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Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties

Used to produce containers, light bulbs through pressing,


last digit indicates product form (0 = casting, 1 = ingot). A
Strain - measure of the amount of elongation per unit length
modification of an alloy is indicated by a serial letter prefix (e.g. drawing, or blow moulding; A gob of molten glass is
performed into a crude shape (a parison) then pressed or
Elastic Limit - Stress where plastic deformation begins
A357). Uses the same temper designation as wrought forms.
blown into a final shape; Annealing Range: Glass may be
Proportional Limit Magnitude of stress where stress-strain (1xx.x = commercially pure Al (99.9% min); 2xx.x = copper;
relationship is no longer linear. Deformation of a material is a 3xx.x = silicon + copper or magnesium; 4xx.x = silicon; 5xx.x = annealed then slowly cooked to reduce residual stress
Tempered Glass Produced by quenching the surface with air;
combination of both proportional and elastic limit
magnesium; 6xx.x = unused series; 7xx.x = zinc; 8xx.x = tin;
Surface contracts quickly while centre contracts more slowly;
Yield Strength Shift strain (0.002) or (0.2%)
9xx.x = other elements
Differential cooling causes compressive stresses to develop
Modulus of Resilience, Er: Is the elastic energy absorbed
on the surface with tensile stresses in the centre; Improves
Copper Alloys Excellent electrical and thermal conductors;
during loading and subsequently released when the load is
Good corrosion & wear resistance; Good strength, high ductility, tensile strength and impact properties
Laminated Glass Consists of two annealed glass pieces
removed
cold workability
laminated with a polymer (polyvinyl butyral) in b/w; Used to
Higher Elastic Modulus indicates higher stiffness, steeper
Copper Classification C1xxxx - high purity copper (Used
make windshields; Bulletproof glass is made with
slope
extensively in electrical and electronics applications; high
polycarbonate layers instead
Tensile Toughness: Represents the energy absorbed by a
thermal conductivity ideal for heath exchangers); C1xxxx Glass Ceramics High crystalline materials made from
material prior to fracture (Area under the true stress-strain
C7xxxx = wrought alloys; C8xxxx, C9xxxx = cast alloys
amorphous glasses;; Heat treatment after forming and added
curve) (Higher strength = higher energy absorption)
oxides allow for crystallization; Offers good mechanical
Common Copper Alloys Brass (Cu + Zn) Good strength,
Brittle Materials: Experience more stress than more ductile
ductility, corrosion resistance; Bronze (Cu + Sn) Good strengthstrength, toughness, high temperature corrosion resistance,
materials/Experience very little plastic deformation/Glasses and and wear resistance; Cu + Be alloys Highest strength of Cu with a low coefficient of thermal expansion;
Chapter 16; Polymer
ceramics, the yield strength, tensile strength and fracture
alloys age hardenable
Polymer is a long chain of molecules made from many
strength are all the same. Tested through the bend test
Magnesium Alloys Low density, melting temp, and modulus of monomers bonded together; Typically polymers consist of a
Hardness of Materials Measure of the resistance to plastic
elasticity; Good specific strength, corrosion resistance (except carbon backbone which is covalently bonded to other atoms
deformation
marine environments); Poor fatigue, creep, and wear resistance such as hydrogen oxygen or nitrogen
Design/Safety Factors Design stress: the estimated maximum Nickel Alloys Have good strength, particularly at high temp;
3 Types of Polymers
Thermoplastics; Atoms within the chains are covalently
load multiplied by a design safety factor (N). Select a material Good corrosion resistance; Used for heat exchangers, gas
bonded with the chains themselves bonded by van der Waals
with a yield strength > design stress. Safe stress: the yield
turbines
strength of a material is divided by a factor of safety (N). Design Titanium Alloys High strength, low density; Excellent corrosion bonds; Are generally ductile; May be amorphous or crystalline
depending on the temperature; Soften when heated which
structure so loads <safe stress. Balance b/w overdesign and
resistance; Good high temperature properties; Used in chemical allows for shaping and easy recycling
safety
processing equipment, biomedical implants, jet engines
Thermosetting Also long chain molecules; Strongly crossChapter 2: Atomic Structure
Chapter 15: Ceramics
linked forming rigid 3D structures; Stronger but more brittle
Bonds: (Ionic, covalent, metallic and Van der Waals)
Ceramics: solid compounds that comprise at least one metal
than thermoplastics; Do not melt simply decompose;
and one non-metallic element or a combination of at least two Recycling difficult
Ionic: Cation/Anion; Covalent: Limited ductility and poor
non-metallic element solids.
Elastomers Capable of elastic deformation greater than
electrical conductivity. Ceramics and Polymers; Metallic:
Properties of Ceramics Hard and wear resistant, brittle, prone 200%; May be both a thermoplastic or thermosetting; Contain
Provides good electrical conductivity, good ductility, and high
