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You are on page 1of 10

3a,c,d,e,f,g

Chapter 3

Dynamics explaining motion

Worksheet

Worked examples

Practical: Force and acceleration

End-of-chapter test

Marking scheme: Worksheet

Marking scheme: End-of-chapter test

Worksheet

Intermediate level

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

1

2

3

4

5

Define all the terms in this equation.

[3]

all the forces acting on the sphere and explain whether or not it is accelerating.

[2]

[1]

A 120 g apple falls off a tree. Calculate the weight of the apple.

[2]

The diagram shows a parachutist of mass 80 kg falling towards the Earth. In each

case below, determine the net force and the acceleration of the parachutist.

a

300 N

800 N

1500 N

[2]

800 N

800 N

[1]

800 N

[2]

[2]

[1]

Higher level

7

70 N

acting on a motorbike and its rider

travelling along a level road.

The total mass of the rider and the

motorbike is 160 kg. Determine the

acceleration of the motorbike.

[3]

160 kg

200 N

200 N

A car engine provides a constant forward force. When starting from rest, the

acceleration of the car when unloaded is a. The mass of the car increases by 50%

when fully loaded. Determine the acceleration of this fully laden car in terms

of the acceleration a when it starts from rest.

[3]

22

Extension

9 The diagram shows the horizontal forces acting on a 920 kg car.

20m s1

400 N

drag

The total forward force acting on the car is 400 N. The drag on the car depends on

its speed v and is given by the expression:

drag = 0.3v2

a

i

[2]

ii

[2]

v = u + at

to determine the velocity of the car after a time t.

[1]

The normal contact force acting on the person

from the base of the lift is R. Determine the

magnitude of R when the lift:

a

b

velocity of 2.0 m s1;

2

R

direction

of travel

[2]

lift

[3]

weight

11 Use the Internet to investigate the motion of objects travelling through fluids

(liquids and gases). To do this, use a search engine (e.g. Google) and insert a

phrase such as falling objects in air applets or skydiver applets. An applet is

an animation or a simulation of a physical system.

Total: Score:

32

23

Worked examples

Example 1

A 900 kg car starts from rest with an initial acceleration of 0.60 m s2. Determine the

forward force provided by the engine of the car. Explain why the acceleration of the car

decreases as its speed increases, even though the engine continues to provide the same

forward force on the car.

At the start, there is no air resistance (drag). Therefore, the net force on the car is equal

to the force provided by the cars engine.

F = ma

F = 900 0.60

net force acting on the car.

F = 540N

As the speed of the car increases, the magnitude of the drag also increases. The net

force on the car decreases and therefore its acceleration also decreases (a F for

constant mass).

Tip

If the forward force on the car of mass m is F and the drag is D, then the

acceleration a of the car is given by:

a=

FD

m

The drag depends on the speed v of the car. Although not required by the

specifications, the drag force is directly proportional to the speed2.

Example 2

The diagram shows a metal sphere falling

through engine oil. Its instantaneous acceleration

is 4.5 m s2 and the resistive force (drag) is 0.20 N.

Calculate the mass m of the metal sphere.

drag = 0.20 N

4.5m s2

F = ma

drag = 0.20 N

weight drag = ma

mg drag = ma

a

m(g a) = drag

m=

drag

0.20

=

0.038 kg

(9.81 4.5) 5.31

(38 g)

weight = mg

the forces acting on the falling metal sphere

Tip

In this question you have to identify the forces acting on the object, determine an

expression for the net force F and solve F = ma.

24

Practical

Force and acceleration

Safety

There are not likely to be any major hazards in carrying out this experiment. However,

teachers and technicians should always refer to the departmental risk assessment before

carrying out any practical work.

Apparatus

motion sensor

computer

linear air track

glider

A4 card

string

pulley

selection of 10 g masses used as weights

to accelerate the glider

Introduction

How is the motion of an object affected by the action of forces? You have the

opportunity to answer this question by carrying out a series of experiments looking at

different aspects of force and acceleration.

Procedure

Details on Force and acceleration are given on pages 23 to 25 of Physics 1. The velocity

of an object may be determined from the gradient of a displacement against time graph

(see page 20 of Physics 1).

v

motion sensor

air track

glider

computer

1

2

3

Choose the option for the computer to plot a graph of velocity against time.

Switch on the motion sensor and push the air track glider along the track.

As the glider travels along the length of the air track, the net force on the glider is

zero. The velocity against time graph should be a straight-line graph. Is it?

to computer

F = ma

motion sensor

weight

25

Use a 10 g mass as a weight to accelerate the glider. The force on the glider is:

force = mg = 0.010 9.81 0.10 N

2

3

Determine the acceleration of the glider. Repeat this for different forces.

