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JUNE 6TH, 2013

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[Answerkey] CSAT 2013 Environment & Biodiversity (EnB) Questions solved with explanation,
reference, all four sets (A,B,C,D)
Prologue
Internal Breakup
Parks
Parks and hills
Parks and rivers
Wildlife, Flora-Fauna
Macaque
Equatorial forests
Swamp Deer
Spider monkey
Mammals
Agro/soil related
Mycorrhizal biotech
Biofertilizers
Nitro cycle
Contour
Sugar byproducts
Pollution Related
E-waste
Water pollutants
Water consumption in industries
Acid Rain
Smog
Ecology theory related
food chain
Niche
Decomposers
Ecological succession
Ecosystem productivity

Prologue
In UPSC prelims 2013 General studies paper, 22 out 100 MCQs were from environment and biodiversity (EnB). Last year (2012)
it was 23. So UPSCs obsession/infatuation with EnB has remained or less the same.
Like last year, few question on agriculture related things (bio-fertilizers, soil conservation etc.)
Nothing from EnB related Acts/ policy/ Polity / judgments.
Nothing from the three major conferences (RIO+20, Doha and Hyderabad). Although doesnt mean preparation has gone in vein
because those topics remain important and relevant for Mains.

Internal Breakup

National Parks

Wildlife flora n fauna 5


Pollution related

Agro

Ecological Theory

Total

22

Parks
Parks and hills
1. Consider the following pairs:
1. Nokrek Bio-sphere Reserve : Garo Hills
2. Logtak (Loktak) Lake : Barail Range
3. Namdapha National Park : Dafla Hills
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
2 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
None

As per tourism website of Meghalaya government, Nokrek is the highest peak in Garo Hills.=>#1 is right.
If you observe the school atlas, Loktak lake and Barail range are away from eachother =>#2 is wrong.
Eliminate options accordingly
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
2 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
None

Thus answer=>A only 1.


Parks and rivers
2. Consider the following pairs about parks and rivers passing through them:
1. Corbett National Park: Ganga
2. Kaziranga National Park: Manas
3. Silent Valley National Park: Kaveri
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

a.
b.
c.
d.

1 and 2
3 only
1 and 3
None

Option

Rivers passing

a. Corbett National Park : Ganga

River Ramganga (West) and River Kosi


http://www.jimcorbettnationalpark.com

b. Kaziranga National Park : Manas

Brahmaputra, Diphlu, Mora Diphlu and Mora Dhansiri


http://www.thehindu.com

c. Silent Valley National Park : Kaveri

Bharathapuzha ,River Kunthi


http://silentvalley.gov.in

Ans: (D) None of the rivers flow through these Parks.

Wildlife, Flora-Fauna
Macaque
1. In which of the following States is lion-tailed macaque found in its natural habitat?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Tamil Nadu
Kerala
Karnataka
Andhra Pradesh

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


a.
b.
c.
d.

1, 2 and 3 only
2 only
1, 3 and 4 only
1, 2, 3 and 4

Lion Tailed Macaque had been in news because last year, IUCN took it off the list of Worlds 25 Most Endangered Primates list.
As per: iucnredlist, this Macaque is found in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu)
Eliminate choices accordingly,
a.
b.
c.
d.

1, 2 and 3 only
2 only
1, 3 and 4 only
1, 2, 3 and 4

Thus answer=> A
Equatorial forests
2. Which of the following is/are unique characteristic/characteristics of equatorial forests?
1. Presence of tall, closely set trees with crowns forming a continuous canopy
2. Coexistence of a large number of species
3. Presence of numerous varieties of epiphytes
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
In equatorial rainforest,..fourth layer is canopy layer. The tall trees grow so close together that their crowns interlock to form a
continuous canopy which blocks out the sunlight in forest (O level geography By Francis Mathews Green)=>#1 correct.
#2 is correct as such.
Tropical forest is found in equatorial and tropical zones..Epiphytes are also common. (Geography By Surender Singh) =>#3

correct.
Hence answer (D) 1, 2 and 3 correct.
Swamp Deer
3. Consider the following fauna of India:
1. Gharial
2. Leatherback turtle
3. Swamp deer
Which of the above is/are endangered?
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 and 2 only
3 only
1, 2 and 3
None

As per IUCN, 1, 2 are critically endangered. 3 is vulnerable. So (A) 1 and 2 only.


