requirement of waste management
equipments, the analysis was used for conceptualization of the proposed
plan.
The existing waste management is not organized & scheduled and hence,
requires up gradation.
The awareness level regarding the SWM rules and the acceptability is very
low.
The residents & the shop keepers of the LIG and MIG areas dump waste at
the nearest open dump site and/ or on the streets or in vacant plots.
Many of the Eating joints/ Hotels/ Restaurants/ Dhabas/Guest Houses/
Banquet Halls of the City are unauthorized. Hence the NNA is not able to
formulate a detailed plan for waste collection from these places.

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1.8.5

Evaluation & Proposal, Detailed engineering, BOQ and Cost estimates of


the MSW Management Plan
Based on the outcomes of the Primary and Secondary data collection, collation
and analysis results, discussions with the stakeholders, NNA, and the best
judgments made by the RCUES experts, alternatives were considered and
evaluated and a most suitable MSW management model developed for
implementation.
Further, detailed engineering, cost and estimates for this plan were developed
and considered for producing a finance model.
Refer chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8 for details regarding detailed engineering, BOQ,
Cost estimates, landfill design, operational and maintenance aspects.

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CHAPTER 2

The Plan Area- Situation Analysis


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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 2 THE PLAN AREA SITUATION ANALYSIS


This chapter provides an overview of the location, current extents of Agra city, its
existing and projected populations, land use pattern and existing physical & social
infrastructure. It also details the current financial status of NNA and its
administrative setup for MSW management.
The information provided in this chapter was procured through various sources
such as NNA, Agra Development Authority (ADA), discussions with the local
residents and site investigations performed by the RCUES project team.
While some of this information directly forms the basis of the design for the
components of MSW management, the rest gives the feel of the city and its
parameters for which the MSW management system is being proposed.
2.1 Location and Extents
The city of Agra is situated on the Western Bank of river Yamuna on National
Highway (NH-2) at about 200 kms from Delhi in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Agra is
geographically located between 2705 and 2715 latitude in north direction and
longitude 7807 and 7753 in east direction
The Agra city is situated on the banks of the river Yamuna. The city is known for Taj
Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World which draws tourist from all over the
world. The city has rich historical background, which is amply evident from the
numerous historical monuments in and around the city. Large number of domestic
and foreign tourist visit Agra. It is a part of the golden triangle of tourism-Delhi,
Jaipur, Agra.
The city has an area of 141sq.km which falls under the jurisdiction of Agra Nagar
Nigam. The city is divided into 90 election wards. These election wards are further
grouped into 19 sanitary wards for solid waste management. This area has been
used to design the MSW collection and transportation system in the proposed
integrated plan in this DPR.

2.2 Population
As per as census 2001, the population of Agra is estimated 12.75 lakhs (excluding
population of cantonment of Agra) with a decadal growth rate of 30.37%. During the
post-independence period commerce showed a phenomenal increase with the
associated industrial development and establishment of industrial estate, which
resulted in the increase of city population. In the last four decades growth rate was
maximum of 32.15%. The increase in the Nagar Nigam limits in the year 1981
attributed to the increase in population and high growth rate. Table: 2.1 shows
decadal population and growth rate from 1961-2001.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

The historical growth rate has been derived based on the past decadal population of
the city and cantonment, the future population has been projected only for Agra city
that falls within the limits and under the purview of NNA. The ward wise
population for the 90 election wards is included in Annexure IV. In addition, the
census estimates from 1961 to2001 have been used to project the population for years
2006, 2011, 2021, and 2031 (Table 2.1) for Agra city. The calculations for population
projections are done by various methods as recommended by CPHEOO Manual for
solid waste Management and these are summarized in Annexure III. The projected
population for 2011 has been used in planning the collection and transportation
equipment and the compost plant and the projected population for 2031 for
designing the land fill site. The plan, however, purposes phased land fill and
composting site designs to accommodate the increase in MSW considering the
changes in population with time.

Table2.1: Population and Growth Rate- Agra


Population and Growth Rate Agra (Census of India, 2001)
Year
1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
2006
2011
2016
2021

Population
462000
591000
781000
978000
1275134
Population Projection
1426617
1590570
1768592
1957393

Growth Rate (%)


27.92
32.15
25.22
30.37

11.5
11.2
10.7

E
The sex ratio measures the extent of prevailing equity between males and females in
the project area. As per the Census 2001, the sex ratio in the city is 846 females per
thousand males, which is les than the district figure of 898 females per thousand
males.
Table 2.2: Sex Ratio
Year
Sex Ratio
1971
829
1981
821
1991
832
2001
846
Source: Census of India, 2001
As per as census 2001, the literacy rate in the city is 60.14%, which is less than the
literacy rate of the district (64.97 %).
There is large poor population in the city. At overall city level nearly 17760
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households has been identified as household below poverty line.


As per the census 2001, the total slum population in the city is 121761. The
percentage of slum population in the city is 9.5% of the total population, which is
less than the percentage of slum population to the total urban population of the state
(12.7 percent).
As per DUDA there are 252 slum pockets with a population of the order 5.5 lakhs i.e.
about 44 percent of the total population. Out of the total number of 80 wards (after
delimitation 90 wards) in the city, 44 number of wards have slums. The slum
population in the ward varies from 2.66 % to maximum of 91.85%.

2.3 Land Use


Table 2.3 Existing Land Use of Agra Development Area 2001
Land use
Residential
Commercial
Whole Commercial
Industrial
Community Facility
Office
Traffic & Transportation
Crenulations/ Burial ground
Park Place Ground
Historical Monument
Nursery
Gardens
Sewage Farms
Total

Percentage
61.84
1.88
0.75
6.87
10.66
2.25
10.87
0.40
1.33
1.47
0.30
0.87
0.49
100

Master Plan of 2021 takes into account the requirements of urban population of 22.5
lakh as estimated by 2021(Master plan 2021) and focusing on citys historical and
archeological significance. The total future land requirement for the city is 200.36 sq
km. The percentage breakups for the proposed Land use is given in Table 2.4 and Fig
2.1

Table 2.4 Proposed Land Use as per Master Plan 2021

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Land use
Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Office
Tourism
Public&
Traffic & Transportation
Recreation
&
Open
Spaces
Other open spaces
Other
Total

Percentage
49.53
2.72
8.01
2.54
0.89
8.80
10.79
4.37
2.10
10.25
100

Fig 2.1 Proposed Land Use as per Master Plan 2021

Other Open Other


Recreation &
Spaces 10.25%
Open spaces
2.10%
4.37%

Residential
49.53%

Traffic &
Transportation
10.79%
Public & Semi
Public
8.80%
Tourism
0.89%

Office
2.54%

Industrial
8.01%

Commercial
2.72%

2.4 Physical Infrastructure


The RCUES field team carried out an indepth study of various infrastructure
facilities within the city such as roads,
storm water drains, sewage, water supply,
electricity, and social infrastructure. The
following subsections discuss the survey
results of these infrastructures as they
would influence the proposed MSW
Management system plan and design.

Poor Condition of Road

2.4.1 Roads

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Agra is well connected by air, rail and road network. The city is considered, from
tourism point of view, to be one of the nodes of golden triangle consisting of Delhi
Agra Jaipur.
The road network of the city offers poor level of service affecting safety, efficiency
and economy of traffic operation within the city. The total road length maintained by
Agra Nagar Nigam is 1724 km out of which 840 km is bituminized, 270m is concrete
cemented, 320 km is kharanja and 294 km is covered by kutcha roads. The total
maintenance cost of roads is Rs. 759.88.The width of existing roads is varying from
7m to 18m.
However the ward wise verification done
by the sanitary inspectors on the basis of
allocation of beats show a road length of
720 Km and concrete road length of 140
Km making a total of 860 Km.
The roads within the old city are narrow
for traffic and encroached upon both sides
by shopkeepers. This part of the city gives
a congested appearance.

Parking on road reduces capacity

Mahatma Gandhi Road (MG Road) acts as north-south spine of the city dividing the
CIS Yamuna area into two parts. It is a major commercial corridor handling about
60-70% of the traffic. Thus it is the busiest road of the city, which has traffic
congestion problems in the following six junctions: Bhagwan Takies, Hariparwat,
Raja Mandi, St. Johns, Collectorate and State bank.
2.4.2 Storm Water Drains
Fifthly nallahs or drains crisis cross almost whole length and breadth of the city.
Apart from the poor image of the city, these create unhygienic living conditions. The
maintenance of the nallahs is poor and smaller nallahs have been encroached. This
prevents cleaning and maintenance of the nallahs causing floods and overflowing in
the heavy flow conditions mainly the monsoons.
Primary and Secondary drains
City is divided into two major zones: CIS Yamuna and TRANS Yamuna based on
major physical boundary River Yamuna. The CIS and Trans Yamuna area is further
divided into 11 drainage zone which are covering total number of 62 drains covering
a catchment area of about 96.85 sq km.

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Open drains in Sanjay Palace

Nallah near Agra Fort

There are about twenty-five major drains in CIS and Trans Yamuna areas, which
directly falls into the river Yamuna and there are about thirty-eight secondary
drains. In Agra Primary and secondary drains account for 68.85% of the total city
area.
Mantola nallah is the longest nallah of the city
and covers around one third of the city
catchments. Primary and secondary drains/nallah
are of mixed type i.e. Kutcha and Pucca. These
drains/nallah are mainly made in brick masonry
without plaster and some portion in stone
masonry. These drains are heavily silted and
broken in many places and are in very bad
conditions.

Mantola Nallah

Tertiary Storm Water Drains


There are not much tertiary drains in Agra. Tertiary drains are roadside drains,
which are missing in majority portion of Agra. These drains are pucca drains (lined
in brick and stones masonry).
Almost all the nallahs face the problem of clogging because of the buildings that
have come up just over the drains. The effluent of industries, waste water of sewer,
etc. are also falling in these drains without any treatment.
2.4.3 Sewage Drains
The city of Agra has underground sewerage system, which is operated and
maintained by the Agra Jal Sansthan. The city is divided into 25 sewerage zones,
regrouped in 8 sewerage districts on the basis of topography and physical barriers
like railway lines, river, National Highway etc.

Tajganj Sewerage district consisting Tajganj I, II and III zones.


Northern sewerage district covering Dayalbagh and parts of Sikandara I,
Sikandara II, Khandari, Ghatwasan II zones.
Eastern sewerage district covering TransYamuna-I and Transyamuna-II.
Western Sewerage District covering Bodla-I, Bodla-II, Bodla-III, Shahganj-III
and parts of Lohamandi, Sikandara-I, Sikandara-II, Shahganj-I and Shahganj-

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II
Southern-I sewerage district covering Bundukatra and part of Shahganj-I
Southern-II sewerage district covering part of Shahganj-II.
Central sewerage district covering Ghatwasan-I, Kotwali, Maithan,
Hariparbat, Chhata, Rakabganj and parts old Khandari, Ghatwasan-II and
Lohamandi.

The area covered by sewerage system is only 17%. About 50% of the sewerage
system is not in working condition. Three Sewage Treatment Plants were built under
Yamuna Action Plan Phase I. The STPs at
Burhi ka Nagla (2.25 MLD) and Peela Khar
(10 MLD) are made to perform beyond
capacity, but still treat only 10% of the
sewage they receive. Mostly the sewage goes
into the open drains. The system is badly
silted, choked and damaged at number of
places and overloaded due to the growth of
population the city. Improper means of
disposals of wastewater has also resulted in
Sewage Treatment Plant in Agra
environmental
pollution
and
creates
unhygienic conditions.
In view of the above situation of the sewage and storm water drains, it would take
sometime before the system is set augmented and set in place. It is therefore been
assumed in the design that the entire drain silt and street sweepings would be sent
to the landfill.
2.4.4 Water Supply System
Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam (UPJN) is the nodal agency for developing water
infrastructure in Agra. UPJN then transfers the facilities to the (Agra Jal Sansthan)
AJS for operation and maintenance. The mission of AJS is to supply potable water in
adequate quantity to the consumers and maintain the sewerage system of the city
efficiently.
Agra water supply originates from river Yamuna. Apart from Yamuna Agra also
receives about 115 MLD of raw water from Gokul Barrage during the lean period to
June. The total Storage capacity available within Agra is about 48200 KL comprising
of 12 number of reservoirs. Further this water is distributed to Agra city through
distribution network 1100 KM length of pipes with diameter ranging from 80 mm 800 mm. The citys total water requirement is about 300-350 MLD at current demand
level (including cantonment).
As per estimate U.P. Jal Sansthan 70% of the area is covered by piped water supply
however in some of the areas the water supply is uneven
Present 25 zones have been set up, based on topography and operational

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convenience, to cover the entire master plan area. In most of the areas of Nagar
Nigam water distribution system is available but still in some wards like Sikandra-II,
Bodla-II, Shahganj-III, Tanjganj-II, III, Trans Yamuna-II and Ghatwasan-II no water
supply network is available. Water requirement in these is met by tube wells and
hand pumps. There are about 4017 stand posts and about 4598 hand pumps in the
city. These areas are facing acute water shortage.
There are two water treatment plants at Jeevani Mandi (Installed capacity of 200
MLD) and Sikandra (Installed capacity of 144 MLD).Both the treatment plants are
giving a final output of about 270 MLD.
2.4.5 Electricity
It is one of the most critical infrastructure facilities for a city. It has impact not only
on livability issues but also critical factors governing competitiveness (especially for
industries).In case of Agra nonavailablity of power means people using DG sets as a
back-up option.
At the city level, power supply is based on following parameters:
Demand Supply Gap
Asset management
Billing & collection
Automation of distribution network
Agra district has witnessed a rapid growth in the last few years. The connected load
has increased from 539 MW in 1991 to 627 MW in 2001. Currently with 57
substations of 33 KV, the available capacity is 493 MVA, which is just equal to the
peak load demand of 500 MVA. However, keeping in view the growth of Agra, this
needs to be increased. The projected peak load demand by 2010 is about 800 MVA.

2.4.6 Industries
As per the report of district Industries Centre, Industrial Development in Agra at a
glance, the total number of SSI units in the city is 5263 and the investment in these
SSI units is Rs263-15 crores. The total number of exporting SSI units is 131 and shoe
export units are Rs 87 The annual export from exporting SSI units and shoe export
units is approximately Rs. 1500-00 crores and Rs. 1000-00 crores respectively. The
annual export from SSI units also includes the indirect export. The sectoral
distribution of investment shows that Rs. 89 crores and Rs.42, 50.00 crore is being
invested in agro-based industry and service sector respectively.

Table2.6: Type of SSI unit

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S. No. Kind of SSI Unit


1
Food products
Beverages, Toba & Toba
2
products
3
Hosiery & garments
4
Wood Products
5
Paper products & Printing
6
Leather Products
7
Rubber & Plastic
Chemical & Chemical
8
Products
Non-metallic mineral
9
products
10
Metal products
Machinery & Part Except
11
Electrical
Electrical Machinery &
12
Apparatus
13
Miscellaneous Mfg.
Repairing & Service
14
Industry
Total

Number
232
4
663
342
63
263
194
113
341
166
253
63
847
1719
5263

Percentage to total
4.4
0.1
12.6
6.5
1.2
5.0
3.7
2.1
6.5
3.2
4.8
1.2
16.1
32.7
100

From the above table, it can be seen that the maximum percentage of SSI units are in
repairing & service industry. There are also about 30,000 households artisan units in
the city. Agra city
has
been
the
traditional seat of
Hosiery &
Iron
Casting
Beverages, Toba
Wood Products
Food products
garments
&
Toba
products
6.5%
4.4%
Products from the
12.6%
0.1%
Mughal
period.
Paper products &
Before 1993 there Repairing &
Printing
Service Industry
1.2%
were approximately
32.7%
250
Leather Produc
5.0%
Foundry units in the
Miscellaneous
city but with the
Mfg.
16.1%
declaration of Taj
Rubber & Plastic
Trapezium Zone in
3.7%
Electrical
1997-98
and Machinery &
Chemical &
implementation of Apparatus
Non-metallic
Chemical
1.2%
Machinery & Part
mineral
products
strict
pollution
Metal products
Products
Except Electrical
6.5%
3.2%
2.1%
4.8%
norms
many
Fig 2.2: Distribution of SSI units
industries
were
closed down. Now
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there are only 166 foundry units working in the city by adopting the environment
friendly fuel.
The shoe manufacturing industry in Agra exists mainly in the form of cottage
industries. There are about 5,000 to 7,000 such units in Agra. Besides, there are about
200 export-oriented units. These employ more workers. In addition, there are midsize manufacturing units, which can be classified as small-scale industries. Such
units employ about 10 to 50 workers. According to State government records, about
1.5 lakh pairs of shoes are manufactured a day in Agra by the cottage, small-scale
and medium-scale footwear units together. About two lakh people work in the shoe
industry in Agra.
About 1.5 lakh pairs of shoes are manufactured in Agra per day by the cottage, small
scale and medium scale footwear units. There are also a large number of ancillary
industries, supporting footwear industries in Agra. About 65% of total domestic
requirement of shoes in India is supplied from Agra.
Agra is also famous for its Petha. Petha is manufactured by over 750 cottage units of
the
city and it has been the source of livelihood for several thousand residents.
The origin of petha dates back to the Mughal era. Presently, the well-known Agra
petha is manufactured in the narrow lanes of the centuries-old Noori Darwaza
Market and other places of the city.

2.5 Social Infrastructure


2.5.1 Career/Education
Despite the fact that only 48.6% of the population in Agra city are literate (according
to census 2001), the city provides many
career options. Out of this figure majority
of those who are illiterate comprise
females - only 30.6% of females are
literate. However, educational institutes
are spread throughout the city except in
certain rural areas. The educational
institutes provide primary and high
school education, higher education,
vocational training, and professional
training.
As Agra is a tourist hotspot one would
Dr BheemRao Ambedkar Agra
expect a good number of institutes
University
providing the training in this industry.
Contrary to the fact there are very few institutes offering professional courses in
tourism and allied fields. The educational institutes in Agra comprises of 118 high
schools, for higher education there are 2 Universities, one is Dayalal Deemed
University and another one is Dr Bheem Rao Ambedkar University (Agra
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University), 1 Medical Colleges, Engineering Colleges, 9 Degree Colleges having


affiliation from Agra University, Management Institutes, Computer institutes,
Polytechnics, Inter colleges (CBSE), Inter Colleges (UP Board), Central School and
Industrial Training Institutes. Besides there are many private institutes that provide
training in professional courses.
2.5.2 Health Services
These include medical College which is providing medical facilities, 1 district
hospital, and 127 private hospitals, about 101 government hospitals, 13 dispensaries,
1 maternity hospital medical offices in the city, 5 child health care centers, 123
nursing homes and several private clinics. Besides these, there are hospitals for
armed forces in the cantonment area, for police personnel in police lines and for
railway staff in railway lines. Majority of the medical services are provided by
private establishments. About 75-80% of the hospitals are registered with Dutta
Enterprises for collection and disposal of the waste.
2.5.3 Fire Fighting Services
For Agra city there is 1 firefighting station. By 2021 one more firefighting station
will be required.
2.5.4 Communication Services
Agra City has an extensive communication/telecommunication networks involving
both private and public sector as key service providers. The communication facilities
are readily available in the private and public sector in Agra city. In the private
sector along with courier services there are 75 Sub Post Offices. Besides the
Telecommunication Department, the private sector is involved in providing
telecommunication services connecting Agra city areas surrounding the city and far
off rural areas through STD, ISD and mobile networks.
2.6 Financial Status of Agra Nagar Nigam
The cash flow statement for the 2 year period ended March 31, 2006 for NNA has
been summarized in Table 2.7:
Table2.7 Cash Flow Statement for NNA
Year Ended March 31,
SOURCES OF FUNDS
1. Rates & taxes
2. Municipal revenue other than taxes
3. Grants& Loans
a) State Finance Commission
b) Eleventh Finance Commission
4. Others

2005
2006
Rs in crores
13.7
7.6
10.8
17.8
27.3
1.9
0.4

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Total Sources
USES OF FUNDS
1. General admin. & collection charges
2. Lighting establishment
3. Cleaning -Salaries
-Equipment
4. Others
5. Public works
Total Uses

54.1

74.1

10.1
0.6
22.3
3.2
13.3
0.5
50.0

10.5
1.2
24.8
3.3
15.2
1.4
56.4

2.6.1 Sources of funds


During the year ended March 31, 2006, the income of Rs 7.6 crores from rates and
taxes comprised mainly of house tax (Rs 4.6 crores), advertisement tax (Rs 0.7
crores), share of stamp tax (Rs 0.9 crores), electricity department (Rs 1.1 crores) and
others (Rs 0.3 crores).
During the year ended March 31, 2006, the income from municipal revenue (other
than taxes) of Rs 17.8 crores comprised mainly of rental of shops (Rs 0.8 crores),
market fees (Rs 0.5 crores), slaughter house (Rs 1.2 crores), Agra Development
Authority (Rs 1.3 crores), Jal Nigam (Rs 4.5 crores), Housing Development Authority
(Rs 7.2 crores) and others (Rs 2.3 crores).
Thus the resources NNA raises from rate and taxes and other user charges are low.
The prime source of fund is from the grants it receives from the State Finance
Commission (Rs 45.8 crores), Eleventh Finance Commission (Rs 2.1 crores) and
others sources (Rs 0.8 crores).
2.6.2 Uses of funds
From Table 2.7, it can be summarized that the main expenditure for NNA is on the
establishment to collect rates and taxes (Rs 10.5 crores), cleanliness/sanitation
including SWM (Rs 28.1 crores), others (Rs 15.2 crores) and public works (Rs 1.4
crores)
The single most expenditure for NNA is on cleanliness and SWM. This expenditure
at Rs 28.1 crores accounts for 51% of the total non capital expenditure of Rs 55.0
crores (total expenses of Rs 56.4 crores less expenses on public work of Rs 1.4 crores).
In view of above the following can be concluded:
The accounts are maintained in single entry basis NNA needs to undertake
reform to migrate to a modern double entry system.
NNA needs to improve its reliance on earning significantly by taxes/rents
and imposition of user charges and correspondingly reduce its dependence
on grants, if it wants to improve its financial position, so as to able to access
financial institutions/capital market for any fund raising.

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2.7 Administrative Setup for MSW Management


The main organization which is responsible for urban governance and civic
management is the Agra Nagar Nigam. The corporation has a democratically elected
leadership from the constituencies within the geographic jurisdiction of the
corporation boundaries. The present Corporation has been elected in the month of
November, 2006 and has a jurisdiction of the corporation boundaries.
Uttar Pradesh Municipal Corporation Adhiniyam, 1959 and its amendments govern
the functioning of Agra Nagar Nigam (NNA). Under this cleanliness and sanitation
is one of the main responsibilities of NNA.
The Municipal Commissioner is the highest executive head of the Agra Nagar
Nigam. The Health (Swasthya Vibhag) and Engineering (Nirman Vibhag)
departments are the two executive departments responsible for implementation of
the SWM plan and civil infrastructure in the town, respectively. The Health
department is involved in planning and management of the SWM activities and in
providing sanitary facilities to the residents of Agra. The Engineering department
works in coordination with the Health department and undertakes civil and
infrastructure development activities for the city. The Nagar Swasth Adhikari and
the Executive Engineer are the senior officers of the Health and Engineering
departments respectively, who report to the Municipal Comissioner. The
administrative charts for each of these governing bodies are shown in Figure 2.3. The
Nagar Nigam is divided into 90 election wards which are further divided into 19
Sanitary wards being headed by sanitary inspectors. The sanitary inspector is
responsible for managing the fleet routes, collection procedure, allocating diesel to
vehicles, street sweeping and de-lineation of responsibility of the supervisors and
safaikaramcharis.

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Fig: 2.3 Organizational Structure of the Agra Nagar Nigam

Municipal Commissioner

Chief Health Officer (1)

Senior Health Officer (1)

Additional Health Officer


(1)
Chief Sanitary Inspector (2)

Sanitary Inspector (16)

Sanitary Supervisors
(16)
Workers (2215)

Drivers (90)

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CHAPTER 3

Status of existing SWM System


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CHAPTER 3

STATUS OF EXISTING SWM SYSTEM

This chapter discusses the existing SWM practices in Agra city. The various sources
of waste generation, the current primary and secondary waste collection practices,
waste transportation and disposal mechanisms, and gaps in the existing SWM
system are identified in this chapter.
Further, the solid waste generated from various sources is quantified and
characterized in terms of the constituents of solid waste.
The information provided in this chapter was furnished from discussions held with
the NNA, local residents and site investigations and detailed survey performed by
the project team.

3.1 Waste Generation


Various estimates for waste generation are used in Agra because no detailed survey
has been carried out in the past to measure the waste generation. The generation
characteristics are strongly influenced by climatic and seasonal variation due to
tourist arrivals and festivals, the economy of the region, the physical characteristics
of the city and social and religious customs of the city
This section describes the various sources of waste generation in Agra city, and
existing waste handling and management methods at the source. The primary
source of waste generation in Agra city are the local households, markets and
commercial establishments such as hotels, restaurants, shops etc. Due to
mismanagement and unavailability of separate handling facilities, Waste from
industrial establishment, Hospitals and nursing homes, slaughter houses, street
sweeping and sanitary drains etc. also contributes to MSW. As lot of demolition of
old structures and reconstruction works are taking place, construction and
demolition waste is significant. Agra is famous for Petha sweets and petha making
produces substantial quantity of organic waste. Dairy waste also contributes to city
waste generation. Apart from this there is a huge generation of leather and rubber
trimming from small Footwear units spread in the city which adds up major portion
to Municipal solid waste.
The Project team held in depth discussions with various stakeholders viz. ADA,
NNA, health officer, supervisors and sanitary inspectors, safai karamcharis, private
operators, NGOs, residents and doctors so as to get first hand information about
the prevailing waste management systems at generation point. Discussions were
undertaken on all the key issues related to waste management at generation level.
Based on outcome of these discussions and incorporation of various viewpoints of
the officials, The team identified major problem areas related to waste generation.

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3.1.1 Approach Adopted for Estimation of Waste Generation


After elaborate discussions and understanding the ground realities, The Project team
prepared series of information sheets (Questionnaires) (Annexure V) so as to assess
the key issues/ problem areas at macro level. RCUES deputed a team for nearly four
weeks for assessment of the prevailing conditions of MSW Management ranging
from waste generation from households, commercial establishments viz. Petha and
Footwear units, hospitals & nursing homes, industrial establishments etc. to
quantification, collection, transportation and ultimate disposal.
The waste generated in the various parts of the city reaches the open dumps and
dustbins that are located in each part of the city. The focus of waste estimation has
been to study the amount and characteristic of waste being collected at these
collection points. The Project team has undergone comprehensive survey of these
locations that includes a detailed inventory to arrive at the per-capita waste
generation of the city.
To collaborate the findings at waste collection points, quantity and composition
estimation has been done at the point of waste generation i.e. residential, commercial
viz. Petha & Footwear units & industrial establishments, hospitals and nursing
homes, hotels and restaurants, slaughter houses, street sweeping, sanitary drains,
and construction and demolition sites. These estimates were used as a base to arrive
at the total waste or per capita waste generation trends for major sources.
The survey was followed by waste characterization (physical & chemical) by
quartering method. The characterization has been done by M/s SGS India Pvt. Ltd. ,
Gurgaon. This result is supported by survey done at the household level, hospitals,
hotels etc.
A seven days consecutive survey of existing landfill site which includes weighing at
a Weigh Bridge of transportation fleet reaching the site, was also carried out so as to
assess the present waste disposal practices with an objective to ascertain overall
waste collection efficiency in Agra city. Waste collection and transportation fleet
management system was studied; fleet maintenance measures and route plans of
waste transportation system were traced and are shown in Drawing No.O:3146/Agra/ 02 &03 for ready reference.
The waste quantity and characterization details as gathered during primary survey
were compiled and analyzed. The data was compiled and details of the results are
discussed in the following section of this chapter.
Waste quantities were also calculated and analyzed for each election ward in order
to propose collection and transportation system at ward level.
As the available population figures are from census data, hence adequate projections
have been made, as per the methodology provided in the CPHEEO SWM Manual.

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3.1.2 Waste being collected at Open Dumps and Dustbins


Primary survey at secondary collection point i.e., Dhallao or open dumps sites and
dustbins have been selected and detailed surveys have been carried out by the The
survey team, the site photographs are enclosed as Annexure VI for ready reference.
These points are also marked on the map of the city DRG No. O:3146/Agra/02& 03.
As per NNA official reported there were 561 secondary collection points which
includes 200 Open dumps/ Dhallao and 361 Dumper placer locations. However The
Project Team had observed only 325 secondary collection points across the existing
90 election wards. In total detailed survey was carried out at 9 Dhallao, 200 open
dump sites and 116 dumper container (out of 361 dumper container reported). The
project team also observed that around 90 dumper container out of 116 surveyed
are in good condition. According to NNA, 60 new dumper containers are also
purchased under Twelfth Finance Commission Grant. Direct assessment of waste
collection is done at each such location in a prescribed format by survey team.
For ready reference Table 3.1 given below summarizes the results of some of the
locations.
Table 3.1: Calculation of Waste Collection at Secondary Collection Points.

OD 33

Construction
debris & waste

DB 41
OD 95
OD 96

Naval Ganj
Digamber Jain
Mandir
Saket Colony
Mati Katra
Bhivab Nagar
Panchkuiya
Road, Char
Baag

Inert waste

DB 103

Location

Recyclable

ID of
Open
dump/
Dhalao/
Dustbin

Bio degradable

(In MT/ Day)


Type of Waste

0.50

0.24

0.08

0.15

0.03

6.60
3.90
4.30

0.83
1.62
1.90

0.35
0.31
1.58

5.15
0.45
0.05

0.30
1.50
0.80

4.00

1.60

0.96

1.05

0.40

Waste
Collected

Highest waste quantity is recorded in OD 50, 130, 119, 167, 24and DB 41,55,54,109,33
Similarly; results were collated for other wards also. (Results for all secondary
collection centers are enclosed as Annexure VI to this report).

