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Before discussing the role of the surge, and its operation and how to choose it

is necessary to recall the regulatory and normative aspects.


Institutions subject to the Labour Code
Paragraph IV of Article 5 of Decree No. 88-1056 of 14 November 1988 states that
the provisions
must be taken to prevent live parts or masses of an installation are laid, the
Because of their neighborhood with suprieure1 voltage range facility
result of bonds to be taken
land not electrically separate, tensions that would be dangerous for people.
Article 34 relating to electrical installations according to the specific IT sys
tem also in
facilities BTA BTB domains or powered by a primary transformer HT, a device
surge protector must protect the system in case of an insulation fault between c
ircuits HV and LV.
NFC 15-100 (2002 Edition)
Articles 442 and 534 deal with the protection of low-voltage electrical installa
tions and
protection devices against power frequency overvoltage.
I invite you to read these texts that deal exhaustively all the problems well
better than I could do it myself.
Protection against overvoltage
I find it useful to review the steps taken by the legislature. In an HTA / BTA t
ransformer by
construction alongside voltages belonging to voltage classes diffrentes2
. this provision
involves installation precautions to avoid that in case of an internal failure i
n the transformer
(breakdown between windings), the high voltage is transmitted to the low voltage
.
The question we must ask is: How to achieve based on SLT?
Diagram of the connections to the earth TT or TN (Facilities whose neutral is di
rectly connected to the
ground)
As shown in the diagram below, the grounding of the neutral solve the problem, h
owever, the value
the grounding of the neutral or interconnected set must be such that the rise in
potential
masses remains within acceptable limits for the people. The best solution is to
realize the
diagram of the connections to the earth TTR.
During the removal of default, originally named Spo protective conductor must be
properly
sized. This section is determined by applying the formula:
I recall here once again that in no case the protective conductor must be destro
yed in case
otherwise the safety of persons may be compromised.

1 This provision is not applicable when the system is powered by a generator. Th


ere
no risk of invasion of the LV installation by a voltage higher class. 2 Article
3 of Decree No. 88-1056, which specifies the various voltage classes.
Did you mean: L'annexe 1 du chapitre 54 de la NFC 15-1003 (1991)
donne pour les transformateurs usuels la section des conducteurs Spo

qui satisfont aux exigences de l article 12 du dcret du 14 novembre 1988.


TGBT Spo = 95 (PRC) 25 25 50 Collecteur de terre Prise de terre Ceinturage fond de
fouille Cellules HT TRANSFORMATEUR HTA/BTA Disjoncteur Gnral Neutre Ph1 Ph2 Ph3 LI
AISON DE TERRE ENTRE LE TRANSFORMATEUR HTA/BTA et LE TGBT Cas d'un transformateu
r de 1000kVA Alim HTA Pcc = 150MVA R/X = 0,1 3HPC Sph = 3x(4x1x240) Sn = 2x240 Iht
= 300A Rseau arien Iht = 1000A Rseau souterrain 1 1 Claquage interne du transforma
teur HTA/BTA
Annex 1 of Chapter 54 of the NFC 15-1003
(1991)
provides for the usual Transformers section
Spo drivers that meet the requirements of Article 12 of the Decree of 14 Novembe
r 1988.
TGBT
Spo = 95 (PRC)
25
25
50
Ground bus
Earthing
girdling in
background search
cells
HT
TRANSFORMER HTA / BTA Breaker
general
neutral
Ph1
ph2
Ph3
EARTH CONNECTION BETWEEN THE TRANSFORMER HTA / BTA and THE TGBT
If a transformer 1000kVA
Alim HTA
Cc = 150MVA
R / X = 0.1
3HPC Sph = 3x (4x1x240)
Sn = 2x240
Iht = 300A Air Network
Iht = 1000A Underground network
1
1 Internal Breakdown of transformer HTA / BTA
(ABOVE IS WITH FIGURE-1)
IT system (systems in which the neutral is not directly connected to the ground)
Given what has been said, it is necessary to install a surge protector. Function
surge protector is to dispose of hazardous voltages may appear on the networks
BTA downstream processors after an internal fault between MV and BTA windings.
(FIGURE-2)
As stated in the previous paragraph, the interconnection of all grounding in a d
iagram
IT is the best solution that enables a equipotential area in a transformer stati
on.
Schematic diagram of a surge protector.
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF DEVICE.
SURGE LIMITER STARTS