Some websites mention Swamp deer to be endangered but as per the official page on IUCN (click me) it is shown as vulnerable (that is
one step less than endangered).
Spider monkey
4. Consider the following
1.
2.
3.
4.

Star tortoise
Monitor lizard
Pygmy hog
Spider monkey

Which of the above found in India?


a.
b.
c.
d.

1, 2 and 3 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 4 only
1, 2, 3 and 4

1, 2, and 3 are found in India if we refer iucnredlist.org


While spidermonkey lives in forests from southern Mexico through Central and South America to Brazil (Britannica) Hence answer (A)
only 1,2 and 3.
Mammals
5. Consider the following animals:
1. Sea cow
2. Sea horse
3. Sea lion
Which of the above is/are mammal/mammals?
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
1 and 3 only
2 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3

Mammal are animals in which the young are nourished with milk from special mammary glands of the mother.

Sea
Cow

Mammal
yes/no?

As per Britannica

Yes

Sea cow, very large aquatic mammal.

Sea Horses fall under gasterosteiform fish order.Reproductive behaviour of sea horses is notable in that the
male carries the fertilized eggs.
Sea
Horse

No

Once the eggs hatch, the male convulses his body and expels the young through a single opening in the
pouch.
The young receive no further care from parents=> no milk involved, hence not mammal.

Sea
Lion

Yes

mammals under under Otariidae family.

Hence answer (B) 1 and 3 only.

Agro/soil related
Mycorrhizal biotech
1. Mycorrhizal biotechnology has been used in rehabilitating degraded sites because mycorrhiza enables the plants to
1. resist drought and increase absorptive area
2. tolerate extremes of PH
3. Resist disease infestation
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3

As per page 187-188 of Plant Biotechnology By Rita Singh,


Mycorrhizal plants have tolerance to adverse soil, PH, high temp., drought and toxic heavy metals.
The most important role of Mycorrhizal fungi is to absorb nutrient and water from soil and transfer them to their hosts.
Mycorrhizae helps plants withstand root diseasesthe oxalic acid production by mycorrhizal fungi contributes to disease
suppression.
Hence all three statements are correct. Answer (D).
Biofertilizers
2. Consider the following organisms
1. Agaricus
2. Nostoc
3. Spirogyra
Which of the above is / are used as biofertilizer / biofertilizers
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 and 2
2 only
2 and 3
3 only

Nostoc is a species of blue-green algae used as biofertilizer (TheHindu 2002 article).=>Hence #2 is correct.
As per Page 251 Biotechnology of Biofertilizers by Sadasivam Kannaiyan
Although, the algae grow on their own in the rice fields, but all of them are not beneficial to crop. The green algae like
Spirogyra compete with the crop for nutrient and reduce tilering in the crop.=> #3 is incorrect.
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 and 2
2 only
2 and 3
3 only

Agaricus is a mushroom, havent found reference for its use as biofertilizer. So answer (B) only 2 (or may be A hahaha)
Nitro cycle
3. Which of the following adds / add nitrogen to the soil?
1. Excretion of urea by animals
2. Burning of coal by man
3. Death of vegetation
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3

NIOS EnB Chapter 5(Page 88): Nitrogenous Waste products of Living organisms such as urea and uric acid and dead remains of
organisms are converted back to inorganic ammonia by the bacteria=>1 and 3 is correct.
There is no mention of burning of coal in this N cycle section. Moreover, in the same chapter, it is mentioned that burning of
biomass releases CO2 into the atmosphere as part of Carbon Cycle.=>2 is incorrect.
Although some websites do mention coal-burning power stations are responsible for emissions of millions of tons of sulfer and
nitrous oxide. But that is adding nitrogen into atmosphere and not soil as such. hence statement #2 is false.
Eliminate options accordingly
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3

Hence Answer (C) 1 and 3


Contour
4. Contour bunding is a method of soil conservation used in
a.
b.
c.
d.

desert margins, liable to strong wind action


low flat plains, close to stream courses, liable to flooding
scrublands, liable to spread of weed growth
None of the above
As per the Indian Geography book by Khullar(Page 180)