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

3.1.3 Waste Reaching the Existing Dumping/Trenching Site


The existing trenching site is located at Shadahra on Delhi- Tundla Bye pass Road.
Waste transportation vehicles dispose waste at this authorized site from all over the
city collected at the points designated by Nagar Nigam. With the purpose of
estimating the current efficiency of total waste transportation from the city, the site
was physically observed by the The Survey team from 6:00AM in the morning to
&:00 PM in the evening for seven consecutive days .Each and every vehicle reaching
the site were noted in a log book and weighed for tare and load weight and
estimation of quantity is arrived thereafter. Sample weigh slips are attached as
Annexure-VII. The survey estimated that approximately 536 MT/Day waste is
collected by the transportation fleet. Thus the present efficiency of waste lifting to
disposal site works out to be 75.5% of total waste collection at secondary collection
points.
3.1.4 Residential and Commercial Establishments
The major portion of residents belonging to the residential establishments dump
their household waste outside their homes and in some cases in dustbin (if
available), or on the streets (open dumps) or in the drains running in front of the
house. The karamcharis/operators collect waste from the various lanes and drains
dump it in the vacant plots or in the open dumps. As of now, no charges are levied
on households for collection of MSW by NNA. Private Operators is active in small
way in MIG and HIG areas. They lift waste daily from door to door at monthly
charge of Rs. 20 to Rs. 50. This waste is transported to the secondary waste collection
centers (Refer Section 3.2.1) by Rickshaw trolley.
An exhaustive survey of the 500 residential establishments was carried out for a
week in order to assess the collection and transportation system at source and per
capita waste quantity generated. The photographs and details of the survey is
summarized in Annexure VIII .The survey includes residents from Economically
Weaker Section (EWS), Low Income Groups (LIG), Middle Income Groups (MIG)
and High Income Groups (HIG) . These groups have been characterized as per living
standards, family size, main occupation, housing typology, solid waste disposal
practice prevalent in Agra city. The per capita waste generation for each of the
resident types is calculated and is summarized in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2: Field survey results of per capita waste generation
Number of samples
Household
Categories
Household
Population
EWS
LIG
MIG
HIG

147
154
135
98

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978
1070
994
540

Average per capita


waste generation
(gms/ day)
210
216
303
366

3.4

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

However, these establishments are scattered in all wards and also the waste
generated differs on a daily basis. Further, the per capita value obtained for different
groups does not include street sweeping, drain silt and construction debris. Single
bin system, with/without segregation is prevalent and the use of polythene for
waste disposal was also found to be in vogue.
Household survey indicates a higher percentage of bio degradable waste, as most of
the waste here is fresh kitchen waste. The awareness of the people to recover
recyclables is high which is sold to the kabadiwallas.
As per Master plan -2021, the various segment of household stock and their share of
the total housing demand are EWS-40%, LIG- 30%, MIG- 20%, HIG- 10%
respectively. As per census 2001, the total no of household (HH) in the was 209997. If
this ratio of HIG/MIG/LIG/EWS is used, which is in line with the slum population
in Agra and RCUESs estimate, the weighted average house hold waste generation
comes to 246 gms/person/day.

Average per capita Generation,


gms/ day

(%EWS* EWS percapita generation+%LIG*


LIG percapita generation +%MIG *MIG
percapita generation + %HIG* HIG
percapita generation)

Table 3.3: Waste generation in Household


Total
population
Category Percentage
2006
HIG
10%
142662
MIG
20%
285323
LIG
30%
427985
EWS
40%
570647
100%
1426617
TOTAL

Total Generation MT/ Day


52
87
93
120
352

Based on the above analysis the residential/household accounts for about 352
MT/Day of total waste generation in the city.
The commercial areas identified in Agra city are situated throughout the city and
include Sanjay Palace, Bhagwan Talkies chaurah, Bijlighar chaurah, Nai ki Mandi,
Rakabganj, Dayal Bagh Road, Bhagirath Marg etc. These areas are mixed zones
comprising of commercial (shops and markets) and residential areas as well as hotels
and restaurants.
MSW generated from Commercial establishment is more recyclable and inert waste
compared to organic waste. However a bulk waste like cartoon etc. is recycled at
source and does not add on to total MSW generation. The waste from shops starts
accumulating in the nearby open dumps in the morning hours (7:00 11:00 AM),

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3.5

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

when they are cleaned. Safai karamcharies clean market places and throw the waste
in the nearby open dumps. The commercial establishments are not charged for
market sweeping, collection, and disposal at the nearby secondary collection points.
The Project team conducted detailed survey of major commercial complexes
.summarized below in Table 3.4:
Table 3.4: Waste from Commercial establishment
Commercial Complex

No. of Quantity of waste Generation in kgs/ day


shops Biodegradable Recyclable Inert
Total

Laxmi Market, Besides


shahganj chaurah
Gaurav Complex, Bhagwan
Talkies Chaurah
Sky Tower, Sanjay Palace
Baptist Church Complex,
Pratap pur, Civil lines
Shivaji Market Complex,
Bijlighar Chauraha
Emporium, Block No-13
Nath Complex
Garg Complex, Nai ki mandi
Drid-ve-Complex, Dayal
Bagh Road
Anna Complex, Bhagirathi
Marg
Total
Percentage

25

20

25

50

95

21
500

30
100

15
100

10
300

55
500

20

15

20

35

70

80
7
40
25

25
10
20
25

40
10
30
30

50
20
40
50

115
40
90
105

25

12

15

25

52

20
763

10
267
23%

15
300
26%

25
605
52%

50
1172
100%

From the survey the per unit generation works out to be 1.54 kgs/unit/day.As
reported in City Development Plan and NNA, there are more than 50000 shops &
commercial establishment registered at Nagar Nigam. At this rate the total waste
contributed by commercial establishment to MSW is 77 MT/ Day approximately.
3.1.5 Industrial Establishments
As indicated in Section 2.3.6 of this DPR, there are various small scale and cottage
industries in Agra city. Based on observations made by the survey team about these
industries, the MSW is primarily generated from Petha and Footwear unit. (Specified
in Drawing No. O: 3146/Agra/04 Petha units are mostly located at Noori Darwaza
and Raja Mandi .The petha waste is biodegradable and about 50% is eaten up by
grazing animals. However significant amount of waste is thrown in nallah and
nearby secondary collection points. The leather and rubber trimming from footwear
industry is accounted largely at Mantola, Dholikhar, Khattipara,Azamganj,
Gobarchowki,pankisarai,Nai ki mandi, shakuntla Nagar, Raj Nagar,khaitana road,
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3.6

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

gopal pura,Nand pura ,Devi road, Mohan pura, Budhvihar,Tila Nand Ram,Kajipara
and many other places. Waste from Large leather and Rubber industry is not
prominent but job works done by individuals for larger establishment which are
mainly done at cottage level does not practice recycling rather throw waste in open
areas or nallahs. It was also observed that accumulated waste at open dump or
dustbins was burnt in order to reduce the volume when it remains unattended for
several days. The total leather and rubber waste estimated at secondary collection
point is approximately 60 MT/ Day.
The pictures below depict the present situation due to waste generation from such
units.

Weekly Leather Market run on Biglighar


to Baluganj Road side.

Leather Waste is burnt after Dumping it


into Nallah

Sewer water flowing on the Leather


market Road due to choking.

Drain silt containing huge quantity of


Leather and Rubber waste.

Petha waste thrown in Drain near Chitra


Talkies

Petha units at Noori Darwaza

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3.7

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

3.1.6 Hospitals & Nursing Homes


Apart from Biomedical Waste generation, Hospital and nursing home generates noninfectious waste which contributes to total MSW generation. According to the
CPHEEO guidelines the waste generation by medical institution will be around 1.5
kg/bed/ day of which 75% will be non- infectious i.e., Municipal solid waste and
25% will be biomedical waste. As reported in City Development Plan and by NNA,
Agra has 127private hospitals and about 101 government hospitals and medical
offices in the city. The total bed strength reported is about 8000.
The team surveyed in detail about 49 Hospitals and Nursing home comprising both
private and government to analyze quantity and present Hospital waste
management scenario in Agra city. As per the survey, The quantity of waste
generated from these medical establishments is estimated at 1.49 kg/bed/day out of
which Biomedical waste (BMW) and Non infectious is 0.549 and 0.944 kg /bed/
day respectively. The value arrived is in line with the CPHEEO guidelines. These
results, derived from the survey, are summarized in Table 3.5.
Table 3.5: Waste generation from Hospitals

Name of
Hospital/
Nursing Home
Shree Ram
Hospital
Sarthak
Nursing Home
Vidhya
Nursing Home
Dr Agarwal
Nursing &
Maternity home
Priya Nursing
home
Shree Krishna
Hospital
Goyal Hospital
Akash Hospital
Care Well
Hospital
Vandana
Nursing home

Location

I I C, Building Sanjay Police


G25, kamla Nagar by Pass
Road, Agra
G-2, Phase 2, Trans Yamuna
Colony Firojabad Agra
C-59, Trans Yamuna
Colony, Agra
B-91 Trans Yamuna Colony
near Sayad road, Agra
D-14, Phase 2, Trans
Yamuna Colony Tundal
Road Agra
D-2, Trans Yamuna colony,
Agra
Phase2, Trans Yamuna
colony, Agra
A-8, Trans Yamuna
Phase1Faijabad, Agra
D-16, Phase 2 Trans Yamuna
Colony, Daijabad road,
Agra

No.
of
Beds

Average
Occupancy
per day

35

Solid
Waste

Biomedical
Waste

Total

25

12

22

15

15

10

25

12

12

20

15

10

10

20

15

10

12

20

25

15

10

15

22

15

14

17

10

12

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Waste Quantity
(kgs/bed/day

3.8

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Name of
Hospital/
Nursing Home

No.
of
Beds

Average
Occupancy
per day

Near Sayad Phase2 Trans


Yumuna

10

184/6 C,Vidhya Nagar road,


Agra

Location

Solid
Waste

Biomedical
Waste

Total

20

10

25

20

45

Vidhya nagar, Agra

15

15

10

25

Vidhya nagar, Agra

20

10

20

12

32

E-41, near Kamla Nagar


Petrol pump, Agra

12

E-35, Kamla Nagar, Agra

10

E-8, kamla Nagar

10

12

14/9, Saket Colony road,


Agra

G-35, Kamla Nagar, by pass,


Agra

16

12

10

22

Shyam Lal
Nursing Home

E-19, Kamla Nagar by pass


road, Agra

12

10

12

Shiwam
Nursing Home

H-64, Kamla Nagar by pass


road, Agra

City Hospital

City Hospital

112

60

50

30

80

Rajpur, Agra

22

10

31/1E, Partappur, Agra

Rajpur Sahid Nagar

Lauris Complex, Mannnar


road, Agra

15

Delhi Gate, Agra

55

20

70

34

104

Delhi Gate, Agra

55

20

70

34

104

LIC Building, Agra


102, Rajeev Nagar
1/55, Delhi Gate Mathura
road, Agra
B93, TransYamuna Colony
Firojabad, Agra
7/52, Javanhan Nagar

70
15

30
5

12
3

3
2

15
5

12

10

50

20

10

Jai Deep
Hospital &
Maternity
Center
Ram Tej
Hospital
Amit Jaggi
Memorial
Hospital
Dr. Arti Manoj
Hospital
Vishwani
Hospital
Janak Raden
Hospital
Sanjeevani
Hospital
Shakya Nursing
& Maternity
home
Agarwal health
Care center

Iswar Devi
Memorial
Hospital
Sukal Nursing
Home
Public Care
Hospital
Mangala
Hospital
Pushpam
Hospital
Puspanjli
Hospital
Jai Hospital
Shanti Hospital
Ravi Hospital
Ganga Ram
Heritage

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Waste Quantity
(kgs/bed/day

3.9

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Name of
Hospital/
Nursing Home

No.
of
Beds

Average
Occupancy
per day

1, Shahid Nagar
Shamshabad, Agra

20

ECG Alert Card

Agra Medical & Research


Center

Kailash Kant
Hospital &
Maternity
Home

Location

Waste Quantity
(kgs/bed/day
Solid
Waste

Biomedical
Waste

Total

10

11

23

15

5, Shahid Nagar, Agra

10

10

Metro

Shahid Nagar, Crossing

50

20

Hareniya
Moniyala
Shubham
Hospital

4, Shahid Nagar, Police


station, Agra
Ashah TV Tower,
Firozabad, Agra
54, New Jagdish Colony,
Agra
1/178 A, Bagh Farjana
Naval Kishor Nursing

10

10

10

15

20

4/48 Lajpat Nagar, Agra

4/6, Ram Babu Civil Lines

1/198, Civil lines

10

102, Rajeev Nagar


1/115/1,Gulabray Market &
Research Center

10

10

Delhi Gate, Agra

50

20

15

20

110

50

25

32

1087

556

525
0.944

305
0.549

830
1.49

Hospital
Kapur
Orthopadetic
Center

R K Hospital
Dr.Vikash
Bansal
Dr. Kamlesh
Tandan
Nursing Home
Verma Nursing
Home
Dr. Harsh
Hospital
Santi Hospital
Shidharth
Jai Devi
Hospital
Ayushman
Hospital
Ram Raghu
Hospital

Near Chandera khadri,


Agra
Opposite Sanjay Complex
Raghunath Nagar Church
raod, Agra
Total
Average

The medical establishments in Agra city generates approximately 12 MT/ Day


waste of which about 7.5 MT/ Day goes to Municipal stream and rest is BMW. The
collection, transportation and disposal of the BMW are taken care by Dutta
Enterprises. The vehicle of Dutta Enterprises collects the waste from hospitals and
sent it to incineration facility operated by them in Agra. . About 75-80 % of the
establishments are registered with Dutta Enterprises. The monthly charges procured
by Dutta Enterprises per establishment are fixed depending on the strength of beds

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3.10

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

as well as quantity of waste generation. As per the survey, charges vary from Rs.
500-2500/- per month in Agra city.
The Project team noted the BMW is stored in the twin bins; however, colour schemes are not
uniform and vary from hospital to hospital.
3.1.7 Hotels/Restaurants/Banquet Hall
A summary of number of eating joints/ hotels identified in Agra city is provided in
Table 3.5 The waste from these establishments mostly includes left-over food, and
disposable crockery. Workers of these establishments dump the wastes at nearby
container/ open dump from where the same is transported to designated dumpsite
by Nagar Nigam workers. An estimate of the total waste generated in metric tons
per day (MT/day) from hotels, restaurants, guest houses, marriage halls, and dhabas
is presented in Table 3.6
Table 3.6: Number of Hotels/ Restaurants/ Banquet Halls in Agra City
Nos.

Waste Generated(Approx.)
(Kg/unit/day)

Hotels

153

58

Waste Generated
(MT/day)
9

Restaurants

700

30

21

Banquet Halls

88

50

4.4

Hotels/ Restaurants

Source: Agra Nagar Nigam and field survey


The waste generated from each type of establishment in Table 3.6 has been
estimated as per the surveys done for hotels, restaurants and banquet halls. The
survey results are given below:
Table 3.7 : Waste from Hotels

Sl. No.

Name of Hotel

Location

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Rajender Prasad
Shri Partap Chand Jain
New Hotel Prince
Hotel Prince Sanjay
Devash Guest House
Rahi Tourist Building
Hotel East Light
Ashoka Guest House
Prakash Tourist
Complex
Hotel Anand
Hotel Ashish Palace
Hotel Oasis

Mahatma sidh road, Agra


Harihar Parvat
919, Shiv Ji Market, Agra
Shallini Market Near Power House
Delhi Gate, Agra
Delhi Gate, Near Raja Mandir
Delhi Gate, Near Raja Mandir
Kacheri road, Balugang , Agra

Capacity
of Hotel
(no. of
room)
145
28
12
21
10
35
14
15

18/159, B Purant Mandi, Taj Ganj

12

40

27 Mandal Town, Agra


Tourisht Complex Area
44, Bansai Nagar, Agra

11
24
15

60
80
32

9
10
11
12

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Quantity
of waste
per day
(kg)
140
80
112
60
20
240
40
80

3.11

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Sl. No.

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
21
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

Name of Hotel

Location

Hotel Bengal Lodge


30/28 Kachri Raod, Rakabganj
Restaurant
Chipitala
Jhangir Hotel
Taj Ganj, Agra
Hotel Roof-Top
Fatehabad Road Tajganj, Agra
Restaurant
Hotel Gopal
Near Kailash Cinema
Hotel Deepak
Fatehpur, Agra
Hotel Semi Softel Delux
Delhi Gate, Agra
Capri Restaurant
Delhi Gate, Agra
Shilaza
Delhi Gate, Near Raja Mandir
Ashoka Guest House
Delhi Gate, Agra
Amba INN
1/15, Delhi Raja Mandli Raod, Agra
Goverdhan Hotel
Delhi Gate, Agra
Taj Delux
61, Baluganj, Agra
Hotel Zee
Near Taj View Fahtehpur, Agra
Block E 21, Near Petrol Pump
Sanjay Lodge
Kamla Nagar, Agra
Ashoka Guest House
4/17A, Baluganj, Agra
1/42/-A/12, Delhi Gate ka Mandir,
Pall Hotel
Agra
Hotel Rangal
Trivent Market Chakki road, Agra
Hotel Sadari
Shaheed Nagar, Shamsabad, Agra
Amar Yatri Niwash
Fatehpur road, Agra
Near Kamlesh Cinema Fatehpur,
Hotel Sagar
Agra
Hotel Paradish
Fatehpur, Agra
Shri Dauji
D501, Kamla Nagar, Agra
The Calcutta Hotel
Chhipitala
Hotel Shree Ram
24/5, Biili Ghar Bus Stand, Chipla
Hotel Solitaire
Haririt crossing MG road, Agra
Hotel Taj Complex
Crossing Saket Colony, Shahganj
Purana Mandir Fatehpur road,
Hotel Maya
Agra
Total
Waste generation per unit =2288/39= 58 kgs/unit/day

Capacity
of Hotel
(no. of
room)

Quantity
of waste
per day
(kg)

17

48

10

32

12

40

15
10
15
20
32
9
25
35
12
30

40
40
32
100
40
40
40
100
8
120

12

20

14

120

25

24

20
25
41

40
80
80

12

40

15
15
15
12
20
8

40
48
28
20
12
12

12

60
2288

The total of 39 hotels were surveyed summarized in Table 3.7 for quantification of
waste generated from Hotels-large and small. The waste characteristics shows higher
biodegradable waste compared to recyclable and inert. The waste generation rate of
large hotels in NNA ranges from 40kg/ unit/ day to as high as 120kg /unit / day.
After detailed analysis on the basis of average occupancy rate and capacity of the
hotel , it is estimated that the average generation rate in hotel is 58 kgs/unit/ day
and total waste generated works out to be 9 MT/ Day

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Table 3.8 : Waste from Restaurants

Sl.
No.

Name of Restaurent

Location

Capacity of
Restaurant

Morya Restaurants

Hari Parwant Chauraha,


Agra

40

100

50

Raj Sweet &


Restaurant

Dewari road near, Agra

44

150

60

Sahil Restaurant

50

100

40

Nilam Restaurant

30

100

30

5
6
7
8

Sweet Corner
Kamal Restaurant
Rasmi Restaurant
Taj Restaurant
Hotal New Taj
Restaurant
Chand redturent
Mushkan
Restaurant
Parryason
Restaurant

40
70
60
50

100
200
100
100

40
75
40
25

Lomomander

40

50

20

Khatic Restaurant

40

50

25

Shahab near Petrol pump

45

50

30

20

35

40

20

30

45

12

40

50

10

25

35

12

50
32
25

80
100
40

20
70
20

15

25

25

35

30

50

200

75

50

40

20

35

100

40

32

100

50

40

100

60

40

100

50

68

200

15

60

200

80

9
10
11
12
13

AnjanRestaurant

14

Pizza Corner
New Quality
Restaurant
Shivakash
Restaurant
Indra Restaurant
Divya villas
Ajanta Restaurant
Devi Ram
Restaurant
Lakhshmi
Restaurant
Radhiyaka
Restaurant

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Braj Restaurant

25

Tamption
Restaurant
Shree Balaji

26

Ashish Restaurant

27

Dolly Restaurant

28

PizzaHut

29

Hotal Rayal

24

near Heera Cinema Hall,


Agra
Near RamLila ground,
Agra
Balkeshwer
Kedar Nagar, Agra
Trans Yamuna, Agra
Trans Yamuna, Agra

1/44 Shop no.2, Delhi


gate, Agra
Crossing veiw, Fatehabad,
Agra
Pizza corner, Sadar bazar
kailash cinema, Fatehpur,
Agra
Lalsag, Fuisag Jasaria
Enclave Hospital
Behind Halal, Agra
18/159, Prakash Tourist
F339, Kamla Nagar Agra
3/19 Pratappura, Agra
50/ A, Taj road Sadar
bazar
E 25/2, Taj road Sadar
bazaar
50/ A, Taj road sadar
bazar
Tourist Complex
Fatehpur, Agra
Shri Balaji cinema, Agra
Tourist Complex
Fatehpur, Agra
Fatehabad road
8, Handicraft Nagar
Fatehpur, Agra
Near Hotel Zee Tourist
Complex, Agra

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Quantity
of
Wastage
(per day)
(KG)

Average
Occupancy per
day

3.13

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Name of Restaurent

Location

Capacity of
Restaurant

Average
Occupancy per
day

Maheshpur Colony, Agra

20

40

26 New Edge Colony

10

25

10

Near Jamamaijd, Agra


Badlka road, Shahganj
Jadoir road, Agra
Uglham Complex, Agra

25
15
30
25

60
30
100
35

20
15
30
18

86 bypass, Agra

25

35

15

37
38
39

Shikhar Restaurant
Raj dabrar
Restaurant
Raja Restaurant
Priya Restaurant
Dusa prakash
Homily Restaurant
Achaman
Restaurant
Pachyat Restaurant
Narram Restaurant
Achur Restaurant

Quantity
of
Wastage
(per day)
(KG)
15

35
35
25

50
45
45

20
20
15

40

Vishal Restaurant

Suraj Palace, Agra


Vaishya bazaar, Agra
Sanjay Palace, Agra
Opposite to Bhagwan
Takij

15

40

15

41

New Bhaganwti
Restaurant

MG road, Bhageram

20

35

15

Sl.
No.
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

Total Waste
Waste generation per unit= 1231/41=30 kgs/unit/ day

1231

The total of 41 Restaurant summarized in Table 3.8 was surveyed for quantification
of waste generated from these establishments. These establishments mainly
contribute organic waste. Based on the field assessment, it is estimated that the
average generation rate in Restaurants is 30kgs/unit/ day and total waste generated
works out to be 21 MT/ Day
Table 3.9: Waste generation from Banquets hall.
S.
No.

Banquet Hall

Location

Shri Jee Banquet


Hall

Taj Complex

Hotel Park View

Atithi Bhawan

5
6
7
8
9

Hotel Apollo
Hotel Sahil
Hotel Amar
Hotel Taj Palace
Hotel Ever Green

10

Hotel Athithi

11
12

Hotel Delux Plaza


Hotel Chanakya

E-25/ Vimal Complex, Kamala


Nagar
Crossing Saket colony, Shah ganj
Chaurah
Tourist Complex, Fathehabad
Road
Water Works Crossing,
balkeshwar Road
15/252, Tourist Complex, Agra
Baluganj, Agra
Fatehabad Road, Agra
32, Model Town
53/14, Kishan Ganj
Tourist Complex, Fathehabad
Road
MG Tower, Fathehabad Road
Sahid Nagar Crossing

Average Waste generation per unit

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Kgs/day
(Peak
Season)

Kgs/day
(Slack
Season)

Average
Kgs/day

60

20

33

30

20

23

80

50

59

40

25

30

45
25
100
30
100

30
15
75
20
75

35
18
82
23
82

80

50

59

80
150

70
50

72
82

70

40

50

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

The total of 12 Restaurant summarized in Table 3.9 was surveyed for quantification
of waste generation Banquet hall/ Marriage hall. Assuming that function hall gets
peak occupation during November to February and on other months occupancy rate
comes down as only few marriages are conducted in these months, Waste generation
in peak season and Slack season is estimated from field survey is 70kgs/unit/day
and 40 kgs/unit/day respectively. The weighted average works out to be 50
kgs/unit/day. The waste mainly contributes organic waste. At this generation rate,
the total waste generation is estimated at 4.4 MT/ Day
3.1.8 Slaughter Houses
There is one authorized slaughter house located at Chalesar, Kuber pur in
Jamunapar Sanitary ward. The field team brought out during survey that
approximately 1200 animals (calves and buffaloes) are butchered every day in the
peak season and 300 animals are butchered per day during the rainy season in the
authorized slaughter house. The team also noted many other unauthorized location
exist in Kajipara, Mantola, Sayedpara, Rawatpara, Mundapara, Khatipara etc
(specified in Drawing No.-O: 3146/ Agra/04). About 100 animals (calves and
buffaloes) on an average in each of this unauthorized location. It was found that the
slaughtering of small animals mainly lamb/goat/chicken is done at individual
homes/ meat shops and the generated waste is disposed off in dustbins or open
dump sites.
The waste from slaughter houses (skin, horns, and bones) is sold to processing or
recycling units, from where it is exported. The remaining waste such as flesh
cuttings, gobar etc are thrown away to the points of Nagar Nigam at respective
areas. Waste are also thrown away to various drains like Mantola nalah, Dhakran
nallah etc. It is observed that the process of attaining the bones of foot and horn by
burning the flesh and hair attached by these parts are done on the road side of the
main road. Quantification of total waste generation could not be done from field
surveys due to the reluctance shown by there owners. No official records are being
maintained on the quantity of waste generated from the slaughter houses. According
to NNA waste from slaughter houses in Agra city is estimated to the tune of 7 MT/
Day per day. No official records are being maintained on the quantity of waste
generated from the slaughter houses.
3.1.9 Street Sweeping
Street sweeping starts between 6:00 to 7.00 AM and continues up to 12:00 PM. The
sweepers are provided with jharoo (brooms), pans, favda, hand-carts, panji (bamboo
stick used to clean nalas [drains]), gayti (pointed favda to clean roads), and buckets
to clean nalas. They collect the waste on road sides, which are then transported to
the nearby open dumps/ dustbins by rickshaw trolley or to out skirt of the city
directly by tractor trolley.
Estimate of street sweeping waste were done at open dumps and dustbins, the

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

results of which are given in Annexure IX. Based on the field survey conducted by
RCUES, the street sweeping constitutes about 5% percent of the MSW generated in
Agra. The total waste estimated from street sweeping is 35.5 MT/ Day. The average
waste generation per km Road length is 42 kgs/ km considering road length of
850kms.
3.1.10 Drain Silt
There are 25 major drains and 38 secondary drains with in the city (Ref.Section 2.4.2
of chapter 2).The major portions of the drain silt are generated by throwing of the
household sweepings/ part of the street sweeping in the small drain flowing across
the various streets and gallies. Some silt formation also happens through the
blowing of the construction and other debris lying along side the drains. The drain
silt typically comprises dust, household waste, sweepings, construction waste etc.
In some of the cases part of the waste generated from various sources is disposed off
in drains and retained until it is degraded and becomes a part of the drain silt. The
drains are cleared of the accumulated solid waste twice or thrice a week/even
fortnightly in a few parts of the city. At other parts, the waste is left unattended for
months and cleared before the rainy season, up on complaints from the local
residents.
The cleared waste is left for drying for one to two days adjacent to the drains (which
again lead to a part of the waste getting back into the drain) and transported to the
secondary collection points, from where they are disposed off at the dump sites.
Based on the field survey conducted by RCUES, the drain silt constitutes about 8.7%
percent of the MSW generated in Agra. Estimate of Drain silt were done at open
dumps and dustbins, the results of which are given in Annexure IX The total waste
estimated from drain silt is 61 MT/ Day. The average waste generation per km
Road length is 72 kgs/ km considering road length of 850kms.
3.1.11 Construction and Demolition Sites
This waste varies from time to time depending up on the construction or demolition
activities in Agra city. A major portion of this waste is generally used in
reconstruction activities or for filling up of the low lying areas or kacha road. The
individual generating construction waste generally engages private vehicle to collect
the construction waste and dump it any elsewhere in the city for a nominal cost.
However, during field survey major portion of such waste is dumped at open dump
sites and dustbins designated for MSW collection by Nagar Nigam. RCUES observed
that about 16.1% percent of this waste is collected at these sites and become a part of
MSW, disposed off by NNA. Out of this about 20 MT is being disposed off directly
by private operators without it going through the secondary collection points. As
such there are no standard practices for disposal of construction waste in Agra city.

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3.1.12 Recyclables
Rag pickers play a very significant role in keeping Agra City clean. Section 3.3.1
discusses Public Private Partnership, details their role and concerns that NNA needs
to address in order to make their participation more effective.
The average composition of recyclable waste estimated at secondary collection
points is 21.1%.It comprises paper, textiles, plastics, Leather and rubber, glass and
metal. Most of the value added recyclable is being sold directly to Kabadiwallas. The
rag picker community removes most of these recyclables. However the waste from
Leather and rubber trimming is not reused and finally dumped in the secondary
collection point or find its place in nallahs resulting in chocking of drains.

3.2 MSW Collection System in Agra City


The MSW collection in Agra city is not well organized due to lack of awareness
among the citizens as well as civic bodies responsible for collection of waste.
However, Collection conducted in a two stages. In first stage, the waste collected
from door to door is transported to dustbins and open dumps. In this stage,
collection is not very efficient even though large numbers of private sweepers are
engaged in waste collection from door to door at a nominal charge. Most residents
drop the waste outside their residence, which in-turn is swept away by street
sweeping and lifted by means of handcart, rickshaw trolley by Nagar Nigam
workers to the nearby opens dumps.
In second stage waste filled DP Container is replaced with empty DP container by
Dumper placer vehicle. The waste is transported to the designated dumpsite. Waste
from open dumps is collected in trucks/tipper trucks/tractor manually or by JCBs
and Loaders and finally transported to the designated dumpsite. The mode of
transportation of waste from secondary dumpsites is decided on the basis of waste
quantity as well as access road.
3.2.1 Primary Collection Systems
The Project team did an exhaustive survey at macro level to assess the prevalent
primary
collection systems in Agra city. The primary collection of waste refers to house to
house collection of waste in the community bins either by the resident themselves or
by the sanitary workers. There is no organized arrangement for house to house
collection of waste in almost whole city except for some part of the city. Community
bins are also not available at convenient locations for depositing the waste. As
already mentioned, that there is mixed pattern of primary waste collection from
households. Private Sweepers collect waste from HIG and MIG household in
handcarts and transport it to nearby open dump/ Dustbins. Nagar Nigam workers
(safai karamcharis) collect waste that is thrown outside the residences while sweeping
the streets. The waste collection timings generally range from 6:00 AM and 2:00 PM.

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Nagar Nigam has 2215 permanent sweepers, 650 contract sweepers, 250 handcarts,
25 rickshaw trolleys engaged in primary collection. About 70% of the primary
collection equipment are in usable condition. Besides this, The Project team
observed that pilot project for door to door collection is implemented by NGO, New
Public School Samiti, Lucknow at Sanitary ward Hariparwat-III. At present 2000
household are registered and charges are fixed at Rs. 30- 50/-depending on the type.
NGO reported that only 130 household has paid the monthly charges. The main
problem behind this is the interference of private operators who never wants them to
work there nor wants to join it. After discussion it is brought out that private
sweeper can earn much more if they work individually rather than joining the NGO
Team.
A summary of collection methods from each of the waste generation source listed in
Section 3.1 are given below:

Most of the HIG and MIG Household have deployed private sweepers at a
monthly nominal charge of Rs. 20-30 (MIG) and Rs 25-50 (HIG) .These
sweepers collect the waste in handcarts and transport it to nearby collection
point fixed by Nagar Nigam for secondary collection. In some cases disposal
charges of even Rs 200 per month are being paid for disposal at landfill site.