LIMITER OVERVOLTAGE
C: \ Documents and Settings \ Owner \ Desktop \ Limiteur_de_surtension_2.doc Pag
e 4/4
The surge arrester comprises two electrodes, one is generally connected to the o
ther neutral to the
earth ground. If the neutral point is not available, the surge arrester is conne
cted between a
phase and earth.
Summary Operating principle
When an overvoltage occurs between the electrodes exceeds a threshold:
Either a simple corona involving no release for direct land.
Either Booting welding active parts of the surge arrester. In this case the limi
ter
Surge must be replaced.
Note 1: The replacement of the surge protector must be preceded by documenting t
he post
transformation.
Note 2: If your installation has been performed with suitable equipment (CPI mus
t monitor
Also the isolation of the neutral conductor), the location of the boot is easy,
the ICC is in alarm
BTA all circuits are open. We need the general cut is possible, otherwise the lo
cation
is difficult to perform.
Choice of surge
NFC 63-150 defines three types of surge protectors, whose characteristics are
following:
(TABLE IS GIVEN)
Rated voltage
ignition voltage to 0% to
f r e q u e n c e i n d u s t r i a l l e
Ignition voltage to 100%
Power frequency
Ignition voltage to 100%
Voltage pulse wave
If the installation is fed by several transformers in parallel, one must install
a limiter
overvoltage on each of them. And of course one ICC is required.
Obviously it must be considered when choosing the surge of dielectric strength
low-voltage switchgear (reinforced equipment: 3000Volts in the case of a main sw
itchboard or in the 10000Volts
For high poles posts). You understand that the surge protector is a weak point i
n
installation, do not just low-voltage equipment is a dielectric strength such as
fault current priority choose this quipement4
Imagine the human consequences in such a situation.
other remarks
The failure to replace the surge limiter following his breakdown has the effect
of changing the regime
Neutral installation is to lose all the benefits of this neutral regime.
4 This may occur when used in an industrial installation type equipment
Domestic whose dielectric strength is less than the breakdown voltage to 100% po
wer frequency.

LIMITER OVERVOLTAGE
JUSTIFICATION SET CURRENT GENERAL BREAKER
EARTH CONNECTION BETWEEN THE TRANSFORMER HTA / BTA and THE TGBT
If a transformer 1000kVA Calculating the double default short-circuit current
FIGURE
Double fault current will not illimit5
Indeed it is a function of the internal impedance of the
source and BTA bonds. The coupling of the transformer is important. In the above
case the current
default will be:
In the case above, this current is equal to 18kA. This value allows the breaker
setting
as recommended by standard NFC 15-100.
Static electricity has nothing to do with types of defects described above.
Protection against surtensions6
required
Protection against any danger that can result:
- A power frequency overvoltage: Overvoltage due to an insulation fault with
higher voltage installation.
- In a surge: overvoltage atmospheric transmitted by the network
distribution or overvoltage due to electrical equipment maneuvers.
Power frequency overvoltage