Contour Bunding is associated with terracing, to check the flow of water on a hill slope in order to reduce soil erosion.
As per Britannica
Contour bunding (or contour bundling), involves the placement of lines of stones along the natural rises of a landscape. It helps to
capture and hold rainfall before it can become runoff. It also inhibits wind erosion by keeping the soil heavy and moist.
As per Human Geography: The Land By Pradeep Sharma
Terracing and contour bunding across the hill slops is a very effective and one of the oldest methods of soil conservation..They
divide hillslopes into numerous small slopes, checks the flow of water, promotes absorption of water by soil and saves soil from
erosion.
from ^these references, we can conclude that contour bunding is associated with hill slops and meant for protecting soil from erosion
by rainwater.
desert margin, strong wind action =>A is incorrect.
low flat plains, stream course=> B is incorrect.
scrubland and weed growth=>C is incorrect.
Hence answer is (D) none of above.

Sugar byproducts
5. With reference to the usefulness of the by-products of sugar industry, which of the following statements is / are correct?
1. Bagasse can be used as biomass fuel for the generation of energy.
2. Molasses can be used as one of the feedstocks for the production of synthetic chemical fertilizers.
3. Molasses can be used for the production of ethanol.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3

Recall Bagasse Cogeneration topic from article on Economic Survey Ch.11=>statement 1 is correct.
Recall Ethanol blending article=>statement 3 is correct.
and I havent been able to dig any reference where molasses is used for production of chemical fertilizers.=>#2 is incorrect.
Eliminate answers accordingly
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3

Thus we are left with answer (C)

Pollution Related
E-waste
1. Due to improper / indiscriminate disposal of old and used computers or their parts, which of the following are released
into the environment as e-waste?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Beryllium
Cadmium
Chromium
Heptachlor
Mercury
Lead
Plutonium

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


a.
b.
c.
d.

1, 3, 4, 6 and 7 only
1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 only
2, 4, 5 and 7 only
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7

As per pib.nic.in,
Heptachor is an insecticide.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants aims to eliminate its usage.
So, eliminate choices involving heptachlor (#4)
a.
b.
c.
d.

1, 3, 4, 6 and 7 only
1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 only
2, 4, 5 and 7 only
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7

we are left with answer (B).


Another approach is looking @plutonium (#7), which is radioactive and hence not used in day to day computer/electronic items as

such. Eliminate choices involving #7 and youre still left with (B).
Water pollutants
2. Which of the following can be found as pollutants in the drinking water in some parts of India?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Arsenic
Sorbitol
Fluoride
Formaldehyde
Uranium

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.


a.
b.
c.
d.

1 and 3 only
2, 4 and 5 only
1, 3 and 5 only
1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

In the earlier e-waste question, you could apply common sense that plutonium, being radioactive, is not used in day to day electronic
items. However, same analogy/common-sense cannot be applied here that uranium, being radioactive, is not part of drinking water
pollution.
Because uranium in ground water is indeed a problem in Punjab and leading to birth of mentally retarded children. Both Indianexpress
and TheHindu have been highlighting this story.
So answer must contain uranium (#5). This eliminates option A.
Arsenic (#1) and Fluoride (#3) are well known water pollutants. So answer must contains #1 and #3.
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 and 3 only
2, 4 and 5 only
1, 3 and 5 only
1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Sorbitol (#2) used as artificial sweetener and laxative. Formaldehyde (#4) used in coating, laminating etc. Neither of them not as famous
water pollutants as arsenic and fluoride.
Accordingly Answer (C): only 1, 3 and 5. (or debatable D)
Water consumption in industries
3. Which one among the following industries is the maximum consumer of water in India?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Engineering
Paper and pulp
Textiles
Thermal power

As per TERI policy brief of Dec 2012, Page 2, Table 1


Sector

Percentage of water consumed

Thermal power plants 87.87


Engineering

5.05

Pulp and paper

2.26

Textiles

2.07

Steel

1.29

Sugar

0.49

Fertilizer

0.18

Others

0.78

Total

100

Hence answer is (D) thermal power.


Acid Rain
4. Acid rain is caused by the pollution of environment by
a.
b.
c.
d.

carbon dioxide and nitrogen


carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
ozone and carbon dioxide
nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide

As per NIOS EnB Chapter 10, page 167, Table 10.3 Ans: (D)
Smog
5. Photochemical smog is a resultant of the reaction among
a.
b.
c.
d.