to thermal shock, refractory (high melting point), generally
coil-like molecules that stretch
melting temperatures; Van der Waals: Important in polymers as
electrically insulating, generally thermally insulating, generally Types of Polymerization (2 types)
they determine strength and ductility
non-magnetic, chemically stable and oxidation-resistant
Addition Polymerization (Chain Growth)
Interatomic Spacing: Spacing b/w atoms is dependent on the Processing of ceramics: 1. Synthesis of ceramic powders 2. Under heat/pressure/catalysts double bonds within a
attractive and repulsive forces. The equilibrium interatomic
Blending and spray drying using additives 3. Shaping into useful monomer molecule are broken to form a single bond; Ends of
single bond can now bond with other monomers to form longer
spacing occurs when the net forces acting on the atom is zero. shapes called green ceramics 4. Consolidation into a dense
object using sintering or firing 5. Secondary processing such as chains; Smaller chains may bond together (combination),
Typically equal to the atomic diameter.
cutting or polishing 6.Final sintered ceramic product.
hydrogen atoms bond with one end (creating a C double bond
Chapter 13: Steels and Cast Iron
Shaping methods:
- called disproportionation) or terminators can be added
Cast Iron Carbon content > 2.1% Carbon; melt at lower
Condensation Polymerization (Step-Growth)
temperatures (better for casting); contain graphite (form of pure Uniaxial pressing: makes simple, small parts. Powder is
compacted
in
a
die
cavity
to
give
moderate
strength
and
Two or more molecules combine to form a polymer and a
carbon); used for engine blocks, gears, pistons
small molecule by product (water, methanol, ethanol); Length
Steel Carbon content < 1.4%; Plain carbon steels: No alloying increase part density
Slip casting: 1. Fill Paris mould with slip 2. Mould extracts liquidof chain depends on the ability of the reacting molecules to
elements added for strength; very good general properties
and
forms
compact
along
mould
walls
3.
Excess
slip
is
drained
reach the ends of polymer chain; Process continues until no
(strength, ductility, weldability, machinability); very poor
4. Casting is removed after partial drying
more monomers available
corrosion resistance
Tape
casting:
Produces
thin
ceramic
tapes,
alumina
electronic
Degree of Polymerization
Types of Carbon Steels
packages, barium titanate capacitors. Slurry/mixture is poured Average length of a linear polymer chain is given by degree of
1. Low Carbon steels (<0.3% C) - highest tonnage of steel
into
a
doctor
blade,
which
controls
its
thickness
as
it
is
cast
onto
polymerization
produced; 2. Medium Carbon steels (0.3-0.6% C) - railway
Degree of Polymerization =
tracks, gears, crankshafts; 3. High Carbon Steels (0.6-1.4%) - a substrate (polymer sheet or stainless steel).
Extrusion
process:
1.
Blending
2.
Extrusionpushed
through
a
cutting edges, dies, punches
die
cavity
through
pressure
to
get
the
desired
3.
Cutting
and
Note: The more carbon the harder and stronger it is but the less
drying - after desired length is extruded, green part is cut and
weldability and formability it has.
dried before sintering
Classification of Steels - AISI/SAE (Not used for stainless
Injection Moulding: 1. Blending and compounding 2. Moulding
steels or tool steels) consists of 4 digit number; first digit:
If polymer contains more than one monomer; the molecular
indicates alloy steel (1xxx plain carbon steel, 40xx = Mo steel, - pressed into cold die cavity with a plunger or screw mechanism
weight of the repeat unit is the sum of the molecular weights of
41xx Cr Mo steel, 15xx Mo steel, 50xx Cr steel); second 3. Ejection and binder removal - after the part is removed from
the monomers minus the molecular weight of the by-product
the
mould,
the
binder
is
removed
by
heat
treatment
digit: indicates a modification;last two digits indicate %C in
Weight Average Molecular Weight: MW=fiMi ;MW is the
Cold
Isostatic
Pressing
(CIP):
useful
for
complex
shapes.
hundredths of a %
weight average molecular weight
Tool Steels high carbon with addition of alloying elements for Powder is placed inside a mould and pressed in all directions in
fi is the weight fraction of the polymer having chains within that
pressure
vessel
to
compress
into
a
useful
shape,
high
pressed
high hardenability and carbide formation; high hardness, wear
range; Mi is the mean molecular weight of the chains within a
green densities
resistance, shock and impact resistance, and elevated
range
Sintering
of
Ceramics:
to
reduce
surface
area
in
green
body
temperature service (Obtained through heat treating); used to
1. After pressing to form a green body, particles are in contact Number Average Molecular Weight: Mn=XiMi; Mn is the
cut, machine, hot/cold form or mould metals, polymers, and
number average molecular weight; Xi is the number fraction of
with
each
other
forming
necks
2.
Grain
boundary
forms
in
each
ceramics
chains within that range ; Mi is the mean molecular weight of
Classification based on quenching method, application method, neck (b/c crystallographic orientation is different in each particle)
the chains within a range
3.
As
sintering
progresses,
spaces
b/w
particles
become
pores
or composition:

