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4TH EDITION

MATHS QUEST 12
Further
Mathematics

MATHS QUEST 12
Further
Mathematics
ANTHONY NOVAK | RUTH BAKOGIANIS | KYLIE BOUCHER
JENNIFER NOLAN | GEOFF PHILLIPS
CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
ELENA IAMPOLSKY | MARK BARNES | STEPHEN HEAMES | ROBERT CAHN
JANET HEFFERNAN | CHRIS LONGHURST | NICK SIMPSON
SUPPORT MATERIAL
JOHN DOWSEY | DENNIS FITZGERALD | EMILY HUI | CAROLINE MEWS | VINOD NARAYAN
PETER SWAIN | DAVID TYNAN | IAN YOUNGER | WAYNE YOUNGS
SIMONE RICHARDSON | DINA ANTONIOU | NORRENE HILL

4T H EDITION

VCE M AT H EM AT I CS U N I T S 3 & 4

Fourth edition published 2013 by


John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd
42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064
Third edition published 2010
Second edition published 2006
First edition published 2000
Typeset in 10/12 pt Times LT Std
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2000, 2006, 2010, 2013
The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.
National Library of Australia
Cataloguing-in-Publication data
Novak, Anthony.
Author:
Title: Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics/
Anthony Novak.
4th ed.
Edition:
Publisher: Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia,
2009.
ISBN:
978 1 1183 1786 0 (student pbk.)

978 1 1183 1793 8 (flexisaver)

978 1 1183 1787 7 (student eBook)
Includes index.
Notes:
Target Audience:
For secondary school age.
Subjects: Mathematics Textbooks.

Mathematics Problems, exercises, etc.
Dewey Number:
510
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Contents
2G Calculating r and the coefficient of

Introduction ix
About eBookPLUS xi
Acknowledgements xii
Chapter 1

Univariate data

1A Types of data
1B
1C

1D

1E

1F
1G
1H
1I
1J

1
Exercise 1A 2
Stem plots 3
Exercise 1B 5
Dot plots, frequency histograms and
bar charts 7
Exercise 1C 10
Describing the shape of stem plots and
histograms 11
Exercise 1D 12
The median, the interquartile range, the
range and the mode 15
Exercise1E 18
Boxplots 19
Exercise 1F 23
The mean 24
Exercise 1G 27
Standard deviation 28
Exercise 1H 30
The 689599.7% rule and z-scores 31
Exercise 1I 36
Populations and simple random
samples 40
Exercise 1J 42

determination 76
Exercise 2G 79

Summary 43
Chapter review 45
ICT activities 52
Answers 53

Chapter 3

Introduction to regression

Fitting straight lines to bivariate data 95


95
Exercise 3A 96
3B Fitting a straight line the 3-median
method 97
Exercise 3B 100
3C Fitting a straight line least-squares
regression 102
Exercise 3C 104
3D Interpretation, interpolation and
extrapolation 106
Exercise 3D 108
3E Residual analysis 109
Exercise 3E 112
3F Transforming to linearity 114
Exercise 3F 117

2C
2D

2E
2F

Summary 120
Chapter review 122
ICT activities 125
Answers 126

Chapter 4

Time series

129

4A Time series and trend lines

Exercise 4A

129

132

4B Fitting trend lines and forecasting

57

4C

2A Dependent and independent

2B

95

3A Fitting a straight line by eye

Chapter 2

Bivariate data

Summary 82
Chapter review 84
ICT activities 89
Answers 90

variables 57
Exercise 2A 58
Back-to-back stem plots 59
Exercise 2B 61
Parallel boxplots 62
Exercise 2C 64
Two-way frequency tables and segmented bar
charts 65
Exercise 2D 67
Scatterplots 69
Exercise 2E 72
Pearsons productmoment correlation
coefficient 73
Exercise 2F 75

4D

4E
4F

Exercise 4B 135
Smoothing time series 137
Exercise 4C 140
Smoothing with an even number
of points 141
Exercise 4D 144
Median smoothing 145
Exercise 4E 147
Seasonal adjustment 148
Exercise 4F 153

Summary 156
Chapter review 157
ICT activities 163
Answers 164

ExAm PrACtICE 1

Based on Chapters 14

169

133

Chapter 5

Arithmetic and geometric sequences


Introduction

171

171

5A Recognition of arithmetic sequences


5B

5C

5D
5E

5F

5G
5H

5I

171
Exercise 5A 173
Finding the terms of an arithmetic
sequence 175
Exercise 5B 177
The sum of a given number of terms of an arithmetic
sequence 178
Exercise 5C 181
Recognition of geometric sequences 183
Exercise 5D 185
Finding the terms of a geometric
sequence 186
Exercise 5E 189
The sum of a given number of terms of
a geometric sequence 191
Exercise 5F 193
Applications of geometric sequences 194
Exercise 5G 197
Finding the sum of an infinite geometric
sequence 198
Exercise 5H 201
Contrasting arithmetic and geometric sequences
through graphs 202
Exercise 5I 204