Record your results in a table.

Force (N)

Acceleration (ms2)

0

0.10

0.20

etc.

4

5

6

Draw a straight line of best fit.

Your results should show that:

force acceleration

The gradient of the line is equal to the mass of the glider. Use a digital balance to

measure the mass of the glider. How close is your result? What are the main

sources of inaccuracy in this experiment?

card

to computer

motion sensor

weight

Fix a large card on to the glider. There is a resistive force (drag) on the glider as it

travels along the air track. (The fluid is air.)

2

3

Use the motion sensor and the computer to obtain a velocity against time graph for

the glider. Comment on the shape of the graph.

If you do not have a motion sensor or a datalogger to determine the acceleration of the

glider, then an alternative would be to use a ticker-tape timer.

For the F = ma experiment, remember that m is the total mass of the glider and the mass

attached at the end of the string. In trials, a 300g glider was accelerated using forces up to

0.50 N. This gave a reasonable (15%) straight-line graph for force against acceleration.

26

End-of-chapter test

Answer all questions.

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

a

b

A rocket is lifting off from the surface of the Earth. The rocket burns its

fuel at a phenomenal rate and consequently its mass decreases rapidly.

Assuming that the thrust provided by the rocket is a constant, discuss

what happens to the acceleration of the rocket as its mass decreases.

[2]

[2]

State the acceleration of the rock as it falls towards the ground. What

assumption have you made?

[2]

Calculate the time taken for the rock to reach the ground.

[2]

A spider of mass 0.52 g falls off a table. It falls a distance of 30 cm in 1.4 s. The spider

reaches its terminal velocity almost immediately after falling off the table.

a

b

[1]

acceleration a.

What is the net force acting on the spider when falling at its terminal

velocity?

[1]

Determine:

i

[1]

ii

the drag force on the spider when descending at its terminal velocity.

[2]

v

0

0

The engine of the car provides a constant force of 350 N and the mass of the car

is 750 kg.

a

Use the graph above to suggest when the acceleration of the car is a maximum.

Explain your answer.

[2]

At a particular instant the acceleration of the car is 0.20 m s2. Determine the

drag force acting on the car.

[3]

[1]

Total: Score:

19

27

Marking scheme

Worksheet

1

F = net (or total or resultant) force [1]; m = mass of the object [1];

a = acceleration of the object [1]

The net force is zero, therefore the acceleration of the sphere is zero. [1]

weight

produces an acceleration of 1 m s2. [1]

4

5

W = mg [1];

a

a=

F 500

=

6.3 m s2

m 80

and

[1]

a=

0

= 0 m s2 [1]

80

Net force = 0

a=

F 700

=

8.8 m s2 (deceleration) [1]

m 80

W = 5.0 8.77 44 N [1]

W = mg [1];

a=

F 330

=

[1]

m 160

a 2.1 m s2 [1]

F.

m

a

1

[1]

m

The mass of the car is increased to 150% an increase by a factor of 1.5. [1]

Hence, the acceleration will decrease by a factor of 1.5.

New acceleration =

28

a 2

= a [1]

1.5 3

ii

a=

F 280

=

[1];

m 920

This equation can only be used for constant acceleration. In this situation, the

acceleration of the car depends on its speed, hence the equation v = u + at

cannot be used. [1]

10 a

F = ma

Since the lift is travelling at constant velocity, its acceleration is zero. [1]

The net force on the person is zero, hence:

R = weight

R = mg = 80 9.81 780 N [1]

F = ma

R mg = ma [1]

R = m(g + a) = 80(9.81 + 2.3) [1]; R 970 N [1]

Note: R > weight in order for the person to have an upwards acceleration.

29

Marking scheme

End-of-chapter test

1

F = ma [1]

1

). [1]

m

m=

W 1.4

=

0.14 kg [1]

g 9.81

W = mg [1];

The acceleration of free fall of all objects on the Earth is 9.81 m s2. [1]

The assumption is that air resistance (drag) is negligible. [1]

s = ut +

3.0 =

t=

1 2

at

2

u=0

1

9.81 t2 [1]

2

2 3.0

0.78 s [1]

9.81

F = ma

The acceleration of the spider is zero, hence the net force is also zero. [1]

0.30

0.21 m s1 [1]

1.4

Terminal velocity =

ii

drag = mg = 0.52 103 9.81

drag 5.1 103 N [1]

At t = 0, the gradient of the graph is a maximum. [1]

(Gradient from a velocity against time graph = acceleration.)

F

350

; a=

0.47 m s2 [1]

m

750

a=

F = ma

Net force = 750 0.20 = 150 N [1]

Net force = 350 drag [1]

350 N

(motive force)

200 N

(drag)

30

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