The BMW from large number of private hospitals and nursing homes is
collected by the nursing home staff. These are further lifted by private
operators (Mr. Dutta Enterprises) at monthly charge of Rs.500-2500/-

The left over food from eating places is carried to the secondary collection
points and nearby open areas in private vehicles. The waste is collected
between 8:00 AM and 2:00 PM.

The meat waste generated from meat shops and private residences is thrown
into open dump sites. The waste is collected between 8:00 AM and 2:00 PM.

The waste generated from street sweeping is carried to the dustbins and open
dump sites by the NNA workers. First, rickshaw trolley and then tractors are
used for transporting the solid waste. This activity is performed on a daily
basis between 6:00 AM and 2:00 PM.

The drain silt is carried to the secondary collection points by NNA workers.
Sometimes, depending on the location, the drain itself can be considered as a
secondary collection point.

The construction and demolition debris is carried to the low lying areas in JCB
tippers/tractors owned by NNA or by the private individuals..

The field investigations performed by the The project team indicate that:

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

The waste is cleaned only on main roads while undeveloped areas do not
have sufficient staff for performing the collection and cleaning activities.

Door to door MSW collection activities are performed by private operators in


some part of HIG and MIG households only. Also, large amount of waste
goes into the open drains (nallah) causing choking of the same.

Waste management in Agra is difficult in areas having narrow streets, which


restricts big dumper trucks movement and also construction of closed
Dhalaos is not possible.

People and NNA staff is not using dustbins properly for waste storage
resulting in the waste littered on the ground thus creating conditions for
mosquito breeding and attracting cattle, etc.

Precautions like wearing globes, shoes and mask are not taken up by rag
pickers while picking up recyclables from secondary collection points.

There is no proper system for disposal of slaughter waste.

There is one authorized Dump site at Shadhara where waste is accumulated


up to a height of 8 feet. Unauthorized dumping is also observed at various
low-lying private lands in the city. All the waste generated in city is
transported to these dumpsites. There is a urgent requirement for its closure
and shift ing of waste disposal to newly identified location.

The photographs below reflect some of the above.

Inefficient design of Handcart

Grazing of stray animals (pigs) on


commingled waste

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Littering of waste on the Road side

Storm Water drains clogged with Waste

3.2.2 Secondary Waste Collection System


The MSW collected from each of the primary collection points mentioned above is
transported to designated open dump areas and DP containers (mostly on the main
roads) , which are the secondary collection points identified in Agra. Most of the
waste is transported in rickshaw trolley and handcarts to the secondary collection
points. The waste from the secondary collection points situated at congested places
is lifted manually using pans and favdas tipper trolleys. In other cases JCB/ loaders
are used to load the tipper truck/trolley, which in turn are used to transport this
waste. In addition, the JCB loaders are used to lift the construction and demolition
waste.
The survey team noted that the major secondary collection points are Open dumps,
and DP Container in the city. These have been marked in the Map and details are
given in Annexure VI.
Based on the field observations made by the The survey team, Truck /tractors/
tippers are used for picking up MSW from open dumpsites. Dumper placer is used
to lift waste from DP containers. All waste is finally dumped to Sahadra dumpsites.
Waste is lifted in two to three trips per day by each vehicle. Also, vehicles used for
transportation are not fully loaded with waste to the recommended vehicle capacity
which means that the collection system has only 75-80% efficiency as worked out in
section (3.1.2). The team noted unauthorized dumping to near by low lying area by
vehicle operators so as to save time and fuel.

Waste shifted from Handcart to Dustbin

Dustbins for waste collection

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

JCB shifting waste into tipper truck

JCB collecting Waste from Ground

3.2.3 MSW Transportation System in Agra City


This section describes the workshop for maintenance of transportation vehicles, the
transportation equipment available with the NNA, the routing details of these
vehicles, and the current MSW transportation practices followed in Agra city.
Workshop
NNA has workshop located at Transport Nagar. The waste transportation vehicles
are operated, supervised and maintained at this workshop. The workshop is
supervised by workshop in charge. At present this responsibility is given to Junior
Engineer. Based on the investigation made by The survey team workshop includes
one puncture department, one welding department, mechanical department and
vehicle service station. Most maintenance and repair work is done here. Major
Maintenance and repairs are outsourced on contract basis.
Transportation Equipment
Based on the survey conducted by the RCUES, the NNA has total 96 waste
transportation vehicles, used for the day-to-day collection of waste in the workshop.
These vehicles make three to four trips per day for collecting and transporting the
MSW from secondary collection points to the waste dump sites. Table 3.10 provides
details of each of these collection and transportation vehicles, furnished by the NNA.
These vehicles transport about 525-550MT/day of MSW.

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Table 3.10: Details of Transportation Equipment


S.N
o

Make
& Type

No
s.

Tata
Tipper

Ashok
Leylan
d

Swaraj
Mazad
a

Condition

Frequency
of
breakdow
n

Reason of
breakdown

O.K

Monthly

Old models

10

O.K(9),
Damaged(
1)

1997(4),
1998(10
)

Quaterly
6

Repairable(
1)

Due to over
loading of land
fill site vehicles
slips, results in
mechanical
breakdown of
vehicles

19992000

O.K
Quaterly

Routine
Servicing

O.K

Quaterly

Mechanical
breakdown of
vehicles

Quaterly

RoutineServicin
g

Quaterly

Routine
Servicing

Quaterly

Routine
Servicing

Model

Capacit
y(cu.m)

1980(1),
1982(2),
1987(1),
1990(1)

10

19992000

14

Trucks

Dumper Placer Truck


Ashok
4
Leylan
16
d
Swaraj
5
Mazad 17
a
Tractor Trolley
6

19952000

4.5

O.K(12),
Repairable(
5)

1995200

Piaggio

2000

Bazaj

2005

O.K(5)
Damaged(
1)
O.K

JCB

O.K

Escorts

Three Wheeler
7

JCV's
8

9
L&T
10
Tata
Loader
14

L-710

1
1

1999(2),
2000(1)
1997
2003
1995(3),
1996(1),
1997(5)

1
1

O.K
O.K

0.75

O.K

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Others
Sewer
Jetting
Machin
e

12

13
15

Chain
Mounte
d
Excavat
or
Skid
Stear
loader
430 Jet
Dodger

1996(1),
2004(1)

6000*

O.K(1)
Damaged(
1)

2004(J.
C.B-JS75),
2005(Ta
taTMX20)

O.K

2000

O.K

2000

Quaterly

Routine
Servicing

Damaged(
1)

The vehicles used for transportation of MSW start at the workshop in the morning
hours and reach the sanitary ward offices located in each of the 19 sanitary wards.
The sanitary inspector issues labor and fuel to each of these vehicles, when the waste
collection process begins (8:00 AM). The vehicle drivers are supposed to make an
entry in the log register, when they return in the evening to their respective sanitary
ward offices. These entries include details about the amount of fuel issued, fuel used,
number of hours worked and timings, and the route taken. This information is
supposed to be verified by the sanitary supervisor and the sanitary inspector.
However, the survey team noted that the entries are made in the log registers the
following morning and that the sanitary ward offices are mostly closed by 12:00 PM.
Routing of Vehicles
The existing unauthorized dump site is located at Shadhara on Delhi- Tundla bypass
Road. The transportation system from workshop, lift and transport waste to
Dumping site. The details of the site are provided in Section 3.5 of this DPR. The
transportation vehicles make three to four trips per day to transport the MSW to this
dump site. It takes about one to two hours to make three trips depending on the
distance travelled and the traffic conditions.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Existing Infrastructure for Waste Transportation with NNA

Parking and open Shed

Waste transportation vehicle parked at


workshop

JCBs and Loader

Tool Room and Repairing Shed

Tata Tipper Truck

Dumper Placer (4.5m3)

Ashok Leyland Tipper Truck

Dumper Placer (7 m3)

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Drawing O: 3146/Agra/02 & 03 illustrates the current routes adopted by the MSW
collection and transportation vehicles in Agra city. The survey team accompanied
these transportation vehicles to trace their routes and also confirmed from the
residents that the routing is generally followed.
The photographs qualify the type of vehicles and infrastructure with NNA.
Transfer Stations
There are no transfer stations identified as part of the MSW transportation process.
The waste collected from secondary collection points is directly transported to the
existing dump sites within the city. However the newly identified site at gram
Raibha, Tehsil Kerawali on Bichpuri- Achenara Road is approximately 20 kms from
the office of Agra Development Authority. If the waste has to be disposed at this site
a intermediate station is required to transfer waste from small vehicles to large
vehicle from where waste can be transported to this site. This process is essential in
order to reduce frequency of vehicles reaching the site thus reducing maintenance
cost as well as increase waste collection efficiency per vehicle. However NNA has
yet to identify and acquire the site for transfer station.

3.3 Waste Processing and Disposal Mechanisms


This section describes the waste processing and disposal methods for each type of
wastes adopted in Agra city. At present ANN does not possess any Waste
processing Facility .The unsegregated waste is disposed at Shadhara dumpsite
located at Agra Tundla byepass road. Waste is also dumped at various low lying
and private vacant plots. Certain recycling waste is segregated and sold by Rag
picking community.
Various types of wastes were identified in Agra city recyclables, bio-degradable
wastes, and non-bio-degradable wastes. Details of waste characteristics are given in
Section 3.5 of this chapter.
3.3.1 Recyclable Wastes
The recyclable wastes are segregated manually by kabadiwalas and rag-pickers
estimated at about 6000. The kabadiwalas purchase recyclable waste from residential
and commercial establishments while rag-pickers collect recyclables from market
places, dustbins, and dumping sites, and sort them before selling off. The Project
team observed that majority of such groups are located at Ravidas Nagar,Budh
Vihar, North Idgah, Police line, Idgah (also on the back of Idgah Nallah), Kathghar,
Mohanpura, Chipitola behind puranimandi, Rakabganj near police station etc
However, these recyclables are not segregated to the maximum extent, thereby
allowing them to be a part of the landfill waste. The cost of paper is Rs.4-5/kg,
cartoons is Rs. 4.5/kg, glass is Rs.2/kg, plastic is Rs.3-10/kg depending up on the
quality, and that of iron is Rs.12-13/kg.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

3.3.2 Bio-degradable Wastes


The bio-degradable waste is not segregated either at the primary collection points,
secondary collection points, or dumping sites. Most of the bio-degradable waste was
found to be eaten by animals at the grazing on the open dumping sites.
Biodegradable waste tends to loose moisture and if not separated early gets merged
with sand and soil making physical distinction difficult.
3.3.3 Non-biodegradable Wastes
Street sweepings and drain silt is a major constituent of the non-biodegradable
wastes. This type of waste is disposed off at the dumping sites along with other
wastes without any prior processing.

3.4 Status of Present Disposal & Proposed Landfill Site.


The existing SWM system for Agra does not have an engineering landfill site for
disposal of waste. The waste collected from secondary collection points is dumped in
an unorganized manner at the dumpsite. The authorized dumpsite is located at
Shadhara on Agra- Tundla Bypass Road. Behind this site Kalindi Vihar area is
situated and on the other side Jharna Nallah.It is at a distance of 4-5 kms from
Workshop at Transport Nagar.
The present situation of the landfill site is over dumped to a height of approx 8 ft
from Road level. The total area of the Dumping site is 4.475 acres. The way to the
dumping site is badly damaged, due to which the vehicle of Nagar Nigam for waste
disposal transport waste less than there capacity. During the discussion with NNA,
it was also brought out that situation become worst in rainy season as the way
becomes to much slippery due to which there exists risk of frequent accident.
The Agra Nagar Nigam has 22 acres of land at kuberpur, teshil, Etmadpur, which
has been proposed for the development of Integrated Sanitary Landfill Facility.
However, additional adjoining land is under process of acquisition by Agra
Development Authority to take care of the requirement of an integrated solid waste
complex for the next 25 years.
The Project team physically visited the site which is approximately 16 Km from
Nagar Nigam Agra office. It is well connected to National Highway -2 by
butiminized approach road connecting to Kuberpur village. The land adjoins
slaughter house in the north. The topography of land is Ravine.
Based on discussions with NNA and other agencies, it was decided that the landfill
site and other facilities including compost plant should be proposed at this
identified site. As agreed, a standard conceptual design of the landfill site is being

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proposed. The exact details of the landfill would need to be reevaluated after the
land is acquired and the position of the landfill marked by the competent authority
in the proposed site area. It is only then that the soil test and EIA study would be
carried out.

Existing Dumpsite used as Landfill at


Shadhara

Elevated road leading to Existing


Dumpsite at Shadhara

Proposed Site Location for Landfill at


Gram kuberpur,Teshil Etmadpur

Access Road( towards Kuberpur)


for proposed site connecting NH-2.

3.5 Quantification and Characterization of Waste


In order to quantify the MSW, The Project team surveyed all the secondary collection
points and waste transportation vehicles operated by NNA.
On conducting detailed analysis of results obtained from surveys conducted for
open dump sites, it was estimated that per capita waste generation in Agra city is
estimated at 0.497 kgs/ capita/ day. The future waste projection upto 2031 is
calculated for designing landfill site for 25 years and compost plant as per MSW
rules 2000 (Refer Annexure-IX). The projections are obtained on the basis of
projected population and 1 % per capita increase per year as per NEERI Report.
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Waste generation projections were also calculated for each ward for 2006 (Refer
Annexure-IV) and the infrastructure required for SWM is proposed accordingly.
Refer chapter 4 of this report for details.
For collecting the samples for physical characterization quartering method as per the
IS standard IS: 9234 1979, was adopted.
In this method, a 100 kg representative sample of MSW is collected from the dump
site, mixed thoroughly and is divided into four equal parts. The two diagonally
opposite parts are retained for analysis and the other two are discarded. The
retained parts are again mixed thoroughly and are divided into four equal parts. The
exercise is continued and samples of 10 kg are taken for physical analysis.
In summary, the total waste generation in Agra city is 709.4 MT/day approximately.
Breakup of the quantity and type of waste from each of the secondary collection
centre is enclosed as Annexure VI to this report. Table 3.11 below provides the
averaged values of waste type.
Table 3.11: Quantity and Characterization of MSW in Agra
Waste Characteristic
Recyclables (paper,
rubber, synthetics, glass,
and metals etc)
Organic Matter including
Petha waste

Quantity
Generation
(MT/day)
150.5

Percentage of
Total Waste in
Percentage
21.2

311.1

43.9

114.5

16.1

133.3

18.8

709.4

100

Construction Debris
Mixed Waste & Drain Silt
& Street Sweeping
Total

Treatment/
Management Option
Reuse/ Recycle
20% Landfilling
90% for Compost
/10% for landfilling
Filling of low-lying
area/20% Landfilling
Landfilling

As detailed in Annexure VI, the total waste quantity at dumpsites and at the
dustbins aggregated to 631 MT/ day. After adding for 28.3 tonnes (10% of
biodegradable) to take care of the green waste eaten by animals, 20 tonnes per day
of construction waste not being routed through the dumps, and 30.1 tonnes (25% of
recyclables) of recyclables being removed in secondary collection points, the total
waste per day is estimated at 709.4 MT/ Day. This addition has been done as in
Agra there is a large number of stray cattle and an active ragpicker community.
The above waste characterization is arrived on the survey of the collection points
and is by and large in line with the physical characterization of MSW (Table 3.12) as

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

per the CPHEEO manual for the population range of over 10 lakhs. The
biodegradable in Agra is higher on account of Petha waste and recyclable is higher
on account of Leather and Rubber trimming.
Table 3.12: Physical characterization of MSW as per CPHEEO manual
Component
Recyclables (paper, rubber, synthetics, glass, and metals)
Organic Matter
Inert (sand, soil, construction waste)

Percentage
16
39
45

The results are also supported by the test results of M/s SGS India Private Limited.
The physical and chemical characterization report are enclosed as Annexure VI . The
SGS Results (physical) are summarized in Table: 3.13 below:
Three different sites were chosen for physical and chemical characterization of waste
.Biodegradable is reported higher at residential Dhalao, Recyclable is reported
higher at commercial Dhalao and higher inert is reported at dumping site.
Table3 13: Summary of Physical Waste Characteristics by SGS
Sampling sites

Type

Dhalao at
Idakhargarh,Rustam
Khan ki Sarai

Residential

Dhalao at Panchkuia
At Shadhara

Waste Characterization in
Percentage
Biodegradable Recyclable Inert

Commercial
Complex
Dumping site

48.3

21.7

30.0

22.8

36.9

40.3

32.4

24.8

42.8

Table 3.13 has been used for design purposes for calculating the capacity of the
collection, storage and transportation equipment, the compost plant and the landfill
site. These are detailed in Chapter 4 (Collection, storage and transportation), Chapter
5 (Compost plant) and Chapter 6 (Land fill site) respectively.

3.6 MSW Management System in Agra City


Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 of this DPR describe the sources of waste generation,
waste collection, transportation, and disposal mechanisms employed by the NNA in
handling MSW in Agra city. In addition to these processes, the survey team obtained
information on the total manpower engaged in MSW management system, public
awareness programs, and expenditure incurred by the NNA. Each of these issues is
discussed in brief in this section.
Section 2.7 summarizes the administrative set up in NNA for MSW management.

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Table 3.14 summarizes the manpower available for management of MSW in Agra
city.
Table 3.14: Manpower Engaged for MSW Management
Designation
Main Workforce
Chief Health Officer
Senior Health Officer
Chief Sanitary Inspector
Sanitary Supervisor
Permanent Safai Kararmchairs
Safai Karamcharis on Contract Basis
Driver
Other Workers
Rag-pickers
Private operators
Public Awareness Programs

No.
1
1
02
16
2215
650
90

>6000
>1000

Based on discussions with the Agra residents, it was understood that they do not
have any knowledge of waste segregation at the source. They dump the waste
indiscriminately at in any open or low lying areas in the city and hold the NNA
officials responsible for not picking up the waste.

3.7 Expenditure on MSW Management


During 2005-2006, the expenditure incurred on SWM is summarised in Table: 3.15
Table: 3.15: Expenditure on SWM by NNA in 2005-06

1. Cleanliness Department Salaries etc


2.Equipment
Total

Rs. in crores
24.8
3.3
28.1

The single most expenditure for NNA is on Cleanliness and SWM. This expenditure
at Rs. 28.1 crores accounts for 51% of the total non capital expenditure of Rs. 55.0
crores(Total expenses less expenses on public works)
Expenditure for investment in SWM was low and most of the expenditure was
operations and maintenance of the SWM establishment.
On a per ton basis, the expenditure of Rs 28.1 crores to an expenditure of
Rs.1080/tonne of SWM.This can be considered on relatively a higher side.
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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

3.8 Gaps in Existing MSW Management with respect to MSW Rules 2000
The MSW Rules 2000 has laid out very detailed and specific criteria for management
of solid waste. It has also laid down the guidelines, guidance notes and specific
work standards to be adopted by municipal personnel or personnel involved with
solid waste management for organized SWM practices (starting from waste
collection, segregation, transportation, to environmentally safe waste disposal
practices).
The field and design team finds that the SWM system in Agra requires significant
improvements/ total transformation to meet the performance standards laid down
in MSW Rules 2000.
Some of the significant gaps observed by Field team are as under:
3.7.1 No Segregation Practiced at Source
The waste generators in Agra city do not segregate the waste prior to disposal. The
The Project team identified that these generators (households, restaurants, shops,
etc.) dump mixed waste into Dustbin, drains, and open dumps

Waste disposal in Open dump in Road


side

Littering of waste outside DP bin

As a standard practice, MSW has to be segregated into biodegradable and non-biodegradable


wastes and disposed off in separate containers to aid in efficient waste processing and disposal
mechanisms.
3.7.2 Primary collection of solid waste is not appropriate
NNA does not provide door-to-door MSW collection service to its residents. As
discussed in section 3.1, the major portion of HIG and LIG residents of Agra city pay
private operators to collect their daily waste in handcarts and disposed off to near by
secondary collection point. However, others throw the household waste outside
their residences from where sweepers of NNA collect waste by means of rickshaw

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

trolley and dump the same into the dustbins or onto streets (open dump). In most of
the cases, generators themselves dispose off waste in nearby waste collection points/
containers, onto the streets, or in the nearby drains.
The safai karamcharis employed by the NNA do street sweeping, collect drain silt and
waste heaps from roadsides and dispose them off at a nearby open dumps. These
unorganized disposal methods have resulted in accumulation of solid waste on
roadsides and vacant plots and in low lying areas and storm water drains.
Door-to-door waste collection service has to be provided to households. The roadside waste
collected by street sweepers must be directly dumped into a separate bin at the secondary
waste collection point.
3.7.3 Secondary storage of solid waste is unorganized
The team observed that at places wherever dustbins are available, either they are
rusted or damaged. At other places, waste is dumped on open dumps which have
evolved over time. In the absence of secondary storage facility for MSW, it is
dumped at any location in the vicinity drains, vacant plots, street corners, low
lying areas, and other open areas. Heaps and stretches of un-segregated waste in
open areas is an eyesore, thereby causing environmentally hazardous & unhygienic
conditions across the city, thus, creating conditions for breeding of mosquitoes,
grazing by cattle
Separate coloured bins must be provided at the secondary storage location for biodegradable
and non-biodegradable, and recyclable wastes. The bins must be covered and cleared at the
scheduled time to prevent storage of waste for a long time and littering of waste outside the
bins.
3.7.4 Solid waste is transported in open vehicles
Most of the times, solid waste is transported in open trucks and trolleys. The Project
team observed that these vehicles are overloaded with waste, resulting in road
littering during transportation. The loading and unloading of waste is done
manually and safai karamcharis involved in this activity do not use any Personal
Protection Equipment (PPE) for their protection.
The waste transportation vehicles must be covered at all times expect while loading and
unloading activities and the loaded waste should not exceed the capacity of these vehicles.
3.7.5 Slaughter house waste is mixed with the MSW
Waste from slaughter houses is dumped along with the MSW in open and near by
agricultural land. As such, there is no provision for segregation and safe disposal in
Agra city.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Slaughter house waste should be collected separately and disposed off by controlled
incineration, burial, anaerobic digestion, or other approved processing methods.
3.7.6 Biomedical waste is not managed properly in all health care facilities
The survey team found out that most of the private hospitals/nursing homes in
Agra are segregating their waste and the bio-medical waste. They have contracted
with a UPPCB approved contractor M/s Dutta Enterprises of Agra for collection and
disposal of BMW. However few organizations does not strictly follow segregation
of BMW and needs to be penalized by the competent authority.
Biomedical waste segregation, handling and disposal mechanisms adopted by all medical
institutions must be strictly in compliance with the Bio-medical Waste Rules.
3.7.7 Collection and disposal of construction waste is not appropriate
The construction/ demolition waste generated by local residents is transported in
tractor trolleys and disposed off in open/ low-lying areas in the vicinity, privately.
The construction and demolition waste (from private or NNA sites) must not be dumped in
any open areas in an unorganized manner. It must be handled under the guidance of NNA
staff.
3.7.8 Disposal of solid waste is not appropriate
The solid waste collected from various sources is disposed off in open dumpsites
indiscriminately without segregation or preprocessing. There is no engineered
sanitary landfill site for safe disposal of solid waste.
According to MSW Rules 2000, biodegradable waste shall be processed and converted into
compost or used for power generation; recyclables shall be segregated and sold to recyclers; no
hazardous waste be dumped along with MSW; construction waste to be segregated and used
for filling low lying areas and only remaining waste shall be dumped into engineered landfill
facility.
3.7.9 Manual handling of solid waste
Safai Karamcharis involved in primary collection of MSW do not use any Personal
Protection Equipment (PPEs) such as face masks, disposable gloves, boots, hats, and
proper safety clothing (sturdy colored uniform) to avoid direct contact with waste
and reduce the likelihood of on-the-job injury. Manual handling of solid waste
during primary collection is an acceptable practice in Agra city.
3.7.10 Lack of awareness among city residents and civic authorities
The NNA staff is responsible for managing MSW in Agra city in accordance with the
MSW Rules 2000. However, they are completely ignorant of these rules and the
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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

implementation practices recommended in the document. The current state of affairs


indicates that a change is needed in the mindset of the NNA staff involved in
managing MSW in Agra city. Furthermore, they need to understand the
environmental, social, and economic implications of an unorganized MSW
management system. Likewise, public participation is very essential in successful
implementation of the MSW management plan in the city. Therefore, a planned and
concerted effort is required to bring about awareness among the public and make
them realize their responsibilities as individuals and as a community. In summary,
public awareness, community participation, transparent administration,
accountability at all levels is the need of hour so as to ensure success of any MSW
management plan.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,,Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 4

Proposed MSW Management


System
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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 4

PROPOSED MSW MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

This chapter provides an integrated SWM plan for primary and secondary waste
collection systems and transportation system for Agra city. The proposed plan also
includes the infrastructure requirements, quantities, and corresponding cost
estimates for the collection and transportation systems. The proposed SWM system
is broadly based on the 4R Environmental Protection Rules (Reduce, Recycle, Reuse,
and Recover) and is in accordance with the MSW 2000 Rules. The primary aspects of
the proposed plan include the following:

Compliance with Municipal Solid Waste Management & Handling Rules of


2000
Compulsory segregation at the source
Provision of segregated infrastructure at all stages of collection and
transportation
Waste to be covered at all stages of handling
Elimination of manual handling of waste, and the provision of the proper
PPEs to the workers
100% collection and transportation of the generated waste
Maximum recovery of resources by segregating recyclables and
biodegradable
Advocate 4Rs i.e. reduce, recycle, reuse, and recover materials in MSW
management
Adopt proven technologies for waste processing
Promote information, education and communication across the stakeholders
to ensure system efficiency and sustainability
Ensure economic sustainability of the proposed system by introducing public
private partnership in MSW management
Adequate health and safety provisions for workers at all stages of waste
handling
Regular environmental monitoring at waste processing and disposal facilities
Have robust complaint-handling system in place
Conduct regular internal and external independent audits on the efficiency of
entire SWM system

4.1 Basis of Design for Proposed SWM Plan


In order to propose a waste management plan and infrastructure/equipment for
primary and secondary waste collection and transportation systems for Agra city,
the following were considered:
Past population estimates based on Census surveys
Projected populations for the design period
Spread of Agra city
Current MSW quantities as per RCUES field survey data
Projected MSW quantities based on the current values
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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Current and projected per-capita waste


Characterization of the current and projected waste quantities
Wardwise quantity of waste generation
Existing waste dumping sites/secondary waste collection locations

Table 4.1 summarizes the past and current projected populations, waste quantities,
and per-capita waste for Agra city, used for proposed SWM plan and infrastructure
design.
Table 4.1: Population Estimates, Waste Quantities, and Waste Characterization (Year
2006)
2001 Population (Census Data)
1275134
1426617
2006 Population
Waste Composition

Percentage Waste

Bio-degradable
43.9%
Recyclable
21.2%
Non-biodegradable
34.9%
(Inert)
Total Waste
100
Per-capita Waste (kg/capita/day)

Quantity (MT/day)
311.3
150.3
247.4
709
497 gms/day/person

The non-biodegradable waste mainly comprises of construction waste, drain silt,


street sweepings and mixed waste. Based on survey, for SWM infrastructure design
purpose the inert waste is further categorized as follows:
Table 4.2: Classification of Non-biodegradable Waste (Year 2006)
Type of Inert Waste
Quantity Waste (MT/day)
Street sweepings and drain silt
95.7
Construction and demolition waste
114.1
Mixed waste
37.6
Total Waste
247.4
Apart from the general solid waste, as discussed in Chapter 3 there is bio-medical
waste generation in Agra. The quantity of biomedical waste (BMW) generated from
medical facilities in Agra is approx 4.5 MT/day. This bio-medical waste needs to be
dealt separately as per the Biomedical Waste Management Rules. There is a private
operator, Dutta Enterprises, managing biomedical waste treatment and disposal in
Agra. All medical facilities shall compulsorily segregate their waste at source and
send their waste to the authorized waste treatment and disposal facility. The State
Pollution Control Board shall monitor all medical facilities in Agra and ensure that
all of them dispose off their waste as per the rules.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

4.2 Proposed MSW Management Plan


This section describes a step-wise approach for safe and efficient collection, storage,
and transportation of MSW for Agra city. They include primary waste collection,
secondary waste collection and storage, and waste transportation for subsequent
processing and disposal. The collection and transportation system is designed for 5
years timeframe. With increase in spread of Agra city, additional infrastructure will
be required to undertake SWM services as per the proposed plan.
4.2.1Primary Waste Collection System
The efficiency of the proposed waste management plan described below is driven by
the separation of waste at the primary collection level. For this purpose, following
approach needs to be adopted by the residents as well as the NNA personnel:
The waste will be stored by the generators in two separate bins, one each for biodegradable and recyclables.
Door-to-door waste collection will be privatized in the entire Agra city. Areawise
responsibility will be assigned to private operators. Waste collectors will collect
waste on a day-to-day basis in two types of bins - green bins for bio-degradable and
white bins for recyclable waste. Door-to-door collection of waste will be through
rickshaw trolleys. Initially NNA safaikaramcharis shall do street sweeping on a dayto-day basis. Overtime number of safai karamcharies will reuse (due to retirement
and introduction of VRS scheme) and this service will also be given to private
operator. The street sweeping waste will be collected in wheelbarrows. The waste
collectors will transfer bio-degradable and non-biodegradable waste to the
secondary collection location and will sell the recyclable waste.
The existing infrastructure for secondary collection of waste will be upgraded to
comply with MSW Rules 2000 and additional secondary collection locations will be
developed to ensure that no primary collection staff has to travel more than 250m for
dumping of waste.
The NNA safaikaramcharis shall re-use the construction and demolition wastes for
filling-up the man-made low-lying areas or shall recycle the construction waste to
make bricks. The local residents shall hand-over the construction waste generated
from private construction activities to NNA workers for proper use.
Most of the waste generated from slaughter houses such as bones, skin and horns is
recyclable and shall be sold to the recyclers. The only solid waste generated from the
slaughter houses is flesh cuttings, which shall be buried in a designated area.
The private workers and NNA safaikaramcharis shall be well equipped to avoid
direct contact with waste.
Table 4.3 summarizes the overall management of MSW at the primary collection
level.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Table 4.3 Primary Waste Collection System


Source/Waste
Category
Generator
Type of Waste
Residential
Commercial
Institutional
Hotels/Restaurants/
Eating Joints

Requirement

Generator Responsibility

Implementation

Bio-degradable
Non-Biodegradable
Recyclable

Segregation
source
Day-to-day
collection

at

at

II

Bio-degradable
Street sweeping and
Non-Biodegradable
drain silt
Recyclable

Segregation
secondary
collection
Day-to-day
collection

Construction

Non-biodegradable

Time
construction

of

III

Slaughter Houses

Carcass
Other biodegradable
Non-biodegradable
Recyclable

Segregation
source
Day-to-day
collection

at 1. Storage in 4-bins
1. Facility owner
2. Primary collectors
2. Recyclers
3.
Separate
Slaughter
house waste for burial

IV

Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

1. Storage in 2-bins

1. Private/
waste collectors
2. Private rag-pickers

--

Initially
NNA
safaikaramcharis,
overtime withreduction
to number of safai
karamcharies
to
be
under taken in PPP
format.

