CHAPTER - 1 INTRODUCTION OF GSM NETWORK

Topics 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Backgrounds & Requirement Interface in G.S.M Introduction to various Sub-system in G.S.M G.S.M network Call setup in G.S.M

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1.1 Background & Requirements

At the beginning of the 1980s it was realized that the European countries were using many different, incompatible mobile phone systems. At the same time, the needs for telecommunication services were remarkably increased. /due to this, CEPT (Conference Europeenne des Postes et Telecommunications) founded a group to specify a common mobile system for Western Europe. This group was named “ Groupe Speciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways, but the most common expression nowadays is Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications. As shown in Fig.1.1.

Fig.1.0 GSM - Global Systems for Mobile Communication

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1.1 (a) History:
Mobile phones have gone through three distinct generations, with different technology. • • • Analog voice Digital voice Digital voice and data

1. First Generation: Analog Voice: Mobile radiotelephones were used sporadically for maritime and military communication during the early decades of the 20th century. In 1946, the first system for car-based telephones was setup in St. Louis. This system used a single large transmitter on top of a tall building and had a single channel, used for both sending and receiving. To talk, the user had to push a button that enabled the transmitter and disabled the receiver. Such system, known as push to talk system, was installed in several cities beginning in the late 1950s. In 1960s, IMTS-improved mobile telephone system- was installed. It used a high- powered (200 watts) transmitter, on the top of a hill. But it used two different frequencies for sending and receiving. IMTS supported 23 channels spread out from 150MHz to 450MHz. Due to the small no of channels; user often had to wait a long time before getting a dial tone. Also due to the large power of hill-top transmitter adjacent system had to be several hundred kilometers apart to avoid interference. In 1982, AMPS- Advance mobile phone system- was invented by Bell Labs and first installed in U.S. It was also used in England, where it was called TACS and in Japan, where it was called MSC-L1.

2. Second Generation: Digital Voice:3

The first generation of mobile phones was analog; the second generation was digital. Four systems of second generation are in use now.

• • • •

D-AMPS PDC CDMA GSM

1. D-AMPS D-AMPS was carefully designed to co-exist with AMPS, so that both first and second-generation mobile phones could operate simultaneously in the same cell. D-AMPS uses the same channels, which are used by AMPS also. So that one channel can be analog and the adjacent ones can be digital in one cell. 2. PDC It is used only in Japan and is basically D-AMPS modified for compatibility with the first generation Japanese analog system. 3. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access D-AMPS and GSM use FDMA and TDMA. While CDMA is completely different. Instead of dividing the all9owed freq. range into a few hundred narrow channels, CDMA allows each station to transmit over the entire frequency spectrum all the time. The multiple simultaneous transmissions are separated using coding theory. CDMA also relaxes the assumptions that colliding frames are totally garbled. 4. GSM: Global System For Mobile Communication GSM is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular system. It is established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard which provides full duplex data traffic to any device fitted with GSM capability, such as a phone, fax, or pager at a rate of 9600 bps using the TDMA communications scheme. 4

Since GSM is purely digital, it can easily interface with other digital communications systems, such as ISDN, and digital devices. Unlike any other services, GSM products such as cellular phones, require the use of a Subscriber Identity Modules, or SIM card. These small electronic devices are approximately the size of credit card and record all of the user information. This includes data such as programmed telephone numbers and network security features which identify the user. Without this module, the device will not function. Some of the milestones for communication through GSM are as shown.

Year 1982 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995

Milestone GSM formed field test TDMA chosen as access method memorandum of understanding signed validation of GSM system Pre operation system commercial system start-up coverage of larger cities/airports coverage of main roads coverage of rural areas

3. Third Generation: Digital Voice And Data: Digital voice and data like Internet access and other video and multimedia applications.

Year 1981

Mobile System Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) 450

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1983 1985 1986 1991 1991 1992 1994 1995 1996

American Mobile Phone System (AMPS) Total Access Communication System (TACS) Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) 900 American Digital Cellular (ADC) Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800 Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) PCS 1900—Canada PCS—United States

In the beginnings of cellular systems, each country developed its own system, which was an undesirable situation for the following reasons: The equipment was limited to operate only within the boundaries of each country. The market for each mobile equipment was limited. In order to overcome these problems, cept formed GSM in 1982. FEATURES: • • • • • • • Good subjective speech quality. Low terminal and service cost Support for international roaming Ability to support handheld terminals. Support for range of new services and facilities. Spectral efficiency. ISDN compatibility.

1.1 (c)FREQUENCY ALLOCATION:

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GSM network presently operate in three different frequency ranges. GSM 900 (also called GSM): operates in the 900 MHz frequency range and is the most common in Europe and the world. GSM 1800 (also called PCN and DCS 1800): operates in the 1800 MHz frequency range and is found in a rapidly-increasing number of countries including France, Germany, Switzerland, UK and Russia. GSM 1900 (also called PCS 1900 and DCS 1900): The only frequency used in the United States and Canada for GSM.

Key points of G.S.M describe below:  The system must be Pan European.  The system must maintain a good speech quality.  The system must use radio frequencies as efficiently as possible.  The system must have high\ adequate capacity.  The system must be compatible with the ISDN (Integrated /services Digital Network).  The system must be compatible with other data communication specifications.  The system must maintain good security concerning both subscriber and transmitted information. 7

1.1 (d) Advantages of GSM

Due to the requirements set for the GSM system, many advantages will be achieved. These advantages can be summarized as follows:

• • • • • • •

GSM uses radio frequencies efficiently, and due to the digital radio path, the system tolerates more intercell disturbance. The average quality of speech achieved is better than in analogue cellular systems. Data transmission is supported throughout the GSM system. Speech is encrypted and subscriber information security is guaranteed. Due to the ISDN compatibility, new services are offered compared to the analogue systems. International roaming is technically possible within all countries using the GSM system. The large market increases competition and lowers the prices both for investments and usage.

1.2 INTERFACES IN GSM NETWORK

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fig 1.1 various interface

Open Interfaces of GSM

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The purpose behind the GSM specifications is to define several open interfaces, which then are limiting certain parts of the GSM system. Because of this interface openness, the operator maintaining the network may obtain different parts of the network from different GSM network suppliers. Also, when an interface is open it defines strictly what happening theough the interface is and this in turn strictly defines what kind of actions\procedures\functions must be implemented between the interfaces. Nowadays, GSM specifications define two truly open interfaces. The first one is between the Mobile Station. This open air interface is appropriately named the “Air Interface”. The second one is between the Mobile Services Switching Center – MSC & the Base Station Controller (BSC). This interface is called the “A Interface”. These two network elements will be discussed in greater detail in later part. The system includes more than two defined interfaces but they are not totally open as the system specifications had not been completed when the commercial systems were launched.

When operating analogue mobile network, experience has shown that centralized intelligence generated excessive load in the system, thus decreasing the capacity. For this reason, the GSM specifications, in principle, provides the means to distribute intelligence throughout the network. Referring to the interfaces, the more complicated the interfaces in use, the more intelligence is required between the interfaces in order to implement all the functions required. In a GSM network, this decentralized intelligence is implemented by dividing the whole network into three separate subsystems:

Network Switching Subsystems (NSS)

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• •

Base Station Subsystems (BSS) Network Management Subsystems (NMS)

The actual network needed for establishing calls is composed of the NSS and the BSS. The BSS is responsible for radio path control and every call is connected through the BSS. The NSS takes care of call control functions. Calls are always connected by and through the NSS. The NMS is the operation and maintenance related to the network and it is needed for the control of the whole GSM network. The network operator observes and maintains network quality and service offered through the NMS. The three subsystems in a GSM network are linked by the Air, A and O&M interfaces as shown in fig.1.2.

Fig. 1.2 The Three Subsystems of GSM and their Interfaces

The MS (Mobile Station) is a combination of terminal equipment and subscriber data. The terminal equipment as such is called ME (Mobile Equipment) and the subscriber’s data is stored in a separate module called SIM ( Subscriber Identity Module).

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Therefore, ME + SIM = MS given in Fig. 1.3

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. Fig. 1.3. Inserting a SIM Card in a Mobile Phone 1.3 INTRODUCTION OF BSS, NSS & NMS 1.3 (a) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) The BSS consists of the following elements: • • • BSC ( Base Station Controller) BTS ( Base Transceiver Station) TC ( Trans Coder) As shown in Fig. 1.4. The Base Station Controller (BTS) is the central network element of the BSS & it controls the radio network. This means that the main responsibilities of the BSC are: Connection establishment between MS & NSS, Mobility Management, Statistical raw data collection, Air and A interface signaling support. The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) is a network element maintaining the AIR interface. It takes care of the Air interface signaling, Air interface ciphering and Speech 12

processing. In this context, speech processing refers to all the functions the BTS performs in order to guarantee an error-free connection between the MS and the BTS. The Transcoder (TC) is a BSS element taking care of speech transcoding, i.e. it is capable of converting speech from one digital coding format to another and vice versa. Also TC is known as Multiplexer. It changes speech from 13 Kpbs from 64 Kpbs & vice versa.

Fig.1.4. The Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

The main function of the BSS is as follows: • Radio Path Control

In the GSM network, the BSS is the part of the network taking care of Radio Resources, i.e. radio channel allocation and quality of the radio connection. For this purpose, the GSM Technical specification defines about 120 different parameters for each BTS. These parameters define exactly what kind of BTS is in question & how MSs may “see” the network when moving in this BTS area. The BTS parameter handle the following major items: what kind of handovers, paging organization, radio power level control and BTS identification.