NO2, 03 and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presence of sunlight


CO, 02 and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the presence of sunlight
CO, CO2 and N02 at low temperature
High concentration of N02, O3 and CO in the evening

Answer is (A), as per the chemical equations given in NCERT Chemistry class 11, Chapter 14, Page 404

Ecology theory related


food chain
1. With reference to food chains in ecosystems, consider the following statements:
1. A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.
2. Food chains are found within the populations of a species.
3. A food chain illustrates the numbers of each organism which are eaten by others.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
1 and 2 only
1, 2 and 3
None

#1 is correct because food chain shows the order / sequence of feeding.


Food chains are not found within the populations of a species, because technically, Food chain is the sequence of organisms through
which the energy flows. If the species starts eating itself, then flow of energy will not proceed => 2 is wrong.
Food chain doesnt show numbers of each organism eaten by others=> #3 is wrong. This eliminates (C)
Hence we are left with answer (A) only 1.
Niche
2. Which one of the following terms describes not only the physical space occupied by an organism, but also its functional
role in the community of organisms?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Ecotone
Ecological niche
Habitat
Home range

IGNOU EnB material, Chapter 4, Page 73


Gauses competitive exclusion principle states that two species having identical requirements can not occupy the same niche
indefinitely.
This brings us to the question-what is a niche? A species niche is its unique functional role or place in an ecosystem. Hence
answer=B

for more, refer NIOS EnB chapter 4 principles of Ecology.


Decomposers
3. With reference to the food chains in ecosystems, which of the following kinds of organism is / are known as decomposer
organism/organisms?
1. Virus
2. Fungi
3. Bacteria
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
a.
b.
c.
d.

1 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3

NIOS EnB material, Ch.5, page 78


Decomposers: Also called saprotrophs. These are mostly bacteria and fungi that feed on dead decomposed. Hence 2 and 3
correct.
Viruses arent decomposers.
Answer (B) 2 and 3 only.
Ecological succession
4. In the grasslands, trees do not replace the grasses as a part of an ecological succession because of
a.
b.
c.
d.

insects and fungi


limited sunlight and paucity of nutrients
water limits and fire
None of the above

Primary succession looks like: lichen => grasses =>trees. Meaning, trees replaces grasses. The question is why dont trees replaces
grasses in grassland?
Page55, A Textbook on Environmental Studies By Dr. Rajan Misra
Secondary succession occurs in an area that became bare due to destruction of existing community by fire, draught, landslide,
earthquake etc.
Although another interpretation/viewpoint/doubt could be that even after secondary succession, ultimately tree will replace grass under
that succession- hence answer should be (D) None of Above.
But that (trees replacing grass) doesnt always happen with grasslands:
Consider following
1. Grass ecosystems are an early stage of succession in regions where the mature ecosystems are forests. However, grass
ecosystems are climax ecosystems in grassland regions, where there is not enough rainfall to support a forest. (e.g. in our option
C water limits and forest fire) (ref. Page 149 Human Ecology: Basic Concepts for Sustainable Development By Gerald G G
Marten)
2. Ecological succession of a grassland is desert. (Page 3.17 Environmental Studies By Anjali Bagad)
3. Two factors for evolution of temperate grassland biome, i) Extreme continental climate with limited supply of water due to low
rainfall, ii) human activities mainly burning of vegetation. (Ref. Page 619, Physical Geography by Savindra Singh)
Hence answer (C) water limits and fire.
Ecosystem productivity
5. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of ecosystems in the order of decreasing productivity?
a. Oceans, lakes, grasslands, mangroves
b. Mangroves, oceans, grasslands, lakes