The number average molecular weight is always smaller than


and
keep
on
shrinking
W - water hardening (inexpensive); S - shock resisting (impact);
Pressure Assisted Sintering
the weight fraction molecular weight
O - oil hardening cold work steels (dies, punches); A - air
(Cold)
Hot
pressing
Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastics
hardening cold work steels (dies, punches); D - high carbon,

Uniaxial pressure applied before sintering (cold)


Viscoelastic: Viscoelastic behaviour is a deformation of a
high chromium, cold work steels (dies, punches); H - hot work
material by elastic deformation and viscous flow; Under slow

Uniaxial pressure applied during sintering (hot)


steels; M - Mo high speed steels (cutting tools); T W
strain rates, chains are able to move past one another
(Cold) Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)
(tungsten) high speed steels (cutting tools)
resulting ins large plastic deformation; With strain rates,

High
gas
pressure
(-100
MPA)
applied
in
all
directions
to
assist
Stainless Steels Alloys of iron and chromium; excellent
chains cannot move and the material acts in a brittle mater
compacting the green body (before and after sintering)
corrosion and high temperature oxidation resistance
Elastic Behaviour
Five types: Ferritic - less expensive, used for construction,lack Ar typically used to prevent reacting with material (argon)
Stretching of covalent bonds: Covalent bonds stretched
ductility and weldability, used for automotive exhaust,
Sintered Ceramics The goal of green forming and sintering is
under applied stress; Strain instantly recovered after stress
dishwashers, decorative. Martensitic - selected for cutting
to reduce the porosity as much as possible; Pores can be inter
released
edges with good wear and corrosion resistance, high
connected or isolated depending on the amount of sintering;
temperatures will cause embrittlement. Austenitic - not heat Interconnected pores allow for filtering but are structurally weak Distortion of Chains: Under applied stress, chains may move
slightly; Over, chains move back to original position; Nontreatable, strain hardenable, strengthened by cold working,
Porosity Pores are flows that reduce the tensile strength of
linear elastic behaviour
excellent corrosion resistance and formability, used for
ceramics; Some porosity can be helpful for thermal shock but
Plastic Deformation (Amorphous): Deformation different
appliances, kitchen sinks. Duplex - combination of austenitic generally should be avoided
mechanism metals; Chains stretch, glide, disentangle under
and ferritic stainless steels with properties between each type.
load; At high stress necking begins
Precipitation Hardened - high strength and corrosion/
w
d
Necking in Thermoplastics: Randomly oriented; As the
oxidation resistance
Apparent Porosity =
stress is applied a neck develops and the chains begin to
Cast Iron Fe-C-Si alloys; excellent casting, good wear/
locally align until the chains have aligned along the entire
corrosion resistance, low cost (10% less dense than steel);
w
s
gage length; This process of aligning chains strengthens the
Advantages: low cost, easily melted, free-flowing liquid, low
polymer; Eventually the covalent bonds fracture after the
solidification shrinkage; Disadvantages: high solidification temp,
chains have fully aligned
sensitive to solidification rate
w
Deformation of Crystalline Polymers: Crystalline - folding of
Five types: White Iron - relatively hard and brittle, increased
chains in tension; Eventually disentangle and break
wear and corrosion resistance, used for rolling mills, grinding
Crazing: Localized plastic deformation that occurs
d
plates, cement mixers, extrusion dies. Gray Iron - most
perpendicular to an applied stress; Causes colour change
common, graphite flakes form, low solidification rate, high
from transparent to opaque, and often leads to cracks; May
machinability and wear resistance, good oil retention and
s
lead to brittle failure. Thermoplastics are brittle under impact
dampening. Ductile Iron - similar properties to gray irons
since there is little time for the chains to move
except stronger and tougher. Malleable Iron - formed by
Stress Relaxation: under constant strain stress levels
annealing white iron (contain irregular graphite nodules called
True Porosity =
decrease overtime (think of a stretched elastic band)
mallebalization). Compacted Graphite Iron - properties

Crystallization Polymer may crystallize to improve: Density,


Resistance to chemical attack, Mechanical properties. May cause
polymer to be translucent
Copolymers Copolymers are polymers made of different
molecules within a chain; Created to blend properties of different
polymers
Temperature Effects
Mechanical properties of thermoplastics change with temperature
4 Thermoplastic States
Liquid: Thermoplastics above melting temperature. Bonds
between chains are weak; chains move easily; no strength and
elasticity: Rubbery: Thermoplastics just below melting
temperature just below melting temperature; chains move easily
resulting in plastic deformation (state used for forming); Leathery:
At lower temperature(Just above glass transition temp); Bonds
between chains strengthen; Polymer is stronger and more rigid
Glassy (Rigid State): Polymer structure becomes rigid (glass
like); Strength and stiffness improve but polymer becomes brittle
Crystallinity in Polymers: Thermoplastics may partially
crystallize at temperatures blow melting point; Chains become
closely aligned folding over themselves creating plates (lamella)