Handover to NNA

NNA waste collectors

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

It is proposed that primary waste collection shall be done by NGOs or private


operators. Presently, in Agra there is limited system of primary collection of waste. It
is proposed that NNA shall identify NGOs/private operators for this purpose and
authorize them for undertaking this activity. The NGOs/private operators shall be
assigned responsibility area wise. The private operator authorized for a particular
area shall ensure that there is proper waste collection of biodegradable and
recyclable waste as per the plan from all sources in his area. The waste collectors
shall have adequate infrastructure as per the proposed plan given in Table 4.4 in the
next page.
Collection of Waste from Households:
The door-to-door collection of waste shall be done on a day-to-day basis between
7:00 AM and 2:00 PM. The NNA shall ensure that infrastructure is made available
for undertaking this activity in compliance with the MSW Rules 2000.
The proposed infrastructure for primary waste collection is given below. The waste
collection infrastructure for construction and demolition shall be provided by the
NNA on need basis.
Required Infrastructure for Households
The
infrastructure
is
calculated at ward level.
Based on field survey, it is
proposed to use Rickshaws
for door-to-door collection
of waste.
It is proposed to have a
Rickshaw with four 50 litre
bins
for
door-to-door
collection of waste. Among
4 bins, 3 bins will be used
for
collection
of
biodegradable waste, 1 bin
for recyclables.

Rickshaw Trolley with 4 bins

The distribution of bins for waste collection has been done on the basis of the waste
characteristics received from the households. The waste received from the
households mainly comprises of biodegradable waste. The household waste also
contains recyclable waste but the quantity of this waste as compared to
biodegradable waste is very less.
Based on field survey, wardwise estimation has been done for requirement of
rickhaws. The quantity of waste generation from each ward is estimated based on its

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

population and per capita waste generation in Agra. As discussed above, from
households maximum waste is bio-degradable waste, therefore, number of
rickshaws required is calculated based on quantity of biodegradable waste.
Sample procedure for infrastructure calculation in Ward 1
Quantity of biodegradable waste from households of ward 1= 3904 Kg/day
1. Number of rickshaws required
3904 Kg biodegradable waste is to be collected in three 50 litre bins placed on the
rickshaw. Average density of bio-degradable waste is considered at 0.6 kg/litre.
Assuming that only 80% capacity of the bins will be used for waste storage, number
of rickshaws required in ward 1 = (3904/0.6)/150*.8 = 54.22 54 rickshaws
Considering that each rickshaw can make 3 trips in a day,
Number of rickshaws required
= 54/3 = 18 rickshaws
This activity shall be undertaken by private operator. The private operator shall have
sufficient number of workers to do waste collection all 365 days a year.
On the basis of the above the requirement of number of rickshaw has been calculated
wardwise and the details are given in Table 4.4:
Table 4.4: Required Infrastructure for Collection of Household Waste

Ward
Ward Name
No.

Population
Wardwise Projected
Density
Area
in Population 2006
(
sq.km
2006
Density/
sq. km)

Biodegradable
waste
(43.9%) in
Kg per day

Required
number
of
rikshaws

0.42

17894

42213

3904

18

0.63

14006

22287

3056

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Jagdishpura
Gummat
Takth
Pahalwan
Nagla
Harmukh
Sewala Jat
Bhogipura
Raj Nagar
Nagla
Maewadi
Idgah
Barah
Khamba

14
0.58

14230

24588

3105

1.02
1.09
1.02

14284
18004
16667

13980
16478
16337

3116
3928
3636

3.93

13901

3534

3033

1.14

13633

11956

2974

0.79

18045

22933

3937

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14
14
18
17
14
14
18

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

Sarai
Malukchand
Kajipara
Ghas
Ki
Mandi
Nagla Mohan
Nagla Ajeeta
Khataina
Bundu Katra
Bagh
Muzaffar
Khan
Kachpura
Bhim Nagar
Laywers
Colony
Ram Nagar
Gadi
Bhadhoria
Ratanpura
Nai ki Sarai
Nagla Padi
Freeganj
Nawalganj
Mohanpura
Chawli
Charsu
Darwaza
Sohalla
Ghatia Azam
Khan
Dhakran
Sector 5 to 12,
Awas Vikas
Bailanganj
Kedar Nagar
Tehdi Bagia
Himachal
Colony
Tal
Feroz
Khan
Madhu
Nagar
Naamnair
Ajeet Nagar

2.09

15275

7310

3333

0.37

13555

37103

2958

0.59

16867

28482

3680

0.75
2.19
0.34
0.56

13866
17783
17839
13914

18586
8127
51800
24830

3025
3880
3892
3036

3.66

14390

3935

3140

0.47
0.78

17441
15822

37404
20178

3805
3452

1.89

18198

9644

3971

0.73

18056

24576

3940

0.82

16597

20157

3621

0.58
8.56
0.58
0.40
2.07
0.55
0.50

17589
13961
17902
13694
16727
13619
16138

30124
1630
30781
34322
8072
24713
32163

3838
3046
3906
2988
3650
2971
3521

0.26

13653

52938

2979

1.59

16236

10184

3542

0.98

16888

17297

3685

0.62

14271

23035

3114

2.69

18069

6727

3942

0.68
0.51
5.52

16662
18188
15474

24331
35786
2801

3635
3968
3376

0.89

13841

15550

3020

0.53

17859

33791

3897

0.58

17794

30733

3882

0.53
1.01

13627
17715

25539
17464

2973
3865

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14
17
14
18
18
14

15
18
16
18
18
17
18
14
18
14
17
14
16
14
16
17
14
18
17
18
16
14
18
18
14
18

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43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78

Gate
Nari Pura
Dholikhar
Kaverikunj
Shyam Nagar
(Naraich)
Khandari
Nai ki Mandi
Jatpura
Vijay Nagar
Colony
Nagla Bhoja
Moti Katra
Albatia
Lohia Nagar
Balkeshwar
Mantola
Sahadara
Sita Nagar
Sikandra
Ashok Nagar
Baluganj
Ghatwasan
Raja Mandi
Wazirpura
Dev Nagar
Derasaras
Gailana
Maharishi
puram
Mustafa
Quarter
Shaheed
Nagar
Vibhav
Nagar
Dhadu
Nagar
Urkhara
Katra Phulail
Azampara
Noori
Darwaza
Khatipara
RamMohan

1.80
0.27
1.01

13903
14269
18097

7705
53764
17852

3033
3113
3948

2.91

15983

5499

3487

3.73
0.28
0.50

13708
13992
17618

3672
50157
35387

2991
3053
3844

0.89

15362

17200

3352

0.36
0.25
1.66
0.90
0.51
0.28
13.51
1.04
2.32
0.38
0.91
1.13
0.74
2.06
5.72
0.17
3.77

16315
13675
17857
16848
18088
13666
14634
18169
18122
17611
13646
14068
16885
13937
17603
13876
16462

45694
54666
10780
18634
35652
48920
1083
17468
7814
46481
14917
12446
22764
6780
3076
82679
4364

3560
2984
3896
3676
3946
2982
3193
3964
3954
3842
2977
3069
3684
3041
3841
3028
3592

4.77

17470

3659

3812

1.67

16031

9582

3498

1.42

14054

9882

3066

2.48

17566

7079

3833

7.24

15825

2185

3453

2.57
0.33
0.39

14114
15435
15448

5495
46479
39985

3079
3368
3371

0.53

14656

27846

3198

0.51
2.64

13620
18108

26906
6855

2972
3951

rcues Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

14
14
18
16
14
14
18
16
16
14
18
17
18
14
15
18
18
18
14
14
17
14
18
14
17
18
16
14
18
16
14
16
16
15
14
18

4.8

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

Nagar
Dhankot
Telipara
Rawatpara
Bhund Kaa
Bagh
Kamala
Nagar
Trans
Yammuna
Colony
MotiGanj
Pepal Mandi
Kamala
Nagar Block
E&G
Jaipur House
Gobar Choki
Maithan
TOTAL

0.18
0.80
0.34

15728
17042
13744

85039
21186
40776

3432
3718
2999

1.13

17263

15303

3767

0.74

15577

21074

3399

0.80

18029

22531

3934

0.20
0.26

14149
14914

70518
58223

3087
3254

0.64

15893

24694

3467

1.40
1.13
0.28

17017
14323
16039

12192
12677
57982

3713
3125
3499

16
17
14
17
16

18
14
15

16
17
14
16
1439

Total no. of Rickshaws required with 5% back-up


= 1439x1.05
= 1510.9 1511 Rikshaws
Number of workers required per day
= 1439
This activity will be undertaken by the private operator. The total number of
workers required by a private operator is based on the assumption that the private
workers will not get more than 60 days leave in a year.
Therefore, the number of workers required for collection
of waste on all 365 days
= 1439x1.2 1727
Presently handcarts are used for primary collection of waste. Out of the total existing
handcarts, 50 handcarts are in good condition but these handcarts do not facilitate
collection of segregated waste.
Recently, some infrastructure for primary collection of waste has also been
purchased from the TFC grant money. This infrastructure includes
Traditional handcarts
= 100 (already purchased) + 400 (ordered)
= 500
Container Carrying Paddle Tricycle
= 100
In the above infrastructure, only tricycles will facilitate collection of segregated
waste, therefore, it is proposed that handcarts shall be used for collection of street
sweeping waste.
Now, requirement to purchase new rickshaws = 1511 100 = 1411
rcues Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

4.9

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

3. Required Tools and Equipments


Each worker will be provided with a broom and a dustpan for waste collection.
Number of brooms required
= 1727
Number of dustpans required
= 1727
The workers involved in SWM also need to be equipped with adequate personal
protective equipments (PPEs). Each worker engaged in door-to-door collection of
SW shall be provided with gloves, boots and uniform.
Therefore,
Required number of pair of gloves
= 1727
Required number of pair of boots
= 1727
Required set of uniform
= 1727
A uniform for a worker will include two sets of uniform for summers and two
sweaters for winters.
Collection of Waste from Commercial Areas
The association of markets, shops and establishments shall organize for primary
collection of waste with the help of private waste collectors authorized in their area.
Most of the waste from commercial areas is recyclable. Therefore it is proposed that
rag pickers shall collect recyclable waste from shops and establishments as soon as
they open. There will be a secondary waste collection point in every market area;
therefore shopkeepers themselves shall dispose off their waste in these collection
points.
The usual timings of waste collection will not be feasible for markets as shops
normally open after 9am. It is proposed that street sweeping in market area shall be
done in the early morning hours and waste collection shall be done from 9:00 am to
10:00 am.
Collection of Construction and Demolition Waste
The construction and demolition waste will be collected on need basis. It is the
responsibility of generator to inform NNA that construction waste need to be
collected from the site. The NNA shall collect this construction waste in existing
tractors and trucks and transport it for reuse or recycle. The NNA shall identify low
lying areas for dumping of this waste.
Quantity of construction waste generation per day = 114.1 MT/day
Assuming that average quantity of construction waste per location is 2 MT.
Therefore approximate number of locations from where construction waste gets
generated everyday = 114.1/2 = 57 locations

rcues Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

4.10

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

One truck will cover 3-4 locations in one trip and one truck will make approximately
3 trips in a day. Therefore, number of trucks required = 57/(3x3) = 6.3 6
With adequate back-up, number of trucks required = 8
Existing trucks can be upgraded and can be used for this activity.
Collection of dairy waste
All dairy waste shall be sent to the compost plant. Existing tractors with NNA can be
used for this purpose. The compost plant operator shall have understanding with
dairy owners and NNA for collection and transportation of dairy waste from source
to the compost plant site and transportation cost would be reimbursed by the
Compost Plant operator as proposed in Chapter 9.
Collection of waste from banquet halls, marriage halls and community centres
It is proposed to deploy a few auto rickshaws for collection of bulk waste from these
facilities. The facility owners have to request NNA to get this waste collected from
their premises. NNA shall charge them for providing this facility. Apart from this,
NNA will have tie-up with private vehicle operators ansd NNAwill use this vehicles
to lift the waste from any such site.
Street Sweeping
The street sweeping shall be done on a day-to-day basis. It is desirable to split the 8
hours of duty of sweepers into two shifts, 4 hrs in the morning and 4 hrs in the
afternoon. The street sweeping is to be done by NNA safaikaramcharis as per the
proposed plan.
Required Infrastructure for Street Sweeping
Street Sweeping Machines
Estimated quantity of street sweeping waste (including drain silt)
Assuming density of street sweeping waste as 1MT/m3, quantity

= 95.7 TPD
= 95.7 m3
= 95700 litre

Length of roads in Agra = 850 km


It is proposed that approximately 25% of the roads which are prime roads remain in
good condition all round the year will be cleaned by road vacuum sweeping
machine.
Therefore, road length which will be cleaned by

rcues Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

4.11

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

mechanical sweeping = 850 x 0.25 = 212.5 km


It is assumed that 80% of this road has a divider, therefore total length of road to be
cleaned by road vacuum sweeping machine = 212.5 x 1.8 = 382.5 km
The average speed of a truck mounted road sweeping machine is 10 km/hr. Machine
will be used from 10 pm to 8 am for road sweeping. Therefore, number of road
sweeping machines required = 5 (4 for daily operation and 1 as back-up).
Number of drivers and helpers required for operating street sweeping machine from
8pm to 10 am (considering all 365 days operation) = 9 drivers and 9 helpers
Approximate waste collected by the street sweeping machines = (212/850)x95.7
= 23.9 TPD
24 TPD
Remaining 71.7 TPD (71700 litres) of street sweeping waste has to be collected from
638 km of roads through manual cleaning by the street sweepers. Initially it will be
done by safai karamcharies. Over time it will be shifted to private operater in phased
manner as discussed earlier.
Wheelbarrows
The street sweeping waste will be collected in 100 litre wheelbarrows. Based on
quantity of street silt and assuming that wheelbarrow will be used for 80% of its
capacity, number of wheelbarrows required = 71700 /(100x.8)= 896.25 900

Wheelbarrow
Street Sweeping staff

rcues Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

4.12

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

The street sweepingshall be done daily. The infrastructure required for street
sweeping is also estimated based on length of roads in Agra and safaikaramcharis
required for street sweeping.
Length of roads to be manually cleaned in Agra = 638 km
As per the work norms for a town of this size, on an average every street sweeper
can clean 600m length of road in a day, therefore
Total number of workers required = 638/.60 = 1063.33 1063
Assuming that 20% of this road has a divider, additional number of workers
required for street sweeping = (638x0.2)/0.6 = 212.66 213
Total street sweeping staff required per day = 1063 + 213 = 1276
Street sweeping shall be done 365 days a year by the Nagar Nigam staff.
Approximate number of holidays in a year as per the State Government Rules and
Regulations = 125
Therefore total staff required = 1276 x 1.5 = 1914
Assuming that one wheelbarrow will be shared by two street sweepers, number of
wheelbarrows required per day = 1914/2 = 957
Therefore total number of wheelbarrows required = Max (900, 957) = 957
Total number of wheelbarrows with 5% back-up infrastructure
= 957 x 1.05
= 1004.85 1005
In the existing system, handcarts are used for the collection of street sweeping waste.
It is proposed to use 550 available handcarts in place of wheelbarrows.
Therefore number of wheelbarrows required = 1005 550 = 455
Other Tools and Equipments
Other working tools required for street sweeping staff include shovel and broom.
Number of brooms required
= 1914
Number of shovels required
= 1914
PPEs required for the street sweeping staff include gloves, boots, safety mask and
uniform. Therefore,
Required number of pair of gloves
= 1914
Required number of pair of boots
= 1914
Required number of safety mask
= 1914
Required set of uniform
= 1914
Table 4.5: Infrastructure Required for Primary Waste Collection and Transportation
Equipment
Description
No.
Rate
Total
Exp. Remarks
(Rs.)
Cost
Life

rcues Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

4.13

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Two covered bins 10 litre capacity 500000


for households
Plastic bins

25

(Rs.)
12500000

(yrs)
2

Rickshaw with bins A Rickshaw having 1411


for
door-to-door 4 bins of 50 litre
collection of waste capacity each

8813

12435143

2.5

Rate includes 2
year equipment
warranty
from
the vendor

Renovation
Bought
recently 100
(painting)
of from the TFC grant
existing rickshaws
Wheelbarrow for 100 litre capacity
455
street sweepings

200

20000

5250

2388750

Rate includes 2
year equipment
warranty
from
the vendor

For all workers


engaged in the
activity
irrespective
of
their employment
status

Renovation
of
existing handcarts
for collection of
street
sweeping
waste

Including existing 550


200
110000
handcarts in good
condition
and
handcarts
purchased with the
TFC money
Road
vacuum For wide metalled 5
3450000 17250000
sweeping machine roads
(Existing
chassis shall be
used for fitting
sweeping machine)
Gloves
for
all 3641
25
91025
safaikaramcharis
Boots
for
all 3641
250
910250
safaikaramcharis
Shovels
for street sweepers 1914
200
382800
Broom
for
all 3641
50
182050
safaikaramcharis
Dustpan
for
door-to-door 1727
50
86350
collection
Uniform (two sets for
all 3641
1000
3641000
of uniform + two safaikaramcharis
sweaters)
Safety mask
for street sweepers 1914
25
47850
TOTAL
50045218
*The equipment specifications are given in Annexure IV-I.

1
-2

4.2.2 Secondary Waste Storage System

rcues Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

4.14

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

As mentioned in Chapter 3, there are open dumps, dhalaos and dumper containers
for secondary waste storage in Agra. The existing collection system is taken as a
basis to develop secondary waste collection system for Agra city.
Proposed Management Plan for Secondary Waste Collection System
There are two types of waste streams from the primary collection of waste biodegradable, and recyclables. The recyclables will be sold directly in the market by
the waste collectors.
It is proposed to provide secondary collection facility for biodegradable and nonbiodegradable waste. MSW at every secondary collection point shall be stored in two
separate covered containers green for biodegradable and black for nonbiodegradable. Non-biodegradables will include drain silt and street sweepings.
The sweeper shall not travel more than 250m to dispose off primary collection waste.
Therefore distance between two secondary waste collection locations shall not be
more than 500m.
In wards with leather industry, provision shall be there for separate collection of
leather waste.
The bin design and strength shall be able to facilitate its hydraulic lifting by
transportation vehicles.
The secondary waste collectors shall be well equipped to avoid direct contact with
waste.
Proposed Infrastructure for Secondary Waste Collection System:
According to the field investigations conducted, presently there are 325 locations for
secondary waste collection. Amongst 325 locations, 200 are open dumps, 9 are RCC
dhalaos, 116 locations have dumper placer containers.
The area under NNA is approximately 141 sq. km. It is proposed to have one
secondary collection point for every 400mx400m area in high density wards and one
secondary collection location for every 500mx500m area in remaining wards of
NNA.
Table 4.6 presents wardwise number of secondary collection locations and drawing
O:3146/AGRA/05 includes indicative locations of their placement in specific wards.
However, the exact location for placement of bins, dumper placer containers and
dhalaos shall be finalized at the time of implementation in discussion with NNA.
Table 4.6 Proposed Wardwise Secondary Collection Locations

rcues Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

4.15

Type of Secondary
collection
Infrastructure
Infrastructure
(including 1 for bio
and 1 for nonbio
multiplied
by
number
of
locations)

Population Density
waste (43.9%) in
Kg per day
secondary
collection locations
waste per location
(in m3)

Area (in sq.km.)

Ward No.

Ward Name

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

57

Sahadara

13.51 1083 3193 54

0.1

0.6 m3 RC Bin

108 RC Bin

24

Nai ki Sarai

8.56

1630 3046 34

0.15 0.6 m3 RC Bin

68

RC Bin

72

Dhadu Nagar

7.24

2185 3453 29

0.2

0.6 m3 RC Bin

58

RC Bin

37

Tehdi Bagia

5.52

2801 3376 22

0.26 0.6 m3 RC Bin

44

RC Bin

65

Dev Nagar

5.72

3076 3841 23

0.28 0.6 m3 RC Bin

46

RC Bin

Nagla Maewadi

3.93

3534 3033 16

0.32 0.6 m3 RC Bin

32

RC Bin

47

Khandari

3.73

3672 2991 15

0.33 0.6 m3 RC Bin

30

RC Bin

68

Maharishi puram 4.77

3659 3812 19

0.33 0.6 m3 RC Bin

38

RC Bin

17

Bagh
Khan

3.66

3935 3140 15

0.35 0.6 m3 RC Bin

30

RC Bin

67

Gailana

3.77

4364 3592 15

0.4

0.6 m3 RC Bin

30

RC Bin

46

Shyam
(Naraich)

2.91

5499 3487 12

0.48 0.6 m3 RC Bin

24

RC Bin

73

Urkhara

2.57

5495 3079 10

0.51 0.6 m3 RC Bin

20

RC Bin

34

Sector 5 to 12,
Awas Vikas
2.69

6727 3942 11

0.6

1.1 m3 RC Bin

22

RC Bin

78

RamMohan Nagar 2.64

6855 3951 11

0.6

1.1 m3 RC Bin

22

RC Bin

64

Wazirpura

2.06

6780 3041 8

0.63 1.1 m3 RC Bin

16

RC Bin

71

Vibhav Nagar

2.48

7079 3833 10

0.64 1.1 m3 RC Bin

20

RC Bin

10

Sarai Malukchand 2.09

7310 3333 8

0.69 1.1 m3 RC Bin

16

RC Bin

14

Nagla Ajeeta

2.19

8127 3880 9

0.72 1.1 m3 RC Bin

18

RC Bin

43

Nari Pura

1.8

7705 3033 7

0.72 1.1 m3 RC Bin

14

RC Bin

59

Sikandra

2.32

7814 3954 9

0.73 1.1 m3 RC Bin

18

RC Bin

27

Nawalganj

2.07

8072 3650 8

0.76 1.1 m3 RC Bin

16

RC Bin

20

Laywers Colony

1.89

9644 3971 8

0.83 1.1 m3 RC Bin

16

RC Bin

69

Mustafa Quarter

1.67

9582 3498 7

0.83 1.1 m3 RC Bin

14

RC Bin

70

Shaheed Nagar

1.42

9882 3066 6

0.85 1.1 m3 RC Bin

12

RC Bin

53

Albatia

1.66

10780 3896 7

0.93 1.1 m3 RC Bin

14

RC Bin

31

Sohalla

1.59

10184 3542 6

0.98 1.1 m3 RC Bin

12

RC Bin

Idgah

1.14

11956 2974 5

0.99 1.1 m3 RC Bin

10

RC Bin

62

Ghatwasan

1.13

12446 3069 5

1.02 1.1 m3 RC Bin

10

RC Bin

Muzaffar

Nagar

rcues Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

4.16

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

88

Jaipur House

1.4

12192 3713 6

1.03 1.1 m3 RC Bin

12

RC Bin

89

Gobar Choki

1.13

12677 3125 5

1.04 1.1 m3 RC Bin

10

RC Bin

61

Baluganj

0.91

14917 2977 4

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.24 Bin
16

RC Bin
RC Bin

38

Himachal Colony 0.89

15550 3020 4

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.26 Bin
16

82

Bhund Kaa Bagh

15303 3767 5

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.26 Bin
20

RC Bin

1.02

13980 3116 4

1.3

2x 1.1 m3 RC
Bin
16

RC Bin

0.89

17200 3352 4

1.4

2x 1.1 m3 RC
Bin
16

RC Bin
RC Bin

Sewala Jat

50

Vijay
Colony

1.13

Nagar

Raj Nagar

1.02

16337 3636 4

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.52 Bin
16

54

Lohia Nagar

0.9

18634 3676 4

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.53 Bin
16

RC Bin

32

Ghatia
Khan

17297 3685 4

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.54 Bin
16

RC Bin

17464 3865 4

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.61 Bin
16

RC Bin

16478 3928 4

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.64 Bin
16

RC Bin

17852 3948 4

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.65 Bin
16

RC Bin

17468 3964 4

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.65 Bin
16

RC Bin

18586 3025 3

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.68 Bin
12

RC Bin

22287 3056 3

1.7

2x 1.1 m3 RC
Bin
12

RC Bin
RC Bin

42
5
45
58

Azam
0.98

Ajeet Nagar Gate


Bhogipura

1.01
1.09

Kaverikunj

1.01

Sita Nagar

1.04

13

Nagla Mohan

Gummat
Pahalwan

0.75

Takth
0.63

83

Kamala Nagar

0.74

21074 3399 3

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.89 Bin
12

19

Bhim Nagar

0.78

20178 3452 3

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.92 Bin
12

RC Bin

87

Kamala
Nagar
Block E & G
0.64

24694 3467 3

2x 1.1 m3 RC
1.93 Bin
12

RC Bin

22

Gadi Bhadhoria

0.82

20157 3621 3

2.01 3.5 m3 DP Cont 6

DP Cont

35

Bailanganj

0.68

24331 3635 3

2.02 3.5 m3 DP Cont 6

DP Cont

63

Raja Mandi

0.74

22764 3684 3

2.05 3.5 m3 DP Cont 6

DP Cont

80

Telipara

0.8

21186 3718 3

2.07 3.5 m3 DP Cont 6

DP Cont

rcues Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

4.17

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

18

Kachpura

0.47

37404 3805 3

2.11 3.5 m3 DP Cont 6

DP Cont

Jagdishpura

0.42

42213 3904 3

2.17 3.5 m3 DP Cont 6

DP Cont

Barah Khamba

0.79

22933 3937 3

2.19 3.5 m3 DP Cont 6

DP Cont

21

Ram Nagar

0.73

24576 3940 3

2.19 3.5 m3 DP Cont 6

DP Cont

84

Trans Yammuna
Colony
0.8

22531 3934 3

2.19 3.5 m3 DP Cont 6

DP Cont

11

Kajipara

0.37

37103 2958 2

2.46 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

28

Mohanpura

0.55

24713 2971 2

2.48 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

30

Charsu Darwaza

0.26

52938 2979 2

2.48 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

41

Naamnair

0.53

25539 2973 2

2.48 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

56

Mantola

0.28

48920 2982 2

2.48 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

77

Khatipara

0.51

26906 2972 2

2.48 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

26

Freeganj

0.4

34322 2988 2

2.49 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

52

Moti Katra

0.25

54666 2984 2

2.49 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

81

Rawatpara

0.34

40776 2999 2

2.5

3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

66

Derasaras

0.17

82679 3028 2

2.52 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

16

Bundu Katra

0.56

24830 3036 2

2.53 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

48

Nai ki Mandi

0.28

50157 3053 2

2.54 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

Nagla Harmukh

0.58

24588 3105 2

2.59 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

33

Dhakran

0.62

23035 3114 2

2.59 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

44

Dholikhar

0.27

53764 3113 2

2.59 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

76

Noori Darwaza

0.53

27846 3198 2

2.66 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

86

Pepal Mandi

0.26

58223 3254 2

2.71 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

74

Katra Phulail

0.33

46479 3368 2

2.81 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

75

Azampara

0.39

39985 3371 2

2.81 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

79

Dhankot

0.18

85039 3432 2

2.86 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

90

Maithan

0.28

57982 3499 2

2.92 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

29

Chawli

0.5

32163 3521 2

2.93 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

51

Nagla Bhoja

0.36

45694 3560 2

2.97 3.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

12

Ghas Ki Mandi

0.59

28482 3680 2

3.07 4.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

23

Ratanpura

0.58

30124 3838 2

3.2

4.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

49

Jatpura

0.5

35387 3844 2

3.2

4.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

60

Ashok Nagar

0.38

46481 3842 2

3.2

4.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

15

Khataina

0.34

51800 3892 2

3.24 4.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

40

Madhu Nagar

0.58

30733 3882 2

3.24 4.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

25

Nagla Padi

0.58

30781 3906 2

3.25 4.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

39

Tal Feroz Khan

0.53

33791 3897 2

3.25 4.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

55

Balkeshwar

0.51

35652 3946 2

3.29 4.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

36

Kedar Nagar

0.51

35786 3968 2

3.31 4.5 m3 DP Cont 4

DP Cont

85

MotiGanj

0.2

70518 3087 1

5.15 8.0 m3 DP Cont 2

DP Cont

Total Proposed Secondary Collection Infrastructure


Refuse Collector Bins :
0.6 m3 capacity
528 Bins
1.1 m3 capacity
- 528 Bins + 20 bins for leather waste intensive wards
DP Containers:

3.5 m3 capacity
4.5 m3 capacity
8.0 m3 capacity

- 146 Containers
- 40 Containers
- 02 Containers

Apart from the above it is proposed to construct 19 Waste Infrastructure Depots


(WIDs) in each sanitary ward at prime locations. The WIDs will be used for storage
of MSW infrastructure in use and also for available additional/back-up
infrastructure. The external faade of these WIDs will also be used for
advertisements to generate revenue.
Two types of infrastructure are proposed for secondary collection of waste dumper
placer containers and refuse collector bins. At locations where expected
biodegradable waste is more than 2 m3, it is proposed to have 3.5 m3 capacity
dumper placer container, locations where expected waste is more than 3.0 m3 it is
proposed to have 4.5 m3 capacity DP container and locations where waste is more
than 4.5 m3 it is proposed to have 8.0 m3
capacity DP container. The points where
expected waste is less than 2.0m3, it is proposed
to have adequate number of 1.1m3 and 0.6m3
Refuse Collector bins depending upon the
expected quantity.

600 litre and 1100 litre capacity


mobile bins

It is proposed that DP containers shall be kept at


94 locations and on remaining 464 locations
Refuse Collector (RC) bins shall be placed. Two
types of RC bins are proposed 1.1m3 capacity
and 0.6 m3 capacity. 1.1 m3 capacity bins are
proposed at 200 locations and 0.6 m3 capacity RC
bins are proposed at 264 locations.