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BTS and TC Control Inside the BSS, all the BTSs & TCs are connected to the BSCs. The BSC maintains the

BTSs. In other words, the BSC is capable of separating a BTS from the network & collecting alarm information. Transcoders are also maintained by the BSC, i.e. the BSC collects alarms related to the Trancoders.

Synchronisation The BSS uses hierarchical synchrinisation which means that the MSC synchronises

the BSC & the BSC further synchronises the BTSs associated with that particular BSC. Synchronisation is a critical issue in the GSM network due to the nature of the information transferred. If the synchronization chain is not working properly, calls may be cut or the call quality may not be the best possible. Ultimately, it may even be impossible to establish a call. • Air & A Interface Signalling In order to establish a call, the MS must have a connection through the BSS. This connection requires several signalling protocols. • Connection Establishment between MS & NSS The BSS is located between two interfaces, the Air & A interface. From the call establishment point of view, the MS must have a connection through these two interfaces before a call can be established. Generally speaking, this connection may be either a signaling type of connection or a traffic (speech, data) type of connection.

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Mobility Management and Speech Transcoding BSS Mobility Management mainly covers the different cases of Handovers.

Collection of Statistical Data The BSS collects a lot of short-term statistical data that is further sent to the NMS for post processing purpose. By using the tools located in the NMS the operator is able to create statistical “views” & thus observe the network quality.

Transmission between BSC and BTS

There are three alternative methods to provide the connections between a BSC & several BTS. They are: • • • Point to Point connection Multi drop Chain Multi Drop Chain

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Fig.1.5. BTS- BSC Connections As shown in Fig 1.5 Point to Point connection indicates that the BSC is connected directly to every BTS whit 2 Mbit/s PCM line. If the BSC–BTS distance is few kilometers were as the distance between a group of BTS is much shorter it does not make sense to draw a Point to Point connection to every BTS. One PCM line is capable to transfer data to several BTs simultaneously. There for it possible to draw just one BSC-BTS connection and link.The BTs as a chain. This technique is called Multi Drop Chain. The BSC sends all the data in one 2 Mbit/s PCM line and each BTS in turn analyses the signal, collect the data from correct time slots assign for itself and passes the signal to next BTS. But there is a one problem with Multi Drop Chain. Consider if there is a break in chain more BTS are isolated from BSC. This problem can be solved by using Multi Drop Loop technique. In Multi Drop Loop if there is a break the signal split in two directions. So if there is a break in one side than BTS can also able to receive signal from the other side.

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1.3 (b) Network Switching Subsystems (NSS) The GSM network is divided into three subsystems: NSS , BSS , NMS. The concept of NSS is introduced in this section. The elements of Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) are as follows: • • • • • MSC VLR HLR AC EIR (Mobile Service Switching Center) (Visitor Location Register) (Home Location Register) (Authentication Center) (Equipment Identity Register)

The MSC is responsible for controlling calls in the mobile network. It identifies the origin & destination of a call as well as a type of call. An MSC acting as a bridge between a mobile network and a fixed network is called a “GATEWAY MSC” (GMSC). An MSC is normally integrated with a VLR, which maintains information related to the subscribers who are currently in the service area of the MSC. The VLR carries out location registration & updates. The MSC associated with it initiates the Paging process. A VLR database is always temporary whereas the HLR maintains a permanent register of the subscribers. In addition to the fixed data, the HLR also maintains a temporary database which contains the current location of customers. This data is required for routing the calls. In addition there are two more elements in the NSS. They are AC & EIR. They are usually implemented as a part of HLR & they deal with the security functions. its

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Fig.1.6 Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)

So, the main functions of NSS are as follows:

Call Control This identifies the subscriber, establishing a call and clears the connection after the

conversation is over • Charging This collects the charging information about a call as the members of the caller and the called subscriber, the time & type of the transaction, etc. , and transfers it to the Billing Center (BC).

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Mobility Management This maintains information about the location of the subscriber.

Signalling with other network & the BSS (Public Switch Telephone Network) • Subscriber Data Handling

This applies to interfaces with the BSS and PSTN

This is the permanent data storage in the HLR and temporary storage of relevant data in the VLR.

1.3 (c) Network Management Subsystems (NMS) The NMS is the third subsystem of the GSM network in addition to NSS & BSS. The purpose of the NMS is to monitor various functions and elements of the network. These tasks are carried out by the NMS/2000 which consists of a number of Work Stations, Servers & a Router which connects to a “Data Communications Network”(DCN).As shown in Fig. 1.7. The operator work stations are connected to the database and communication servers via a Local Area Network (LAN). The database servers store the management information about the network. The communications servers take care of the data communication between the NMS and the equipment in the GSM network known as “Network Elements”. These communications are carried over a Data communication Network (DCN) which connects to the NMS via a Router. The DCN is normally implemented using an X.25 Packet Switching Network.

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Fig 1.7 Network Management subsystems (NMS)

The functions of the NMS are as follows: • Fault Management The purpose of Fault Management is to ensure the smooth operation of the network & rapid correction of any kind of problems that are detected. This provides the network operator with information about the current status of the Alarm events and maintains a history database of Alarms. • Configuration Management The purpose of Configuration Management is to maintain up to date information about the operation & configuration status of network elements. Specific configuration functions include the management of the radio network, software & hardware management of the network elements, time synchrinisation and security operations.

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Performance management

In Performance Management, the NMS collects measurements data from individual network elements and stores it in a database. On the basis of these data, the network operator is able to compare the actual performance of the network with the planned performance & detect both good and bad performance areas within the network.

1.4 GSM Network Architecture Whole GSM architecture containing all the three systems is drawn as under Fig.1.8.

Fig.1.8 Basic GSM Architecture

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1.5 Call Process & Authentication Principle

How connection is established when the call is initiated by a mobile subscriber instead of a fixed one? The mobile subscriber dials a number. In other words, the subscriber issues a service request to the network in which he is currently registered as a visitor. After receiving the request, the network analyses the data of the calling subscriber in order to do three things: • Authorize or deny the use of the network. • Activate the requested service. • Route the call.

fig 1.9 call setup process

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1.5 (a) Location Update

In practice, there are three types of location updates: • Location Registration (power on) • Generic • Periodic Location registration takes place when a mobile station is turned on. This is also known as IMSI Attach because as soon as the mobile station is switched on it informs the Visitor Location Register (VLR) that it is now back in service and is able to receive calls. As a result of a successful registration, the network sends the mobile station two numbers that are stored in the SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card of the mobile station. These two numbers are the Location Area Identity (LAI) and the Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI). Every time the mobile receives data through the control channels, it reads the LAI and Compares it with the LAI stored in its SIM card. A generic location update is performed if they are different. The mobile starts a Location Update process by accessing the MSC/VLR that sent the location data. Periodic location update is carried out when the network does not receive any location update request from the mobile in a specified time. Such a situation is created when a mobile is switched on but no traffic is carried, in which case the mobile is only reading and measuring the information sent by the network. If the subscriber is moving within a single location area, there is no need to send a location update request.

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1.5(b) Authentication Principle:

Authentication is a procedure used in checking the validity of subscriber data. With the help of the authentication procedure the operator prevents the use of false SIM modules in the network. The authentication procedure is based on an identity key, Ki, which is issued to each subscriber when his data are established in the HLR. The authentication procedure verifies that the Ki is exactly the same on the subscriber side as on the network side. Authentication is performed by the VLR at the beginning of every call

fig 1.10 authentication principle

Establishment, location updates and calls termination (at the called subscriber side). In order to perform the authentication, the VLR needs the basic authentication information. If the mobile station was asked to broadcast its K i, this would undermine the principle of authentication, because identification data would be sent across the air. The trick is to compare the K i stored in the mobile with the one stored in the network without actually having to

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transmit it over the radio air interface. The Ki is processed by a random number with a “one way” algorithm called A3 and the result of this processing is sent to the network. Due to the type of the algorithm A3, it is easy to get the result on the basis of Ki and a random number, but it is virtually impossible to get the Ki on the basis of the result and random number (hence the name “one way” algorithm).

1.5 (c) Security Algorithms:

GSM uses three algorithms A3, A5, A8. A3 and A8 are located in the SIM module and in the Authentication Centre (AC). A5 is located in the mobile station and in the BTS. The basic principle of GSM security functions is to compare the data stored by the network to the data stored in the subscriber’s SIM. The IMSI number is the unique identification of the mobile subscriber. Ki is an authentication key with a length of 32 hexadecimal digits. The algorithms A3 and A8 use these digits as a basic value in Authentication. The Authentication Centre generates information that can be used for all the security purposes during one transaction. This information is called an Authentication Triplet. The authentication triplet consists of three numbers: 1 RAND 2 SRES 3 Kc RAND is a Random number, SRES (Signed Response) is a result that the algorithm A3 produces on the basis of certain source information and Kc is a ciphering key that A8 generates on the basis of certain source information.

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fig 1.11 Authentication Triplet When the VLR has this kind of three-value combination and the Mobile Subscriber authentication procedure is initiated, the VLR sends the random number RAND through the BSS to the SIM in the mobile station. As the SIM has (or it should have) exactly the same algorithms as used in triplet generation on the network side, the RAND number that the SIM receives and inserts to the algorithm should produce exactly the same SRES value as the one generated on the network side. If the SRES value in the authentication triplet is the same as the SRES calculated and sent by the mobile station, the authentication procedure is successful.