% Crystalline =

a liquid is cooled below the metling temperature, a solid forms energy


alloying element); 3xxx = manganese; 4xxx = silicon; 5xxx =
Degree of Polymerization Increasing the average molecular
magnesium; 6xxx = magnesium and silicon; 7xxx = zinc; 8xxx having a higher density; A liquid may be cooled below the
melting temperature becoming an undercooled liquid; if cooling weight increases: tensile strength, creep resistance, impact
= other elements (e.g. lithium; 9xxx = unused series)
toughness, wear resistance, melting temperature
is sufficiently fast, crystals of solid will not form and liquid
Temper Designations F = as fabricated, no mechanical
remains undercooled; Below the glass-transition temperature, Structure-Property Relationships in Thermoplastics
property limits; O = Annealed and re-crystallized, low strength, the liquid solidifies with an amorphous structure forming a glass; Effect of Side Group - adding atoms changes the properties of
high ductility; H = strain hardened; W = solution heat treated, The glass-transition temperature is noted by the reduced rate of the polymer; Larger side groups make it more difficult for
chains to uncoil and slide past one another - this increases
good formability, but unstable as alloy will become stronger with density change with decreasing temperature
strength and stiffness; Branching reduces strength
Classification of Glass Oxides
time; T = Heat treated to produce stable tempers, age
Tacticity Arrangement of non-symmetrical polymer chains
hardened; OH = Strain hardened and annealed; WTF = Heat Glass Formers: These oxides are capable of forming glass.
(isotatic repeat unit is on the same side, syndiotactic
Intermediates:
Oxides
that
may
be
incorporated
into
the
glass
treated
repeat unit is on opposite sides, Atatic random, Atotic
structure but do not form glasses on their own.
Classification of Foundry Alloys
Modifiers: Oxides that break up the network structure and allow structure has the poorest packing and least favourable
Uses a 4 digit numbering system, with a last digit separated by the glass to crystallize; Reduce melting point and viscosity of
mechanical properties)
nd
rd
a decimal; First digit indicates alloy groups, 2 and 3 indicate SiO2 making it easier to form glasses at lower temperatures.
Crystallization Polymer may crystallize to improve: Density,
Resistance to chemical attack, Mechanical properties. May
alloy
Types of Glasses
Soda Lime Glass - reduces melting temperature, reduces watercause polymer to be translucent
Copolymers Copolymers are polymers made of different

, p is the measure

of density of the polymer, pa is the density of amorphous polymer,


Pc is the density of completely crystallized polymer
Mechanical Properties of Polymers
Molecular weight, Amount of branching, Degree of branching,
Degree of cross-linking, Degree of crystallinity (folding of chains),
Tacticity, Temperature, Strain rate
Geometric Isomers: Monomers with the same composition but
different structures (ie rubber)
Cross-linking: Bonding between polymer chains to prevent
viscous plastic deformation (Low cross-linking - soft, flexible (i.e.
rubber bands, rubber gloves)
High cross-linking - hard rigid (i.e. hockey pucks))
Vulcanization: Technique for cross-linking elastomer chains by
adding sulphur atom chains which displace hydrogen atoms (non
referable, cant recycle)
Tensile Testing of Elastomers: All deformation is elastic (nonlinear); Initially the polymer chains uncoil; Chains then stretch with
further deformation; Eventually the bonds break
Thermoplastic Elastomers Dont rely on cross linking for plastic
deformation - instead one chain crystallizes to prevent the sliding
of chains
Thermosetting Polymers
Highly cross linked; Limited chain movement due to 3D structure;
Good strength stiffness and hardness, but brittle; Begin as linear
chains-mixed with resins and heat to from cross-linking
Common Thermosets Phenolics - adhesives, brake pads;
Amines cookware; Urethanes mattresses; Polyesters - boat
hulls; Epoxies - Adhesive
Polymer Processing