The above secondary collection plan is developed keeping in view the available
infrastructure with NNA. It is proposed that existing Dumper Containers available
with NNA shall be used in the new proposed plan. There are two types of DP
containers available with NNA 8 m3 and 4.5 m3 capacity. The total number of
containers in usable condition is 150 out of which 60 containers have been purchased

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

recently from the TFC grant money. It is proposed to use these containers at suitable
locations as per the design and surplus containers in place of 3.5 m3 containers. It is
proposed that with time when existing DP containers worn out, they shall be
replaced with 3.5 m3 DP containers as per the design.
Placement of DP Containers
It is proposed that DP containers will be placed at 94 locations. At each location pair
of DP container will be provided- one for biodegradable waste and one for nonbiodegradable waste. It is proposed to use existing dumper containers at 75
locations. It is proposed to buy new 3.5 m3 twin container dumper containers for the
remaining 19 locations.
Total no. of 3.5 m3 twin container DP containers required
= 19 x2 = 38
Total no. of containers with 5% back-up= 38 + (188x1.05) = 47
Placement of RC Bins
Total number of 1100 litre bins required = 548
Total number of 600 litre bins required = 528
Additional 5% back-up is provided for all equipments for replacement in case of any
such requirement
Therefore total number of 1100 litre bins = 548x1.05=575.4 576
Total number of 600 litre bins
= 528x1.05 = 554.4 555
Apart from the above, additional 150 litre twin bin set shall be placed near all public
places including schools, colleges, offices, post office, and market areas. It is
proposed to provide 250 pairs of 150 litre bins for placement across the city.
Table 4.7 summarises secondary collection infrastructure proposed in Agra.
Table 4.7: Quantity and Cost Estimates for Secondary Storage Infrastructure
Equipment
Description
Total
Rate (Rs.)* Total Cost
number
(Rs.)
DP Containers

3.5 m3 capacity twin


container dumper placer
DP Containers
Existing of 4.5 m3 and
8m3 capacity (renovation)
DP Containers
Recently purchased from
the TFC grant (painting)
Cemented
Platform of size 2.5m x 4m
Platform
for at 94 locations
placement
of
dumper
containers
1100
litre 1.1 m3
capacity bins

47

44375
2085625

90

5000
450000

60

500
30000

94

10500

987000
576

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23125
13320000
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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

600
litre
capacity bins
Cemented
Platform
for
placement
of
RC bins
Waste
Infrastructure
Depots (WIDs)
150 litre twin
bin set
Total

0.6 m3

555

18125
10059375

Platform of size 1.5m x 3m 464


at 464 locations

5000

2320000
6m x 4m x 3.7m

19

1,25,000

150 litres

250 pairs

9750
pair

2375000
per
2437500
34064500

*rates include 2 year maintenance warranty of the equipment from the vendor
The equipment specifications are given in Annexure X.
The infrastructure at secondary waste location points will function as per the
following schedule:
The bio-degradable wastes shall be cleared every day to avoid foul smell and
degradation of waste.
The non-biodegradable waste shall be cleared once in two days.
4.2.3 Transfer Station
It is proposed that from the wards far from the landfill facility, the waste in dumper
placers and smaller size trucks shall be first brought to the transfer station and then
transported in bigger vehicles to the waste treatment and disposal site.
Transfer station is a facility where municipal solid waste will be unloaded from
collection vehicles and briefly held while it is reloaded onto larger vehicles for
transportation to integrated waste treatment and disposal facility. By combining the
loads of several small individual waste collection trucks into a single shipment, apart
from reduction in number of vehicular trips travelling to and from the disposal site
there will be significant resource saving in terms of money on the labor, operating
costs of transporting the waste to a distant disposal site and environmental
protection.
Although waste transfer stations help reduce the impacts of trucks travelling to and
from the disposal site, they can cause an increase in traffic in the immediate area
where they are located. Therefore site for the transfer station shall be identified
ensuring that traffic congestion will not take place near the area.
It is proposed that two transfer stations shall be strategically located for collection of
waste from small vehicles to bigger compactors.
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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

It is proposed that in transfer station waste will be directly transferred from a


smaller vehicle to the bigger compactor. For this a two-level arrangement has been
proposed. The smaller vehicles through a ramp will reach at a higher level and
unload there waste through their hydraulic tipping arrangement. A front end loader
will push this waste into the bigger vehicle standing at the lower level. A typical
design of transfer station is enclosed in Drawing no. O:3146/CHAP 4/01 and cost
estimates are enclosed as Annexure XI.
4.2.3.1 Waste Transportation System
The MSW transportation system for Agra city is proposed in conjunction with the
waste collection system described in the preceding section. The requirement of
transportation vehicles has been estimated based on the following planThe NNA workers shall transport the bio-degradable waste (green containers) from
secondary collection points to a designated composting site on a day-to-day basis.
The NNA workers shall transport the non-biodegradable waste (black containers)
from secondary collection points to a designated integrated waste processing facility
at least once in two days.

The waste from DP Containers shall be transported using Dumper Placers.


The waste from RC bins shall be transported using refuse collectors.
It is proposed to have three transfer stations for transferring waste from smaller
vehicles to bigger size compactors. Waste from dumper placers and small size
Refuse Collectors shall be transferred in bigger size compactors to economise on
transportation cost and reduce vehicular traffic.
The transportation shall be done in two shifts
7:00 AM and 3:00 PM and between 4:00 PM
and 11:00 PM.
Hydraulically operated equipment shall be
used for transportation of waste. The waste,
under any circumstances, shall not be handled
manually.
Cattle lifting vehicles shall be used for lifting of
stray animals and dead animals from the city

Cattle Lifting Vehicle

It is estimated that one transfer station will require approximately 3000 sqm area.
The estimated cost of construction of transfer station is Rupees 27 lacs.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Proposed Infrastructure for Waste Transportation System:


The transportation vehicle requirement is based on following assumptions:
It is proposed to use 14m3 and 8m3 capacity Refuse Collectors for lifting waste from
RC bins. A refuse collector will make one trip of loading waste from 8-24 bins
(depending upon capacity of refuse collector and waste quantities in bins) and
unloading waste at the designated site in 1 hr 30 min 2 hr. The transportation of
waste is done in two shifts with effective transportation time of 7.30 hrs in each shift,
therefore total number of trips is 7 trips in a day.
Required no. of 14m3 Refuse Collectors = 8 (4 for lifting biodegradable waste, 3 for
lifting non-biodegradable waste and 1 as back up)
Required no. of 8m3 Refuse Collectors = 8 (4 for lifting biodegradable waste, 3 for
lifting non-biodegradable waste and 1 as back up). For this the existing trucks will be
upgraded.
The existing Dumper Placers shall be used for collecting waste from DP containers.
A DP will take approximately 1-1.30 hr for one trip. Therefore total number of trips
in a day will be 10. Existing number of dumper placers shall be sufficient for lifting
4.5m3 and 8m3 DP containers but new twin container dumper placers are required
for lifting 3.5m3 containers.
Dumper Placers for new containers = 3 DP (1 as back-up)
It is proposed that vehicle maintenance shall be done either in the existing workshop
facilities or this activity shall be outsourced.
Table 4.8: Quantity and Cost Estimates for Transportation Infrastructure
Equipment
Description
Nos.
Rate
Total
Cost
(Rs.)
(Rs.)
Transfer
2
27,00,000
Station
5400000
Dumper
3.5 m3 capacity twin 3 (1 as back- 11,50,000
Placers
container
dumper up)
placers
3450000
Dumper
Existing
to
be 14 (2 as back- 50,000
Placers
renovated (painted)
up)
700000
Refuse
14 cum capacity
8
18,15,000
Collector
(1 back-up)
14520000
Refuse
8 cum capacity
8
11,35,000
Collector
(1 back-up)
9080000
Existing truck Upgradation (8 will be 8
2,00,000
upgraded to lift the (2 back-up)
construction waste)
1600000

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Compactors

For transfer of waste 8


(two
from transfer station
back-up)
Cattle Lifting
2
Vehicles
Total Cost

as 25,00,000
20000000
12,18,750
2437500
57187500

The number of drivers required per shift to transport the waste will be 40.
Therefore total number of drivers required after accounting for holidays = 60
drivers/shift
One helper is required with every driver, therefore number of helpers = 60
helpers/shift
Total staff required for two shift operation = 120 drivers and 120 helpers

4.3 Summary of collection and transportation infrastructure


Table 4.9: Summary of Collection and Transportation Infrastructure
Type
of Proposed Presently
Purchased
New
Equipment
Infrastruc available
from
the Infrastruct
ture
with NNA in TFC grant
ure
good
Required
condition
Primary
Collection
Two
covered 500000
500000
bins
for
households
Rickshaw with 1511
100
1411
bins for doorto-door
collection
of
waste
100
(painting)
Wheelbarrow
1005
50
500
(100 455
for
street
already
sweepings
procured +
order placed
for 400)
550
(Painting)
Road Vacuum 5
5
Sweeping

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Total Cost

12500000

12435143

20000
2388750

110000
17250000

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Machine
Secondary
Storage
DP Containers 197
of 3.5m3, 4.5m3
and
8.0m3
capacity

90 (of 8.0 m3 60 (of 8.0 m3 47


and 4.5 m3 and 4.5 m3
capacity)
capacity)

2085625

90
(Renovation)

450000
60 (painting)

30000

Cemented
platform
for
placement
of
DP containers
1100
litre
capacity bins
600
litre
capacity bins
Cemented
platform
for
placement
of
RC bins
Waste
Infrastructure
Depot (WID)
150 litre twin
bin set
Transfer Station

94

94

987000

576

576

13320000

555

555

10059375

464

464

2320000

19

19

2375000

250 pairs

250 pairs

2437500

Transfer
Station
Transportation

5400000

Twin Container
Dumper
Placers (3.5m3
capacity
containers)
8m3 and 4.5 m3
container
capacity
Dumper Placer
14 m3 Refuse
Collector
8 m3 Refuse
Collector

3450000

14

14
(renovation)

700000

14520000

9080000

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Trucks

Compactors 14 8
m3 capacity
Cattle Lifting 2
Vehicles
Other
Miscellaneous
Cost
Gloves
3641

8
(renovation)
-

1600000

20000000

2437500

3641

91025

Boots

3641

3641

910250

Shovels

1914

1914

382800

Broom

3641

3641

182050

Dustpan

1727

1727

86350

Uniform (two 3641


sets of uniform
+ two sweaters)
Safety mask
1914

3641

3641000

1914

47850

TOTAL

141297218

The equipments purchased from the TFC money have been considered in the
proposed system and therefore no adjustment in the cost shall be made in the capital
cost estimates.

4.4 Operation & Maintenance Costs (O&M Costs) for Collection and
Transportation Systems
The operation and maintenance costs were estimated for MSW collection and
transportation infrastructure proposed in Sections 4.3.1 to 4.3.3. These costs include
salaries for the O&M personnel and O&M costs for waste transportation
infrastructure. The O&M cost has been calculated considering that only one-third of
the vehicles will transfer waste at the transfer station and remaining vehicles will go
directly to the landfill/compost plant site for waste disposal.
Table 4.10: O&M Cost for Waste Transportation Infrastructure and Personnel
Annual
S.No. Description
Cost
6480000
1
Cost of 120 Drivers @ 4,500/- per month
2

Cost of 120 Helpers @ Rs. 3,000/- per month

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Diesel cost for 3 lt. per trip for Dumper Placers transporting
waste to transfer station for 14 vehicles. The cost per litre of
diesel is considered as Rs. 32/-. The average number of trips
per vehicle is considered as 10 trips per day.
Diesel cost for 8 lt. per trip for 7 Refuse Collectors (14m3
capacity). The cost per litre of diesel is considered as Rs.
32/-. The average number of trips per vehicle is considered
as 6 trips per day.
Diesel cost for 3 lt. per trip for 7 Refuse Collectors (8m3
capacity). The cost per litre of diesel is considered as Rs.
32/-. The average number of trips per vehicle is considered
as 8 trips per day.
Diesel cost for 8 lt. per trip for 6 Compactors (14m3
capacity). The cost per litre of diesel is considered as Rs.
32/-. The average number of trips per vehicle is considered
as 8 trips per day.
Diesel cost for 6 lt. per trip for 6 construction waste carrying
vehicles. The cost per litre of diesel is considered as Rs. 32/. The average number of trips per vehicle is considered as 3
trips per day.

4905600

Diesel cost for JCBs for lifting construction waste

280320

10

Diesel cost for street sweeping machine

3737600

11

Diesel cost for Cattle Lifting Machine

934400

12

Provision for vehicle Servicing / Repair & Routine


4500000
Maintenance for 50 vehicles

TOTAL

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3924480

1962240

4485120

1261440

36791200

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,,Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 5

Waste to Compost Plant


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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management for Agra, Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 5

WASTE TO COMPOST PLANT

5.1 Introduction
This Chapter discusses the biological treatment of the compostable component of
MSW generated in Agra City. The compostable waste primarily comprises of
Organic material such as kitchen and yard waste, refuse from vegetable markets,
food waste from hotels and restaurants; petha waste from sweet making units;
green & horticultural waste; cow dung and dairy waste etc. It can either be
stabilized before sending it to a landfill or can be converted into a valuable material
such as compost, bio-gas, filler material in landfills etc. However, the land fill
requirements for disposal of MSW and consequent further contamination of the
environment can be avoided by processing of the bio-degradable waste into usable
material viz., Compost.
Biological treatment of organic material involves using naturally occurring microorganisms to decompose the bio-degradable components of waste under controlled
conditions. Biological treatment can be categorized into aerobic (composting) and
anaerobic (bio-gasification) methods Figure 5.1.

Biological Treatment

Composting

Windrows

Enclosed Vessel

Bio-gasification

Wet Process

Dry Process

Figure 5.1: Classification of Biological Treatment Methods


In India, the Indore method and Bangalore method are used for aerobic and
anaerobic treatment of organic material, respectively. In the Indore method,
alternate layers of compostable material and night soil are piled up into heaps or
windrows and exposed to the atmosphere for decomposition. The heaps are turned
regularly for 2 to 3 months and then left unturned for the next 1 to 1-1/2 months and
in the process the resulting mass becomes the compost.
In the Bangalore method, the compostable waste and night soil are piled up in
alternate layers in an underground earthen trench. The trench is covered with 15 cm
thick layer of soil and left for decomposition. The increase in temperature and
biological activity inside the trench convert the refuse into dark brown colored
powdery mass, called humus. The entire process takes about 4-5 months. The third
method is vermin-composting, where earthworms are used to decomposition of biodegradable waste.

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Aerobic composting is considered to be a more efficient method of biological


treatment in comparison to the anaerobic method. The advantages of aerobic
composting are listed below:

It enriches the soil nutrient content.

It sanitizes the MSW very effectively compared to others.

It destroys the contaminants including weeds and other biological hazardous


materials such as residues of harmful organic and organo-metallic
compounds.

Process is fast compared to other options.

Process control parameters are optimized easily to accelerate the biodegradation by microorganisms.

Process results in considerable reduction in volume and mass of the feed


stock (garbage).

Process output product quality is manageable keeping in view demands in


various sectors like horticulture, agriculture, high value crops, land
remediation, landscaping, etc.

5.2 Basis of Compost Plant Design


The field survey and analysis of waste in Agra as detailed in Chapter 3, indicates
that out of the total 755 TPD of waste generated in Agra in 2008-09, (the year the
compost plant shall commence commercial production) approximately 298 TPD is
biodegradable and compostable. The projected waste for year 2011 is 830 TPD, out
of which about 350 TPD is compostable (the design year for which compost plant has
to be designed). The Aerobic Windrow Composting Methodology has been adopted
for converting the organic waste into compost.
Composting can be achieved using three types of micro-organisms bacteria,
actinomycetes and fungi. In the initial stages, the bacteria, fungi, and protozoa
activities cause the temperature in the compost plant to increase to 65-70oC, which is
called the thermophilic stage. In this stage, the bacterial and actinomycetes activity
causes decomposition, resulting in a fall in temperature, when the fungi activity
resumes. This stabilized condition is known as mesophilic stage, when the
composting material becomes dark brown due to humus synthesis. In addition to
temperature, air supply, moisture content, particle size of MSW, acidity/alkalinity,
and chemical characteristics are the other factors which influence the microbial
activity in a windrow. Several factors affect the rate of decomposition of the biodegradable material as described below:

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Micro-organisms: In order to expedite the process, additives such as


cellulolitic, lignolytic, or cow dung solution shall be added to the organic
waste. Micro-organisms such as azotobactor and phosphorus solubilizing
microbes (PSM) will need to be added during the pre-processing stage for
initiating the microbial activity.

Moisture content: The moisture content of the bio-degradable waste needs to


be maintained within the range of 55-60%. Additional water will need to be
mixed with the bio-degradable waste, if required, to keep the moisture
content within the range of 55-60%.

Air supply: Sufficient air supply is required to maintain a high rate of


decomposition, removal of carbon dioxide and volatile organic compounds,
and buffering of the pH. This can be done manually by regular turning of the
windrows or through self propelled windrow turners which move over the
compost rows.

Temperature: A temperature range of 65-70oC is conducive for sanitization of


MSW. In addition, the disease-causing micro-organisms are killed and weeds
are destroyed at this temperature. Further, a high rate of decomposition is
achieved in the temperature range of 35-45oC.

Particle size of MSW: Smaller particle size of compostable material provides


greater surface area for the micro-organisms to act up on. However, the
particle size should not be too small so as to compact the organic matter and
reduce void space.

Acidity/alkalinity: A pH range of 6.5-7.8 is most suitable for the composting


process.

Chemical characteristics: A C: N ratio, 20:1 to 25:1 is ideal for maximum


decomposition of organic matter.

Waste Densities Adopted: For the purpose of design, a density of 0.45 T/m3
is assumed for the incoming waste and 0.60 T/m3 is assumed for the compost
(within the range 0.6-0.9 T/m3).

5.3 Process Design for Proposed MSW Composting Unit


The bio-degradable waste segregated at the source is collected and transported to the
Compost Plant. The Process Design for MSW Compost Plant involves various steps
as described below (Figure 5.2).

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management for Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Bio degradable- waste


Recovery
Recyclable
Material

Tipping Area

Landfill

Manual
Segregation

Odour
Treatment
Additives &
Inoculants

Pre-processing
of
MSW (Segregation &
Shredding)

Moisture
(55-60%)
Compost Curing
(Min. 2 weeks)

Air

Drying

Mixing &
Turning
(Min. 4 weeks)

Mixing &
Turning

Stage I
Stage II
Stage III

Temperature
o
(65 -70 C)

COMPOSTING

Moisture
Air

Magnetic Separator/
Conveyor belt

Segregation of
Non biodegradable
Materials

Rejects

Screening
& Refining

Stage VI
Value addition
(suitable to
use)
Packing &
Storing

Finished product
for sale

Figure 5.2: Process Design for MSW Composting

5.3.1 Waste Receipt and Storage


The bio-degradable waste from the city is received by Tippers and unloaded on an
elevated ground near the Receipt area. At this point, waste segregation is carried out
manually. The segregated organic material is dozed off into the receiving pit through
a Dozer or Front-end Loader. It is then drawn by a Reciprocating Feeder (R-feeder)

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management for Agra, Uttar Pradesh

and put on to a Conveyor Belt to facilitate removal of non-biodegradable material


such as metal, paper, glass, bricks, stones, etc.

5.3.2 Waste Pre-processing


The segregated organic waste is transferred to a Surge Hopper in the Screening Area.
The material in the surge hopper is drawn by reciprocating feeders and put on to flat
Picking Conveyors that run at a speed of 0.8m/s. Workers are deployed on either
side of the slow moving picking conveyors to sort the non-biodegradable wastes.
The rejected material is transferred to a Reject Hopper for appropriate disposal.
The sorted organic refuse is sent to a Shredder in the Shredding Yard for sizing
through Loading Conveyors. The size reduction facilitates faster biological
decomposition. The shredded material is transferred to Windrows through front-end
loaders or through Shuttle Conveyor arrangement and telescopic chute. Additives,
inoculants and micro-organisms are added at this stage for controlled decomposition
of organic material.

5.3.3 Windrow (Mechanical) Composting

Figure 5.3

Windrow Turner

The pre-processed waste is laid in trapezoidal or triangular heaps in multiple rows


for initiating the microbial activity. These waste heaps are periodically aerated
through Self-Propelled Windrow Turners (Figure 5. 3) which move over the rows
and facilitate turning and cropping.
Water is sprayed on the heaps to maintain the desired moisture content. The heaps
are covered with a layer of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets to prevent oudor
nuisance and flies and to maintain the required temperature.

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The design details of the windrow platform are given in Section 5.3. As the
decomposition progresses, the bio-mass changes color from light green to dark
brown humus like substance. Once, this condition is reached, the compost ready for
further refinement (separation and grading). At this stage the conversion of organic
waste into compost takes approximately 4 weeks.

5.3.4 Curing and Drying


The fully decomposed organic matter will be placed on the curing bed for two weeks
and covered with PVC sheets. Water will be sprinkled on a regular basis. This
process is done to remove any odor and the microbes present in the compost. The
fully matured compost will then be dried in the drying bed under the sunlight.

5.3.5 Compost Refinement, Bagging, and Storage


The compost is passed through a coarse trommel (rotary sieve) to get the compost of
desired size. After the mechanical separation, grading and sieving, fully matured
and stabilized humus like organic fertilizer/soil enriched is recovered for use in crop
production. Quality control is done for the physical, chemical, and biological
parameters and the finished product is packed in high density polyethylene (HDPE)
bags for sale.

5. 4 Design of Compost Plant Infrastructure and Equipments


The proposed Compost Plant will have a design capacity of 350 TPD. The Compost
will be prepared in a multi-stage process as shown in Figure 5.2.
The infrastructure and land requirement for each of these processes is described
below. Each of these processing units is shown in the Drawing No. O: 3146 /
COMPOST PLANT

5.4.1 Receipt, Handling, and Pre-processing of MSW (Tipping Area)


The segregated compostable waste collected from the city is received through an
earthen embankment ramp with a water-bound macadam (WBM) surface by tippers
in this area. The waste will be unloaded on an elevated ground (Hopper) in the
receipt area. The receiving pit will be constructed of provided in a Reinforced
Cement Concrete (RCC) enclosure with a steel bin of 50 MT capacity.
The waste will be segregated manually for foreign materials such as paper, glass,
plastic, polythene, etc. Depending on the quality of the material, it will be sent to
recyclable units for recovery of to the landfill site for final disposal.

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The segregated organic waste will be dozed into a receiving pit through a dozer or
front end loader. The waste will then be drawn by a reciprocating feeder (R-feeder)
and put on to a conveyor to facilitate removal of inert material/iron and other
metallic material. This segregated material will then be transferred to a surge hopper
in the screening plant.
The material from surge hopper is drawn by an R-feeder and put on to a flat picking
conveyor that runs at a speed of 0.8 m/sec. The sorting of non-organic material will
be done manually by deploying workers on either side of the slow moving picking
conveyors.
The sorted out organic material will be sent to a shredder for sizing through.
The rejects from the picking conveyors will be transferred to reject hopper for
appropriate disposal.
The shredded material from the shredder yard will be transferred to windrows
through front end loaders or through conveyor arrangement and telescopic chute.
The additives inoculums etc. will then be added for controlled aerobic treatment.
Area Requirements for Tipping Area:
a) Area required for receiving of MSW
b) Area required for temporary storage
c) Area required for screening and
segregation
d)Total area required for receipt,
handling, and pre-processing

=
=

2500 sq. m
600 sq. m

1500 sq. m

4600 sq. m

5.4.2 Composting
The composting of bio-degradable portion of the shredded waste is done through
Aerobic Mechanical Composting using Windrow arrangement. The waste heaps are
aerated through self propelled windrow turner twice a week or will be turned and
mixed using a frond end loader. The moisture content will be maintained by manual
sprinkling on daily basis. In addition, a temporary PVC cover will be provided on
the windrows to prevent odor and nuisance of flies.
Sufficient space is provided between two rows for facilitating movement of front end
loaders / Windrow Turners.
RCC flooring is provided for the entire composting pad with a slope of 1:200.
Saucer drains are provided on the floor of the windrow area for draining of leachate.
The leachate is collected in a 42800-litre capacity Sump with a facility to put back on
the windrows as per requirement.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management for Agra, Uttar Pradesh

A monsoon shed is provided in the composting area. This shed will enable operation
of the plant during rainy season.
This shed will consist of a steel portal structure with 24G corrugated galvanized
iron (CGI) sheets.
Windrow Arrangement and Area Requirements:
No. of rows of windrows
Shape of windrow
Bottom width of windrow cross-section
Top width of the windrow cross-section
Height of windrow cross-section
Space between each windrow for movement of vehicles
Length of each windrow
Total floor area for composting
(Including area on four sides for vehicular movement)
Compost area covered with monsoon shed

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

13
trapezoid
8m
2m
2m
3m
130 m

=
=

23000 sq. m
10000 sq. m

5.4.3 Curing Shed


A closed 9-m steel portal framed shed will be provided with CGI roofing for
immediate storage and curing of semi-finished compost. The shed is also provided
with hanging platform for storage conveyors.
Area Requirements:
Area of curing shed

1200 sq. m

1200 sq. m

5.4.4. Compost Drying Area


Area required for drying

5.4.5 Sizing and Refinement Tower


The sizing of compost will be done using trammels (5 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm, and 50
mm) before it is sent for packaging. This process will be performed in a steel portal
framed shed with CGI roofing. A floor height of 5.25 m will be provided for
installation of finishing section machinery.
Area Requirements:
Area required for sizing and refinement

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300 sq. m

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management for Agra, Uttar Pradesh

5.4.6 Packing and Baggage Area


Area required for packing and baggage

225 sq. m

5.4.7 Finished Product Godown


The finished and packed compost will be stored in this area. The shed will be
constructed of a steel portal structure with CGI roofing.
Area Requirements :
Area required for storing finished product

500 sq. m

5.4.8 Control Room


The control panel room will consist of an RCC framed structure and will be at a
strategic location in the compost plant for supervision and efficient operation on the
machinery. A transformer will be located adjacent to this control room.
Area Requirements :
Control room and transformer yard

150 sq. m

5.4.9 Administrative Building


The administrative building will be a two-storeyed RCC framed structure with
facilities for laboratory and conference room. The laboratory will be well equipped
with all necessary provisions for monitoring of processes such as oven, muffle
furnace, balance, spectrophotometer, different chemical glassware, etc.
Area Requirements :
Administrative building area

100 sq. m

5.4.10 Roads and Other Facilities


Roads of proper sizes are to be provided. Other facilities such as canteen, toilet,
washing place, store-room, dump-yard, supervisor room are to be provided adjacent
to the coarse segregation section. Adequate lighting will be provided through out
the compost plant. In addition, fire-fighting equipment will be provided for safety
purposes.
Area Requirements:
Total area required for these facilities

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5000 sq. m

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management for Agra, Uttar Pradesh

5.4.11 Water Supply and Sprinkling system


One water sump of 90,000 lts capacity will be constructed near the platform with
provision of pump house for spraying of culture, slurry, and water during the
compost treatment process.

5.4.12 Electric Power


A HT/LT electric power connection will be obtained from state electricity boards.
Total power requirement for
pre-processing, composting, curing, and storing = 200 KVA

5.4.13 Green Belt and Garden Area


A green belt of densely planted, tall growing trees will be developed around the
plant. Suitable provision for demonstration plots to ascertain the quality of finished
products may be made available at the plant site.

5.4.14 Compost Rejects


The compost rejects will be sent to the land fill site for disposal.

5.4.15 Total Area Requirement


The total area required for the compost plant

=
=

50000 sq. m
5.0 Ha

5.5 Cost Estimates for Proposed Compost Plant


Table: 5.1 Cost Estimates for Composting Unit
Abstract of Cost of 350 TPD Compost Plant
Rate
Imtem Description
S.No.
Unit
(Rs.) Quantity
Site dressing and development
1
Ha
50,000
5
Receipt area development and
2
ramp
sq. m
250
2500
Receiving pit, hopper and
retaining wall arrangement
3
nos.
250,000
1
Temporary waste store
4
(covered)
sq. m
2,500
600
Belt feeder
5
nos.
200,000
1
Conveyor
6
nos.
450,000
1

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Amount
(Rs.)
250,000
625,000
250,000
1,500,000
200,000
450,000

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management for Agra, Uttar Pradesh

7
8
9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
15
17
18
19
20

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

30

Screening and segregation shed


(including all civil works,
trenches & equipment
foundations)
Elevating surge hopper
R-feeder
Chutes
Loading conveyor
Reject conveyor & hopper
Shredding section (shredder,
fines chute, bypass chute,
shredding yard)
Transfer conveyor
Platform for compost yard area
including civil works
Self propelled windrow
turners/digestion equipment
Front-end loaders
Covered compost yard
Curing shed
Drying bed
Sizing and refinement tower
Screening equipment, trommel,
belt chain, chutes, elevating
conveyors, rotary screen,
transfer stations, drives, takeups, packing & baggage
equipment, etc.
Packing & baggage area
Finished product store area
Water sprinkle system
Fire-fighting system (electrical)
Electrical control room &
transformer yard
Cable ducts, cables, panels,
electrical & other equipment
Administrative office
Roads
0.2 m wide peripheral drain
around site including concrete,
brick work, plaster, etc.
complete

sq. m
nos.
nos.
nos.
nos.
nos.

3,200
450,000
100,000
75,000
450,000
450,000

1500
1
5
5
1
1

4,800,000
450,000
500,000
375,000
450,000
450,000

1,000,000
450,000

1
1

1,000,000
450,000

sq. m

1,000

23000

23,000,000

lot
nos.
sq. m
sq. m
sq. m
sq. m

150,000
1,250,000
1,500
3,200
700
3,200

3
4
10000
1200
1200
300

450,000
5,000,000
15,000,000
3,840,000
840,000
960,000

lot
sq. m
sq. m
lot
lot

2,000,000
2,500
2,500
450,000
450,000

1
225
500
1
1

2,000,000
562,500
1,250,000
450,000
450,000

sq. m

12,000

150

1,800,000

lot
sq. m
sq. m

1,000,000
7,500
450

1
100
5000

1,000,000
750,000
2,250,000

250

900

225,000

lot
lot

RM

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management for Agra, Uttar Pradesh

31
32
33
34
35

36
37
38
39

Cross drainage works


1.8 m high chain link fencing
with RCC pillars
Security Gates
Security Room
Toilet
Water supply system (drinking
water, industrial water & firefighting)
Additives & Inoculants
Lab infrastructure & glassware

nos.

100,000

800,000

RM
nos.
sq. m
sq. m

215
30,000
4,500
5,000

900
2
20
25

193,500
60,000
90,000
125,000

1,250,000
1,250,000
1,900,000

1
1
1

1,250,000
1,250,000
1,900,000
77,246,000

lot
lot
lot

Total

Total cost of composting plant is


Rupees Seven Crores Seventy Two Lacs Forty Six Thousand Only

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,,Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 6

Landfill Design
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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 6

LANDFILL DESIGN

Preliminary design engineering has been done for the construction of municipal
solid waste (MSW) landfill facility for Agra city. This facility comprises Secured
landfill (SLF), Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), Office building, Laboratory, Parking
area, MCC Room and other associated facilities. The construction of landfill shall be
taken up into five phases. Each phase will serve for approximately 5 years. After
filling of each phase it will be covered with top cover and filling of MSW in the next
phase area will be started. The landfill facility shall require around 75 acres of area
to accommodate the landfillable waste for 25 years in Agra city. Agra Nagar Nigam
presently has 22 acres of land at Kuberpur tehsil Etmadpur. The acquisition of
additional adjoining land required to develop the landfill site for 25 years as per
MSW Rules 2000 is under process by Agra Development Authority. The topographic
survey and geo technical investigation will be carried out once the land is in
complete possession of Agra Nagar Nigam. However, a typical design is being
presented for 25 years design life capacity.In this chapter a summary of the
conceptual design considerations are discussed.