5 In response to the statement of Mr. Christian CHOCRAUX "We must respond quickl
y because when a fault occurs
it will no longer be limited and it is the protector (of the offending device) w
hich acts with a current
corresponding to the switch setting.
6 Document Normelec
required
Implementation of protection against power frequency overvoltage:
- By limiting the value of the resistance of the earth connection of the power s
et point directly to the
Earth (Rn), where such point exists and that this ground is distinct from the ma
sses
the installation7
, Such that the following relation is verified
Ut withstand voltage at power frequency masses
the installation (this voltage is conventionally taken equal to
2U 1000)
U0 voltage between phase and neutral installation m
t
I
U U R + 0 =
Im maximum current of the first ground fault installation HT8
- Implementing, at the origin of the installation, when no part of the power sou
rce is not connected
directly to the terre9
A surge protector device, such a device must be provided for each
transformer when the installation is fed by several transformers operating in pa
rallel.
prohibited
Coexistence in the same duct or in the same gutter electrical conduits or very l

ow
low voltage and high voltage power lines, unless simultaneously:
- The pipes at very low or low-voltage and high-voltage lines are arranged
on separate supports.
- Grounding resistance media does not exceed the quotient of the voltage
frequency withstand these lines by the intensity of the maximum current top
ground fault of high voltage lines.
required
Choice of surge, if used as its nominal voltage boot 100%
power frequency (Ua) satisfies the relation:
Ut voltage frequency withstand the masses of the installation (this
voltage is conventionally taken equal to 2U 1000)
UUU has <t - U 'phase to neutral voltage if the surge protector is connected bet
ween the
q neutral and earth; line voltage if it is connected between a
phase and earth.
Implementation of the surge protector used if necessary so that
- Its input terminal is connected to the selected active conductor (neutral or p
hase) between the output terminal
transformer and the first switching device.
- Its ground terminal is connected:

7 These conditions can not meet that TT system


8 When the installation is the HV public distribution network at 20 kV, the maxi
mum current of the first
ground fault (lm) is limited to:
- 300 A in air networks;
- 1000 A in underground networks
- 40A for compensated neutral systems.
9 This condition occurs in diagram T (impedance and isolated).
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Finder
- Either interconnected assembly comprising all the masses of the system and all
components
drivers of premises served by it
- Or to the earth connection of the power point earthed
- Or to a separate earth ground.
In the latter two cases, the resistance (R) of the ground shall verify the follo
wing relationship
Ut voltage frequency withstand the masses of the installation (this
voltage is conventionally taken equal to 2U 1000)
U 'phase to neutral voltage if the surge protector is connected between the
q neutral and earth; line voltage if it is connected between a
phase and earth.
m
t
I
U U R - '=
Im maximum current of the first ground fault of the system HT10
- Its connecting conductors are assimilated to protective conductors in the dete
rmination of
their section: They must in particular be able to support all current likely to
cross
the limiter; again, the conductor connecting the input terminal to the selected
active conductor (neutral or phase)
must be isolated along with it.
authorized

Inserting a valeur11 low impedance between the ground terminal of the limiter an
d the earth when the
short-circuit current may pass through this device may be higher than it can
bear this impedance may interest many surge protectors.
important note
The comments above are not exhaustive. I draw your attention indicating that the
y
apply only to industrial, commercial and similar installations subject to regula
tion
subject of this note. Other facilities, especially those concerning the faciliti
es
public distribution are regarding them are subject to a different regulation.
====================
function
Allow mounting on the front of the devices in modular housing 99 mm
or 108 mm in length
function
Mandatory IT system (isolated or impedance) for any HV / LV transformer, it is
connected to the secondary and ensures the flow to ground surges from
high voltage.
The voltage limiter ensures the safety of people and property by limiting the
Current 1st fault after reopening.
Compliant Standards
NF C 63-150
NF C 15-100
Decree No. 88-1056 of 14-11-88:
protection of workers
Main Features
The boot after current limiting inductors is recommended
to limit breakages on the main switchboard busbars and reduces
section of the connecting conductors.
Choice to perform according to the mains voltage, the isolation level
installation and connection point side transformer (phase or the point
middle). Refer to our technical notes.
While the limiter is left from that in case of serious damage (thus visible), th
e
detecting operation by a torus associated with a locator can DLD
be interesting.
SPECIFICATIONS
Keeping short-circuit current 40 kA for 0.2 sec.
400 A permanently
Operating temperature - 5 ... + 40 C
Storage temperature - 25 ... + 70 C