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CHAPTER-2 OVERVIEW OF RADIO -PRAPOGATION BASIC
Topics 1) 2) 3) 4) Basic of E.M wave Propagation Models Simplest propagation model Carpet model

2.1 TEM - simplest EM wave
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fig 2.0 simplest EM wave Any Linearly-polarized plane wave traveling in vacuum with the speed of light: and its equation is given below (x, t) = A sin[ (t - x/c) + ]; = 2 F; c ~3.10^8m

Let’s measure it power & energy. • [E] = V/m • [H] = A/m • TEM plane wave in vacuum: –E H  direction of wave propagation

– E/H = 120 (~377) ohm - wave impedance – PDF (Power-flux-density) – • P1 = ExH W/m^2 = E^2 / 120 W/m^2 Sometimes one ignores vectorial character of EM waves, Considering PDF (energy treated as scalar) • Spherical spreading:

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» PDF = EIRP/(4 d2) decreases with distance squared (in vacuum) • Planar spreading (2-D duct): » PDF = EIRP/(a2 d) decreases with distance (vacuum) • No spreading (planar wave; 1-D duct): » PDF = EIRP/(b2) does not depend on distance (vacuum) • PDF: power-flux density, W/m2 • EIRP: equivalent isotropic ally radiated power, W • a: duct equivalent size, m • b: duct equivalent cross-section, m2 • d: distance from the radiation source (transmitter), m Here given basic radio propagation model

fig 2.1 basic radio propagation model Radio wave in nature propagates via medium of air. But we have many obstacle surrounding us .As earlier mention power of E.M waves decrease Inverse Square with distance .So in mobile

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Communication (G.S.M or C.D.M.A) all channels are transmitted in part of E.M wave energy. So at some distance it will be a weak enough to catch it. So many phenomena effect on mobile communication wave propagation let’s see which phenomena and basic model of propagation.

2.2a) Principal propagation effects & models

1. Basic energy spreading :- like atmospheric loss. Propagation loss 2. Effects of obstructions (indoor, outdoor): indoor like wall, floor outdoor like building, trees, hills, 3. Effects of the ground 4. Troposphere effects (outdoor) – clear air – non-clear air 5. Ionospheric effects (outdoor) Generally, dependence on - Wavelength (frequency) & polarization - Environment/ climate/ weather - Time By these effects we assume some propagation model : First of all What is propagation model? • Relation between the signal radiated and signalreceived as a function of distance and other variables • Different models – Various dominating propagation mechanisms • Different environments (indoor-outdoor; land-sea-space; …)

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• Different applications (point-to-point, point-to-area,) • Different frequency ranges • Some models include random variability Here we discuss model which are given below: • • • • Indoor propagation model Out door propagation model long term Outdoor propagation model short term Simplest model likeLOS,2-ray,non LOS model etc.

Lets describe each model

2.2(b) Indoor propagation model

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fig 2.3 indoor propagation model as we know in indoor (explicitly. inner part of building )wall ,floor ,slab are exist ,So if there non LOS communication through Reflection,Diffraction,Attenution and scattered. So what’s effect on propagation? That’s major question .what’s effect on energy, power of wave that’s also important question lets try to solve it by see other model of propagation.

2.2(c) Outdoor propagation model

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fig 2.4 long term propagation model We will find in outdoor model reflection, deflection and scattering effect, so question is raised that” how long or how much these effects are involving in radio prapogation in mobile communication ?” how we avoid these effects? its all depends upon natural condition of site location. Here give the definition of various terms.

1) Reflection
the abrupt change in direction of a wave front at an interface between two dissimilar media so that the wave front returns into the medium from which it originated. This phenomenon is called Reflection. Reflecting object is large compared to wavelength.

2) Scattering
- a phenomenon in which the direction (or polarization) of the wave is changed when the wave encounters propagation medium discontinuities smaller than the wavelength (e.g. foliage, …) Results in a disordered or random change in the energy distribution 33

3) Diffraction
• = the mechanism the waves spread asthey pass barriers in obstructed radio path(through openings or around barriers) • Diffraction - important when evaluating potential interference between terrestrial/stations sharing the same frequency.

4) Absorption
• = the conversion of the transmitted EM energy into another form, usually thermal. – The conversion takes place as a result of interaction between the incident energy and the material medium, at the molecular or atomic level. – One cause of signal attenuation due to walls, precipitations (rain, snow, sand) and atmospheric gases

2.3 simplest propagation model

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LOS model

fig 2.5 LOS model in mobile communication we preferred L.O.S model .In this model less BER(bit error rate),Efficient Network, Good S/N ratio. But in real life only 10% communication between mobile station to BTS done. Characteristic of this model are Power flow from T to R Concentrates in the 1st Fresnel zone LOS model approximates the free space model if: – 1st Fresnel zone unobstructed ,no reflections, absorption & other propagation effects

Okumura-Hata model

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fig 2.6 Okumura-Hata model Microwave transmission gain up to the radio horizon: Gavrg = Kd^-n Where K, n – constants Typically: 3≤ n≤ 5 n = 2: free space n = 4: two-ray model The best results – when the constants are determined experimentally for a given Environment By this model we can calculate range

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2-ray propagation model

• The received direct and reflected waves differ due to – Path-lengths difference – Transmitting antenna (phase characteristics) – Receiving antenna (phase characteristics) • The antenna directive radiation pattern may have different magnitudes and phases for the direct ray and for the reflected ray

Let assume height of TX antenna is h1 & Rx antenna is h2 Total distance between them is D.so by calculation we find path length difference between direct ray & reflected ray. Here note that path difference is not depend upon wave length These models are looking important when we planned new site .we consider model demo and then planning site. Now a day new technology arrived so first survey site map & climate condition and then simulated this method called CARPET. first in this method make 3-D model of desire area and then make virtual site ,and after completion all process simulate tools .

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CARPET model

The CARPET project (CAlculation of Radio Propagation Employing Three-dimensional model) investigates whether and how modern methods of computer graphics can be employed to improve existing simulation models for radio wave propagation in the GHz band. While the frequency of light is almost a million times larger, there are some common features: 1) The wave length is still small enough to justify the ray model. Effects like reflection and transmission can thus be simulated in a similar way. 2) To achieve a high simulation speed, the model should be as simple as possible. Many advances in computer graphics are based on simplifying the light propagation model in the right places. The basic ideas should prove useful for other wave lengths, too. 3)3-D simulation models are based on a geometrical description of the environment. Suitable data structures have been developed in computer graphics which also meet the requirements of radio wave propagation. Yet the different wave lengths and applications prevent a direct transfer of the results: 4) Diffraction cannot be neglected with wavelengths of several inches. Sometimes even

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polarization and phase haveto be considered. 5)The relevant surface properties differ. As a consequence, scene descriptions developed for visualization cannot be used in radio wave propagation without proper extensions. 6) Instead of the image of a virtual camera the desired output is the resulting field strength distribution. This affects the way rays are being traced. Thus solutions from computer graphics have to be adapted and new algorithms have to be developed to meet the requirements. the other hand methods of geometric modeling and ray intersection imputations can be used with little or no modifications. Simulation Model The simulation model described in this section is based on previous work of our project partner T-Mobil together with theIHF Stuttgart. The propagation of radio waves for cellular phone communication n urban environments is dominated by reflected, diffracted and street-guided elements. Figure 1 shows as an example the relevant propagation paths. Transmission does not play an important role and is ignored in the simulation. Especially thefield strength inside buildings is not considered and has to be

fig 2.7

3-D model of town area

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Here example of town area with desire coverage. So first build model of particular area then plot site location and simulate and plot the graph entire network here given example.

fig 2.8 site location and coverage area

CHAPTER-3 CHANNEL CONFIGURATION & NETWORK PLANNING
Topics 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) TDMA frame Logical Channel Channel Contribution Channel in TRX Frequency Hopping Types of frequency Hopping Frequency Diversity

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3.1(a) Time Allocation, TDMA frame structure
GSM is based on TDMA technology, which means that channels (for traffic and signaling) are separated from each other by time. This means that in radio path between the antennas of a Mobile Station (MS) and a Base Station (BTS), every channel has a specific time on each frequency during which it can act. The basic division is that one frequency is divided into eight Time Slots and each of these Time Slots is an individual channel. More precisely, each frequency has eight channels, either traffic channels or signaling channels. These eight channels have their own "time slots" related to the time for transmitting or receiving data. So, every channel has a 'right' to act every eighth time slot. Each Time Slot is 0.577 ms and thus eight Time Slots last 4.615 ms. 0.577 ms 0 7 fig 3.0 TDMA Frame = 4.615 ms

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• •

Physically this TDMA Frame is called TRx. Generally we can put maximum 12 TRx in one BTS.

3.1(b)

CONCEPT OF SUPERFRAME AND HYPERFRAME
 One TDMA frame is the basic building block of entire GSM TDMA structure.  26 TDMA frames combined to form one speech multiframe.  The time duration of one speech Multiframe is 120 msec.  51 TDMA frames combine to form one control multiframe.  The time duration of one control multiframe is 235 msec.  51 speech multiframes (51x26 superframes) or 26 (26X51 superframes) control multiframe is called a superframe.  2048 such superframes combine to form a hyperframe.  The entire hyperframe is repeated after every 3 hours, 28 minutes and 54 seconds.  The hyperframe is the largest entity in GSM frame structure.