6.1

Conceptual Design

The conceptual design is presented in drawings Nos: O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/01,


O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/02,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/03,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/04,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/05,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/06,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/07,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/08, O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/09, O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/10 and
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/11. Some of the issues that have direct influence on the design
are discussed. They are:
1. Waste to be Handled
2. Access Road
3. Land Area
4. Evaluation of Geology and Hydrology of the Site
5. Surface Drainage
6. Operational Plan
7. Layout of MSW landfill
8. Completed Waste Fill Features
9. Estimation of landfill Capacity
10. Selection of Liner Systems
11. Selection of Leachate Control Facilities
12. Selection of landfill Gas Control Facilities
13. Aesthetic Considerations
14. Monitoring Facilities
15. Determination of Equipment Requirements
16. Design life
17. Post Closure Care

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

These are discussed in detail as below:

6.1.1

Waste to be Handled

A detailed inventory survey indicated that presently approximately 710 MT/Day of


municipal solid waste is generated daily in various wards located in Agra municipal
area. About 311 MT/Day is organic waste, 150.5 MT/Day is recyclable waste and 95
MT/Day is street sweeping and drain silt, 36 MT/ Day is mixed waste and 114 MT/
Day is construction and demolition waste. Considering the present waste type and
proposed collection and processing system the following configuration of waste is
considered as lanfillable waste

10% of total biodegradable waste generated


100% of total mixed waste generated
100% Street Sweeping and Drain Silt
Construction & Demolition waste, 20%
20% of total Recyclable Waste generated

The total waste quantity for a period of 25 years including future projection has been
taken as 2791117 CuM in the designing of MSW landfill. The year wise breakup is
given in Annexure IX. Presently the quantity to be disposed of in MSW landfill is
around 220MT per day.

6.1.2

Access Road

The proposed landfill shall receive MSW by road from various wards/localities
located within Agra municipal area, as such the site shall be suitably connected with
a good road network. A direct 5.0 m wide road including 1 m shoulders on each side
connecting the landfill area is planned to reach the landfill site and within the facility
for proper circulation and movement of vehicles.

6.1.3

Land Area

The design of MSW landfill facility has been planned by considering 75 acres of land.
The land has been utilized for MSW landfill so that the landfill holds large amount of
waste covering for a disposal period of about 25 years. Around 25 % of the area has
been earmarked for green belts, associated facilities and buffer zones in as much as
the surrounding environment is not disturbed/effected by noise, odors and
defacement (from aesthetic considerations). All services are accommodated within
this area.

6.1.4

Evaluation of Geology And Hydrology of The Site

The district consists of Gangetic plain with a few outcrops of the vindhyas in its
peripheral region. The climate is generally dry except during monsoon season. It is
cold in winter and hot in summer with average temperature ranging from 7C to

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

42C although sometimes during winters it drops below the freezing point of water.
The general annual rainfall is 600 to 700mm.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

6.1.5 Surface Drainage Facilities


The storm water routing within the MSW landfill site has been planned to effectively
discharge storm water through storm water drains/ control structures effectively
discharge to the offsite channels. For this purpose storm water drains, intercepting
drains, peripheral drains and toe drains are provided. All these drains shall have
masonry construction with lined bottom and sides.

6.1.6 Operational Plan


The facility shall be developed as a MSW disposal facility conforming to the
statutory guidelines of MoEF/CPCB/SPCB and CPHEEO Manual with elaborate
operation and management (O&M) plans matching to the size and environmental
protection requirements. The O&M plan shall ensure operational efficiency and also
timely feedback well before onset of any eventuality/emergency.
For this the following areas have been given emphasis:
a)

Inventorization and Characterization of MSW

A mechanism shall be established whereby continuous update on MSW inventory in


Agra is available. Special attention shall be placed in case of entry of any
development of new colonies, institutions, mandis, markets etc. A separate cell has
been planned to track quantity and characteristics of such MSW. The cell shall
comprise of one environmental engineer assisted by a laboratory support. The team
shall develop liaison with ULBs, RWAs etc.
b)

Change in laws, governing rules/regulations, updates etc.

Conforming to changing scenarios and rulings of the governmental agencies due


modifications/improvements shall be implemented. A liaison engineer shall be
appointed for monitoring and updating these activities.
c)

Operation Manual

An operation manual conforming to the procedures for effective running shall be


developed wherein the landfill facility operator, local residents and the government
agencies are appraised of their roles and responsibilities.
d)

Emergency Management Program

In case of any emergencies like vandalism, fire, floods, earthquake, groundwater and
soil contamination, etc. the emergency cell on site shall keep liaison with the
concerned agencies such as fire fighting squad, hospitals, police, district
administration, local PCB office, etc. for a coordinated timely action.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

e)

Monitoring Program

Adequate instrumental monitoring systems for knowing the condition of the landfill
and the surrounding areas (soil, groundwater, air) covering range of 2 km has been
planned. These instruments shall be maintained and operated as per the operation
manual. A well-equipped laboratory for exercising quality controls is also planned.
A monitoring cell shall be responsible for upkeep of the monitoring program.
Logbooks and records relating to waste quantities received, disposed in the landfill,
etc. shall be maintained in soft and hard copies by this cell.
f)

Human Resource Plan

A team shall be created for addressing issues related to environmental concerns,


public unrest, grievances, on-site and off-site health hazards, compensations, etc.
This team shall make timely and coordinated efforts to sorting out differences, if any.

6.1.7 Layout of the MSW landfill


Considering the broad parameters outlined above various possible layouts have
been developed. The most optimum layout is only given in drawings:
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/01,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/02,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/03,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/04,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/05,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/06,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/07
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/08,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/09,
O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/10 and O:3146/Agra/Chap.6/11.
These drawings provide detailed description of various supporting and
infrastructure facilities. The landfill facility shall have 1.8 m high permanent fencing
all along the boundary with one lockable secured gate 3m wide. A complete list of
the utilities, services and buildings that are planned in this MSW landfill are given in
Table 6.1. The locations of the facilities are marked in these drawings.
Table 6.1 List of facilities provided at Agra landfill
S. No

Description

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Main Entrance Gate


Security office
Weigh Bridge and Scale Room
Office Building
Laboratory
Parking (Paved Area)
MCC Room
Temporary Storage/ Segregation
(Covered)

Size / Nos

3m wide
3MX3M
2.7MX4.17M
5MX4M
5MX3M
20MX15M
5MX4M
Area

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22MX32M
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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

9
10
11

Workshop Area
Wheel Wash Pit
Leachate Collection sump

12

Area for Daily Cover Material

13

Monitoring Well

14

Earthen Embankment

15

Green Belt

16

Ground Water Monitoring Well

17
18
19

High Mast (HM) lighting


Storm Water Drain
ETP for Leachate

5MX20M
10MX4M
3.5MX3.5Mx2M (WD)
AS/SITE
4 Nos
1V:2H Slope
3 M wide
4 Nos.
4 Nos.
2822M
5 Acre (Approx.)

6.1.8 Completed Waste Fill Features


The design of MSW landfill has been done by considering 75 acres of land. The base
of landfill i.e. top of liner has been kept at ground level and 12 m high (above GL)
earthen embankment has been provided to achieve the required storage capacity
within the area available. Top width of the embankment has been kept at 3.0 m.
Inner & outer slopes of the embankment have been kept at 1V: 2H for stability of
slopes. All around the landfill site 1.8 m high fencing shall be provided to prevent
any unauthorized entry & stray animals. A 3.0 m wide green belt has been provided
all along the facility boundary.
The geocomposite liner has been provided on the inner side of the landfill as per the
requirement of Central and State Pollution Control board norms. Leachate collection
system has been provided at the base of the landfill with 355 mm dia HDPE header
and 110 mm dia perforated HDPE lateral pipes. Leachate shall be collected in the
Leachate collection sump from where it will be pumped to Effluent Treatment Plant.
Leachate transfer pumps shall be provided of adequate capacity.
MSW shall be dumped in the landfill by trucks, which shall be further levelled and
compacted. Periodic waste audits will ensure that non-conforming waste shall not be
dumped at the landfill site. The waste shall be compacted in thin layers using
compacters and covered with a daily cover of soil layer or inert waste. After the
landfill is filled it will be covered with top cover system with single liner
arrangement and on the top 450 mm thick surface layer (Top Soil) shall be provided
with vegetation. The slope of top cover shall be kept as 5% to provide quick drainage
of rainfall
For ground water monitoring 4 Nos. of wells shall be provided. A suitable ramp to
reach the embankment top shall be provided so that truck/ dumper can reach the
top of embankment and can directly dump the municipal solid waste in the landfill.
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6.1.9 Estimation of landfill Capacity


The sketch showing section of landfill is given below for the estimation of landfill
capacity. The capacity of landfill is worked out by considering mainly three parts of
landfill which are as follows:
i.
ii.
iii.

Middle part (V1)


Bottom part in the slope of header pipe (V2)
Top portion (V3)

The step wise calculation for the estimation of capacity of landfill and design life is
given in the below table 6.2
Table 6.2 Capacity Calculation for MSW landfill
Area for landfill
Area of ETP
Area of Other Facilities
Total Area Required
Dimension L & B of area

=
=
=
=
=
=

Total Facility area

13.0 acres (Approx.)

Width of Green Belt


Length of Green Belt
Green Belt Area

=
=
=

5 M
2183 M
2.7 acres (Approx.)

=
=

10.3 acres (Approx.)


41681 Sqm

Area for other facilities except Green


Belt

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62.0
5.0
8.0
75.0
303450
551

acres (Approx.)
acres (Approx.)
acres (Approx.)
acres (Approx.)
Sqm
M

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

Dimension for facilities area except


Green Belt
X
Y

=
=

541 M
77 M

Embankment Outer dimensions at


GL
L1
B1

=
=

541 M
464 M

=
=
=

0.0 M
12.0 M
3.0 M
2.0

26.8 M

26.8 M

Embankment Outer dimensions at


Top
L2
B2

=
=

493 M
416 M

Embankment Inner dimensions at


Top
L3
B3

=
=

487 M
410 M

Embankment Inner dimensions at


GL
L4
B4

=
=

439 M
362 M

Embankment Inner dimensions at


Base
L5
B5

=
=

439 M
362 M

Inner Area at Embankment Top


L3xB3
Inner Area at GL L4xB4
Inner Area at Base L5xB5

=
=
=

199516 Sqm
158780 Sqm
158780 Sqm

Depth due to 1% slope at base

4.39 M

Depth below GL
Height of embankment above GL
Top width of embankment
Slope of embankment 1H:
Slant Length inside Base to Top of
Embankment
Slant Length outside GL to Top of
Embankment

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,, Uttar Pradesh

Depth due to 1% slope in lateral at


base
Total depth due to slope at base

=
=

1.81 M
6.20 M

Total Depth below GL

6.20 M

Height above embankment due to


5% slope

12 M

1.1 M

7.3 M

Thickness of Composite Liner at


Base
Max. depth of base of liner below
GL
VOL I
VOL II
VOL III
Total Volume

=
=
=
=

492031
2149780
809475
3451286

Daily Cover
Net Volume including side liner

=
=

20 %
2876072 Cum

Volume of liner at Base


Volume of liner at Sides

=
=

174658 Cum
20495 Cum

Net Volume For MSW in Landfill


Landfill-able MSW (Required)

=
=

2855577 Cum
2791117 Cum

Thk. of clay liner at base


Thk. of clay Liner at sides
Thk. of protective layer at base
Thk. of protective layer at sides
Thk. of Drainage layer at base
Road length
Drain length

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Life of Landfill

0.60
0.45
0.20
0.10
0.30
2358
2822

Cum
Cum
Cum
Cum

M
M
M
M
M
M
M

25 Years

The leachate treatment units, leachate collection sumps, equalization tanks,


treatment control room etc. shall be provided outside the embankment. These shall
be located 0.5 m above the lowest ground level. Waste conveying facilities are
provided for mechanically depositing the residue into the MSW landfill after
segregation.

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No specific intermediate cover is provided other than the daily cover. However if the
problem of odor persists intermediate cover may also be considered. In that case one
intermediate cover of soil of thickness 450 mm may be provided at the mid-level
The top cover shall have the highest point at the center and slopes towards the edges
radially with around 5 % slope (after pre-grade settlement) towards the
embankment. A network of intercepting drains and peripheral drains are provided
for quick draining of the rainwater. The facility shall have green belts, trees and
turfing on the embankment/ formation slopes as slope protection and to present
pleasing appearance.

6.1.10 Selection of Liner Systems


The objective in the design of liners is to minimize the infiltration of leachate and
gases into subsurface soils below the landfill eliminating the potential for ground
water contamination. Composite liner designs employing a geomembrane and clay
layer provide more protection and are hydraulically more effective than other types
of linings. Liners provide an effective hydraulic barrier beneath the waste to contain
the waste and to allow for effective removal of leachate generated during
containment.
In the present MSW landfill, single composite liner system shall be provided meet
stringent performance criteria that provide a high margin of safety. Each of the liner
systems is discussed in more detail in the following sections.
a)

Bottom Liners

The bottom portion of the landfill directly rests on stable compacted specially
prepared soil bed. The various layers of liners from bottom to top are:

b)

600 mm thick compacted clay/ amended soil (k 10-7 cm/sec.)


1.5 mm thick High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Geomembrane
200 thick silty sand protective layer
300 mm thick granular soil drainage layer (Leachate Collection Layer)
Side Liners

The side slopes in the soil formation are similarly made on firm compacted specially
prepared stable slopes of 2H: 1V. The various layers of side liners from bottom to top
are:

c)

450 mm thick compacted clay/ amended soil (k 10-7 cm/sec.)


1.5 mm thick High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Geomembrane
100 mm thick protective layer (selected soil)
Top Cover Liners

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The top cover the landfill directly rests on compacted specially shaped waste surface.
The bed shall be laid to 3 to 5 % slope (after allowing for pre-grade settlements of the
waste) for providing good natural drainage. The various layers of liners from
bottom to top are:

450 mm thick granular soil (Gas Collection layer)


600 mm thick compacted clay/ amended soil (k 10-7 cm/sec.)
300 mm thick topsoil /Sweet earth laid to 5 % slope

6.1.11 Selection of Leachate Control Facilities


The leachate collection layer is provided in the granular soil (drainage) layer of the
bottom liner system. The collection layer shall comprise of a network of perforated
HDPE lateral pipes laid at aslope of 2% and 20 m c/c spacing. These laterals collect
leachate and transfer it to the HDPE header pipe, which is laid at a slope of 1%. The
header pipe ultimately transfers the leachate into the Leachate collection sump. The
general arrangement of header and laterals is provided in the layout plan of MSW
landfill.
The sizing of laterals and headers is given in the table 6.3 below.
Table 6.3 Leachate Pipe Sizing
Area of landfill
Intensity of rainfall
Velocity in pipes
Leachate generation per hour
Evaporation
Leachate to be managed
Leachate Collection System
Header Sizing
Header is running
Diameter of header
Provide Header Pipe (PN6, HDPE, 15mm
thk.)
Quantity of Header Pipe
Lateral Sizing
Lateral is running
Number of laterals
Diameter of lateral

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199516
40
2
332.53
10
299.27

m2
mm/day
m/sec
m3/hr
%
m3/hr

0.5 full(value in decimal)


0.325 M
325 Mm
355 mm (min)
490 M

0.25
44
0.069
69

full(value in decimal)
Nos
M
Mm
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Provide Lateral Pipe (PN6, HDPE, 5mm


thk.)
Quantity of Lateral pipe

110 mm (min)
7939 M

The landfill receives municipal solid wastes only. All operations are planned in such
a way that generation of liquid waste is minimum and the leachate directly reaches
the leachate collection sump for treatment. Apart from the leachate generated as a
result of inflow of rainwater into the landfill, the seepage from the moisture content
present in the solid waste and the moisture present in the daily soil cover are the few
sources of leachate generation. As the climate is hot with average temperature
around 35 C, evaporation losses could be significant except in winter season hence
10% evaporation has been considered.
199516 m2

Area
=
Rainfall max. daily
=
Total (Max.) Rainfall water =
=
Total (Avg.) Rainfall water =
=

40 mm (Approx)
7981 m3/day
332 m3/hr (max.)
3990.5 m3/day (Approx)
166 m3/hr.

Leachate collection sump sizing


Max. Flow
R.T.
Volume required
Volume ( for 1 phase)
Provide a sump of size

=
=
=
=

332m3/hr
0.5 hrs.
166 m3
=
166/5 = 33.2 m3
3.5 x 3.5 x 2.5 m wd

6.1.12 Effluent Treatment Plant Design


Around 166 m3/ hr is generation of leachate in case of 40 mm rainfall. This would
only happen when waste in the land retain the moisture upto its maximum retaining
capacity. From the time of the rain and based on the experience the leachate keeps on
coming out for days even after stopping of rain. On existing landfills experience
internationally the equalization tank of one hour capacity can take care of the flow
variation and for the down stream unit the design capacity taken is 25% of the
average inflow in equalization tank.
The leachate generation will be minimized through:

Proper run off & soil covers


Operations during heavy rains to be avoided
To ensure rain water other of SLF does not enter treatment plant.

Since leachate will be received intermittent by during the rainy season and may also
vary in BOD, COD, TSS etc. level the system proposed is simple and with ease of

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operations and O&M, leachate from the SLF will be collection in equalization tank
through collection sump. Aeration will be done through aeration to avoid anaerobic
conditions and also to reduce BOD & COD through aerobic bacteria.
The waste water the equalization tank will then be transferred to clarifier for settling
suspended impurities. Settled sludge will be drained to drying bed and then to SLF.
Clarified waste water will be chlorinated and will be passed through pressure sand
filter and activated carbon filter. The outlet from the activated carbon filter will be
meeting UPPCB discharge standards for irrigation purposes. The process flow
diagram for treatment of leachate is given in drawing no. O:3146/ Agra/Chap. 6/
11. The detailed cost estimates are appended in Annexure- XIV.

6.1.13 Selection of landfill Gas Control Facilities


The landfill is a secured landfill with single composite liners well in place at bottom,
sides and top. The liner system consists of one-layers of geomembrane and onelayers of 2ft. (600mm) thick amended clay as liners whereby the chances of gases
escaping from the ground and contaminating the groundwater and soil are remote.
The gases developed due to continued confinement of degradable wastes, if any, are
released through the gas extraction facilities provided in the landfill. For this
purpose GI Vents are planned at 20m x 20m grids.

6.1.14 Aesthetic Considerations


Adequate measures are planed to give a facelift by utilizing the abundantly available
on site natural soil for raising buffer zones /embankments. Two rows of vegetative
plantation shall be developed along the circumference of the outer embankment
along with turfing on the slopes. In addition the top cover shall also be developed as
a green belt.

6.1.15 Monitoring Facilities


The soil, air and water in the area shall be continuously monitored for no
contamination. Both sampling methods and non-sampling methods are adopted and
monitored as per the monitoring plan for timely action to be taken before water
contamination and leakage of gases into the soil. The facility is provided with a
minimum four monitoring wells for soil water and gas measurements. The details of
the monitoring plan are given in Table 6.4, wherein instruments /monitoring areas
proposed are listed.

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Table 6.4 Monitoring Plan


Monitoring
Method

Type
Monitoring

of Equipment
Used

Sampling
Monitoring
Method
(Methods
involving
collection
samples
laboratory
analysis)

Air Monitoring
Gas Syringes
(Collection of Air Air Bags
samples)

Information/data
be recorded

to

Air quality/analysis of
gas

of
for

Ground
Water
Monitoring
(Collection
of
ground Water)

Monitoring
Water quality
wells
(Background
wells) both
single
depth
and
multiple
depth
of Piezometers
Water quality

(Collection
Ground Water)
(Collection
of
Leachate samples)
Vadose
Zone
Monitoring

Non-sampling
Ground
water
Monitoring
Conductivity
Method
(Methods
involving
Physical
and
Electrical
measurements)
Leachate
Monitoring
Temperature
Vadose zone

In
landfill
piezometers
Collection
Lysimeters,
Soil gas probes
& Suction Cup
Lysimeters

Leachate quality

Conductivity
cells

Monitor changes
Groundwater
Conductivity

in

Inland
fill Measure depth of
Piezometers
Leachate in landfill
Temperature
probes
Electric probes
Electric

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Analysis of Leachate
between, VOC in soil,
Gas monitoring, liquid
monitoring in Vadose
zone

Measure temperature
In land fill
Salinity of vadose zone
Changes in the water

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Resistance
Block
Gamma
ray
attenuation
probes
Neutron
Moisture meter
Tensiometer

content
For monitoring
moisture content

of

Moisture content in
the soil
Used
to
measure
negative pressure that
exists in soil/landfill
TDR meter & For recording Thermo
Thermocouple Dielectric Properties of
psychometers
water and soil any
change in temperature
and moisture will be
recorded
Waves Sensing To
identify
leak
Devices
detection
(seismic type)
Apart from the above, regular inspection and monitoring of important components
of the landfill shall be done as per the schedule given below:
Final Top Cover:
Vegetation:

Final Grade:

Surface drains:

Gas Monitoring:

Groundwater
Monitoring:
Leachate
Management:

Once in a year and after each substantial rainfall it should be


checked for any erosion, landslides, movement of soil, slope, etc.
Four times in a year a check should be made for existence of
dead plants/trees. Any plant/tree found dead shall be removed
immediately.
Twice a year should be checked for ponding/logging of water.
If any abnormalities found, slope should be corrected by putting
soil.
Four times a year and after each substantial rain should be
checked for any blockages. Leaves, debris or any other
accumulation found in the drain shall be removed immediately.
As required in the Management Plan it should be checked for
strong presence of odor. The gas monitoring equipments
(compressor, pipes, flaring stand, etc) should be checked to
ensure their workability as they might become inoperable due to
high gas generation.
As per the Action Plan. A regular inspection shall be done to
check for any failures in the monitoring system.
As required by the plan.

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6.1.16 Determination of Equipment Requirements


The landfill facility shall have minimum operating equipment for the construction
stages and no earth moving machinery is planned as the work shall be done by
engaging suitable contracting agency. For the operations of daily cover the following
nominal equipment shall be provided:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Front-end loader/JCB
Tipping trucks
Safety Equipment
Fire Fighting Equipment
Diesel Generator

1No
1 Nos
1 Lot
1 Lot
1No.

For ETP unit suitable supporting plant and equipment are planned. For power
supply to equipment, lighting, services etc a substation with transformer yard has
been planned. All electrical systems shall have proper earthling and control systems.
One number diesel-run electrical generator of 50 KVA is proposed for running the
essential services and the ETP.

6.1.17 Design Life


The landfill design life relates to active period, closure period and post closure
period. The active period is the period in which actual filling takes place. In this
case, this will be 25 years. The closure and post-closure period for which a landfill
will be monitored and maintained shall be 30 years after the active period.

6.1.18 Post Closure Care


Post closure care involves the routine inspection of the completed landfill site,
maintenance of infrastructure and environmental monitoring. A well defined closure
plan shall be formulated for effective implementation.

6.1 Technical Specifications


The detail technical specifications of the following items have been given in
Annexure XV.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Preparation of work area/ clearing site/ jungle


Striping
Excavation & filling work
Excavation of trenches
Borrow areas
Cast-in-situ cement concrete
Formwork and staging
Reinforcement

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9. Structural steel work


10. Filling for clay liner and foundation
11. Foundation for embankment
12. Earthen embankment
13. Turfing
14. HDPE liner
15. Clay liner
16. Geo-textile
17. Geonet
18. Leachate collection system
19. HDPE Pipes
20. Sand layer
21. Gravel layer
22. Vertical centrifugal pump
23. Valves
24. Leachate treatment plant
25. Weighbridge
26. Piezometers
27. Electrical works
28. Schedule of Makes
29. Quantity assurance check list
30. List of mandatory spares

6.2 Cost Estimates


The detailed cost estimates and Operation & Maintenance Plan for landfill, top cover
and facilities are given in Annexure XIV. The summary of cost estimates and yearly
O&M cost is given below in table 6.5 and table 6.6 respectively.

6.3 Closure Plan of existing dump site on PPP basis


The existing dump site in Agra city at Shadhara chungi that is receiving waste from
all around the city for a long period of time. The dump site has its commercial value
as it could be used for other development alternatives. The waste dumped in the
past has its biodegradable fraction which will degrade over time. The closure plan of
this dump site is to be planned by Nagar Nigam Agra after having detailed study of
the site pertaining to ground water contamination, surface runoff, degradation of
waste, production of gas etc. The site could be developed on public private
partnership (PPP) basis with some private operator. The yield and sale value from
the development of the commercial and residential property by this land shall be
sufficient for the closure cost of the dump site.. Therefore the closure cost of the
dump site is not being included in the cost estimates and should be considered on
PPP model for its development.

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Table 6.5

Summary of Cost Estimates

Summary of Cost Estimates of Landfill for Agra


S.No Item Description

1
2
3
4

Landfill
Top Cover
Facilities for Landfill
Effluent Treatment Plant
Accessories e.g weighing bridge, JCB, Tipper Truck,
Borewell for water supply, safety equipments, fire
5 fighting equipments etc
Total (Rs.)
Add 5% for Electrical, Mechanical and Instrumentation
6 works

Total Amount
(Rs.)

Phase I (1 5 Years)

226067663
70365013
6534627
5200000

45213533
14073003
6534627
5200000

6000000

6000000

314167303

Phase II (6
- 10 Years)

Phase III
(11 - 15
Years)

Phase IV
(16 -20
Years)

Phase V
(21 - 25
Years)

45213533
14073003

45213533
14073003

45213533
14073003

45213533
14073003

77021162

59286535

59286535

59286535

59286535

15708365

3851058

2964327

2964327

2964327

2964327

329875668

80872220

62250862

62250862

62250862

62250862

GRAND TOTAL (Rs.)


Say (Rs.)
329900000
Operation and Maintenance Cost for 1 Year (Rs.)

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Table 6.6

Operation and Maintenance Cost

S.No Description
.

Qualification

Quantity

A. Manpower Requirement (For one month)


1
Facility
Diploma in
Manager
Mechanical
Engineering
2
Chemist
M.SC.Chemistry
3
Computer
Diploma
in
Operator
Computer
engineering
4
Security Men
Senior
Secondary
School
5
Electrician/Fitt ITI
er
6
Accountant
Master
of
Commerce
7
Helper
Literate
8
Gardener
Literate
9
Sweeper
Literate
10
Peon
Senior
Secondary
School
11
Drivers
Literate

B
C
D
E

Nos

15000

15000

1
1

Nos
Nos

10000
8000

10000
8000

Nos

6000

18000

Nos

6000

6000

Nos

6000

6000

3
1
1
1

Nos
Nos
Nos
Nos

4000
4000
4000
4000

12000
4000
4000
4000

Nos

4000
TOTAL (Rs)
TOTAL MAN POWER (A) (Rs)

8000
95000
95000

Chemicals
(per month)
Electric Power
(per month)
DailyCover
1303.904 CUM @
(per month)
Rs 90/CuM
POL
(per month)

Lumpsum

20000

Lumpsum

10000

90

117352

Lumpsum
Total (A+B+C+D+E) Rs.
Total O&M (per month) Rs.
Total O&M (per year) Rs.

22000
264352
264352
3172224

Total O&M (per year) Rs. (Say)

3173000

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Rates Per Total


month
Amount
(Rs.)
(Rs.)