Summary 206
Chapter review 208
ICT activities 212
Answers 213

ExAm PrACtICE 2

Based on Chapters 16

Geometry: similarity and mensuration


Geometry

7B
7C
7D
7E
7F
7G

6C

6D

6E

6F

6G

vi

Exercise 7A 256
Area and perimeter 258
Exercise 7B 261
Total surface area 263
Exercise 7C 266
Volume of prisms, pyramids and spheres
Exercise 7D 272
Similar figures 275
Exercise 7E 277
Similar triangles 279
Exercise 7F 281
Area and volume scale factors 283
Exercise 7G 288

253

268

Summary 291
Chapter review 293
ICT activities 297
Answers 298

Trigonometry

301
301

8A Pythagoras theorem

301
Exercise 8A 303
8B Pythagorean triads 305
Exercise 8B 306
8C Three-dimensional Pythagoras theorem
Exercise 8C 308
8D Trigonometric ratios 310
Exercise 8D 314
Introduction sine and cosine rules 316
8E The sine rule 317
Exercise 8E 320
8F Ambiguous case of the sine rule 322
Exercise 8F 324
8G The cosine rule 324
Exercise 8G 326
8H Special triangles 328
Exercise 8H 330
8I Area of triangles 331
Exercise 8I 333

215

215

by a first order difference equation 215


Exercise 6A 217
The relationship between arithmetic sequences and
first order difference equations 218
Exercise 6B 220
The relationship between geometric sequences and
first order difference equations 221
Exercise 6C 222
Setting up first order difference equations to
represent practical situations 223
Exercise 6D 227
Graphical representation of a sequence defined by a
first order difference equation 228
Exercise 6E 231
Interpretation of the graph of first order difference
equations 232
Exercise 6F 234
Fibonacci sequences as second order difference
equations 237
Exercise 6G 239

Contents

253

Chapter 8

6A Generating the terms of a sequence defined

6B

253

7A Properties of angles, triangles and polygons

Trigonometry

Difference equations

251

Chapter 7

Chapter 6

Introduction

Summary 242
Chapter review 244
ICT activities 247
Answers 248

Summary 336
Chapter review 338
ICT activities 343
Answers 344

307

11D Applications

Chapter 9

Exercise 11D

Applications of geometry and


trigonometry 347

Introduction 347
347
Exercise 9A 350
9B Angles of elevation and depression 352
Exercise 9B 354
9C Bearings 356
Exercise 9C 360
9D Navigation and specification of locations 361
Exercise 9D 366
9E Triangulation cosine and sine rules 368
Exercise 9E 372
9F Triangulation similarity 375
Exercise 9F 376
9G Contour maps 378
Exercise 9G 382
9A Angles

Based on Chapters 14, 1011

Loans and investments

399

Chapter 10

Construction and interpretation of


graphs 401
10A Constructing and interpreting straight-line

10B
10C
10D
10E

Summary 427
Chapter review 428
ICT activities 432
Answers 433

414

475

Introduction to growth and decay in


business 475
12A Simple interest 476
Exercise 12A 479
12B Bonds, debentures and term
deposits 480
Exercise 12B 482
12C Compound interest 483
Exercise 12C 488
Introduction to annuities 490
12D Reducing balance loans the annuities
formula 491
Exercise 12D 493
12E Reducing balance loans further
calculations 495
Exercise 12E 505
12F Hire-purchase 508
Exercise 12F 510
12G Reducing balance and flat rate loan
comparisons 512
Exercise 12G 514
12H Effective rate of interest 516
Exercise 12H 517
12I Perpetuities 518
Exercise 12I 520
12J Annuity investments 521
Exercise 12J 526

Summary 529
Chapter review 532
ICT activities 537
Answers 538

Chapter 13

Financial transactions and asset


value 541

Chapter 11

13A Bank accounts

Linear inequations and linear


programming 439
439
Exercise 11A 441
11B Simultaneous linear inequations
Exercise 11B 444
11C Linear programming 445
Exercise 11C 451

473

Chapter 12

ExAm PrACtICE 3

graphs 401
Exercise 10A 407
Line segments and step functions 409
Exercise 10B 411
Simultaneous equations and break-even point
Exercise 10C 417
Interpreting non-linear graphs 418
Exercise 10D 420
Constructing non-linear relations and
graphs 422
Exercise 10E 424