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fig 3.1 G.S.M frame stucture

Tim Slots and Fram s e e
Hype rfram =2 4 Supe e 08 rfram s e

Supe rfram =2 x5 or 5 x2 Multifram s e 6 1 1 6 e

2 Multifram =1 0 m 6 e 2 s 0 1 2

5 Multifram =2 5 m 1 e 3 s 0 1 2 4 5 9 0

24 25

0

7 TDMA fram =4 1 m e .6 5 s

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3.2

LOGICAL CHANNELS

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fig 3.2 Logical Channels There are two main types of channels: Traffic channels and Signaling channels (control channels). Traffic channels are used for sending data such as speech or data service fax, etc. and signaling channels are used for negotiations between a Mobile Station and the Network, in order to handle the management of the network. A Mobile Station and the Network are sending different kinds of messages between each other through signaling channels. The other division between channels is between full rate and half rate. In a full rate channel, speech has been coded at a rate of 13 kBit/s, and in half rate, around 7 kBit/s. In both rates, data can be sent at the rate of 3.6 or 6.0 kBit/s and in full rate also 12 kBit/s. In the whole material, the full rate will be discussed, but if needed, also half rate has been mentioned. All these channels (traffic and signaling, full and half rate) have a common name: Logical channels

Common Channels

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Common channels can be accessed both by idle mode and dedicated mode mobiles. The common channels are used by idle mode mobiles to exchange the signalling information required to change to dedicated mode. Mobiles already in dedicated mode monitor the surrounding base stations for handover and other information. The common channels are defined within a 51frame multiframe, so that dedicated mobiles using the 26-frame multiframe TCH structure can still monitor control channels.

Traffic channels
A traffic channel (TCH) is used to carry speech and data traffic. Traffic channels are defined using a 26-frame multiframe, or group of 26 TDMA frames. The length of a 26-frame multiframe is 120 ms, which is how the length of a burst period is defined (120 ms divided by 26 frames divided by 8 burst periods per frame). Out of the 26 frames, 24 are used for traffic, 1 is used for the Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) and 1 is rrently unused (see Figure ). TCHs for the uplink and downlink are separated in time by 3 burst periods, so that the mobile station does not have to transmit and receive simultaneously, thus simplifying the electronics. In addition to these full-rate TCHs, there are also half-rate TCHs defined, although they are not yet implemented. Half-rate TCHs will effectively double the capacity of a system once half-rate speech coders are specified (i.e., speech coding at around 7 kbps, instead of 13 kbps). Eighth-rate TCHs are also specified, and are used for signalling. In the recommendations, they are called Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channels (SDCCH)

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Fig 3.3 channel type
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3.3(a)

BROADCAST CHANNEL (BCH)

1) FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel) :• • • It’s sent in time slot zero of first GSM frame. Frequency corrections and repeated after every 10 frames. It is used to synchronize the mobile to local oscillator frequency.

2) SCH (Synchronization Channel) :• • • • Synchronization, immediately after every FCCH frame. Frame number and BSIC are transmitted during. Used for frame synchronization. Timing advancement commands are also transmitted in this channel.

3) BCCH (Broadcast control channel):• • Broadcast network information. Broadcast information about congestion, no of channels available, channel availability etc. 4) CBCH (Cell Broadcast Channel) • It allows sending text messages to all mobiles within a certain area and user group.

3.3(b)

COMMON CONTROL CHANNEL (CCCH)

1) PCH (Paging Channel) • For the paging of a Mobile Station.

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2) RACH (Random access channel) • • • Reverse link channel. Used to acknowledge paging message. Used for request for mobile originated call.

3) AGCH (Access Grant Channel) • It is used for call assignment so that PCH is used for the paging of a Mobile Station.

3.3(c)

DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL (DCCH)

1) SDCCH (Slow Dedicated Control Channel): • • For call assignment procedure before giving traffic channel to a Mobile Station. Used to pass authentication information.

2) FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel) • It is used mainly for sending Handover Messages.

3) SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel) • • • It is used for sending System Information and Short Messages. Transmitted after every 13th frame in speech multiframe. It carries the measurement reports.

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Com bined Configuration 0 7

ts0= bch / sdcch/4 / pch / agch Non-combined Configuration 0 1 7 ts1= sdcch/8

ts0= bch / pch / agch

fig 3.4 channel configuration

Channel Combinations
Time Slots 0 and 1 in each TRX are usually needed for the use of all of these abovementioned Signaling channels (Control channels). So they are used in different combinations. 1. MBCCH = FCCH + SCH + CCCH + BCCH 2. MBCCB = FCH + SCH + CCCH + BCCH + SDCCH/3 + CBCH 3. MBCCHC = FCH + SCH + CCCH + BCCH + SDCCH/4 4. SDCCH = SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8 5. SDCCB = SDCCH/7 + SACCH/8 + CBCH

3.3 (d) Signaling Channel Configuration Combined Channel Structure for BCCH/SDCCH
This channel structure is used when there are up to a maximum of 2 TRXs per cell as shown in . BCCH, CCCH/3 and SDCCH/4 are transmitted in the same timeslot TS0 in both directions (uplink, downlink). 50

Downlink

51 TDMA frames =235 ms

f s bb bbc c c c f sc c c c c c c c f s t t t t t t t t f s t t t t t t t t f s s s s s s s s s i f f f f Uplink
1. 2. 3. 4.

f f f f t t t t r r s sss ssssr r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r t t t t t t t t r r t t t t 0 CHANNELS f =FCCH s =SCH/SACCH b =BCCH c =CCCH r =RACH i= idle t =SDCCH/4 50

fig 3.5 signaling channel configuration

Separated Channel Structure BCCH + SDCCH/8
In this configuration, TS0 is used to carry BCCH and CCCH/9, and TS1 is used for all SDCCH/8s in the uplink and downlink directions as shown in figures. This configuration requires 3-4 TRXs/Cell.
Downlink
51 TDMA frames =235 ms

f f f f f s bb bbc c c c f sc c c c c c c c f sc c c c c c c c f s c c c c c c c c f s c c c c c c c c i Uplink f f f f rr rr r r rrrr r rr rr r r rr rr r r rr rr rr r rr r rr rr r r r r r r r r rr r rrr 0 CHANNELS f =FCCH b =BCCH r =RACH s =SCH c =CCCH =PCH/AGCH i= idle 50

.

fig 3.6

BCCH/CCCH multiframe

51

Downlink

51 TDMA frames =235 ms

f f f f t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t s s s s s s s ss s s s s s s s i i i
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Uplink

f f f s s s ss ss s s s s s f i i t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t i 0 CHANNELS t =SDCCH/8 s =SACCH/8 i= idle 50

3.3(e)Traffic Channel Configuration
Traffic channels use the 51 x 26 Superframe, which means that the structure of the 26-frame Multiframe is always the same as in fig.

Downlink and Uplink
26 TDMA frames =120 ms

f f ttt t t t t t t t t t st tt tt tt t t t tt i

0

25

CHANNELS

t =TCH

s =SACCH

i= idle

Full Rate Traffic Channel (TCH) configuration

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Downlink and Uplink
26 TDMA frames =120 ms

t t 0

t t

t t

t t

t t

t t

st t

t t

t t

t t

t t

t t

i

25 t =TCH s =SACCH i= idle

CHANNELS

Half Rate Traffic Channel (TCH) Multiframe

3.3 (f)Channels in TRXs
In one BTS we use 1, 2 or 3 sectors. It depends upon your coverage area. In each sector we can assign maximum 4 TRx, so in one BTS we have max. 12 TRx. Channel allocation in this TRx is depends upon number of TRx and traffic carried by that sector.

Channels in ONE TRx
MBCCB TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

TRX 1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Channels in TWO TRx
MBCC TCH SDCCB TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

TRX 1
TCH

TRX 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 53

0

1

Channels in THREE TRx
MBCC SDCCH TCH SDCCB TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

TRX 1
TCH

TRX 2
TCH

TRX 3 4
TCH TCH TCH TCH

Channels in FOUR TRx 0 1 2 3
MBCC SDCCH TCH/ SDCCH TCH SDCCB TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

5
TCH TCH TCH TCH

6
TCH TCH TCH TCH

7
TCH TCH TCH TCH

TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4

TCH

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

3.4 FREQUENCY HOPPING NETWORK PLANNING

Definition: - FH is a sequential change of carrier frequency on the Radio link between the
mobile and the case station. So carrier frequency is going to change on every consecutive TDMA frame. So for each connection frequency is change between every burst.  FH is standardized for capacity enhancement feature in the GSM system.  It offers significant capacity gain.  No costly infrastructure requirement.  Compatible with all GSM mobile phone.

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Here all factors shown below will help in the capacity enhancement.

Fig 3.7 network planning

General description of Frequency Hopping:
In GSM, one carrier frequency is divided into eight time slots. Each time slot provides one physical channel, which can be assigned to one link between a mobile and a base station. The communication between the mobile and the base station occurs in bursts inside the assigned time slot. Each burst lasts about 577 μs. When frequency hopping is used, the carrier frequency may be changed between each consecutive TDMA frame. This means that for each connection the change of the frequency may happen between every burst. This is called Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH), because more than one bit is transmitted using the same frequency. In Fast Frequency Hopping (FFH), the carrier frequency is allowed to change more than once during a bit duration, but this is not implemented in GSM.

The basic principle of frequency hopping is presented in Figure

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fig 3.8 frequency planning In GSM we are using two kinds of frequency hopping techniques:

1. Base Band FH(BBFH) 2. Synthesized Radio FH(RFH) 1) Base Band Frequency Hopping:
 In this technique each TRX operate on fix frequency.  So no of frequency is the same no of TRX.  FH is generated by switching consecutive bursts in each time slot through different TRX according to the assigned hopping sequence.  In BB FH BCCH of the the first TRX is not hopped. It transmitted continuously to give the signal command to mobile phones.

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2) Synthesized Radio Frequency Hopping:
 In this BCCH contained TRX is not hopped over hopping frequency.  No. of frequency is hopped over is limited to 63.  So here we can use so many different frequency for particular one TRX.

So, in BBFH no. of the frequency is same as no. of TRX also there is one difference between RFH is of BCCH TRX is not hopped where in BBFH is hopped except BCCH time slot. Now in GSM we are using this RF technique.

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fig 3.9 hopping

There are different kind of parameters which are used in the Frequency Hopping planning.