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CHAPTER 7

Other Operation and Maintenance


Aspects
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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 7
OTHER OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE ASPECTS
7.1

Management Information System

7.1.1

Objective

To ensure success of municipal solid waste management system, it is required to


collect specific and discreet information not only to keep records up-to-date but also,
for taking corrective measures as well as proper planning for future. Some of the
information is thus required to:
Have overall idea of existing condition
Deficiencies in the existing system
Develop corrective measures for the existing system
Upgrading the existing system
Decision making
Planning a better system
Making budgetary provisions
Computerization of data helps people working at all levels for waste management. It
helps to build a strong and a reliable information database necessary to facilitate the
decision-making and monitoring process for management.
The waste management system will essentially comprise of following components:
Waste Generation
Waste Collection
Primary
Secondary
Waste Transportation
Waste Processing and disposal
The general information to be collected, collated and updated from time to time
include of an existing system is as detailed below:
7.1.2

Waste Generation

The waste generation data to be collected and maintained in the database comprise
of:

rcues

Average quantity of waste generated per capita/kg/day


Average quantity of waste produced each day in metric tones (MT)
Seasonal variation in daily waste generation
Total quantity of waste produced annually during last 3 years (MT)
Breakup of the quantity of waste generated per day in kgs or MT
Household, shops and establishment waste

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7.1.3

Vegetable and food market waste


Meat, fish and slaughter house waste
Construction and demolition waste
Non-infectious hospital waste
Non-hazardous industrial waste

Waste Collection

The collection of data has two components primary collection and secondary
collection. The data to be collected and maintained in the database for each of the
two components is as detailed below:
Primary Collection:
Primary collection is the first and prime activity of solid waste management. For
planning and designing effective, sustainable, cost effective and efficient primary
collection system, the following information is required for each ward/town:

Area
Present and future growth of population
Population density
Source of waste generation
Sanitation workers in local body
Contract workers
Voluntary agency workers
Tools and implements used in primary collection system
Welfare measures for the workers
Personnel protective equipments provided to the workforce
Mode and frequency of collection from various sources:
No. of safai karamcharis (SKs) required to report for duty
No. of SKs actually reported
No. of SKs absent
No. of houses actually attended by each SKs
Amount of waste collected
Houses left unattended
No. of street bins emptied and amount of waste transferred to the waste
storage depots
No. of persons required to supervise
No. of cases where performance found satisfactory
No. of cases where performance was not upto mark
Action taken and proposed to be taken
Complaints received and attended

Secondary Collection: The second and vital activity in solid waste management
services is the transfer of waste to intermediate storage points i.e. waste storage
depots. To design an intermediate waste storage point and to ensure a synchronized

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transportation system the following information is to be established for each


ward/town:
Location
Area
Capacity
Type of transfer system
Mode of unloading
Mode of loading
No. of secondary collection locations per ward
Type of secondary collection locations in each ward:
Dumper Placer Container
Dustbin
Amount of waste received from various sources in each ward

7.1.4

Waste Transportation

To enable designing a cost effective and efficient transportation system synchronized


with primary and secondary collection system the following information is to be
established for each ward/city:

7.1.5

No. of collection points


Distance between collection points
Quantity at collection points
No. of vehicles available with the local body for waste transportation
Type of vehicles, carrying capacity, age
No. of trips made by vehicles/shift/day
Fuel consumption of vehicles
Distance traversed by vehicles
Details of manpower working in each shift
Quantity of waste transported in each shift
Total quantity of waste transported/day
Percentage of waste transported/day
Breakdown reported during the day and action taken
No. of bins cleared during the day
No. and location of bins left unclear
Arrangement made for clearing backlog

Waste Processing and Disposal

To have an effective and planned operation of disposal and to design for developing
an engineered and scientific disposal system, following information is to be
established and maintained in the database:
Percentage of waste treated
Amount of rejects from plant

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7.1.6

Details of processed waste


End use of processed waste
Quantity of waste disposed to landfill after processing
Amount of waste received for processing
Characteristics of waste (physical & chemical)
Amount of waste received for disposal in landfill
Amount of waste received from processing unit
Amount of waste disposed off in landfill
Volume of leachate generated
Leachate management system
Response from private sector

Performance Monitoring Indicators

There are a number of specific performance measures that can be used to assess the
individual functional elements or operating sub-systems of any MSWM systems,
there are also measures that help gauge the overall performance of any MSWM
system. Some of such measures are as presented below:
Table 7.1: Measures to guage performance of MSWM system
Issue
Indicator
Health

Morbidity and mortality rates due to illness related, directly or


indirectly with solid waste such as
Cholera
Tetanus
Dengue fever
Hepatitis etc

Economy

Manpower employed in waste management activities


Various stakeholders involved in waste management system
(equipment manufacturer, recycling industry, consultants,
maintenance department etc)

Environmental
Conditions

Percentage of MSW collected over the total MSW generated


Percentage of MSW properly disposed over SW collected

Social
Conditions

Percentage of population provided with waste collections


services
Annual increase/decrease in number of waste pickers in final
disposal
No. of community health education programs

Solid

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Waste Per capita waste generation (kg/person/day)

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Generation
Recovery

(Tonnage of solid waste recovered per day/tonnage of solid


waste generated per day)*100

Coverage
& Percentage of urban population served
Access to Urban Percentage of semi-urban population served
Sanitation
Ratio of urban/semi-urban population served
Services
Management
No. of waste management employees/thousand persons served
Operation and Average monthly service charge
Finance
Budget of waste management system
Income generation through tariffs
Efficiency of collection i.e value collected divided by value
billed multiplied by 100
Unit cost of waste management service (Rs./ton) i.e sum of all
direct costs, annual costs, indirect costs, social benefits, financial
costs, depreciation divided by tonnage received at final
disposal site per year
Other
Recommended
Indicators

Coverage of street sweeping


Efficiency of collection equipment i.e total equipment divided
by the no. of equipment in operation + backup equipment +
maintenance equipment
No. of bills paid per month
No. of bills raised per month

It is important to note that general performance measures have to be compiled at


regular intervals and then compared over time to enable SWM managers to monitor
and establish positive and negative trends in waste management system. For
example if at any time it is found that there is variation in revenue collection i.e it is
going down over past few months, it is important for the concerned person of NNA
to look into the matter and find way of overcoming this.

7.2

Complaint Handling System

An effective and transparent complaint handling system is a prerequisite to any


successful transformation. It is thus propose to set-up an efficient, effective,
transparent and user-friendly complaint handling system for registering complaints
from people regarding removal of solid waste.
Complaint handling is another important component of waste management system.
It helps in analyzing and improving the level of services provided to the
stakeholders.

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7.2.1

Essential features of a complaint handling system

A complaint handling system that is efficient and fair includes:


acknowledging that your customers have a right to complain
openly seeking feedback from your customers, and
having a written policy about handling complaints, which is readily available
to the customers.
The essential features of complaint handling system are as described below:
Fairness: Complaint handling should be fair to all parties, and must allow everyone's
views to be heard and taken into account in a balanced way.
Effectiveness: Availability of adequate resources is vital to handle complaints
efficiently and effectively. Complaints received should be dealt with quickly and
courteously. The people involved in responding to complaints will communicate the
complaints to the filed staff and will have the authority and ability to decide
remedies and to put them into effect.
Accessibility: The complaint handling system should be accessible to all customers,
and help them lodge their complaints. Information about how to make a complaint
will be readily available and simple to understand or in other words it will be a userfriendly system. Toll free numbers, e-mail address etc will be provided for
registering complaints. These numbers will also be available on all the vehicles, bins
placed at public places, at all waste storage locations and will be displayed at all
prominent public places.
Accountability: The system will record the complaints received and the outcomes
achieved. All the recurring and systemic problems that become known through the
complaint handling system will be identified and rectified.
The operation of complaint handling system will be reviewed regularly to make sure
that effective outcomes are achieved for customers.
7.2.2

General Rules for Handling Complaints

The general rules/ etiquettes for handling complaints include:


Listen to the complaint and get all details
Repeat the message to confirm your understanding
Tell the customer what will be done and when
Handle complaints quickly
Follow-up to be sure the complaint is redressed
Confirm the complaint has received a satisfactory response and thank the
customer
Inform public of services, your responsibilities and theirs

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

7.2.3

Complaint handling system for Agra

Three dedicated telephone lines will be put in place for receiving customer calls and
complaints. The system will be operational all times of day round the year.
The system will have provision wherein the operator punches in all details of the
complainer whenever a complaint is received. The complaint will be forwarded to
the required field staff, which will ensure that it is addressed. Once the necessary
action has been taken on the complaint, it can be disposed off and a note will be sent
to the complainant stating details off action taken.
A record of all the complaints lodged will be maintained to prepare a database,
which will help in establishing

Complainants name
Zone/ward
Nature of complaint
Time of complaint
Response time
Feedback from complainant

The most important feature, which will help in upgrading the complaint handling
system will be the feedback received from people.

7.3

Environment, Health and Safety Aspects

Improper Solid Waste Management gives rise to problems of health, sanitation and
environmental degradation. Several diseases are spread due to waste
mismanagement as rodents and vectors breed on MSW. Rodents and vector insects
transmit various diseases like dysentery, cholera, plague, typhoid, infective hepatitis
and others. The workers engaged in SWM services are exposed to high health risks
and frequently suffer from respiratory track infections and also gastro-intestinal
problems.
The rag pickers who move from street to street, bin to bin and go to dump yards to
retrieve recyclable waste are most vulnerable to diseases on account of their direct
contact with contaminated waste. They too are found to suffer from intestinal and
respiratory infections, skin disorders and eye infection. They also suffer from injuries
at open dumps, which can cause tetanus and serum hepatitis.
Unscientific disposal of waste also contaminates soil and ground water resources
with heavy metal and other contaminants through leachate and pose a serious
problem of environmental deterioration and health risk. It is therefore essential that
at all stages solid waste is handled carefully and health risks are minimized. Certain
practices which shall be followed include:

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Waste is covered at all stages of management cycle


Waste stored at the source of generation is collected daily before it starts
decaying and emanates foul smell
Workers are adequately trained in waste handling and protecting themselves
from the health risks involved in their occupation
Workers are given protective clothing and shoes and persuaded or requested
to use them
Waste is not burnt on the street / open space or at any place as it causes
pollution
Landfill sites are properly managed and monitored to prevent ground water
pollution
It is proposed that all NNA waste handlers should be given annual medical
examination and free medical treatment if it is felt that the illness is occupationrelated.

7.4 Project Benefits Assessment:


Social Cost-Benefit Assessment
The proposed plan for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Agra City is based on
4R principal (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recover). The plan is developed in lines
with the requirements of MSW Rules 2000 and ensures well-being of the society at
large.
The MSW management plan proposes upgradation of the existing infrastructure and
development of new infrastructure as per the current status of MSW management
facilities in Agra city. In the proposed plan, infrastructure provision has been done
to ensure that collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of MSW in Agra is
done properly. The proposed approach will have positive and negative
environmental, social and economic benefits to MSW workers and the overall
society.
The benefits and adverse impacts from the proposed MSW management plan are
summarized below:
S.
No.

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Benefit
Description

Comments

Benefits
to
NNA/other
MSW workers
Improved
- Provision of properly
working
designed rikshaws,

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Quantitative Impacts
(wherever possible) &
Underlying
Assumptions

- Workers will be
given infrastructure

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conditions

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wheelbarrows with
covered containers
- Provision of PPEs
- No manual handling of
waste proposed

Improved
workers morale

- Ability to perform
activities as desired
- Improved efficiency
Improved heath - Reduction to waste
and safety
exposure as waste to be
covered at all stages of
handling
- Segregation of waste at
source biomedical and
industrial hazardous
waste not mixed with the
MSW
- Provision of appropriate
PPEs
- No manual handling of
waste
Employment
- PPP proposed for MSW
opportunities
management
- New infrastructure
facilities (Compost Plant
and Sanitary landfill)
proposed
Reforms driven - Grants are being
economic
provided on the
sustainability
condition that NNA
would undertake suitable
reforms in Management,
Accounting and other
areas so as to maintain
sustainability of the
project in the long run.
Benefits to the
Society
Easy access to - Every locality will have
MSW
one secondary collection
infrastructure
points @ 0.25 km2 area
facilities
- Door-to-door collection
facility in all the localities

Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

for waste collection


and handling as per
the design
Workers will be
given appropriate
competence training
Infrastructure
standard is
maintained
Workers given
appropriate training
on waste handling
Infrastructure
facilities maintained
as per the proposed
design

- PPP model is
successful
- Infrastructure
facilities are run
efficiently
- Reforms
implemented

- Door-to-door waste
collection from all
households
- Secondary
collection points
available as per the
design

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10

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Clean
and
Hygienic
conditions
resulting
reduction
in
number
of
infectious and
other diseases
such
as
bronchitis,
hepatitis,
diarrhea,
parasitic
infection
and
pulmonary
diseases.
Environmental
Improvement

- 100% door-to-door
collection of waste
proposed
- MSW handling in
covered containers
- Daily cleaning of roads
and secondary waste
storage depots
- Waste transportation in
covered vehicles

- Provided MSW
management is
done as per the
design

- No dumping of waste on
ground
- Covered waste handling,
so no foul odour at
collection points
- No open burning of
waste
- Recycling of waste
- Composting of
biodegradable waste
- Development of
Engineered landfill
Improved
- Improved surroundings
quality of life
- Clean environment
- Access to infrastructure
Improved
- Training and awareness
awareness and
of people for MSW
civic sense in
management
people

- Provided MSW
management is
done as per the
design

Adverse
Impacts
Environmental
impacts during
construction of
new
infrastructural
facilities

- Dust pollution during


construction
- Air pollution from
vehicles
- Water pollution due to
construction activities
- Noise from material

- Adverse impacts
from construction
activities will be
minimised by due
care
-

Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

- Dissemination of
information,
education and
communication as
per the design

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

transportation vehicles
green - construction of landfill
- Alternate green
site and compost plant on
cover will b
a large piece of land
developed as per
the norms to
compensate for the
loss
Labour
- PPP proposed for most of - Number of
Redundancy
the MSW services
redundant
- Under-utilisation of
employees with
labour presently
NNA will reduce
employed with NNA
overtime as the
employees get
retired
- New employees to
be appointed only
as per the
requirement
Possible
- Integrated waste
- Landuse around the
unplanned
management facility will
project site to be
development
have necessary
well defined
around
infrastructure in place
- Plan for temporary
integrated waste - Integrated waste
and permanent
management
management facility will
workers engaged in
facility
generate employment
project site to be
developed

Reduced
cover

The negative and positive impacts summarized above indicate that positive impacts
can be maintained and enhanced and negative impacts can be minimized with a
properly planned approach. To achieve the broader objective of well-being of the
society, the above aspects need to be inculcated in the project implementation plan
and its long-term operation and maintenance. The actual benefits to the society can
only be realized after a period of successful implementation of the proposed plan.

7.5

Outcomes of the project:


1. Development and implementation of integrated MSW management plan is

based on the 4R Environmental Protection Rules (Reduce, Recycle, Reuse, and


Recover). The proposed project has the following outcomes:

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MSW management in the city as per MSW Rules 2000


Segregation at the source
Two-bin system for segregation of waste at collection points
Waste covered at all stages of handling during storage as well as
transportation

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No manual handling of waste in transferring of waste from containers to


transportation vehicles
Provision of the proper Personal Protective Equipments to the workers
Recycling of biodegradable waste through composting and profits from
this venture
Landfilling only of waste which is inert and non-biodegradable, thus
reduced landfill cost and land requirement
Healthy and safe environment for the people
Information, education and communication across the stakeholders to
create awareness within community and MSW workers
Promotion of PPP to bring efficiency in the system and reduce burden on
ULB

2. These steps will lead to greater cleanliness of the city and overall

improvement of environmental hygiene. It would reduce disease and


improve health of citizens.
3. It will also make the system in compliance with the legal requirement of MSW

Rules 2000

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CHAPTER 8

Cost of the Proposed Scheme


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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 8

COST OF THE PROPOSED SCHEME

The total project outlay is estimated at Rs 3392.39 lacs.


The implementation of the scheme is scheduled to be completed finally on March
31, 2008 after which the commercial production of compost plant and use of landfill
facilities will commence. The scheme for collection, storage and transportation of
waste are likely to be implemented earlier.
Details of the cost of the proposed scheme are given in Table 8.1:
Table 8.1: Breakup of the Cost of the Proposed Scheme
Particulars
- Collection

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.

Total
Outlay
Rs in lacs
500.45

Reference/
Comments
Chapter 4

Chapter 4
- Storage
340.65
Chapter 4
- Transportation to site/plant
571.88
Sub total of above
1412.98
(Collection/Storage/Transportation)
Compost plant
772.46 Chapter 5
Landfill site (for use during the first 5 years):
808.73 Chapter 6
Contingencies @ 3% on A to C
89.82
Capital Cost (A+B+C+D)
3083.99
Preparing of Detailed Project Report @1.5% of E
46.26
Capacity Building , IEC @ 1.5% of E above
46.26
Efficiency @ 1% of E above
30.84
Innovative Approach @ 1 % of E above
30.84
Incentives (F+G+H+I+J)
154.20
Third Party Project Monitoring and Evaluation
154.20
@ 5% of E above
Total Cost of the Proposed Scheme (E+J+K)
3392.39

The tools, equipment, machinery and fleet of vehicles for collection, segregation,
storage and transportation for waste are proposed to be upgraded and/or replaced.
These are the detailed in sections 4.2.1, 4.2.2 and 4.2.3. The investment on account
aggregates to Rs 1412.98 lacs.
The capital outlay for the 350 TPD waste to compost plant is proposed at Rs 772.46
lacs (refer chapter 5).
Details of the landfill site , proposed to be set up in phases are given in Table 8.2.

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Table 8.2: Phased implementation of landfill site


Life of Landfill (Years)
5
Major expenditure during the period
2007-08
Usage Period
2008-13
Capital Cost (Rs in Lacs) Total 3299
808.7

20
In phases from 2012
2013 and thereafter
2490.3

The total proposed investment in landfill for a life of 25 years is estimated at Rs 3299
lacs. Out of this the cost of landfill site development for use during the first 5 years
estimated at Rs 808.7 lacs has been considered in the capital cost outlay.
Breakup of the other costs are given in point E to K in Table 8.1

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CHAPTER 9

Financial Framework
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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 9

FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK

The total long term funds required to finance the cost of the scheme aggregates to Rs
3392.39 lacs. The requirement of funds is detailed in chapter 8.
The above requirement of funds is proposed to be met mainly by grants from grants
available from Government of India (GOI) under the Jawharlal Nehru National
Urban Renewable Mission (JnNURM). The scheme of JnNURM is detailed in the
subsequent paragraphs.
Balance part of the total cost of the scheme would be met by grants the State
Government /NNA /Financial Institutions. This is as per the requirement, when
grants are availed under the JnNURM scheme.
Investment in the landfill site development for use after its first 5 years is estimated
at an average of Rs 124.5 lacs/annum (required for 20 years after 2012) and is
proposed to be financed though funds raised/generated/borrowed by NNA.
Grants under JnNURM
JnNURM, announced in December 2005, is a reforms-driven, fast-track, planned
development of identified towns with focus on efficiency in urban infrastructure
and services delivery, community participation and accountability of local
governments towards citizens. The salient features of this scheme are:

Preparation of sector-wise project reports by identified cities listing projects


and their priority. The thrust areas are re-development of inner (old) city
areas, water supply and sanitation, sewerage and solid waste management,
construction and improvement of drains/storm water drains, construction/
up gradation of roads, highways/expressways, parking lots/spaces on
public private partnership basis etc.

The grant assistance (both Central and State) to act as seed money to
leverage additional resources from financial institutions/capital market.

Under JnNURM, 63 cities, comprising 35 cities with a population of over 10


lakhs and 28 cities of historical/cultural importance will be covered. The
funding pattern is to be 35:15:50 (between Centre, States/ULB and financial
institutions) for mega cities (> 40 lakh population) and 50:20:30 for cities with
populations between 10 lakhs and 40 lakhs.
Agra is already proposed as one of the 63 cities to be financed under JnNURM.
As per the above the total cost of the scheme estimated would be financed in the
ratio of 50:20:30 between the Centre, States, ULB and financial institutions.

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List of mandatory reforms to be undertaken by the Urban Local Body / Para-statal

Adoption of accrualbased modern accounting system.


Introduction of e-governance like GIS and MIS.
Reform of property tax rates and collection efficiency with GIS.
Levy of reasonable user charges to bridge revenue-expenditure gap in
seven years.
Internal earmarking of budgets for basic services to urban poor.
Provision for improved housing, water supply, sanitation and ensuing
delivery of other already existing universal services of the Government
for education, health and social security.

List of mandatory reforms at State Level

Decentralization to enable meaningful interaction of citizen with ULB.


Repeal of Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act.
Reform of Rent Control Laws.
Reduction in stamp duty - Not to exceed more than 5% within next 7
years.
Enactment of Public Disclosure Law and release of quarterly reports.
Enactment of Community Participation Law to institutionalize citizen
participation.
Assigning or associating elected ULB with city planning.

List of optional reforms (State and ULB/Para-statal level to implement any 2 reforms
in each year)

Revision of construction bye laws


Procedural simplification for conversion of agricultural land to nonagricultural purposes.
Introduction of Property Title Certification System in ULB.
Earmarking at least 20-25% of developed land in all housing projects
for EWS/LIG
Introduction of computerized process of registration of land and
property.
Revision of bye-laws to make rain water harvesting mandatory
Enactment of bye-laws for reuse of recycled water.
Administrative reforms i.e. reduction in establishment expenses
through voluntary retirement schemes (VRS), non-filling up of posts
falling vacant due to VRS/retirement etc., and achieving specified
milestones in this regard.
Structural reforms
Encouraging Public Private Partnership (PPP)

Means of Finance

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The capital cost estimated at Rs 3083.99 lacs would be financed in the ratio of 50%,
20%, 30% (GOI, State Government and NNA) as per the financial plan applicable
under JnNURM to cities with a population of over 10 lakhs but below 40 lakhs. NNA
can also raise funds from financial institutions to part finance its share.
It is indicated that the incentives/PME are proposed to be financed entirely by funds
from the Government of India
The exact financing would however be decided by the Competent Authority
approving the financial plan for financing.
Investment in the landfill site development for use after its first 5 years is estimated
at an average of Rs 124.5 lacs/annum (for 20 years after 2012) and is proposed to be
financed though funds raised/generated/borrowed by NNA.

9.2

Project Financial Sustainability/O&M Framework and Planning

The fund requirement for setting up facilities has been detailed in section 8 and
Project Financial Structuring has been detailed in section 9.1. Once the facilities are
erected, it is important that the operations are efficient, reliable and sustainable. The
proposed financial model considers sustainability of operations of the four (4) areas
of MSW management namely:

Collection, segregation and storage of MSW waste


Transportation of collected waste to site
Operations of the compost plant. It also details the option for choosing
composting in relation to a waste to energy plant.
Operations of the land fill site

The basis of the proposed model is on PPP of the O&M components. The paragraphs
below detail the need for a PPP model and list the way forward in implementing the
PPP arrangements by NNA. The sustainability of the PPP schemes and
determination of tipping fees, necessitate projected calculations of revenue and
operating cost (together referred to as profitability) involved in each of the four (4)
areas of the MSW operations.
The figures of profitability will be used to estimate the tipping fees/royalties etc. that
may be recoverable/ payable by NNA in each of the four (4) areas of operations.
In section 9.2.9, examples of two towns namely Namkkal and Suryapet are given as
an inspiration for NNA to make the city of Agra as a zero garbage city. The solid
waste management in these two towns has been admired by the Honourable
Supreme Court of India. It focuses that more than finances and other tools, its just
good management and sense of commitment that is required to keep a city clean !

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9.2.1. Framework of the proposed PPP model


SWM as per the MSW (M&H) Rules 2000 is essentially a public responsibility.
Therefore, the services rendered by NNA have to be efficient, economic and reliable
to comply with Honourable Supreme Court directives in this regard.
RCUESs primary survey points the need for improvement in waste management by
NNA in terms of efficiency and its effectiveness. The deficiency in the existing
system is due to lack of infrastructure, appropriate technology, restrictive
bureaucracy, lack of accountability, higher administrative and salary expenses.
These are not commensurate with desired level of productivity. Public awareness
and community participation needs to be encouraged. The present unsatisfactory
state of sanitation and cleanliness in Agra reflects the above mentioned anomalies.
RCUESs past experience gained in other ULBs under similar conditions makes it
recommend mandatory involvement and private sector participation in SWM
projects/components. Private sector involvement through private public
participation more often than not results in the win-win situations for all
stakeholders both in the short and long term.
Private sector investors being accountable for the services rendered will help make
the operations more reliable and efficient Short term advantage
Sustained efficient operations will bring investment/ finances for such projects
which will further improve operational efficiency - Long term advantage
Since our main objective is to determine the tipping fee, PPP scheme in the
discussions are restrictive to operation and maintenance as given below in Table 9.2
Table 9.2: PPP in MSW Management
Areas for PPP
Capital
Yearly O&M
Deployment *
Collection,
NNA
PPP in a phased manner, starting initially with a
segregation
few colonies and wards and then moving
and storage
forward when positive results are achieved on a
sustained basis
Transportation

NNA

PPP from beginning along with responsibility of


IEC

Compost plant

NNA

PPP of compost
production

on

start

of

commercial

Landfill

NNA

PPP of landfill
production

on

start

of

commercial

* Financed by grants

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PPP for setting up a waste to energy plant has not been recommended in this DPR in
this phase of the project. It can be undertaken in the second phase after a few years
when certain bench marks are achieved. This is detailed later.
The contractual agreement among private sector investors & NNA, for any of the
above PPP arrangement, will include clearly defined services considering
health and safety
environmental protection
legal aspect of compliance towards legislation
cost recovery/operational economics
Clarity in definition of the services made in mutual agreement will ensure good and
reliable services which will be helpful at larger stage for monitoring and evaluation
of services. The performance monitoring in terms of service efficiency, reliability,
service quality and cost can be emphasized by defining operational standards,
regulatory checks and periodicity of performance checks through public awareness
and participation.
Of late, both reward and punishment systems have are being incorporated for
motivation and efficient performance of the private operator.
The private sector may, however, be encouraged to participate in a manner not
affecting the interest of the existing labour force, not violating the provisions of the
labour laws, and above all restricting exploitative labour practices at the same time
reducing the establishment cost of NNA. Sound though the above may seem there
are practical constraints and improvements can be achieved over a period of time
through proper training, education and work force redeployment and
implementation of a planned retirement and hiring policy. Investment in capital
infrastructure without concurrent addressal of labour productivity issues and public
awareness will be futile.
Procedurally, NNA should invite tenders to finalize the private operator in each of
the specified areas. The tenders should be evaluated on the basis of private operators
past experience in the field, his financial strength, willingness to deploy funds
upfront, technical evaluation of the proposal and the tipping fee payable to/by the
NNA.
9.2.2. PPP in operation of collection, segregation and storage of waste
This activity should be done by the present staff of NNA and PPP should only be
introduced in a gradual manner. PPP should be tried out in a few wards. Once it
becomes operates successfully for a period of time, only then should it be introduced
into more wards after analyzing the sensitivity and other requirements.

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Bigger municipalities have implemented the scheme of managing collection,


segregation and storage under public private partnership (PPP) in some of their
wards. Ahmedabad, Vijaywada, New Delhi, Surat, Rajkot are few of the examples.
Locality/ward wise, tenders could be invited by NNA for private sector
participation in collection of waste from doorsteps of households for a period of 2 to
3 years. The private entrepreneur would select his own team of workers and
supervisors and define the work content to them.
Based on the experience in places where PPP is operational, tipping fee by way of
monthly collection charges can vary between Rs 15 to Rs 40 per month per
household depending on the proximity of the houses as well as the ability and
willingness for the housel hold to pay in terms of its disposable income. In Agra this
is being done mainly in HIG colonies where the tipping fee being collected for door
to door garbage collection varies from Rs 15 to Rs 50 per month.
The most important thing for success of PPP is that people would continue to pay if
the system delivers in its performance. The prime reason for failure of PPP has been
loud promises and assurances but unsatisfactory performance. NNA should see this
as a very important strategy for fund raising and improving its user charges and
ensure that peoples expectations are met by making the PPP arrangement strong and
effective.
In the interim, before PPP becomes self sustainable and embedded in the society, the
annual expenditure on collection, segregation and storage would be continued to be
funded by the funds/grants NNA received from State Finance Commission as
detailed in Section 2.4 and 3.7.3 of the report. Also NNA, along with the State
Government, may consider increasing the house tax and levy a conservancy tax so as
collect funds for cleanliness and sanitation and reduce its dependence on grants
marginally for this requirement. Some cities, for example Rajkot , have such a
provision. More details are given later.
9.2.3. PPP in transportation of waste to compost plant and landfill
The estimated O&M expenses for the new fleet and proposed modern transportation
system is Rs 367.9 lacs as detailed in section 4.4 and summarized in Table 9.3:
Table 9.3: O&M Cost for Waste Transportation Infrastructure and Personnel
S.No.
Description
Rs in lacs
367.9
1
Annual Cost

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The annual O&M at Rs 367.9 lacs would translate into a transportation cost of Rs
130/ton. With some provision as profit for the private operator, the tipping fee
payable could be marginally higher.
Bangalore, Jaipur, Rajkot, etc., cities have award contracts for transportation of waste
from the temporary waste storage depots through contractors labour and vehicles.
In this case, it is proposed that the vehicles would be provided by NNA and this has
made the proposal for PPP significantly attractive and more sustainable.
Generally tenders are invited and the lowest bidders are given the annual contracts
for transportation of waste. Payments are made on per metric ton basis, restricting
the total tonnage per truck and having a penalty provision for failure to perform or
delay in clearance of bins.
In New Delhi, the transporters with whom the PPP has been finalized, have been
given the additional responsibility of IEC, along with the responsibility of
transportation.
9.2.4. PPP in operation of compost plant
The assumptions for profitability, profitability projections, cash flow statement and
projected balance sheet for the 350 tpd waste to compost plant are given separately
as Table 9.7, 9.8, 9.9 and 9.10 respectively at the end of this Chapter.
The operations of the compost plant are profitable as summarized in Table 9.4:

Table 9.4: Profitability of compost plant in 2009-10


Item
Production of compost (tpa)
31185
Capacity utilization (%)
90
(Rs in lacs)
Revenue
467.8
Cost of production
226.5
Gross profit (GP)
% of GP/Revenue
Interest
Depreciation
Operating profit
Tax
Net profit
Reserves
Net cash accruals
Cash breakeven point (%)

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241.2
51.6
12.1
45.0
184.1
0.0
184.1
184.1
229.1
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On the basis of the assumptions in Table 9.5, in the second year of operations, at a
capacity utilization of 90%, the compost plant will generate revenue of Rs 468 lacs.
The operations will result in net cash earnings of Rs 229 lacs. The cash breakeven
point is at 39.6%. The payback period for investment is about 4 years.
With profitable returns, the O&M for the compost plant may attract participation
under PPP from the private sector. Private parties may even be interested to deploy
a part of their funds as upfront
investment.
Instead of tipping fee per ton,
NNA could negotiate for fixed
amount of payment per annum
for providing facilities like land,
waste and its initial investment.
Thus out of the total cash
earnings of Rs 229 lacs per
annum, the PPP operator would
be left with a surplus cash of Rs
214 lacs after incurring Rs 15 lacs as normal capital expenditure. Rs 15 lacs has been
provided to save funds for expansion of the compost plant. NNA could ask the PPP
to pay to it half of this amount i.e. Rs 107 lacs per annum for the land, waste and the
facility set up by NNA. Alternatively other strategies could be formulated by NNA
while negotiating the PPP agreement with the O&M operator.
If the private operator is asked to pay upfront in terms of security or part finance the
initial investment, the amount proposed above would stand reduced. While these
figures are indicative, the actual perception, willingness to invest by private
operator, the fixed amount per annum/ royalty/ tipping fee payable can only be
determined at the time of inviting bids for the PPP proposal.
It may be mentioned that the business of composting can be run with a much higher
degree of value addition with proper management and marketing. The revenue from
compost plant can increase significantly (over two to three times) if compost is
marketed and sold in bags rather than selling it in bulk. With proper technical inputs
and using the right mix of culture, the conversion yields can be improved. Thus a
correct choice of the experienced private operator can bring in more profitability into
the business, translating into more earnings for NNA. On the flipside, average
realizations from compost can drop significantly if it is not of a good quality and
marketing efforts are insufficient.
In subsequent years, once the plant operates satisfactorily, the compost plant will be
in a position to leverage the profitable operations and subsidized funds initially
received through grants to expand its facilities as well as raise resources from
lenders in form of debt.