Summary 462
Chapter review 463
ICT activities 467
Answers 468

ExAm PrACtICE 4

Summary 385
Chapter review 387
ICT activities 394
Answers 395

Based on Chapters 14, 79

454
459

11A Linear inequations

442

541
Exercise 13A 545
13B Financial computations 548
Exercise 13B 552
Depreciation 554
13C Flat rate (straight line) depreciation 555
Exercise 13C 557
13D Reducing balance depreciation 558
Exercise 13D 561
Contents

vii

13E Unit cost depreciation

563

15D Network flow

647
Exercise 15D 652
15E Assignment problems and bipartite graphs
Exercise 15E 659

Exercise 13E 564


13F Inflation 566
Exercise 13F 568

Summary 569
Chapter review 571
ICT activities 575
Answers 576

Based on Chapters 14, 14 and 15

579

Undirected graphs and networks

581

581

Exercise 14A 585


14B Planar graphs and Eulers formula
Exercise 14B 591
14C Paths and circuits 592
Exercise 14C 596
14D Trees and their applications 599
Exercise 14D 605

587

Summary 609
Chapter review 611
ICT activities 616
Answers 617

Directed graphs and networks

683

16A Matrix representation

16C
16D

16F

621

networks 621
Exercise 15A 624
15B Critical path analysis 626
Exercise 15B 633
15C Critical path analysis with backward scanning and
crashing 634
Exercise 15C 643

683

687

16B Addition, subtraction and scalar operations with

16E

15A Reachability and dominance in directed

Contents

Matrices

Exercise 16A

Chapter 15

viii

681

Chapter 16

Chapter 14

14A Basic concepts of a network

Summary 663
Chapter review 665
ICT activities 673
Answers 674

ExAm PrACtICE 6

ExAm PrACtICE 5

Based on Chapters 14, 12 and 13

654

matrices 688
Exercise 16B 694
Multiplying matrices 696
Exercise 16C 701
Multiplicative inverse and solving matrix
equations 704
Exercise 16D 707
Application of matrices to simultaneous
equations 709
Exercise 16E 712
Transition matrices 715
Exercise 16F 721

Summary 726
Chapter review 728
ICT activities 733
Answers 734

ExAm PrACtICE 7

Based on Chapters 14 and 16


Exam practice answers

Index

745

743

739

Introduction
Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics Fourth edition is specifically designed for the VCE Further
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Introduction

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xii

Acknowledgements

ChapTer 1

Univariate data
diGiTal doC
doc-9399
10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS
1a
1B
1C
1d
1e
1F
1G
1h
1i
1J

Types of data
Stem plots
Dot plots, frequency histograms and bar charts
Describing the shape of stem plots and histograms
The median, the interquartile range, the range and the mode
Boxplots
The mean
Standard deviation
The 689599.7% rule and z-scores
Populations and simple random samples

1a

Types of data

Univariate data are data that contain one variable. That is, the information deals with only
one quantity that changes. Therefore, the number of cars sold by a car salesman during one week
is an example of univariate data. Sets of data that contain two variables are called bivariate data and
those that contain more than two variables are called multivariate data. You will learn more about
bivariate data in chapter 2.
Data can be numerical, categorical, discrete or continuous. The methods we use to display data
depend on the type of information we are dealing with.

numerical and categorical data


Examples of numerical data are:
1. the heights of a group of teenagers
2. the marks for a maths test
3. the number of universities in a country
4. ages
5. salaries.
As the name suggests, numerical data involve quantities which are, broadly speaking, measurable
or countable.
Examples of categorical data are:
1. genders
2. AFL football teams
3. religions
4. finishing positions in the Melbourne Cup
5. municipalities
6. ratings of 15 to indicate preferences for 5 different cars
7. age groups, for example 09, 1019, 2029
8. hair colours.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with classification
of data.

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

Such categorical data, as the name suggests, have categories like masculine, feminine and neuter
for gender, or Christian, Islamic, Buddhist and so on for religious denomination, or 1st, 2nd, 3rd for
finishing position in the Melbourne Cup.
Note: Some numbers may look like numerical data, but are actually names or titles (for example,
ratings of 1 to 5 given to different samples of cake This ones a 4; the numbers on netball players
uniforms shes number 7). These titles are not countable; they place the subject in a category
(with a name), and so they are categorical.

discrete and continuous data


Data are said to be discrete when a variable can take only certain fixed values. For example, if
we counted the number of children per household in a particular suburb, the data obtained would
always be whole numbers starting from zero. A value in between, such as 2.5, would clearly not
be possible.
Other examples of variables that produce discrete data are the number of crayfish caught in a
fishermans pots each day and the number of people that attend a restaurant each day. If objects can
be counted, then the data are discrete.
Continuous data are obtained when a variable takes any value between two values. If the heights
of students in a school were obtained, then the data could consist of any values between the smallest
and largest heights. The values recorded would be restricted only by the precision of the measuring
instrument.
Other examples of variables that produce continuous data are weight, length and the time to complete
a certain task. If variables can be measured, then the data are continuous.