c. Mangroves, grasslands, lakes, oceans


d. Oceans, mangroves, lakes, grasslands
Debatable choices depending on how you look at productivity?
Viewpoint #1: Answer (C) (rate)
Page 49, Comprehensive Environmental Studies by J.P. Sharma
Productivity is the rate of organic matter or biomass production. The productivity of an ecosystem is of two types: primary and
secondary.
Now, according to one source http://kingfish.coastal.edu/biology/sgilman/770productivitynutrients.htm
The average ocean productivity is about 50 grams carbon per square meter per year.
Average land productivity is 160 grams carbon per square meter per year.
(thus) The productivity of the open ocean (ocean away from coasts) is comparable to desert production.
On this line of logic, the answer choice (Descending order) should be : *** > *** > ***> oceans.
There is only one such option (C).
Besides, as per various sites, mangroves are highly productive. Hence C is the answer
some more references in favor of Answer (C)
http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/unit/text.php?unit=4&secNum=3
http://www.course-notes.org/Biology/Outlines/Chapter_54_Ecosystems
Viewpoint #2: Answer (D) (amount)
As per http://www.world-builders.org/lessons/less/biomes/primaryP.html
The total primary productivity of the ocean is about 8 times the primary productivity of all the land surface.
Hence in descending order it should be Ocean >*** >**** >grassland. There is only one such option (D)
Anyways, final arbitrator is UPSCs official answerkey.
Thanks Mr. Shiva Ram, Mr. Palas Nuwal, Mr. Manu Jha and Mr. Siriyal Patel for their inputs.
This concludes answerkey for all 100 questions asked in UPSC CSAT 2013 General studies paper.
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195 comments to [Answerkey] CSAT 2013 Environment & Biodiversity (EnB) Questions solved with
explanation, reference, all four sets (A,B,C,D)

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Older Comments

tanya
Reply to this comment
@Tarun n Ram Bihari ji
I wish people understood the concept of sarcasm..

Macintosh
Reply to this comment
@Tanya :Probably in the 2014 CSAt (Paper II) they can include a question based on the concept of Sarcasm :D

RAJ
Reply to this comment
regarding Q 4. Contour bunding is a method of soil conservation used in?? the contour bunding is given as Solutions to desertification
as per Britannica
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/159114/desertification/282098/Dry-woodlands#toc282099
.. means contour bunding is also done in desert margin to conserve soil from strong wind action and it is also written in G C LEONG that
contour bunding is done near to desert area to conserve soil and prevent erosion SO from these reference option A is absolutely
correct..
# In mains 2012 also UPSC asked about causes and remedial measures to desertification.. so may be again want to ask same thing in other
way in PT 2013

khalts
Reply to this comment
u r correct buddy ..@mrunal sir plz clarify

KD
Reply to this comment
Dear, i m searching in GC LEONG but could not found.can u mention the page no. because i also marked A here.

aspirant
Reply to this comment
Frnds I request you all to pls share your answer
for CSAT ppr 2 decision making question no 78 (Sugar allocation)
All classes have given C OR D as the two best answers
but i have marked option B..i still think ans should be either B OR C
Pls share your views as to why option B cannot be right

vamsi
Reply to this comment
Its mentioned as You do not want to spoil your friendship with him in that question. If you go with B, there are chances that friendship
would get spoiled. Thats that I feel and didnt chose that option.

vignesh
Reply to this comment
In the question it is clearly stated that You do not want to spoil your friendship with him. Also please check Mrunal sirs articles on
decision making questions. Being rule-bound is not good. So B may not be the right answer.
I feel in this question even D may be wrong as you are washing your hands off rather than making your friend accepting the
government order. It may be C/D or C alone.

aspirant
Reply to this comment

@vignesh
agreed buddy..option D should not be right as it shows that you are running away from your responsibility to save your
friendship..so D is out..but the question also mentions He expresses annoyance when you tell him about the Governments
restrictions on this matter.He feels that since you are the District Magistrate you can release any amount...this indicates that you
have already had a discussion on the matter with your friend and still he wants you to (mis)use your power as a DM..so why would
you further persuade your friend to accept what is morally right and moreover what is the need to show him the copy of govt
restrictions as mentioned in option C..if he is your good friend he should believe you and also understand your stand and
responsibility towards the society specially in such times of shortage of goods..so i think even option C cannot be right..that leaves
us with option B as i think it is straightforward and upright..if he is your good friend and above all a sensible man he would not
break ties with you even if you refuse him extra sugar..but since upsc has two right answers for decision making i think option B or
C should be given full marks contrary to C/D as given by many classes in their keys

khalts
Reply to this comment
@aspirant
same here dude.my thought process was exactly same as of urs so marked B