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9.2.5. PPP in operation of landfill site


As details of the O&M cost per annum at landfill is given in Table 6.6. The O&M
expenses is summarized in Table 9.5. The O&M expenses at Rs 31.7 lacs per annum
translate to Rs 37 per ton of waste disposed at landfill site.
Table 9.5: Summary of annual O&M cost/annum at landfill
Rs in Lacs
Per month
Salaries and wages
0.95
Chemicals
0.20
Power
0.10
Oil, lubes etc.
0.22
Daily cover
1.17
Total
2.64
Total per annum
31.7
The cost per ton for larger sized landfills,
like in Agra, is relatively on the lower side
due to low fixed expenditure required on
manpower establishment. The tipping fee
payable to the private party carrying out
O&M at the landfill would be marginally
higher than this.
NNA can also consider it in the perspective
that that the revenue it earns from the
compost plant get reduced by the above
amount incurred on O&M annually.
On the assumption that segregation is going to be the focus area, small income that
may be realized by sale of recyclables or marginal fees that could be charged from
rag-pickers has not been considered as revenue for the financial analysis. Thus the
landfill site at Agra is not expected to generate revenues in the initial few years.
Future development of landfill site and possibility for revenue generation in detailed
in section 9.2.8.
9.2.6 PPP in setting up of a Waste to Energy Plant and its O&M thereafter
In the ensuing few paragraphs we shall detail out the concept and various
alternatives of converting waste to energy. This shall also include the position of the
existing plants in India as well as those being envisaged. The discussion would end
with a recommendation/ suggested action plan.
A. Waste to energy technologies:

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Anaerobic Digestion and Biomethanation


In this process organic waste in absence of air is broken down by bacteria into
methane gas which is used for generating power. A 5 MW MSW based power
plant based on bio-methanation technology was constructed at a cost of Rs 84
crores at Lucknow. It commenced commercial operations but it had to be
closed down for various reasons Honourable supreme Court is ceased with
matter and has stayed subsidy to all types of Waste to Energy Plants.
Production of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Pelletization
The advantage of this is that waste is converted into pellets which can be
conveniently stored and transported long distances. It can be used as a coal
substitute at a lower price. As pelletization involves significant MSW sorting
operations and is energy intensive as it requires the removal of water from the
waste to form pallets. Pellets get contaminated by toxic/hazardous material,
and the pellets are not safe for burning in the open or for domestic use.
Such plants are in the initial stage of development in India. The viability and
sustainability of the technology process and projects are still being
examined. The Department of Science and Technology (DST) of the
Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), New
Delhi tested the technology on a pilot scale basis to make fuel pellets from
MSW. The above technology of processing MSW into fuel pellets was
transferred to M/s. Selco International Limited, Hyderabad for scaling up and
commercial operation. The Technology Development Board of DST and
TIFAC had assisted Selco to set up a 6.6 MW power plant using MSW derived
fuel and generate electricity. Selco uses 400 tonnes of MSW to convert into
pallets and mixes it with 30 per cent rice husk for generation of power. DST
has also transferred the technology to M/s Sriram Energy Systems Ltd to set
up a similar plant at Vijayawada. Both these plants are reportedly operational
since November 2003. The issues of sustainability and proportion of use of
agro waste along with municipal solid waste claimed by the operators of
these facilities is being contested and challenged by NGOs. The Government
subsidies on such plants have been put on hold by Honourable Supreme
Court.
Other Technologies like Inceneration
Inceneration, commonly used in developed countries is more suitable for high
calorific value waste with a large component of paper, plastic, packaging
material, pathological wastes, etc. It can reduce waste volumes by over 80 per
cent and convert waste to innocuous material, with energy recovery.
The method is relatively hygienic, noiseless, and odourless, and land
requirements are low. However the disadvantage is that this plant requires
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large capital and has substantial operation and maintenance costs. Skilled
personnel are required for plant operation and maintenance. An incinerator
capable of generating 3.75 MW power from 300 TPD MSW was installed at
Timarpur, Delhi in the year 1987. It could not operate successfully
reportedly due to low net calorific value of MSW. The plant is lying idle
and the investment is wasted.
Other technologies including incineration are not relevant in the Indian
context because of their costs.
B. Issues presently associated with WTE plants
Provenness of technology in the Indian context is still to be established:
Experience shows that the WTE have been successful in developing countries
to handle large quantities of MSW. Two RDF based waste to energy projects
viz. Hyderabad and Vijaywada have been commissioned in India and few
more are under various stages of development. Both the project have failed to
give tangible results and Bio methane Plant at Lucknow has also failed to
deliver goods Honourable Supreme Court in is ceased with the situation in
the subsidy Waste to Energy has been put on hold. The matter of WTE being
technologically effective on MSW waste alone is presently sub judiced and
availability of subsidy for such plants has been put on hold. Though the need
is strong and the advantages of converting waste to energy are well
appreciated, the technology still needs to be proven in the Indian context.
WTE involves much higher investment than Compost and so has a much higher risk:
WTE projects generally involve higher capital investment and are more
complex when compared to other options like composting for waste disposal,
but gains are not higher. The reported cost of setting up an integrated facility
works out to be about Rs 8 to Rs 10 crore/MW. The exact power generation
capacity is a function of biodegradeable waste, the calorific value of waste and
the plant configuration that is conceptualized. A norm is to assume 1 MW for
every 125-150 TPD of MSW waste. Thus, on the basis of the waste in Agra
(say at 350 TPD), a 2.8 MW power plant can be set up which would cost
about Rs 25 crores to Rs 28 crores. At such high capital costs, the project
would be viable only if subsidized funds are deployed in setting up the
project. As indicated before, subsidies in such plants are on hold as long as
the matter is sub judiced. Power projects from other sources of energy are in
the range of Rs 3 crore/MW to Rs 5 crores/MW).
Segregation at source is very essential:
Segregation of waste at source in order to avoid mixing of undesirable waste
streams plays a major role in making a WTE facility financially viable. The
failure of the plants in the past has been due to non availability of segregated
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bio disposable waste. Present MSW management system proposed in the DPR
including IEC for segregation, PPP for house to house hold collection of waste
etc. would start yielding results on a sustained basis only after a few years.
No doubt segregation is required for composting also but its degree and
criticality for WTE is significantly higher.

Complexity and large time frame is required in tying up other issues while setting up
WTE plants:
The terms for MSW supply, allotment of land and a power purchase
agreement are factors in determining the financial viability of projects and
private sector participation. Such aspects taken considerable time before
projects can be implemented. Financial Institution lending for such facilities
on a non recourse basis, insist that all project risks be suitably addressed and
tied up to their satisfaction, with back-to-back agreements. Such projects have
taken more than a year and in many cases several years to be conceptualised
Present Financial Position of NNA and Financing of the WTE plants:
Financing from Financial Institutions even under PPP and a private operator
would be coming through only when NNAs financial position improves after
undertaking reforms, WTE technology is proven and cheaper, NNA can
demonstrate that desired segregation is being achieved at the source level to
give a sustained throughput to the plant and project risks be covered on a
back to back basis including power purchase agreements.
C. Recommendation on PPP in a WTE plant
In view of the above discussions, it is suggested that the Waste to Energy
Plant be envisaged in the second phase, after a minimum period of 5-7 years
till the proven technology with Indian waste is available.
After 5-7 year period it is expected that the technology would be proven,
technology cost would reduce, segregation at source will be demonstrated,
NNAs financial position would be much healthier subsequent to reforms
under JNNURM and financing would be available.
In the second phase, after 5 to 7 years, the WTE plant to be therefore set up
under PPP with an experienced private partner, who has experience in this
field.
9.2.7. User Charges/Revenue generation/ tipping fee
Based on the discussions in the
derived/summarized in Table 9.56:

above

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paragraph,

the

following

are

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Table 9.6 : User Charges/Revenue Generation/Tipping Fee/Sustainability


Activity/ Type of Cost / Quantification of Charges
Charges
1 Primary Collection
Rs 15 to Rs 50 per household/month
Door to Door
Collection of waste
The recovery of easily recoverable/ segregated
recyclables and the above tipping fee will provide
sustainability to the operations.
2

Expenditure on Safai
Karamcharis

The expenditure on Safai Karamcharis (presently Rs


24.8 crores) will come down over a period of time based
on a proper personnel policy on recruitment and
retirement. Till this is achieved the expenditure would
be sustained by the SFC funds.

Transportation of
waste

Cost- Rs 367.9 lacs per annum or Rs 130/ ton. Thus


tipping fee payable by NNA to O&M operator could be
Rs 150/ton .

Operations of
Compost Plant

Operations at
Landfill Site

This expenditure can also be covered from the


recycleables recovered by the operator
Selling Price of Compost-Rs 1.5/kg
Cost of Production of Compost-Rs 0.80/kg
Net Cash Accruals- Rs 154.5 lacs
Compost Operations are self sustainable
Cost-Rs 31.7 lacs per annum or Rs 37/ton of landfillable
waste. This expenditure is low and can be sustained by
surplus generated in the operations of the compost plant

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User charges
(Conservancy tax)

Assuming that the projected expenditure on MSWM


including present expenditure is Rs 3000 lacs (presently
2810 lacs), NNA and State Government of UP can
recover some part of it in form of conservancy tax as in
vogue abroad. This can be levied to start with at the rate
of Rs 15 to Rs 20 per household/month (Rs 20 month*
200000 household* 12 months= Rs 4.8 crores/annum)
The base rates of these taxes should be stratified as per
the income groups and such taxation should be
introduced in a phase manner so that its impact is not
resisted. In this way, the financial funding from State
Finance Commission for MSWM can stand reduced.

The pricing of the user charges/tipping fee for various components of MSWM
(except for the compost plant that is detailed in section 9.2.4 is based on cost
recovery of O&M expenditure. Hence financial parameters of IRR, return on assets
etc., on these investments are not applicable. With the whole scheme being funded
by grants with nil cost of capital, such a financial framework can be considered to be
sustainable if O&M charges of the whole system are recovered. In case the scheme is
part funded by debt; the user charge should then be increased suitability to take care
of annual interest and repayment obligation.
9.2.8. Improvement in revenue/ tipping fee over a period of time through PPP
It is proposed to convert the land fill sites into public parks (as shown in photo) on its
closure. The transformation can help generate revenue from parking fees, kiosk
rentals, and advertisement and entrance fees. A example of such a park is the
Indraprastha Park in Delhi, which is located at the end point of Nizammudin
Bridge, when one approaches Delhi from Uttar Pradesh.
Once the PPP system gets
streamlined
and
optimal
efficiency is achieved in SWM
area of collection, segregation
and storage, NNA should target
additional
revenues
by
converting
recyclables
into
useful products which may

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require new technology, risk mitigation methodology etc. These are presently being
tried now; on a smaller basis (e.g. conversion of construction waste into bricks has
started in Rajkot). NNA should evaluate the cost benefits associated and results
achieved in other cities before undertaking such innovations.

9.2.9 Inspiration.
Namakkal
Namakkal is a poultry town in Tamil Nadu with poplulation of 1 lakh. It is a 'zerogarbage town, becoming the first local body in the world to receive ISO 14001
certificate for adopting effective solid-waste management system.
The municipality, houses around 600 poultry farms and over 250 automobile
workshops. It received the honour from Asian Environmental Management Council
based in Germany, on being recommended by the Government of India.
About 20 tons of solid waste is generated daily in the town. Of this 8 tons of organic
waste is subjected to vermin composting, 3 tons is recycled and remaining 10 tons of
inorganic waste is used for landfilling.
Door to Door collection and Privatisation of the collection and transportation of
waste has been done. Use of plastics, smoking and spitting in public places etc are
banned in the town. Further the use of vehicle horns and loud speakers are also
restricted.
Suryapet
Suryapet, a town in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, with a population of 1
lakh. It is spread over an area of 34 square kilometers and is divided into 28
municipal wards. It has a high slum and a floating population of about 20,000. It has
218 kms of drain and 241 kms of raod. Waste was a severe problem in the town.
Suryapets annual income of Rs 8.45 crore was small to manage its daily garbage
garbage output of 33 tpd.
Municipality of Suryapet laid forward the innovative system of waste management
by introducing the door-to-door-collection system. Two bins were supplied to all the
residents where the red bins were meant for dry wastes and the green bins for wet
garbage. Hanging bins were fixed to the electric poles for easy accessibility of the
pedestrians. The town was divided into seven zones with the allotment of one
tractor and few sanitary personnel for daily collection of waste. Municipal vehicles
would collect garbage from respective zones in the morning. Separate vehicle was
deployed for the collection of biomedical wastes, wastes from hotels.
The aim was to involve the entire community in the transformation. Street meetings,
street plays and door-to-door visits marked the social mobilisation process. In

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addition to their routine duties, municipal workers distributed leaflets and


encouraged households to segregate their waste at the source. Municipal staff
greeted members of every household with traditional kumkum and made them feel
proud of being part of the effort.
The municipality spent just Rs 1.24 crore in a year on cleaning up the town. No
additional workers were hired, nor were extra resources mobilised. Transparency
and efficiency were nevertheless revived. Motivational incentives, regular
monitoring and efficient management provided back-up support to the muchneeded cleanup effort.

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Table 9.7. ASSUMPTION OF PROFITABILITY


COMPOST PLANT

1. The plant will have a capacity to process 350 tons per day of waste. The
capacity utilization has been taken at 80%, 90%, (2009-2010 and thereafter)
2. It will give an average yield of 30% in terms of compost generation.
3. The selling price of compost has been taken @ Rs 1.5 per kg.
4. The cost of mulch material and other inputs has been taken at Rs
lacs/annum in normal year of operations

46.8

5. Power and utility cost has been taken at Rs 3.6 lacs per month.
6. Repair and Maintenance has been calculated @ 5% of the plant and
machinery cost and 3% on the cost of buildings. Normal capital expenditure
has been taken @ Rs 15 lacs from 2009-2010 onwards
7. Salaries and wages have been provided for 10 technical/supervisors and 35
non technical/workmen at average salaries of Rs 12,000 and Rs 4,500 per
month.
8. Administrative expenses have been provided @ 60% of the salary & wages.
9. Selling expenses have been provided @ 12% of sales
10. Interest on working capital has been provided for @14% p.a.
11. Depreciation has been provided for SLM basis for book profit and WDV basis
for income tax.
12. Tax exemption under section 80IA has been provided.
13. Quasi equity funds will be deployed by the PPP operator for use as margin
money at startup of the compost plant.

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Table 9.8. PROFITABILITY PROJECTIONS


COMPOST PLANT
Year ended March 31,
months
Capacity Utilisation (%)
Production tpa

2009
12

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

80
27720

90
31185

90
31185

90
31185

90
31185

90
31185

90
31185

90
31185

Total Income

415.8

467.8

467.8

467.8

467.8

467.8

467.8

467.8

Raw Materials
Power and fuel
Repairs and Maintenance
Salary and Wages
Administrative Expenses
Selling Expenses
Cost of Production

41.6
38.4
27.2
33.3
20.0
49.9
210.3

46.8
43.2
27.2
33.3
20.0
56.1
226.5

46.8
43.2
27.2
33.3
20.0
56.1
226.5

46.8
43.2
27.2
33.3
20.0
56.1
226.5

46.8
43.2
27.2
33.3
20.0
56.1
226.5

46.8
43.2
27.2
33.3
20.0
56.1
226.5

46.8
43.2
27.2
33.3
20.0
56.1
226.5

46.8
43.2
27.2
33.3
20.0
56.1
226.5

Gross Profit
% of GP/Total Income

205.5
49.4

241.2
51.6

241.2
51.6

241.2
51.6

241.2
51.6

241.2
51.6

241.2
51.6

241.2
51.6

Total Interest
Depreciation
Operating Profit
Tax
Net Profit
Reserves
Net Cash Accruals
Breakeven Point (%)
Cash
Operating

11.6
45.0
148.9

12.1
45.0
184.1

12.1
45.0
184.1

12.1
45.0
184.1

12.1
45.0
184.1

12.1
45.0
184.1

12.1
45.0
184.1

12.1
45.0
184.1

0.0
148.9

0.0
184.1

0.0
184.1

0.0
184.1

0.0
184.1

0.0
184.1

0.0
184.1

0.0
184.1

148.9
193.9

184.1
229.1

184.1
229.1

184.1
229.1

184.1
229.1

184.1
229.1

184.1
229.1

184.1
229.1

37.2
47.1

39.6
49.5

39.6
49.5

39.6
49.5

39.6
49.5

39.6
49.5

39.6
49.5

39.6
49.5

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Table 9.9. CASH FLOW STATEMENT


COMPOST PLANT
Year ended 31.03.
months
Source of Funds
Grants/Equity
Quasi Equity
Inc. in Bank Fin.
Net Cash Accrual
Inc. in Creditors
Total Sources

Zero
Year

2009
12

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

82.7
193.9

3.9
229.1
3.9

0.0
229.1
0.0

229.1

229.1

229.1

229.1

229.1

276.6

236.9

229.1

229.1

229.1

229.1

229.1

229.1

0.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

772.5
41.6

814.1

Uses of Funds
Capital Cost
Normal cap. exp.

772.5

Inc. in Curr. asset

41.6

82.7

11.4

0.0

814.1

82.7

26.4

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

0.0

0.0

193.9

404.5

618.6

832.7

1046.8

1260.9

1475.0

0.0
0.0

193.9
193.9

210.6
404.5

214.1
618.6

214.1
832.7

214.1
1046.8

214.1
1260.9

214.1
1475.0

214.1
1689.1

Total Uses
Opening Cash
+/surplus/(deficit)
Closing Cash

* Zero Year is the period of implementation ending on March 31,2008

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Table 9.10. PROJECTED BALANCE SHEET


COMPOST PLANT

Year ended 31.03.

Zero
Year

months

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Rs in Lacs
2014
2015

2016

12

Assets
Gross Fixed Assets
less: depreciation
Net Fixed Assets
Current Assets
Cash/Bank Balance

772.5
0.0
772.5
41.6
0.0

772.5
45.0
727.5
124.4
193.9

787.5
90.0
697.5
135.7
404.5

802.5
135.0
667.5
135.7
618.6

817.5
180.0
637.5
135.7
832.7

832.5
224.9
607.5
135.7
1046.8

847.5
269.9
577.5
135.7
1260.9

862.5
314.9
547.5
135.7
1475.0

877.5
359.9
517.5
135.7
1689.1

Total

814.1

1045.7

1237.7

1421.8

1605.9

1790.0

1974.1

2158.2

2342.4

Grants
Reserves & Surplus
Bank Finance
Creditors

41.6
772.5
0.0
0.0
0.0

41.6
772.5
148.9
82.7
0.0

41.6
772.5
333.0
86.7
3.9

41.6
772.5
517.1
86.7
3.9

41.6
772.5
701.3
86.7
3.9

41.6
772.5
885.4
86.7
3.9

41.6
772.5
1069.5
86.7
3.9

41.6
772.5
1253.6
86.7
3.9

41.6
772.5
1437.7
86.7
3.9

Total

814.1

1045.7

1237.7

1421.8

1605.9

1790.0

1974.1

2158.2

2342.4

Liabilities
Quasi Equity

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CHAPTER 10

Proposed Institutional Framework


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CHAPTER 10 PROPOSED INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK


The success and sustenance of the proposed SWM services depends on robustness
and capacity of institutional framework. It is proposed to take steps for institutional
strengthening and internal capacity building to ensure that endeavor to improve the
existing scenario is successful. Institutional strengthening can be done by adequately
decentralizing the administration, delegating adequate powers at the decentralized
level, by inducting qualified and competent professionals into the administration
and providing adequate training to the existing staff. Chapter 11 discusses plan for
capacity building of all stakeholders including management staff, supervisors,
workers, contractors and public.

10.1 Recommendations for Institutional Strengthening


The recommendations for the institutional framework are based on the specific tasks
to be carried out under the proposed MSW Project. The activities which need to be
focused as per the proposed plan include:

Segregation of Waste
Mechanism of Waste Collection
o Primary collection
o Secondary collection
Transportation of waste from secondary collection locations.
Operation and Maintenance
o Landfill.
o Composting.
o Transportation.

The above issues are to be implemented and managed partly by NNA exclusively on
its own and partly by private sector participation.
Based on our analysis of the merits and demerits of the existing system, it is
proposed that the institutional framework for above proposed MSW activities
should be as follows:
Table 10.1: Specific Roles and Responsibilities of Institution Involved in
Implementation and O&M
Activities
Organisation /
Scope of work
Institutions
Collection/segregation Nagar Nigam
o Deploy of sanitary workers
Agra
o Sensitization of residents/public
about segregation.
o Provide facilities/bins for
segregation
o Collection from house holds
o Transportation of waste to bins.
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o Orientation/sensitization of
sanitary workers.
o Involve NGOs / CBOs in
awareness.
Transportation

NNA

o Selection of party/ agencies


o Work out finance model with
agency.
o Tipping fee
o Monitoring and supervision of
agency work.
o Readdressal of issues.
o Monitoring management and
coordination.
o Procurement of equipments/
facilities.
o Installation of facilitiy.
o Safety of equipments.

Private agency

o Collection/ lifting of waste from


secondary collection points.
o Operation and maintenance of
vehicles.
o Transportation of waste to site
o Selection of agency
o Funds
o Designing
o Monitoring of construction and
management
o Supervision of commissioning.

Landfill and Compost NNA


plant

PPP

o Commissioning
o Construction.
o O&M

10.1.1 Public Private Partnership


The purpose of PPP in MSWM in Agra is to impart more efficiency and cost effective
services which may not be effectively provided by the existing
infrastructure/manpower of the municipality.
The private sector can participate in the functions of NNA as follows:

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As Contractors for specific jobs assigned by NNA


As Partners under a PPP arrangement for O&M of one or more of the
following.

Regional Center for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

Collection / Segregation and Transportation of waste


O&M of Proposed facilities like Compost Plant and Landfill
As Investors for part financing and setting up of new facilities.
Figure 0.1: Proposed Institutional Framework for SWM
ACTIVITY

Waste
Segregation

MONITORING
INSTITUTION

NNA to monitor

IMPLEMENTING
INSTITUTION
Generator
s

CAPACITY
BUILDING
INSTITUTION
NGOs/CBOs

NNK staff
Primary
Collection

NNA to monitor

Secondary
Collection
Transportatio
Integrated
SWM facility
Landfilling

Private
Operator
NNK

NNA to monitor

Private
Operator

NNA to monitor

Private
Operator

NGOs/CBOs

Composting

10.2 Proposed Institutional


Maintenance

Framework

for

Operation

and

The proposed Institutional Framework for O&M is as follows:

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Regional Center for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

10.3

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

PROPOSED INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

Institutions
Directorate of
Local Body,
Govt. of U.P.

Nagar Nigam
Agra (NNA)

NODAL
AGENCY

Roles & Responsibility


Financial Assistance/ Fund Flow
Overall Monitoring and Supervision
Facilitate Implementation and Nodal Agency
Preparation of Tender documents, P.Q. criteria and selection of eligible firm/contractor for execution of work on turnkey
basis for the solid waste management project implementation
Inviting bids from pre-qualified firms and their evaluation and negotiation at par NIT conditions
Preparation of Tender Awarding committee involving major stakeholders for technical and financial evaluations
Issue of LoI to successful bidders
Support Nagar Nigam Agra for entering an agreement with Consultant/ Contractor, awarded the project for getting the
work for execution
Provide guidelines to NNA for quality assurance; according approvals to the extra or substituted item of work, to monitor
the progress of implementation in association of NNA, to identify/finalize the agency for implementation of IEC and
Capacity Building programmes, to undertake need assessment for IEC in the various stakeholders of MSW Management
and handling plan and any other related activities.

Carry out the contract agreement with the Contractor for the execution and implementation of the project, as per terms and
conditions in the tender document.
To get the work executed from the Contractor as per drawings approved by the Nodal Agency and also as per specifications.
Measuring the portion of the completed work for making running/final payments to the Contractor.
Verifying the bill of the Contractor before accepting it for payments.
Responsible for timely acquisition of land required for various components of the MSW project for handing over the land to
the contractor for executing the project.
Obtaining permission from the CPCB/ State Pollution Control Board for setting up SLF, ETP leachate & compost plant.
Maintain all the account books.
Take the approval from the Nodal Agency of the sequence of execution of various components of the project before issuing
instructions to the Contractor for starting the work.
Correspond with the contractor & to defend arbitration or any other legal dispute with the contractor or with any other
agency/ person arising during the course of execution or after completion of the project.
Take over the completed project from the contractor if the same is up to the mark & specifications after the expiry of
contractual period of maintenance & future operation & maintenance, transportation, handling & management of the MSW
shall be the responsibility of NNA.

NGO
Vendors/
Contractors
Other Implementing Agency

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Project Execution in the field as per the scope of work finalise by Nodal Agency and NNA
Support in Operation and Maintenance
Reporting of Progress to NNK and Nodal Agency
Overall execution in time frame as per agreement with NNA

Regional Center for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,,Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 11

IEC & Capacity Building of NNA


for Sustainable MSWM
Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management forAgra, Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 11
INFORMATION, EDUCATION & COMUNICATION (IEC) AND
CAPACITY BUILDING
FOR SUSTAINABLE MSW MANAGEMENT
11.1 Introduction
In the present scenario waste management and handling process is unplanned due to
lack of proper infrastructure, awareness among the public and its involvement. No
target oriented awareness programmes conducted in the past for solid waste
management improvement or for waste segregation. Thus for making proper, reduced,
segregated waste collection, there is a great need of public awareness and their
involvement. Along with this, the Municipal Solid waste collection, handling and
processing staff should be trained and sensitised. For this purpose need of Information,
Education & Communication (IEC) Plan and Training & Capacity Building of staffs
responsible for Solid Waste Management have been noticed.

11.2 Objective
The major objectives of the IEC and Capacity Building are as follows:
Bringing of attitudinal and behavioural changes among the residence about
the segregation of waste and sanitation improvement.
Public awareness through informing and educating the masses on various
aspects of solid waste management and achieve the target of receiving
segregated waste from each household.
Creating Public Participation in Planning and Management of MSW
Activities
Capacity Building of the personnel's involved in implementing MSW i.e.
Institutional Capacity of Health Department of FNPP for Improved MSW
Management.
Integration and involvement of private sweepers and Rag Pickers in
improving MSW management

11.3 Public Participation and Awareness through IEC programmes


The basic approach of IEC plan is to create effectiveness of the Solid Waste
Management System. The success of any solid waste management scheme can be
measured through the extent of cooperation and participation of people, effectiveness of
the proposed system and operational efficiency.
11.3.1 Approach of IEC Plan

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management forAgra, Uttar Pradesh

Attitudinal and behavioral changes of the residents are important for the success of the
segregated waste collection and its sustainability. For this purpose, communication
with the residents is required through various techniques and modes. There needs to be
a two-way approach for IEC Implementation:
a. Program communication : (to bring about behavioral changes)
Behavioral changes are must to achieve the objective of receiving segregated waste
from each household. For this purpose, the strategy should be to build and improve
existing community awareness and education through adopting awareness
initiatives among the citizens.

Health Workers & Volunteers


(Door to door campaign)

Media Advocacy
(Print & Electronic Media)

Communication
Public Address Meetings
(Workshops/ Community Meeting)

Folk Media
(Street Plays, Road Shows)

b. Social Mobilization : (for alliance building )


It is universal that presence of local stakeholder or group in an issue can provide a very
effective mechanism for community outreach and associated information and education
activity. Hence support of NGOs, Local Leaders, RWAs, and Educational Institutions
etc are indispensable for social mobilization.

Educational Institutions (Schools,


College etc)

Sr. Officials/ Administration


Officers / Sr. Citizens

Social Mobilisation/
Networking

RWAs/ NGOs/ CBOs/ Societies


Support

Regional Center for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow


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Local Leaders /
Ministerial Support

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management forAgra, Uttar Pradesh

11.3.2 Strategy for Creating Awareness:


Selection of key target audience plays a key role in generating effective awareness and
cities like Agra need more careful planning for this purpose. Some of the target
audience can be from sectors of particular interest including the female head of the
family, children and youth, who require some form of role model to influence their
behaviour. Broadly, the target audience can be categorized as waste generators, waste
collectors and waste managers.
Once the target groups have been identified, the responsibility lies in developing the
approach for educating these groups. For successful implementation of any program
involving public at large, it is essential to spell out clearly and make them know the
manner in which the problem is proposed to be tackled to keep area clean and improve
the quality of life.
The communication material should be developed and must be utilized in public
awareness program through the tools of publicity. The use of various publicity tools
will be made as under:
1. Focus Group Discussions
2. Inter personal communications
3. Creating watchdog committees comprising of local influential people, RWA
members and important stakeholders, societies
4. Printed materials and Audio-visual aids
5. Other locally popular media.
Other tools like Newspapers, Media/Radio, Skit/Street plays, Billboards/ print
Medium may be used for creating awareness.

11.4 Training and Capacity Building


The basic approach of training & Capacity Building of managing staff is to create
effectiveness of the Solid Waste Management System and its operational efficiency of
sanitary staff.
11.4.1 Objective
The Capacity Building/training programs must aim at:
1.
To sensitize the key stakeholders with working knowledge of the benefits of
waste reduction, segregation and management.
2.
To Impart skills about the respective roles from generator to waste managers

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste management forAgra, Uttar Pradesh

For achieving these objectives, a core group of trainers needs to be organized for
continuous in-house training of the manpower to be deployed and other sanitation
staff. For the success of this program it is essential that training and orientation be
planned for all the people involved in various activities of solid waste management at
different levels viz Administrative and Officials, Technical and non-technical staff etc.
Along with these, private sanitary staff and rag-pickers should also be motivated for
their active role in waste collection process. The skill up-gradation programmes may be
conceptualized and implemented will result to the followings.

Determine roles and responsibilities of each official in specific terms.


Establish better coordination amongst the staff and departments to carry out
different functions related to MSW management
Enhance the knowledge base on problems and issues concerning to solid waste
management for each area and pockets.
Develop effective O&M of facilities such as Tri-cycles, Dustbins and Waste
containers with the help of public.
Develop an effective monitoring mechanism with the proper involvement of
officials responsible.

11.4.2 Specific activities in regard to training/Capacity Building Programmes


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

Training Need Assessment


Training made for specific Target Groups
Conducting orientation program and need based site visits
Training made for specific Target Groups
Evaluation of Training and orientation programmes
Gap Analysis
Reinforcement programmes to fulfill the GAP
Setting of appropriate Institutional framework for sustainability

11.4.3 Some Proposed tools/methods


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

In-house / interactive sessions


Exposure visits
On Task Orientation
Other innovative programmes

Regional Center for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow


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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra,,Uttar Pradesh

CHAPTER 12

Project Implementation Plan


Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

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Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

MSW Project Implementation Plan


0 Month1

Month2

Month3

Month4

Month5

Month6

Month7

Month8

Month9

Month10

Month11

Month12

Project Mile stones


1

Approval of DPR

Preparation of Detailed Implementation plan in line


with the DPR

Approval of Implementation plan

Issuance of notice for EOI

Screening of EOI & Shortlisting of firms

Preparation of Tender documents

Approval of Tender Documents by RCUES and GNN

Finalisation of Tender Documents and Issue of Tender


Notice

Reciept of tenders from bidders

Bid evaluation and Recommendation for operator

10

Award of works contract to sucessful bidder(s)

11

Preperation of Construction schedule


Discussions with sucessful bidder(s)
Finalization of time lines
Finalization of scope of work
Finalization of methodology
Development of construction schedule

12

Evaluation and Approval of engineering drawings and


design

Reciept of design and drawing by bidder


Evaluation w.r.t. tender document
13

Inspection of Equipments

14

Supervision and Monitoring of construction works

15

Start of Commercial Operations

Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

Detailed Project Report for Solid Waste Management in Agra, Uttar Pradesh

0 Month1

Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Lucknow

Month2

Month3

Month4

Month5

Month6

Month7

Month8

Month9

Month10

Month11

Month12