exercise 1a

Types of data

1 Write whether each of the following represents numerical or categorical data.


a The heights, in centimetres, of a group of children
b The diameters, in millimetres, of a collection of ball-bearings
c The numbers of visitors to an exibit each day
d The modes of transport that students in Year 12 take to school
e The 10 most-watched television programs in a week
f The occupations of a group of 30-year-olds
g The numbers of subjects offered to VCE students at various schools
h Life expectancies
i Species of fish
j Blood groups
k Years of birth
l Countries of birth
m Tax brackets
2 For each set of numerical data identified in question 1 above, state whether the data are discrete or

continuous.
3 mC An example of a numerical variable is:
a
B
C
d
e

attitude to 4-yearly elections (for or against)


year level of students
the total attendance at Carlton football matches
position in a queue at the pie stall
television channel numbers shown on a dial

4 mC The weight of each truck-load of woodchips delivered to the wharf during a one-month period

diGiTal doC
doc-9400
WorkSHEET 1.1

was recorded. This is an example of:


a categorical and discrete data
B discrete data
C continuous and numerical data
d continuous and categorical data
e numerical and discrete data

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

1B

Stem plots

A stem-and-leaf plot, or stem plot for short, is a way of displaying a set


of data. It is best suited to data which contain up to about 50observations
(or records).
The stem plot below shows the ages of people attending an advanced
computer class.
The ages of the members of the class are 16, 22, 22, 23, 30, 32, 34, 36,
42, 43, 46, 47, 53, 57 and 61.
A stem plot is constructed by splitting the numerals of a record into
two parts the stem, which in this case is the first digit, and the leaf,
which is always the last digit.
Stem
1
2
3
4
5
6

Leaf
6
2 2 3
0 2 4 6
2 3 6 7
3 7
1

Key: 2|2 = 22 years old

Worked example 1

The number of cars sold in a week at a large car dealership over a 20-week period is given below.
16
19

12
11

8
6

7
15

26
32

32
18

15
43

51
31

29
23

45
23

Construct a stem plot to display the number of cars sold in a week at the dealership.
Think

WriTe

In this example the observations are one- or


two-digit numbers and so the stems will be the
digits referring to the tens, and the leaves will
be the digits referring to the units.
Work out the lowest and highest numbers in
the data in order to determine what the stems
will be.

Lowest number = 6
Highest number = 51
Use stems from 0 to 5.

Before we construct an ordered stem plot,


construct an unordered stem plot by listing the
leaf digits in the order they appear in the data.

Stem
0
1
2
3
4
5

Now rearrange the leaf digits in numerical


order to create an ordered stem plot.
Include a key so that the data can be
understood by anyone viewing the stem plot.

Stem Leaf
0 6 7 8
1 1 2 5 5 6 8 9
2 3 3 6 9
3 1 2 2
4 3 5
5 1
Key: 2|3 = 23 cars

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Leaf
8 7 6
6 2 5 9 1 5 8
6 9 3 3
2 2 1
5 3
1

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

Worked example 2

The masses (in kilograms) of the members of an Under-17 football squad are given below.
70.3
72.4
68.3

65.1
74.1
69.7

72.9
75.3
71.3

66.9
75.6
68.3

68.6
69.7
70.5

69.6
66.2
72.4

70.8
71.2
71.8

Display the data in a stem plot.


Think

WriTe

In this case the observations contain 3 digits. The


last digit always becomes the leaf and so in this case
the digit referring to the tenths becomes the leaf and
the two preceding digits become the stem.
Work out the lowest and highest numbers in the
data in order to determine what the stems will be.

Lowest number = 65.1


Highest number = 75.6
Use stems from 65 to 75.

Construct an unordered stem plot. Note that the


decimal points are omitted since we are aiming
to present a quick visual summary of data.

Stem
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

Construct an ordered stem plot. Provide a key.

Leaf
1
9 2
6
6
3
2
9

3
7
8
3
4

3
7
5
8
4

1
3 6

Stem Leaf
65 1
66 29
67
68 3 3 6
69 6 7 7
70 3 5 8
71 2 3 8
72 4 4 9
73
74 1
75 3 6
Key: 74|1 = 74.1 kg

Sometimes data which are very bunched make it difficult to get a clear idea about the data variation. To
overcome the problem, we can split the stems. Stems can be split into halves or fifths.
Worked example 3

A set of golf scores for a group of professional golfers trialling a new 18-hole golf course is shown
on the following stem plot.
Stem Leaf
6 1 6 6 7 8 9 9 9
7 0 1 1 2 2 3 7
Key: 6|1 = 61
Produce another stem plot for these data by splitting the stems into:
a halves
b fifths.
4