Vasanth
Reply to this comment
exactly i also marked B. i interpreted in same way..also that District magistrate decision making question..all academy has
marked C/D. i don think so D will come..that is a Magistrate moving out to attend other meetin will nt collect application frm a
villager .n QUICKLY note down few answers..it sounds vague n irresponsible for that posteither he/she must call senior
subordinate or ask the villager to submit application to juniorB and C both r similar coz both option means junior to
Magistratei think B or C s answer any opinion..?

tanya
Reply to this comment
Rahul..kudos to ur friend..ur comment though in good spirit can mislead some..i know a guy who scored just 220 last year ( compared to ur
iit guys 320) and secured a rank in top 75..so all m sayin is dat it dosent matter whether u r from iit or some c grade college..its ur hard
work everyone has to prove themselves in every single exammoreover 320 is no different from 220 as dey both qualified n these marks r
not even counted.Moral of da story- study for da mains now..prelims n cut off ko bye bye karo

Abhishek
Reply to this comment
Correct Tanya. Good luck!!!

owais
Reply to this comment
And wat about 2nd ranked Ms. Rukmani Riar (2011) who got only 199 in pre when cut off was 198 :D :D

Rahul
Reply to this comment
Sure Tanya. You rock.

tarun
Reply to this comment
so u mean u have found a totally different meaning of sarcasm great discovery tanya

Nikhil
Reply to this comment
How does it matter if any one has scored 220 or 330I am not intrested in him/her and i doubt if nebody really ismy interest is just my
marks and my success..(and that does not mean i do not take motivation from succesfull ppli do but m not ovwerwhelmed by anything
anything in excess is harmful)..the worst thing (according to me) in this otherwise splendid website is the comment column(though at times
there are useful and helping comments too but very few) I know m wasting my time too in commenting gud for nothing comment but after
wasting so much time in reading some of the self boasting and some comments boasting others I could not resist myself from commenting
sry for wasting time of those who read this comment but pls guys it is gud that u scred fabulous marks but now wats the use of advertising ur

WUD BE marksand d most irritating comments are I have scored 250+ marks shud i prepare for mains.man grow upi dont know
how u scored 250+ markseither ur IQ is just zero or ur only motive is to demotivate guys over here ..newys peacend sory if I hurt
someoneand yupp best of luk to everyone

Kartik Sehrawat
Reply to this comment
It is part of the exercise and one must take such things in his stride. people are not going to stop. Simple.

owais
Reply to this comment
And wat about 2nd ranked Ms. Rukmani Riar (2011) who got only 199 in pre when cut off was 198 :D :D

pradeep km
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+1

anshita
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Excellent!!

sumit
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1. few viruses are aquatic decomposersso it should be considered while answering.
2. agaricus is also used as biofertilizers
3. form of counter bunding where stones are used in desert region so option A is correctalso its considered as UN as a method against
soil erosion
plz reply
regards

rd
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mrunal bhai plz give main strategy as soon as possible

Anurag
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hi,
Just an observation..
This is what i found out.
Both Seahorse and Sea horse exit(Mind the space between sea and horse ). when we say seahorse(no space) it refer to a fish in which
male carries eggs(as mentioned by you)but when we say sea horse as asked in CSAT it is common name given to Walrus(mammal)
which is also called Sea horse So, i think only UPSC can tell the right answerbecause technically when we refer to fish, seahorse is
one word there is no space in betweenthank youplz care to comment

Sudhir
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Good inference But to be honest I think you are dwelling much deep than necessary.

pradeep km
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agree

Anurag

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Yes sir i agree with u but who knows whats in the mind of UPSC.

rusty
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A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.
is NT the WORD EACH OTHER should be noted here.becaue this means in a chain lower divison organism also eats the upper level
organism.In my opinion it shuld be D. NONE what u say!!!

db
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decomposers bacteria and protozoa are lower group of organism feeds upoon the dead body of the upper group of organism

rusty
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Ecology theory related
food chain Q1 ,
A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.
is NT the WORD EACH OTHER should be noted here.becaue this means in a chain lower divison organism also eats the upper level
organism.In my opinion it shuld be D. NONE what u say!!!

vignesh
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At least one guy is thinking like me. I still feel there is an outside chance for this question to have the answer as D. Lets hope for the
best

ratpack
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no offence implied, but why are you making a straight forward and simple question into something so big. this is something beyond
postmortem. keep it simple friends..