Heated to near its melting point so its temperature is rubbery or
liquid. Then formed in a die or mild and cooled .
Thermoplastic Forming Processes (Different Processes)
Extrusion, Blow moulding, Injection moulding, Thermoforming,
Calendaring, Spinning, Casting
Extrusion High volume plastic pellets pushed through a hopper
into a turning screw; The screw creates friction > heat (80 to 90%
from friction) + heaters melts the polymers; Pushed through the
die; Cooled (often through water); Most common method
Injection Moulding Similar to extrusion except the molten plastic
is injected into a complicated mould; Mould consists of two
sections that press the plastic together while it is injected
Blow Moulding Used for hollow parts of all sizes; Tube of molten
plastic is extruded into an open mould; Air pressure it used to blow
out the centre of the mould pressing the plastic into the mould;
Often used for bottles
Thermoset Place solid materials in the mould then heating
causes cross linking to form the final product; Compression
moulding - high pressure and temperature causes the plastic to
melt and it fills the mould as it cools
Chapter 12
Compression moulding - high pressure & temperature causes
the plastic to melt & it fills the mould as it cools
of properties, strength, toughness, electrical conductivity i.e. wood,
bone, teeth natural Metal matrix composites (MMCs) Polymermatrix composites (PMCs) ceramic matrix composites
(CMCs)
App cemented carbides i.e. cutting tools
Abrasives i.e. grinding cutting tools
Electrical Contacts switches, relays. Ag-W composites W:
resistance Ag: conductivity
Polymers fillers added to polymers
Rule of Mixtures predicts composite properties density of
comp = volume fraction* density fraction
Fibre-reinforced Composites stronger, fatigue resistance,
elasticity, stiff, brittle, metal, glass, or polymers, carbon, boron
matrix is softer, more ductile, examples Kevlar, tennis rackets
Rule of mixtures predicts density (above) & modulus of elasticity
for loads || to fibres Ec= ffEf +fmEm Load perpen to fibres (stress
same, strain different)1/Ec =fm/Em+ff/Ef
Fibre Length determines load carrying ability, large aspect ratio =
stronger, smaller d=less flaws, longer fivers stronger b/c end dont
support load, fibre volume = strong too
Whiskers simple crystal fibres - strong
Matrixes support fibres and keep them in proper positions,
prevents damage of fibres and cracks in material controls
electrical, chemical & thermal properties of composites
Polymer & Metal Matrix good bonding, allow transfer of load to
fibres, coefficients of thermal expansion similar throughout
Ceramic weak bond between fibres and matrix, deflect cracks
make less brittle
Bonding & Failure Good bonding between matrix & fibres helps
transfer of stress coating improves bonding
Fibre Production Metallic, glass & most composites fibres formed
from the drawing process. carbon, Boron, & ceramics produced
through chemical vapor deposition Fibres, twisted to form yarn or
bundled to form tows
Composite production Short fibre, casting or injection moulding,
continuous handlayup
Metal Matrix Composites Strengthened by metal or ceramic
fibres, good high temp properties i.e. Aluminum
Ceramic Matrix Composites Ceramic fibres in a ceramic matrix,
strong, fracture resistance,poor bonding between fibres and
matrices
Carbon Carbon Composite Super strong
Laminar Composites coatings which improve corrosion & wear
resistance
|| to lamellae properties Density = c = ifi Modulus of
elasticity = Ec = fiEi
Perpen to lamellae Modulus of elasticity = 1/ Ec= fi/Ei
7 Crystal Systems Cubic, Tetragonal, Orthorhombic,
Rhombohedral, Hexagonal, Monoclinic, Triclinic. Number of
Atoms per Unit Cell Corners = 1/8 atom, Face-Centres =
atom, Body-Cetnres = 1 atom. Simple Cubic Structure (SC) = 1
atom. Body Centered Cubic Structure (BCC) = 2 atoms. Face
Centered Cubic Structure = 4 atoms. All have 8 corner atoms. The
stacking of the atoms within the crystal structure determines the
size of the unit cell. Coordination Number Higher number
indicates more efficiently packed atoms

