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2c,f,g

Chapter 14

Kirchhoffs laws

Worksheet

Worked examples

Practical: Determining the e.m.f. of a test cell

End-of-chapter test

Marking scheme: Worksheet

Marking scheme: End-of-chapter test

Worksheet

Intermediate level

1

2

3

[1]

Name the quantity that is conserved.

[1]

Determine the current I in each of the circuits below.

a

1.0 A

[1]

4.0 A

0.5 A

2.0 A

0.5 A

[1]

[2]

Several identical cells are used to connect up circuits. Each cell has e.m.f. 1.5 V.

Determine the total e.m.f. for the following combinations of cells.

a

[1]

2.0 A

0.7 A

[1]

[1]

Use Kirchhoff s second law to calculate the current I in the circuit shown below. [3]

I

10

6.0 V

20

Higher level

6

The battery and cell in the circuit may be

assumed to have negligible internal

resistance. Calculate:

a

[3]

[2]

68

1.5 V

6.0 V

12

14 Kirchhoffs laws

135

test battery.

100

5.0 V

E

R

test battery

A

The supply battery may be assumed to have negligible internal resistance. The

resistance R of the variable resistor is adjusted until R has a value of 28 and the

current shown by the ammeter is zero. Show that the e.m.f. of the test battery is

about 1.1 V.

[3]

Extension

8

currents I1, I2 and I3 in the circuit on

the right.

10

I3

[6]

I1

I2

20

3.0 V

loop 1

shown is 0.25 A when the switch S is open and 0.45 A

when the switch is closed. Use this information to

determine the e.m.f. E and the internal resistance r

of the cell.

[6]

1.5 V

loop 2

S

r

8.0

8.0

Total: Score:

32

136

14 Kirchhoffs laws

Worked examples

Example 1

Calculate the currents I1 and I2 in the part of the circuit shown.

I1

80 mA

X

Y

I2

20 mA

80 = 20 + I1

The current in a series circuit is always

the same due to conservation of charge.

I1 = 80 20 = 60 mA

The current I2 is equal to 80 mA.

Tip

To determine the current I2, you can always apply Kirchhoff s first law again, but

this time with reference to point Y.

Example 2

The diagram shows cells of negligible internal

resistance connected in a series circuit.

1.2 V

1.3 V

20

Applying Kirchhoffs second law, we have:

e.m.f. = p.d.

For an anticlockwise loop, we have

1.3 + 1.2 0.90 = (I 20) + (I 60)

60

0.90 V

1.60 = 80I

1.6

I=

= 0.02 A

80

assigned a negative value in this equation.

Tip

To minimise errors when applying Kirchhoffs second law, always check the

polarity of each source of e.m.f. This is indicated by the arrows on the diagram.

14 Kirchhoffs laws

137

Practical

Determining the e.m.f. of a test cell

Safety

Always take sensible precautions when using mains-operated supplies. Teachers and

technicians should follow their school and departmental safety policies and should

ensure that the employers risk assessment has been carried out before undertaking

any practical work.

Apparatus

chemical cell

digital d.c. supply

100 resistor

digital ammeter

connecting leads

Introduction

In chapter 13 of Physics 1, you met the idea that the e.m.f. of a cell may be determined by

connecting a high-resistance voltmeter across its terminals. An alternative method

makes use of Kirchhoff s second law.

The arrangement shown here may be used to determine

the e.m.f. of a cell by applying Kirchhoff s second law. The

direction of the current in the circuit depends on the

relative magnitudes of the e.m.f.s. A digital ammeter will

show the direction of the current.

Es

+

sum of e.m.f.s in a closed loop = sum of p.d.s in that loop

+

100

Therefore:

Ecell

Es Ecell = IR

When the e.m.f. of the supply is equal to the e.m.f. of the cell, the current I in the

circuit is equal to zero.

Procedure

1

2

3

Set the e.m.f. Es of the supply to zero.

Measure the current I in the circuit make sure that

you also take note of the sign.

of 0.5 V.

against Es.

(see sketch).

138

Es

Ecell = Es

What is the uncertainty in your value for the e.m.f.?

14 Kirchhoffs laws

End-of-chapter test

Answer all questions.

[1]

quantity. Name the quantity that is conserved.

[1]

B

0.20 A

[3]

0.05 A

I1

0.35 A

0.35 A

I3

I2

e.m.f. 1.5 V and has negligible internal resistance.

The voltmeter reading is 1.0 V.

[1]

[1]

[3]

10

This question is about applying Kirchhoff s laws to predict results for the circuit

shown below.

0.20 A

I2

I1

100

3.0 V

6.0 V

loop 1

loop 2

R

a

[2]

[1]

[3]

Total: Score:

16

14 Kirchhoffs laws

139

Marking scheme

Worksheet

1

2

3

The sum of the currents into a point = sum of currents out of the same point. [1]

Charge is conserved. [1]

a

0.7 + 0.5 = I

therefore

30I = 6.0

I = 1.2 A [1];

so

I=

6.0

= 0.20 A [1]

30

e.m.f. = p.d.

b

so

I=

4.5

= 5.63 102 A;

80

V = IR = 5.63 102 68

V 3.8 V [1]

If the ammeter reading is zero, then the e.m.f. E of the test cell is equal to the

p.d. across the variable resistor ( e.m.f. = p.d.). [1]

E=

Rb

Vin [1]

Ra + Rb

E=

28

5.0 = 1.09 V 1.1 V [1]

100 + 28

Loop 1:

e.m.f. = p.d.

3.0 = 10I 1 + 20I 2

Loop 2:

(equation 1) [1]

e.m.f. = p.d.

1.5 = 20I2

I2 =

(equation 2) [1]

1.5

= 0.075 A [1]

20

3.0 = 10I1 + (20 0.075) [1]

I1 =

1.5

= 0.15 A [1]

10

0.15 = 0.075 + I3

I3 = 0.075 A [1]

140

14 Kirchhoffs laws

E = 0.25 (8.0 + r)

or

total resistance of the parallel combination =

E = 0.45 (4.0 + r)

or

8.0

= 4.0

2

2.0 + 0.25r = 1.8 + 0.45r [1]

0.20r = 0.2

so

r = 1.0 [1]

Substituting this value into one of the equations for e.m.f. (equation 1) gives:

E = 2.0 + (0.25 1.0) [1]

E = 2.25 V [1]

(You can check by substituting into equation 2.)

14 Kirchhoffs laws

141

Marking scheme

End-of-chapter test

1

The sum of the e.m.f.s around a circuit loop = sum of the p.d.s around

that loop. [1]

therefore

I1 = 0.15 A [1]

therefore

I2 = 0.15 A [1]

therefore

I3 = 0.30 A [1]

Clockwise [1];

V 1.0

b I= =

= 0.10 A [1];

R 10

R=

1.5 1.0

= 5.0 [1]

0.1

e.m.f. = p.d.

6.0 = 100I1

I1 = 0.06 A [1]

b

e.m.f. = p.d.

R=

142

3.0 6.0

[1];

0.14

R = 21.4 21 [1]

14 Kirchhoffs laws

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