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Think

WriTe

a By splitting the stem 6 into halves, any leaf

a Stem

digits in the range 04 appear next to the 6, and


any leaf digits in the range 59 appear next to
the 6*. Likewise for the stem 7.

b Alternatively, to split the stems into fifths,

b Stem

each stem would appear 5 times. Any 0s or


1s are recorded next to the first 6. Any 2s or
3s are recorded next to the second 6. Any 4s
or 5s are recorded next to the third6. Any 6s
or 7s are recorded next to the fourth 6 and,
finally, any 8s or 9s are recorded next to the
fifth 6.
This process would be repeated for those
observations with a stem of 7.

exercise 1B

Leaf
6* 1
6* 6 6 7 8 9 9 9
7* 0 1 1 2 2 3
7* 7
Key: 6|1 = 61
Leaf
6 1
6
6
6 6 6 7
6 8 9 9 9
7 0 1 1
7 2 2 3
7
7 7
7
Key: 6|1 = 61

Stem plots

1 In each of the following, write down all the pieces of data shown on the stem plot.
a Stem Leaf
b Stem Leaf

0*
0*
1*
1*
2*
2*
3*
c Stem
10
11
12
13
14
15

1 2
5 8
2 3 3
6 6 7
1 3 4
5 5 6 7
0 2
Leaf
1 2
5 8
2 3 3
6 6 7
1 3 4
5 5 6 7

e Stem Leaf

0*
0*
1*
1*
2*
2*

1
5
0
6
1
5

4
8
2
9 9
1
9

1
2
3
4
5
6

0
3
0
1
5
2

1
3
5 9
2 7

d Stem Leaf

5
5
5
5
5

0
3
4
6
9

1
3
5 5
6 7

The key used for each


stem plot is 3|2 = 32.

2 We1 The money (to the nearest dollar) earned each week

by a busker over an 18-week period is shown below. Construct


a stem plot for the buskers weekly earnings. What can you
say about the buskers earnings?
5
19 11 27 23 35 18 42 29
31 52 43 37 41 39 45 32 36

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

3 The ages of those attending an embroidery class are given below. Construct a stem plot for these data

and draw a conclusion from it.


39
63

68
49

51
52

57
61

63
58

51
59

37
49

Stem
0
1
2
3
4

4 mC The observations shown on the stem plot at right are:


a
B
C
d
e

42
53

4 10 27 28 29 31 34 36 41
14 10 27 28 29 29 31 34 36 41 41
4 22 27 28 29 29 30 31 34 36 41 41
14 22 27 28 29 30 30 31 34 36 41 41
4 2 27 28 29 29 30 31 34 36 41

Leaf
4
2 7 8 9 9
0 1 4 6
1 1

Key: 2|5 = 25
5 The ages of the mothers of a class of children attending an inner-city kindergarten are given below.

Construct a stem plot for these data. Based on your display, comment on the statement Parents of
kindergarten children are very young.
32
28
37

30
29
33

19
34
29

28
32
35

25
35
38

29
39
33

32
30

6 The number of hit outs made by each of the principal ruckmen in each of the AFL teams for Round11

is recorded below. Construct a stem plot to display these data. Which teams had the three highest
scoring ruckmen?
Number of
hit outs

Team
Collingwood
Bulldogs
Kangaroos
Port Adelaide
Geelong
Sydney
Melbourne
Brisbane

Number of
hit outs

Team

19
41
29
24
21
31
40
25

32
34
31
26
29
22
33
28

Adelaide
St Kilda
Essendon
Carlton
West Coast
Fremantle
Hawthorn
Richmond

7 We2 The heights of members of a squad of basketballers are given below in metres. Construct a stem

plot for these data.


1.96
1.95

1.85
2.03

2.03
2.09

2.21
2.05

2.17
2.01

1.89
1.96

1.99
1.97

1.87
1.91

8 The 2008 median house price of a number of Melbourne suburbs is given below. Construct a stem plot

for these data and comment on it.


Suburb
Ashburton
Ashwood
Blackburn
Bulleen
Burwood
Caulfield East
Chadstone
Chettenham
Clayton
Cobury

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Price
( $1000)
670
600
670
628
652
653
608
576
525
526

Suburb
Collingwood
Dancaster
Essendon
Highett
Huntingdale
Ivanhoe
Moonee Ponds
Newport
Oakleigh
Preston

Price
( $1000)
583
620
670
600
517
633
638
536
548
515

9 We3 The data below give the head circumference (to the nearest cm) of 16 four-year-old girls.

48
50

49
50

47
53

52
52

51
43

50
47

49
49

48
50

Construct a stem plot for head circumference, using:


a the stems 4 and 5
b the stems 4 and 5 split into halves
c the stems 4 and 5 split into fifths.
10 A random sample of 20 screws is taken and the length of each is recorded to the nearest millimetre below.
23 15 18 17 17 19 22
19 20 16 20 21 19 23
17 19 21 23 20 21
Construct a stem plot for screw length using:
a the stems 1 and 2
b the stems 1 and 2 split into halves
c the stems 1 and 2 split into fifths.
Use your plots to help you comment on the screw lengths.

dot plots, frequency histograms


andbar charts
1C

Units: 3 & 4

Dot plots, frequency histograms and bar charts display data in graphical form.