1) Cell Allocation(CA):
 It’s a list of the frequency allocated to cell.  This list is regularly transmitted on the BCCH.  It also included in signaling message to command mobile to start frequency hopping logical channel.  CA is different for different cell.

2) Mobile Allocation(MA):
 It’s a list of the hopped frequency which are transmitted on interval of time to mobile phones.  It is a subset of the CA list.  MA is generating automatically for BB but for RF we have to generate manually for every network.

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 MA is pointing to 64 frequencies but excluded to the BCCH its only 63.

3) Hopping Sequence Number(HSN):
The Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) indicates which hopping sequence of the 64 available is selected. The hopping sequence determines the order in which the frequencies in the MA-list are to be used. The HSNs 1 - 63 are pseudo random sequences used in the random hopping while the HSN 0 is reserved for a sequential sequence used in the cyclic hopping. The hopping sequence algorithm takes HSN and FN as an input and the output of the hopping sequence generation is a Mobile Allocation Index (MAI) which is a number ranging from 0 to the number of frequencies in the MA-list subtracted by one. The HSN is a cell specific parameter. For the base band hopping two HSNs exists. The zero time slots in a BB hopping cell use the HSN1 and the rest of the time slots follow the HSN2.All the time slots in RF hopping cell follow the HSN1.

4) Mobile Allocation Index Offset(MAIO):
When there is more than one TRX in the BTS using the same MA-list the Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) is used to ensure that each TRX uses always a unique frequency. Each hopping TRX is allocated a different MAIO. MAIO is added to MAI when the frequency to be used is determined from the MA-list. Example of the hopping sequence generation is presented in Figure.MAIO and HSN are transmitted to a mobile together with the MA-list. In Nokia solution the MAIOoffset is a cell specific parameter defining the MAIOTRX for the first hopping TRX in a cell.

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Fig 3.10 Hopping sequence generation

5) MAIO Step: The MAIOstep is a Nokia specific parameter used in the MAIO allocation to the TRXs. The MAIO for the first hopping TRXs in each cell is defined by the cell specific MAIOoffset parameter. MAIOs for the other hopping TRXs are assigned by adding the MAIOstep to the MAIO of the previous hopping TRX as presented in Equation.

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Fig 3.11 Use of Frequency Hopping: 1) Average interference(Interference Diversity) 2) Minimize impact of fading(Frequency Diversity)

Interference Diversity:
In a conventional non-hopping network, each call is transmitted on a single fixed frequency. This means that the interference situation in a network is also quite stable. Some calls may experience very little interference and the other calls may be interfered severely. Severe interference can be avoided by a handover, but the probability of finding an interference free channel decreases as the network load increases. In a nonhopping network, the interference tends to be continuous, so that the same interference source affects several consecutive bursts. If this interference is strong enough it may lead to a corruption of several consecutive bursts. The 61

error correction measures used in GSM can not usually tolerate several corrupted bursts in a speech frame and thus these frames are likely to be erased causing significant deterioration in speech quality. In random hopping network, the interference sources vary from burst to burst. Thus, the interference tends to get averaged over all the calls in the network. As a consequence, the interference affecting each call in the network has a lower standard deviation around its mean value. This effect is illustrated in figure. Another advantage of random frequency hopping is that the severely interfered bursts occur randomly. Because of this, the probability of several consecutive corrupted bursts and erased frames decreases.

Fig 3.12Interference averaging between users in a random frequency hopping network.

Frequency Diversity:
The fast fading is a significant problem especially in the downlink direction since the mobiles do not employ antenna diversity, which is commonly used in base stations. Fluctuations of the received signal strength are especially harmful for the slow moving mobiles because they tend to stay in a fading dip much longer than the faster moving mobiles. Frequency hopping 62

causes the consecutive bursts to be transmitted on different frequencies. If the separation between these frequencies is sufficient, the fading characteristics of these frequencies are different. For the fast moving mobiles, the consecutive bursts have different fading characteristics even without frequency hopping, because the spatial movement between the consecutive bursts is significant and the locations of the fading dips are relatively constant in most environments. Thus the frequency diversity gain for the fast moving mobiles is not significant.

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CHAPTER - 4 I.B.S (InBuildingSolution )
Topics 1) Type of IBS 2) IBS Site (Ultra or Metro) 3) Accessories used in IBS

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4.1 Case study
Let assume some case • Case -1: In a town one building contains 10 floor s.at 10 th floor no building surrounding it so attenution of any signal occurs. So assume site 10 k.m away from that building easily reach signal .another site with same frequency away 5 k.m that signal also reach at building .it causes Interference .although there is full coverage we cant communicate properly .

Case:2 Same buildings contain basement .so what happened about signal which comes from 10 k.m away site? Obviously it cant penetrate into basement .so coverage problem is there in basement

Case:3 Assume one building at middle of forest (not all building!!!).Tress surrounding at

building.Vegitation loss much in this condition so network problem permanently in this building . • Case 4 Here no forest ,no dense area ,no basement but mobile users are too more to BTS cant support and give mobile station error “network busy”.

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 What is permanently solution of above case? • This solution is I.B.S(In Building Solution)

4.2 IBS (In-Building Solutions)
An In-Building Solution can be built for different reasons. If the coverage is poor from macro cells and micro cells, leading to bad quality, a solution can be to build an indoor system. Buildings generating a high traffic load, like conference centers and airports, may need Inbuilding solution to take care of the traffic. A different application is the business indoor system. It has the same characteristics as the public systems aiming at coverage and capacity improvement, but the demands are higher.

• Building Penetration
The signal penetration through the building wall is called the Building penetration. Building Penetration studies have shown that Penetration loss depends on geographical areas. The differences are due to the building’s construction. In Earthquake areas, the steel frame of a building is built as a mesh-type structure to resist the vibration of the earthquake. The mesh-type structure causes high penetration loss.

• Building Height Effect

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Signal reception is always stronger when the cellular handset is at a higher floor, and there is almost nil coverage in basement or under ground parking in big buildings. The floorheight gain is about 2.70 dB/floor, independent of the building construction.

• Building Floor Isolation
The signal isolation between floors in a multi-floor building is on the average about 20 dB. Within a floor, the propagation loss due to interior walls, depending on the wall materials, is about 20 dB between the strong and weak areas.

The transmitted power for In-Building communication has to be about 20 dB stronger than for the normal outdoor mobile communication. Since the maximum transmit power of a portable handset is 8 dB lower than the maximum power of outdoor mobile unit, in-building communication is harder to perform on reverse link than the forward link. Thus increase the transmitted power from the BTS is not a proper solution for this. For this reasons GSM service provider give some reliable In-Building Solutions. Two types of In-Building Solutions: 1. RF Repeater 2. Metro or Ultra site.

1. RF REPEATER
The repeater system is a two-way amplifier that provides booster performance to extend the coverage of radio communications in buildings, basements and other RF shadow areas. The Repeater receives signals from one antenna, amplifies them and transmits through the other antenna. This enlarges coverage of cellular base stations.

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Features such as high linearity amplifier characteristics and sharp out of band rejection duplexers, assist in avoiding interfering signals & makes it an ideal solution for in-building

installation. Fig 4.0 Rf repeater system

Main Features:

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In-Building Solution • • • • • • • • Linear Operation More Gain in Downlink Chain Manual Gain Adjustment Facility Compact size Cost Effective Solution Ease of Installation RF Repeaters available with 19 dBm & 30 dBm output power fig 4.1 R.F repeater

USE OF RF REPEATER FOR OUTDOOR SOLUTIONS:
RF Repeater is not only used in In-building solution but it is used to solve outdoor

coverage hole. Due to some high buildings or in hilly area coverage is very poor at back part of that obstacle. Here we have no problem of capacity but only poor coverage is our problem. At this back part there may be big public place like garden, temple, market place. All this place we need outdoor coverage. So we put one repeater over there to fill up this coverage hole. For this, put one pickup antenna at that high building or other place where we get good quality signal. Then using repeater, co-axial cable and antenna we can give good coverage over that place.

Advantage:
• It gives temporary solution for coverage hole.

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• •

Cost effective. Very fast & easy solution.

Disadvantage:
• • It gives only coverage solution but not increase capacity. It adds interference and noise to existing network

Pickup Antenna:
Pickup Antenna is used to pickup the weak signal. Generally it is installed on the terrace where minimum 65-70dBm signal level available. Two types of Pickup antenna are used: 1. Panel Antenna - 17 dBi gain 2. Yagi Antenna – 12 dBi gain

Indoor Antenna:
 There are two types of indoor antennas: 1. Gain: 2 dBi Radiation pattern: 360º

Omni Directional / Ceiling mount:

It covers almost 20m surrounding area. Due to its 360º radiation pattern it is used in room or any small square hall.

2. Panel antenna / Wall mount:
Gain: 7 dBi

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Radiation pattern:

Panel antenna is radiate signal up to 40-45 meter. So it is used at big multimedia hall or other long places.

Pannel antenna

omni antenna

Fig 4.2 antenna used in I.B.S 2. IBS Site (Ultra or Metro)
At the region where we need coverage as well as capacity both it requires new site (BTS). We can use Metro or Ultra Site for in-building solutions. Depending upon no. of users we choose either metro or ultra. Metro site supports maximum 4 TRx and Ultra site supports 12 TRxs. Generally we use Metro site because it causes less interference compare to Ultra site. In some cases Ultra site is used, but all 3 sectors are not serving for IBS. One

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sector serves as IBS site and other two sectors serve as a normal outdoor BTS or other configuration is used. All the procedure means frequency planning, Transmission planning remains same for this site. The difference is to put indoor antenna in proper place in the building. We use co-axial cable, splitter and indoor antenna. Fig 4.3 Nokia Metro site BTS

Advantage:
 Give permanent coverage solution.  Increase the capacity.