prabhat upadhyay
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the obvious is the easiest to miss..!
i marked None.

case
arre leave it yaar agar 230+ hain to move on with ur mains preparations.. in sab questions ke galat hone pe bhi koi
farak nahi padta sala top thode hi maarna hai pre me. @ratpack u r right, this is just overanalysis.

ro
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OUCH!OUCH!OUCH!OUCH! wow the more u look . the more dimensions open up .this paper is slowly turning into a black hole.
ever consuming never revealing . even after a week 20 Q in dark and more get added

prabhat upadhyay
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A food chain illustrates the order in which a
chain of organisms feed upon each other.
each other
do they really feed upon each other..
bcoz a food chain is esentially unidirectional in
flow..
some definitions-

- A food chain is a linear consequence of


links in a food web starting from a
species that eats no other species in the
web and ends at a species that is eaten by
no other species in the web.
- The sequence of the transfer of food
energy from one organism to another
in an ecological community.
so ans. shud be None.

prabhat upadhyay
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another tricky question..
In which of the following States is liontailed macaque found in its natural
habitat?
wat is d role of d phrase natural habitat here..
& wat is d role of d option kerala ( only )..
if we read about d silent valley national park , we find dat kerala fits better than option A.

rusty
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exactly!!! ididnt attemted it but i also got the same after surfing.

sachin
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dude i know for sure that it is found in karnataka. Any one who has gone trekking in western ghats near sharavathi wildlife sanctuary
wud know it as there are posters of lion tailed macaques along side the road which is passing through the jungle .It is also not very
difficult to spot it there! I guess it is found throughout western ghats.

prabhat upadhyay
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obviously they r found across d western ghats..
but these r called Fragmented Habitats.n not natural habitat.
u must have read it smwhere..
okey guys read these articles ..bt read it completely.
http://m.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/parasitic-load-higher-in-liontailed-macaques-near-humansettlements/article4750925.ece/
http://www.frontline.in/navigation/?type=static&page=flonnet&rdurl=fl2910/stories/20120601291006200.htm
http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/liontailed-macaque-faces-threat-of-habitat-loss/article1703097.ece
plz do tell me aft. reading it.. if im wrong..

sachin
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When natural habitat gets divided into fragments due to deforestation ,human settlements and hunting it becomes fragmented
into many smaller habitats. They still remain natural! The consequence is that different groups of same species get separated
and find difficult to freely move from one fragment to another without getting affected by human beings. hence we also talk
sometime for natural corridors for wild animals (elephant corridors).
second point is that there is no natural division between kerela karnataka and tamil nadu (all of them form part of western
ghats) which means they have same climatic, topographical conditions. In the question only andhra pradesh region is
geographically separated from western ghats and differs in climatic and topographical condition.
Any way in iucn the whole of western ghats is considered as natural habitat specificall mentioning kerela TN and Karnataka. I
have provided a link below.

khan
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mrunal please help me with some good reference material for political science.

db
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u definitely have a point here
regarding lion tailed monkey
but i dnt think there is so much to read in the food chain oriented question
i dnt think UPSC will twist questions on grammatical front to that extent

prabhat upadhyay
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wen i first read d food chain quest. i felt wats
d catch..! it was too obvious a question.. to be asked..
bt den d each other phrase had it all..
n it is not that subtle..
besides , upsc does play such tricks.. as is evident from past 2 yr paper analysis..
may be.. they wanted to confuse us
by mixing d food web concept here..

sachin
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lion tailed macaque karnataka- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharavathi

sachin
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http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/12559/0 kerela tamil nadu karnataka

rusty
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thnx for the info!!

db
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This is my last comment regarding food chain
Bacteria / fungi are lower group of organism who feed upoon the upper group of organism :P

db
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Regading food chain wala question.. this is the last post.
1. Lower group of organism do feed upoon dead body of the upper organism e.g. decomposer
2. in order they feed upoon each other
it implies the sequence they will feed on each other

rusty
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I know that we all are controlling our nerves :-) and every question is important for atleast for me kind of guys who is on boundry (205215) but its OK because in my view gaining knowledge is more important than cracking an exam.i felt that
*Its a linear flow of energy means one who gain energy from other,the other cant get energy from the first one.
*Decomposers do make there food chemicaly(organic substances are broken down into simpler forms of matter)it doesnot mean that
whether it is an animal or vegetation(even apple).here also apple or dead is not going to eat bacteria LOL.