AOS: DA

dot plots
In picture graphs, a single picture represents each data value. Similarly, in dot plots, a single dot
represents each data value. Dot plots are used to display discrete data where values are not spread out
very much. They are also used to display categorical data.
Dot plots have a scaled horizontal axis and each data value is indicated by a dot above this scale. The
end result is a set of vertical lines of evenly-spaced dots.

10

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

12

Score
Worked example 4

The number of hours per week spent on art by 18 students is given below.
4
4

0
1

3
3

1
2

3
5

4
3

2
2

2
1

3
0

Units: 3 & 4

Display the data as a dot plot.

Represent each score by a dot on the scale.

Determine the lowest and highest scores and


then draw a suitable scale.

AOS: DA

draW

Think

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Hours/week

Frequency histograms
A histogram is a useful way of displaying large data sets (say, over 50 observations). The vertical axis
on the histogram displays the frequency and the horizontal axis displays class intervals of the variable
(for example, height or income).
When data are given in raw form that is, just as a list of figures in no particular order it is
helpful to first construct a frequency table.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data

Worked example 5

The data below show the distribution of masses (in kilograms) of 60 students in Year 7 at
Northwood Secondary College. Construct a frequency histogram to display the data more
clearly.
45.8
43.5
39.8
54.6

45.9
57.2
42.5
58.7

48.2
38.7
42.9
58.7

48.3
48.5
59.2
39.7

48.4
49.6
53.2
43.1

34.2
56.9
48.2
56.2

Think
1

52.4
43.8
36.2
43.0

52.3
58.3
47.2
56.3

51.8
52.4
46.7
62.3

45.7
54.3
58.7
46.3

56.8
48.6
53.1
52.4

56.3
53.7
52.1
61.2

60.2
58.7
54.3
48.2

44.2
57.6
51.3
58.3

WriTe/draW

First construct a frequency table. The


lowest data value is 34.2 and the highest is
62.3. Divide the data into class intervals.
If we started the first class interval at, say,
30 kg and ended the last class interval at
65 kg, we would have a range of 35. If
each interval was 5 kg, we would then have
7 intervals which is a reasonable number of
class intervals.
While there are no set rules about how
many intervals there should be, somewhere
between about 5 and 15 class intervals is
usual. So, in this example, we would have
class intervals of 3034.9 kg, 3539.9 kg,
4044.9 kg and so on. Complete a tally
column using one mark for each value in
the appropriate interval. Add up the tally
marks and write them in the frequency
column.

Check that the frequency column totals 60.


The data are in a much clearer form now.

A histogram can be constructed.

Class interval
3034.9
3539.9
4044.9
4549.9
5054.9
5559.9
6064.9

Tally
|
||||
||||
||||
||||
||||
|||

||
|||| |||| |
|||| ||||
|||| ||||
Total

Frequency

45.7
53.8
45.7
51.9

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Frequency
1
4
7
16
15
14
3
60

30 3540 45 50 55 60 65
Mass (kg)

Worked example 6

The marks out of 20 received by 30 students for a book-review assignment are given in the
frequency table below.
Mark
Frequency

12
2

13
7

14
6

15
5

16
4

17
2

18
3

Display these data on a histogram.


In this case we are dealing with integer values
(discrete data). Since the horizontal axis should
show a class interval, we extend the base of each
of the columns on the histogram halfway either
side of each score.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

draW

Frequency

Think

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

12 1314 15 16 17 18 19 20
Mark out of 20

19
0

20
1

Bar charts

2 4 6 8 10 12
Number of students

25

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA

20

Topic:

15

Concept:

10

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

5
0 1 2 3 4 5
Number of children in family

In bar charts, the frequency is graphed


against a variable as shown in both figures above.
The variable may or may not be numerical. However, if it
is, the variable should represent discrete data because the scale
is broken by the gaps between the bars. The numerical values
are generally close together and have little spread, for example,
consecutive years.
The bar chart at right represents the data presented in
Worked example 6. It could also have been drawn with
vertical bars (columns).

Mark out of 20

Dog
Cat
Rabbit
Snake
Bird
Goldfish

Number of families

Student pet preferences

A bar chart is similar to a histogram. However, it consists of bars of equal width separated by small,
equal spaces and may be arranged either horizontally or vertically. Bar charts are often used to display
categorical data.

Do more
Interact
with bar charts.