Average molecular weight of polymer


Molecular weight of repeat unit

W W
x 100
W W
W =Weight of ceramic after submergingwater ;
W =Dry weight of ceramic ;
W =Weight of ceramic when suspended water
pB
x 100 ;
between gray and ductile irons, good for high-temperature
p
t )
applications
= exp(
Chapter 14: Non-Ferrous Alloys
p=theoretical
density
of
the
ceramic
Non-ferrous alloys dont contain iron
; B isthe measured
Aluminum Alloys: Low density; low stiffness, high electrical /
density of the ceramic
thermal conductivity; good corrosion resistance; good strength /
Q ), = original stress,
Glasses Non-crystalline, i.e. short-range order of molecules but = exp(
ductility; poor fatigue resistance
=
no
long-range
order;
Usually
based
on
Sio2;
Most
properties
are
Wrought Alloys Use a 4 digit system where first digit indicates
RT
similar to those of ceramics; Glasses are metastable and will
principle alloying elements, suffix after digits indicates how alloy crystallize given the right combination of circumstances.
is heat treated.
Exceptions: Most cannot be used to at very high temperatures; relaxation time,
o = a constant, Q is the activation
(1xxx = commercially pure Al (99% min); 2xxx = copper (major Glass Formation Upon Cooling For crystalline materials, when

P c ( PPa )
P(P c Pa )