Disadvantage:
 Take some time to solve coverage problem.  Very high cost compare to RF repeater.

4.3 Accessories used in IBS:SPLITTERS

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Splitters are used in distribution systems to divide an input signal into two or more output signals. Splitters have two important characteristics which determine whether the device is good or bad. Trough loss and isolation are two important parameters of a splitter. Through loss is the amount of attenuation the signal receives as it passes from input to output. A typical two-way splitter has a through loss of about 3.5 dB from the input to each output, and an isolation of 20 dB or more. Four-and eight-way splitters are also common, having typical through losses of 7 and 11 dB typically. To test a splitter for through loss, first measure and record the level of the signal source. Next terminate all but one of the output terminals of the splitter with a 75 ohm resistor. Measure the signal level at the unterminated output port with the Frequency Selective Voltmeter. The difference between the measured signal at the output and the applied signal is the through loss of the splitter. Confirm that it is within the specifications for the particular splitter. Continue this procedure of terminating all but one output and measuring the signal at the unterminated output until all outputs of the splitter have been tested.

Fig 4.5 power splitter Isolation (in dB), in a Power Divider, is defined as the attenuation between a signal present at any Output port and its level as measured at any other Output port, with the input port terminated in 75 ohms. This is a critical parameter that allows the design engineer to estimate "crosstalk" between the various outputs. The next test to be performed on a splitter is isolation. Very simply the input port of the splitter is terminated in 75 ohms. Then a signal of known level is applied into one of the outputs and the

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signal level at the other output is measured. The difference between the two signal levels is the isolation of the splitter. Four-and eight-way splitters are checked in the same manner. Each output should be tested for isolation from the other outputs. Be sure to terminate the outputs that are not being tested.

COUPLERS
Directional couplers, or Taps as they are sometimes called, are used to extract a small portion of the signal from the distribution cable to feed subscribers taps, while maintaining the proper characteristic impedance of the distribution cable. A directional coupler has three important parameters to check: insertion loss, isolation, and tap loss. The most important parameter of a directional coupler is the tap loss. Tap loss is how much lower the signal level at the tap output is, compared to the signal level at the input. Common tap loss values range from 3 dB to 28 dB. Directional couplers are placed at various locations throughout a distribution system based upon the required tap loss and signal level needed. If, for example, the signal level on a line is 28 dBm V, a directional coupler having a tap loss of 28 dB would be used to provide the signal of 0dBmV needed for a subscriber tap.

Fig 4.6 Tapper Tap loss can be measured using the Frequency Selective Voltmeter by the following procedure. Apply a signal of known level to the input of the directional coupler. Terminate the output terminal of the directional coupler with a 75 ohm terminator. Then measure the signal level at the tap output with the Frequency Selective Voltmeter. The difference in level between the input signal and the signal at the tap output is the tap loss of the directional coupler.

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Insertion loss is, simply, the difference in excess of the theoretical splitting loss (in dB) between the amplitude of any output signal and the amplitude of the input signal. To measure the insertion loss, apply a signal of known level to the input port of the directional coupler, while the tap output is terminated in 75 ohms. Then measure the signal at the output of the directional coupler using the Frequency Selective Voltmeter. The difference in signal level between the input and output is the insertion loss. The insertion loss of a directional coupler should be quite small, typically about 1.5 dB. Isolation in a directional coupler is measured with a known signal applied to the output terminal with the input terminated. Between the applied signal level and the signal level measured at the tap output is the isolation of the directional coupler. The isolation of a directional coupler becomes greater as the tap loss increases, with a typical isolation of 20 dB for a 3 dB directional coupler.

CABLES
One of the losses associated with coaxial cable is signal leakage. Signal leakage occurs when the coaxial cable can not contain the whole RF signal, and allows some of it to leak out into free space. Leakage loss should be identified and corrected. Two other types of cable loss are dielectric loss and resistance loss. All coaxial cables have a specific amount of dielectric and resistance loss. These losses are taken into account when the distribution system is designed and built. Any changes in these parameters after the system is operating, however, may severely affect the performance of the distribution system. For this reason, it is important to briefly review cable loss and its affect on a distribution system in order to better understand how the Frequency Selective Voltmeter may be used to check for cable loss.

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fig 4.7 Andrew low loss cable Resistance loss is by far the largest contributor of losses in coaxial cable. Losses caused by the resistance of the inner conductor vary with the cross sectional area of the conductor. Most of the loss, however, is frequency related, a condition called "skin effect." Skin effect describes the condition where, as the frequency of the signal increases, the signal is carried through the conductor further and further away from the center. Thus, the resistance loss in any given cable type varies in direct proportion to the frequency of the RF signal-the higher the frequency the greater the loss.

4.4 Technical Parameters of I.B.S components:

2-way power splitter technical specification

Frequency range: VSWR: Impedance: Insertion loss: Weight: Material use:

760-2500 MHz 1.3:1 50 ohm <3.5 db 0.3 kg Aluminum, Copper

Total Input Power Rating: 150 watts

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#3-way & 4-way splitter are same as above technical

specification but only difference

is at Insertion Loss 3- way & 4-way Insertion loss are 4.5db & 6.5 db respectively

Technical Specification of taper Frequency range: VSWR: Impedance: Insertion loss: Weight: Material use: 806-2200 MHz 1.5:1 50 ohm 0.9db, 7.5db 0.45 kg Aluminum, Copper

Total Input Power Rating: 150 watts

Technical parameter of I.B.S omni antenna

Frequency range: Gain: VSWR: Impedance: Polarization Horizontal beam width Vertical beam width Weight: Material use:

824-2200 MHz 2dbi 2.0:1 50 ohm : vertical :360 :90 0.25 kg Aluminum, ABS

Total Input Power Rating : 25 watts

Technical parameter of Panel antenna

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Frequency range: Gain: VSWR: Impedance: Polarization Horizontal beam width Vertical beam width Weight: Material use:

824-2200 MHz 7dbi, 16dbi, 22dbi 2.0:1 50 ohm : vertical :90 :65 0.6g Aluminum, ABS

Total Input Power Rating : 25 watts

CHAPTER-5 R.F SURVEY

Topics 1) R.F purpose 2) Site Selection 3) Freshnal Zone 4) LOS survey

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5.1 RF Survey

Equipments Required:1).GPS 2).Long range binoculars 3).Laptop and the necessary software tools like map info. There are basically two purposes of doing the survey, one for RF purpose and another for transmission purpose. The steps to perform a survey are outlined in the following section:-

1).RF Purpose
The main purpose of new site survey is to increase coverage area by establishing new sites. So we have to follow some steps to achieve better coverage area are as follows.

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 Locate the town.  Locate various points of the town which are the most important areas over there like bus stand, market, panchayat etc. These are called HOT SPOTS of the town.  Mark the entry point and end points of the town  Take the latitude and longitude readings for these place using GPS and plot them in the MAPINFO.

In the following window you can see various hotspots plotted in software named MAPINFO.

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Fig 5.0 MAP info TOOL

 Select minimum 3 such areas and assign them as priority 1 or 2 or 3 as per the choices.  Decide sectors and take their orientation, and write down sector objectives based on the direction which is of prime importance that is, the hot areas of the town where we need coverage.

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Fig 5.1 Site Selection in Map Info Tools

 Plot the road map of the areas of our choice.

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Fig 5.3 Priority Of Location

2).Transmission purpose:
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The Microwave is point to point in nature. It travels in the form of pencil beam. So it is very necessary that its path has no obstruction in between. The main aim of LOS survey is to check whether the Line Of Sight (LOS) between two sites is clear or not. If it is not clear then Microwave signal cannot reach to the receiver side.

 Take the latitude and longitude of all the nearby existing sites from where the link can be taken.  Note down the azimuth of these sites from the required site.  Get on the top of any highest point of the town to see whether the LOS is clear or not.  If it’s not clear then search out for appropriate site from where we can get clear LOS.  Track the route of the new site to the far end site from where we can take the link to note the elevation of ground on way and to get the information of foliage height or any other obstacle coming on route. 5.2 Site Selection  Site Locations Proper site location determines usefulness of its cells. Sites are expensive, long-term investments. Site acquisition is a slow process and hundreds of sites are needed per network. Hence a base station site is a valuable long-term asset for the operator. 1).Bad Site Location Hilltop locations for BS sites should be avoided as they cause:  Uncontrolled interference  Interleaved coverage  Awkward HO behaviors  But good location for microwave links!

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Bad site location 2).Good Site Location Sites off the hilltops are preferable as: • • • hills can be used to separate cells contiguous coverage area only low antenna heights are needed if sites are slightly elevated above valley bottom

Good site location

 Site Selection Criteria 85

Radio criteria for site selection: • • • • • • Good view in main beam direction No surrounding high obstacles Good visibility of terrain Room for antenna mounting LOS to next microwave site Short cabling distances

Non-radio criteria for site selection: • • • • • • Space for equipment Availability of leased lines or microwave link Power supply Access restrictions? House owner Rental costs

Fresnel Zone Clearance
The propagation path between both ends of a microwave link needs to be kept clear of obstacles. Since microwave links normally use very dense modulation methods they can achieve very high data rates. The price for this advantage is that the transmission path needs to be kept very “clean” and clear of any kind of obstacles. The “Fresnel zone” is a rotation-symmetric ellipse around the propagation path. The centre points of the ellipse thereby are the antennas at both ends of the link. The 1st Fresnel zone is the (theoretical) ellipse, which would cause a path delay of λ/2 with respect to the direct path. All partial waves within the 1st Fresnel zone superimpose constructively at the reception point and obstacles. This is the reason that the engineer who is doing LOS survey should take care that not only there is clear LOS but also the First Fresnel Zone should also be clear. Waves passing

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through the 2nd Fresnel ellipse would have a phase shift of λ/2 ... λ compared to the direct wave; therefore they would destructively superimpose the Received signal. The maximum radius of the Fresnel ellipse can be calculated by the formula shown below:

Fresnel zones If the point of interest is not in the middle of the link, the radius of the required free space can be calculated according to the following formula: b = 17.3 *√d1*d2 / (d*f), Where, b is the radius of the first Fresnel zone (in meters) f is the radio frequency (in GHz) d is the total hop length (in km) d1 & d2 are the distances from the point under consideration to the end points (km); d1 + d2 = d In addition to the clearance of Fresnel zone it is recommended to keep an angle of 15° (rotationally symmetric) clear of obstacles within the first 100 wavelengths at both link ends to ensure proper launch and reception of the electromagnetic waves (undistorted electromagnetic field).