20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Frequency or number of students

Segmented bar charts


A segmented (divided) bar chart is a single bar which is used to represent all the data being studied.
It is divided into segments, each segment representing a particular group of the data. Generally, the
information is presented as percentages and so the total bar length represents 100% of the data.
Consider the following table, showing fatal road accidents in Australia.

Year
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

NSW
483
471
469
453
405
376

Year
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

NSW
539
522
518
500
435
397

Road traffic accidents involving fatalities


Accidents involving fatalities
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
294
284
136
155
39
313
288
128
162
52
316
294
127
151
48
309
314
104
183
42
289
338
107
214
39
278
293
87
189
38
Persons killed
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
330
310
157
180
41
343
311
139
178
58
348
328
148
163
50
337
336
117
202
54
332
360
124
235
45
303
327
99
209
40

NT
44
34
51
39
49
67

ACT
10
10
25
12
14
14

Aust.
1445
1458
1481
1456
1453
1342

NT
53
35
55
42
58
75

ACT
11
10
26
13
14
14

Aust.
1621
1596
1636
1601
1603
1464

diGiTal doC
doc-9401
Spreadsheet
Segmented bar charts

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
segmented graphs.

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010, Year book Australia 200910, cat. no. 1301.0, ABS, Canberra,
table 24.20, p. 638.

It is appropriate to represent the number of accidents involving fatalities in all states and territories
during 2008 as a segmented bar chart.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data

First, we convert each states proportion of accidents out of the total to a percentage.
diGiTal doC
doc-9402
SkillSHEET1.1
Converting a
fraction to a
percentage

State

Number of accidents

Percentage

NSW

376

376 1342 100% = 28.0%

Vic.

278

278 1342 100% = 20.7%

Qld

293

293 1342 100% = 21.8%

SA

87

87 1342 100% = 6.5%

WA

189

189 1342 100% = 14.1%

Tas.

38

38 1342 100% = 2.8%

NT

67

67 1342 100% = 5.0%

ACT

14

14 1342 100% = 1.0%

The segmented bar chart is drawn to scale. An appropriate scale would be constructed by drawing the
total bar 100 mm long, so that 1 mm represents 1%. That is, accidents in NSW would be represented by
a segment of 28 mm, those in Victoria by a segment of 20.7 mm and so on. Each segment is then labelled
directly, or a key may be used.

NSW 28%
Vic. 20.7%

QLD 21.8%
SA 6.5%

WA 14.1%
Tas. 2.8%

NT 5.0%
ACT 1.0%

dot plots, frequency histograms


and bar charts
exercise 1C

diGiTal doC
doc-9403
Spreadsheet
Frequency
histograms

1 We5
Construct a frequency table for each of the following sets of data.
a 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.2 3.6 2.5 4.3 2.5 3.7 4.5 6.3 1.3
b 11 13 15 15 16 18 20 21 22 21 18 19 20 16 18 20 16 10 23 24 25 27 28 30 35

28 27 26 29 30 31 24 28 29 20 30 32 33 29 30 31 33 34
c 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.3 0.4 0.3 0.9 0.6
2 Using the frequency tables from question 1, construct a histogram for each set of data.
3 Using a CAS calculator, construct a histogram for each of the sets of data given in question 1. Compare
this histogram with the one drawn for question 2.
4 We4 The data below represent the number of hours each week that 40 teenagers spent on household

chores. Display these data on a bar chart and a dot plot.


2 5 2 0 8 7 8 5 1 0 2 1 8 0 4 2 2 9 8 5
7 5 4 2 1 2 9 8 1 2 8 5 8 10 0 3 4 5 2 8
5 Using the information provided in the table below:
a calculate the proportion of residents who travelled in 2005 to each of the countries listed
b draw a segmented bar graph showing the major destinations of Australians travelling abroad in

2005.
Short-term resident departures by major destinations

New Zealand
United States of America
United Kingdom
Indonesia
China (excluding Special
Administrative Regions
(SARs))

10

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

2004
( 1000)

2005
( 1000)

2006
( 1000)

2007
( 1000)

2008
( 1000)

815.8
376.1
375.1
335.1
182.0

835.4
426.3
404.2
319.7
235.1

864.7
440.3
412.8
194.9
251.0

902.1
479.1
428.5
282.6
284.3

921.1
492.3
420.3
380.7
277.3

2004
( 1000)

2005
( 1000)

2006
( 1000)

2007
( 1000)

2008
( 1000)

188.2
175.4
159.0
152.6

202.7
196.9
188.5
185.7

288.0
202.4
210.9
196.3

374.4
200.3
221.5
206.5

404.1
236.2
217.8
213.1

144.4

159.8

168.0

181.3

191.0

Thailand
Fiji
Singapore
Hong Kong (SAR of
China)
Malaysia

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010, Year book Australia 200910, cat. no. 1301.0, ABS, Canberra,
table 23.12, p. 621.
6 Presented below is information about adult participation in sport and physical activities in 200506.