db
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:)
u r ryt
its no point in banging head now :P

db
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n just for the records,
the phrase .. in order they will feed on each other
negates the argument u put forward in the last line
anywaysas i said no point no point in banging head now

lucky
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yes it correct , in a food chain organism does not feed upon each other
It is a unidirectional flow.
It could be one group of organism or of a tropic level feed on others.

db
and that is signified through the phrase in order
now its upto us in what way we interpret.
no point in arguing
since winning argument here wnt change the mindset of UPSC :P

divya
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180 sc me koi chance hai kya????? aap sabke number dekh ke to mujhe darr lag raha hai

db
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m expecting around 215
SC
but i m still not sure.
wat it wld turn out to be :)
moreover was hearing that cut off will b low owing to the fact that lots of guy wld b called for mains as the number of seats for mains
has been increased primarily as intake for IRS will be high this year
At the end of the day
the bottom line is no point in getting scared n speculating
u have scored decent scorenow relax n study for mains :)

divya
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thnx for replying atleast one guy has a time to comment.
letc whats going 2 be happen me to hear the same observation from the various coachings at delhi..btw thnx
i hav only one hope last yr my frnd xpecting 165 n from sc cat vth help of various coaching answer key bt whn result came he got
185 n qualify from the mains .
i despertly wish god do the same thing with me

db
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chill yaar..
this time waise bhi calls will be high for mains
since they will take in large number for IRS

amit
Pl follow this link and have look. http://90paisa.blogspot.in/2013/06/additional-posts-to-be-created-in.html
Still you have the same stand? Pl do response.

shilpa
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how did u get to know that seats in mains have been increased? any official notification???
-Thanks
shilpa

debojyoti burman (db)


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got some source.. :)

pradeep km
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http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=96176

saransh sain
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Sir, i am calculating around 195 to 200. So, is their any chance to qualify the prelims??

baccha
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Sir ji pre pass karwane ke liye dhanyvaad.
Ab mains ki taiyyari shuru karwaiye.

rahul
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is some one going to attand CABINET SECRETRT EXAM ON 16 JUNE????ANY IDEA???

pradeep km
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i have to appear but could not understand the job profile of dfo(gd)..its a travelling job i guess which will hamper my cse prep so still in
dilemma

itishri.kumbhar
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Thanks sir.

lokesh k n
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sir can u tel me wch book to refer to enviornmental and ecology.and also general science.

Kinshuk
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Please help !!
10th June, 2013 HINDU newspaper says that a national cyber coordination center has been propose by the government. When we already
have NTRO and CERT, why do we need another agency?

taraka ramayya
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Mrunal sir,
Please write a sample essay on the recent trends in violence against women in India for newbies and explain how to write essay in the
context of UPSC.

Sri
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Natural habitat of Lion tailed Macaque (para.5, line.2)http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/parasitic-load-higher-in-liontailed-macaques-near-human-settlements/article4750925.ece

rai
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@sri
it is written anamalai hills..
as anamalai hills are both in tamil nadu as well as kerala.
bt there is no such option available.
so i think answer given by mrunal sir is correct..
bt agar kerala hua to i ll b happier hahaha

hello
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sbi po result declared

ankita
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hi,
frnz plz tell me ans of the ques regarding Mural paintings

ankita
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I am struggling between 208 to 220 as there is huge variation in the answer keys :( selected or not :(

Hehe
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National park and riversriver bavani flows through silent valley which is a tributory to kaveri. Is that enought to say kaveri flows through the
park.. Plz clarify

kiran
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swamp deer is also endangered sir
http://indiasendangered.com/swamp-deer-numbers-increase/
Swamp deer also known as the Barasingha is a highly endangered species protected under schedule 1, of the Wildlife Protection Act of
India 1972. It is also included in the red data list of the rare animals of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Rahul
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Yeah right. There are 3 spelling and so many grammar mistakes. Typical profile of a guy who scores above 300, right? Wrong!

3490
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No.u r already out of world

pradeep km

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lol

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