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5.3LOS Survey :The Microwave is point to point in nature. It travels in the form of pencil beam. So it is very necessary that its path has no obstruction in between. The main aim of LOS survey is to check whether the Line Of Sight (LOS) between two sites is clear or not. If it is not clear then Microwave signal cannot reach to the receiver side. There are several methods of LOS survey and few of them are described briefly as under.

1. Mirror method :In this method there are two engineers, one of them stays on the transmitter site and the second one on the receiver site/new planned site. Both of these engineers carry mirrors. Now one of them will use the mirror to flash the suns light on the other one. This is dependent on suns direction. According to suns direction only one of the two engineers can flash the suns light on other. When the other one sees the flash he can easily judge that LOS is cleared. But the disadvantages of this method are a) Two engineers are needed. (In other methods one engineer will do) b) LOS cannot be checked at night. c) This method is not applicable for long distance hops.

2. Optical method :This is one of the best method used in todays telecom world for performing Line Of Site Surveys. Binoculars are used in this method to check the LOS. The engineer goes to the receiver side and looks through Binoculars at particular Azimuth to locate the transmitter site. The Azimuth of the transmitter side is obtained by getting Latitude and Longitude of the transmitter site from the database.

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The engineer can get the clear picture of LOS by this method.

If there are any

obstruction on the way then he can easily view the obstruction and take necessary steps to avoid the obstruction e.g. Plan a high tower if obstruction is small, or change the receiver site location if he is planning for new site. Also in this method only one engineer can do the entire survey.

3. Cherry Picker Crane method:This method is used when I hop is to be designed between an existing site and a new site which is Ground Based Tower (GBT). These GBT are approximately 50 meters in height. In dense urban areas it is difficult to judge that what should be height of new planned GBT. There can be some tall building in the way which obstruct the LOS. So the engineer gets into cherry picker crane. The crane is raised high and the engineer gets a clear view to judge whether the LOS is cleared or not. Accordingly the height of GBT is fixed.

4. Flash light method:In this method two engineers are required. It can only be done at night. Each one flashes light in the direction of other. If flash of light is seen clearly then LOS is clear. This method is also used for hop alignment, which is normally done at night when some of the sites have to be shut down.

5. Balloon method:This method is used when LOS is not clear, but there is some obstacle in LOS, which can be overcome by putting high tower, instead of small tower or Roof Top Pole. In this method also two engineers are required. If there is obstacle in LOS of two sites then engineer at Transmitter site holds up a balloon in hand and gradually releases the thread so balloon rises sufficiently to overcome height of obstacle. Then engineer at receiver site can see it clearly. Then the length of thread is measured and the tower should at least be set up of height equal to the length of thread to get clear LOS.

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 Free space versus non free space:

 Free Space • • • • Line of sight No objects in the fresnel zone Antenna height is significant Distance relative short (due to effects of curvature of the earth)

Non-free space • Line of sight required

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CHAPTER -6 MAP INFO TOOL

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6.1 What is Map info Tools?
 This tool is used to locate all the sites that already exist or are to be planned on the map based on their longitude, latitude values.  The database is obtained in form of excel sheet which can be directly mapped on the map.  The site name and longitude, latitude information is compulsory.

FIG 6.0 LOCATION TRACE

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 This map file is stored for further designs and for drive testing purpose.  Once the map file is made, then we can produce the list of sites and their parameters in form of excel sheet directly.  We can add up information of new sites directly on the old map file by opening the new file into the current window. A new layer will be formed by this.

FIG 6.1 EXISTING SITE IN GUJARAT

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Fig.6.2 Airtel site in Gujarat

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Fig.6.3 Landmark & Sector Orientation

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Fig. 6.4 Drive Test path( Rx Level & Hand Over)

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Fig6.5 GSM Detail

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Fig. 6.6 Signaling Detail

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CHAPTER-7 OPTIMISION METHOD: DRIVE TEST

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7.1 DRIVE TEST USING TEMS INVESTIGATION TOOL
Drive test is recording of Rx level in a particular area using the software TEMS investigation. The readings obtained from the drive test can be used to detect the coverage area of a cell site and many other parameters of a base station. This is also helpful in designing of new cell sites in areas with no coverage. EQUIPMENTS • • • • • • Laptop Global positioning system(GPS) Mobile phone PCM CIA card Area maps and site information files TEMS investigation tool version 2.3

PROCEDURE Connect the GPS and the mobile phone on the COM ports of the laptop. Insert the PCM CIA card in the appropriate slot in the laptop. The recorded data is stored on the PCM card in the form of log files. Open the TEMS investigation tool and load the latest map file. Turn on the GPS and mobile phone and check all the connections again. Load the appropriate MIPT file and select the desired mode of operation. Press the record button on the TEMS toolbar and start moving on the path given in the map. The path traced will be observed in the map window with color indicating the current Rx level. Save the file after recording and repeat the same procedure on the same path for the other mode.

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Fig 7.0Map showing the path traversed along with Rx levels

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The drive test is done in 2 modes. They are-: (1) Idle Mode-: In this mode connect all the above mentioned equipments to the ports of the laptop load the map file and start recording the Rx level. No call is initiated from the mobile phone in this mode because the purpose of this mode is just to check the coverage area of a cell site. Rx level up to -100dBm is considered to be feasible. But anything lower than that means the signal level is not enough to continue a call and hence chances of call drop are very high in such a region. It is called idle mode no channels are occupied by the mobile as no call is being established in this mode. (2) Dedicated Mode-: In this mode the same procedure is done but with an ongoing call on the mobile phone. The same path is traced in this mode as in previous mode. As a dedicated channel is allocated for the call during the test some more parameters come into picture, which are discussed later. The purpose of this mode is to check the performance of system in actual (ongoing call) conditions. Generally the Rx level observed during this mode is somewhat 10-15dBm lower compared to idle mode because of Tx power control phenomenon.

IDLE MODE Current Channel Parameters
• • Time-: It indicates the time at which the reading was taken for the point on the map indicated by the mouse pointer. CGI (MCC, MNC, LAC, CI)-: This is a 15 digit number which indicates 4 coeds. They are mobile country code (3 digits), mobile network code (2 digits), location area code (5 digits) and cell identity (5 digits). The last digit of CI indicates the current sector under observation of the cell site. • BSIC-: It is the base station identity code which is the code of the BSC to which the BTS under observation is connected.

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• •

BCCH ARFCN-: It is the broadcast control channel absolute radio frequency channel number. We use 124 ARFCNS in GSM 1800. Mode-: This indicates the current mode of operation. It will show 2 in case of idle mode.

Serving + Neighbors
In this window it indicates the cell name, BSIC, ARFCN, RX level and C1 of current cell as well as that of all the neighbors. The new parameter C1 is the difference between the minimum Rx level transmitted by the cell site (105dBm in this case) and the Rx level observed. This is kind of a safety margin for the Rx level to drop. Any drop greater than this margin in Rx level will cause a call drop.

Fig 7.1 Serving + Neighbors Radio Parameters
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Rx Level-: This is the most important parameter of the drive test. It indicates the received power level in dBm. The color code for Rx level can be changed. In this case the ranges are green: 60-70dBm, yellow: 70-80dBm, orange: 80-90dBm and black: 90-100dBm. The black color indicates a frequency reselection.

Rx Qual-: Rx quality is a parameter based upon the survey conducted by Ericsson. It is scaled in the range of 0-7. Higher the Rx qual value, better the signal. Sometimes one may observe that Rx level received from the neighboring cell is more than the Rx level received from the current cell and even though the there is no frequency reselection(handover). This is because the Rx qual of current cell is higher than that of the neighboring cell. This shows that handover is based upon the Rx qual and not the Rx level.

C1-: As mentioned above it is the difference between the transmitted and received power level for the current cell.

DEDICATED MODE
This is an actual mode and some additional parameters come into picture because of call setup and a dedicated channel being allocated for the call.

Current Channel Parameters
• • Mode-: It will show 3 in case of dedicated mode. TCH ARFCN-: It will show the current channel number of the traffic control channel occupied by the call.

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Fig 7.2Current Channel Parameters
• Time Slot-: It shows the time slot on which the channel being used is sending its bursts. There are 8(0-7) time slots in a frame of which the 0 th slot is occupied by the BCCH (sometimes also shared by SACCH). The remaining timeslots i.e. 1-7 are used for traffic control channels. • Channel Type-: This shows what all logical channels are currently in use and at what data rate are they operating. There are two modes - half rate (6.8kbps) and full rate (13kbps).

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Hopping Channel-: If it shows YES then frequency hopping is being used and NO indicates frequency hopping is not being used. Frequency hopping is used to overcome frequency selective fading. In frequency hopping a call is not processed on a single frequency (which might be worst affected by fading) but on various frequencies on each time slot. Each slot will be served by a different frequency on all the channels and hence the interference levels average out on all the channels.

Hopping Frequencies-: It gives the list of frequencies which are being hopped. Generally we divide all the frequencies in 2 groups - odd frequencies and even frequencies. This is done to avoid adjacent channels being allocated (hopped) on adjacent time slots and hence no chance of adjacent channel interference.

MAIO-: Mobile allocation index offset indicates the offset address of TRX from the given set of frequencies begin to hop. The offset address has same number of values as is the number of sectors.

HSN-: Hopping sequence number indicates the hopping sequence being used. HSN ranges from 0 to 63. That means there are 64 different possible hopping sequences which can be used.

Radio Parameters
• Rx Level-: This is the most important parameter to be measured during the test. The Rx level obtained at a particular point is somewhat 10-15dBm less than that obtained during idle mode. This is because of 2 major factors- (1) Transmission power control and (2) Adjacent and co channel interference. • • FER-: It indicates the frequency error rate. FER value between 0-2 is considered feasible. SQI-: Speech quality index shows the quality level of the speech signal received. This parameter is considered important because at some places the Rx level received may be good enough but speech quality won’t be upto the mark. The reason for poor speech quality could be discontinuous transmission (DTX). It is scaled in the range of 0-20 and higher the SQI better the speech quality.

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Fig 7.3 Radio Parameters
• Tx Power-: It indicates the power transmitted by the MS. Transmission power control mechanism is done to avoid the wastage of power by transmitting power at a constant level. Instead the power transmitted is controlled based upon the distance between the MS and BS. A MS near to the BS transmits less power compared to MS somewhat further away from the same BS. Tx power is scaled in the range of 0-7 and higher the value means less the power transmitted. It is important to note that Tx power control occurs at both BS as well as MS. Also generally during power control the power is decreased in steps of 2 while power is

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increased in steps of because there should never be a call drop in case of power control, so it safer to transmit somewhat more power in case of an urgent need to increase the power. • DTX-: A value of ‘0’ indicates that discontinuous transmission may take place. A value of ‘1’ indicates that discontinuous transmission will not occur. Now the question is why do we need discontinuous transmission? Generally when we speak the almost half of our speech is useless as it is mere puff of air coming out from vocal cord. So it is unnecessary to send such speech signals (i.e. transmit power for such samples). Hence rather than transmitting power for entire speech signal, we transmit power for only important speech samples. It is obvious that this saving of power comes at some price and the price is paid in terms of speech quality. The original speech signal is always better that the modified (selectively sampled) speech signal and that’s the reason why we measure the parameter SQI. Power saving should never be at the cost of speech quality. Hence the DTX is an optional phenomenon and is used in places where the power is at premium.

TA-: This value shows the amount of timing advance given to bursts. It is obvious that the bursts from a nearby MS will take less time as compared to time taken by the bursts of a far away MS. So in order to bring all the bursts under one frame the timing advances are given to the bursts of the far away MS. TA is scaled in the range of 0-7 and TA is incremented by ‘1’ for every 500m distance away from the BS.

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Additional Parameters
There are also some additional functions which are quite useful. • • Frequency Scanning-: Frequency scanning is done to know the strongest scanned Rx levels of all the frequencies (ARFCN’s) operating in the region. Call sequencing-: With this function we can the time and sequences of the calls to be made during the dedicated mode. It relieves the user from making and terminating the calls time and again in different sectors. • C/I-: It shows the carrier to interference ratio in dBm. The range of C/I is from -5 to 25 dBm. The threshold C/I for adjacent channel interference is 9dBm and that for co channel interference is 12dBm. NOTE-: All the parameters mentioned in the idle mode are also indicated during the dedicated mode.

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CHAPTER -8 Antennas for Mobile Communication

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8.1 Introduction
In the last few years a large technological jump has taken place in the field of mobile communications due to the introduction of new mobile communication networks (GSM/PCN). The number of subscribers worldwide has risen to over 150 Million and the relevant frequency ranges within Germany alone. The requirements on the antennas needed for the ever expanding networks are becoming continually higher: – Strictly defined radiation patterns for a most accurate network planning. – Growing concern for the level of intermediation due to the radiation of many carriers via one antenna. – Dual polarization. – Electrical down-tilting of the vertical diagram. – Unobtrusive design. Theory HF-

Antennas transform wire propagated waves into space propagated waves. They receive electromagnetic waves and pass them onto a receiver or they transmit electromagnetic waves which have been produced by a transmitter. As a matter of principle all the features of passive antennas can be applied for reception and transmission alike (reciprocally). From a connection point of view the antenna appears to be a dual gate, although in reality it is a quad gate. The connection which is not made to a RF-cable is connected to the environment, therefore one must always note, that the surroundings of the antenna have a strong influence on the antennas electrical features. The principle of an antenna can be shown by bending a co-axial cable open. a) A transmitter sends a high frequency wave into a co-axial cable. A pulsing electrical field is created between the wires, which cannot free itself from the cable. 111

b) The end of the cable is bent open. The field lines become longer and are orthogonal to the wires. c) The cable is bent open at right angles. The field lines have now reached a length, which allows the wave to free itself from the cable. The apparatus radiates an electromagnetic wave, whereby the length of the two bent pieces of wire corresponds to half of the wave length. This simplified explanation describes the basic principle of almost every antenna - the lamda/2-dipole. Not only is an electrical field (E) created due to the voltage potential (U) but also a magnetic field (H) which is based on the current (I). The amplitude distribution of both fields corresponds to the voltage and current distribution on the dipole. The free propagation of the wave from the dipole is achieved by the permanent transformation from electrical into magnetic energy and vice versa. The thereby resulting electrical and magnetic fields are at right angles to the direction of propagation Polarization Polarization can be defined as the direction of oscillation of the electrical field vector. Mobile communications: vertical polarization or cross polarization Broadcast systems: horizontal polarization Propagation Pattern In most cases the propagation characteristic of an antenna can be described via elevations through the horizontal and vertical radiation diagrams. In mobile communications this is defined by the magnetic field components (H-plane) and the electrical field components

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(E-plane). Very often a 3-dimensional description is chosen to describe a complex antenna. The pattern is as shown in Fig. 8.1

Fig. 8.1

Half-Power-Beam-Width

This term defines the aperture of the antenna. The HPBW is defined by the points in the horizontal and vertical diagram, which show where the radiated power has reached half the amplitude of the main radiation direction. These points are also called 3 dB points. The pattern is as shown in Fig. 8.2

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Fig. 8.2 Gain In reality one does not achieve an increment in energy via antenna gain. An antenna without gain radiates energy in every direction. An antenna with gain concentrates the energy in a defined angle segment of 3-dimensional space. The /2-dipole is used as a reference for defining gain. At higher frequencies the gain is often defined with reference to the isotropic radiator. The isotropic radiator is an non-existent ideal antenna, which has also an omni directional radiation characteristic in the E-plane and H-plane.

8.2 Diversity

Diversity is used to increase the signal level from the mobile to the base station (uplink). The problem with this path is the fact that the mobile telephone only works with low power and a short antenna. Diversity is applied on the reception side of the base station.

A transmitted signal extremely rarely reaches the user via the most direct route. The received signal is very often a combination of direct and reflected electromagnetic waves. 114

The reflected waves have differing phase and polarization characteristics. As a result there may be amplification or in extreme cases a canceling of the signal at specific locations. It is not unknown, that the reception field strength may vary 20-30 dB within several meters. Operation in a canyon-like street is often only possible by using these reflections. These reflections from buildings, masts or trees are especially common, because mobile communications predominantly uses vertical polarization. There are many types of diversity. Among this some useful diversity are as shown in Fig. 8.3 as under DIVERSITY TECHNIQUES => USED TO COMBAT LOSSES

Diversity techniques are used for improving coverage. Diversity gain depends on environment.
t

Time diversity Frequency diversity Space diversity Polarization diversity
f

Interleaving Frequency hopping Multiple antennas Cross polar antennas

Multipath diversity

Equalizer, Rake receiver

Fig. 8.3 Types of Diversity

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Polarization Diversity The reflections which take place within urban areas are not all of the same polarization, i.e. Horizontal components also exist. Furthermore a mobile telephone is never held exactly upright which means that all polarizations between vertical and horizontal are possible. It is therefore logical that these signals be also used. Space diversity uses 2 vertically polarized antennas as reception antennas and compares the signal level. Polarization diversity uses 2 orthogonally polarized antennas and compares the resulting

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Polarization +45°/-45° It is also possible to use dipoles at +45°/-45° instead of horizontally and vertically (0°/90°) placed. One now has two identical systems which are able to handle both horizontally and vertically polarized components. This combination brings certain advantages in flat regions because the horizontal components are fewer due to the fewer reflections. A further advantage is that both antenna systems can be used to transmit. Experiments have shown that pure horizontal polarization achieves considerably lower results than vertical polarization when transmitting. Two transmitting channels using hor/ver antennas are combined via a 3-dB-coupler onto the vertical path. As a result half the power of both transmitting channels was lost. Both polarizations are fully suitable for Tx if you use cross-polarized antennas resulting in a system as in Fig .8.4

Fig. 8.4 Schematic for giving Mechanical downtilt to GSM Antenna

8.3 Various types of Sites
Site View There are basically 2 types of sites. 1.) Green Field Site. 2.) Roof Top Site.

REFERENCE:
In our study project we have studied all the GSM fundamentals and its parameters through the documents which are all given by the ADA Cell works. In this report I have used following book as reference Principle Of Wireless Network By Kaveh Pahlavan I have used following web site as reference 1 www.rfzone.com 2 www.e-dsp.com 3 www.rfprapogation.com