Draw a segmented bar graph to compare the participation of all persons from various age groups.
Comment on the statement, Only young people participate in sport and physical activities.
Participation in sport and physical activities(a) 200506
Males

Females

Persons

Age
group
(years)

Number
( 1000)

Participation
rate
(%)

Number
( 1000)

Participation
rate
(%)

Number
( 1000)

Participation
rate
(%)

1824

735.2

73.3

671.3

71.8

1406.4

72.6

2534

1054.5

76.3

1033.9

74.0

2088.3

75.1

3544

975.4

66.7

1035.9

69.1

2011.2

68.0

4554

871.8

63.5

923.4

65.7

1795.2

64.6

5564

670.1

60.4

716.3

64.6

1386.5

62.5

65 and
over

591.0

50.8

652.9

48.2

1243.9

49.4

64.6

5033.7

64.4

9931.5

64.5

Total

4898

(a) Relates

to persons aged 18 years and over who participated in sport or physical activity as a player during the
12 months prior to interview.
Source: Participation in Sport and Physical Activities, Australia, 200506 (4177.0). Viewed 10 October 2008
<http://abs.gov.au/Ausstats>

describing the shape of stem plots


and histograms

Symmetric distributions

The data shown in the histogram at right can be described as


symmetric.
There is a single peak and the data trail off on both sides of
this peak in roughly the same fashion.
Similarly in the stem plot at right, the distribution of the data
could be described as symmetric.
The single peak for these data occur at the stem 3. On
either side of the peak, the number of observationsreduces in
approximately matching fashion.

Frequency

1d

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA

Stem
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

Leaf
7
2 3
2 4
0 2
4 7
2 7
1 3

5
3
8
8

7
6
9

9
8
9

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

11

Skewed distributions
Each of the histograms shown below are examples of skewed distributions.
The figure below left shows data which are negatively skewed. The data in this case peak to the right
and trail off to the left.
The figure below right shows positively skewed data. The data in this case peak to the left and trail off
to the right.

Negatively skewed distribution

Positively skewed distribution

Worked example 7

The ages of a group of people who were taking out


their first home loan is shown below.
Stem Leaf
1 9 9
2 1 2 4 6 7 8 8 9
3 0 1 1 2 3 4 7
4 1 3 5 6
5 2 3
6 7
Key: 1|9 = 19 years old
Describe the shape of the
distribution of these data.

Think

TUTorial
eles-1254
Worked example 7

WriTe

Check whether the distribution is symmetric


or skewed. The peak of the data occurs at the
stem 2. The data trail off as the stems increase in
value. This seems reasonable since most people
would take out a home loan early in life to give
themselves time to pay it off.

The data are positively skewed.

describing the shape of stem plots


and histograms
exercise 1d

1 We7 For each of the following stem plots, describe the shape of the distribution of the data.
a Stem Leaf

0 1 3
1 2 4 7
2 3 4 4 7 8
3 2 5 7 9 9 9 9
4 1 3 6 7
5 0 4
6 4 7
7 1
Key: 1| 2 = 12

12

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

b Stem Leaf

1 3
2 6
3 3 8
4 2 6 8 8 9
5 4 7 7 7 8 9 9
6 0 2 2 4 5
Key: 2|6 = 2.6

c Stem Leaf

2 3 5 5 6
3 0 2 2 3
4 2 2 4 5
5 0 3 3 5
6 2 4
7 5 9
8 2
9 7
10
Key: 10|4 = 104

7 8 9 9
4 6 6 7 8 8
6 6 6 7 9
6

d Stem Leaf

1*
1* 5
2* 1 4
2* 5 7 8 8 9
3* 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4
3* 5 5 5 6
4* 3 4
4*
Key: 2|4 = 24

e Stem Leaf

3
3 8 9
4 0 0 1 1 1
4 2 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 5 5 5
4 6 7
4 8
Key: 4|3 = 0.43

Stem Leaf
60 2 5 8
61 1 3 3 6 7 8 9
62 0 1 2 4 6 7 8 8 9
63 2 2 4 5 7 8
64 3 6 7
65 4 5 8
66 3 5
67 4
Key: 62|3 = 623

2 For each of the following histograms, describe the shape of the distribution of the data and comment

on the existence of any outliers.

Frequency
f
Frequency

Frequency

e
Frequency

c
Frequency

b
Frequency

3 mC The distribution of the data shown in this stem plot could

be described as:
a negatively skewed
B negatively skewed and symmetric
C positively skewed
d positively skewed and symmetric
e symmetric

Stem Leaf
0 1
0 2
0 4 4 5
0 6 6 6
0 8 8 8
1 0 0 0
1 2 2 2
1 4 4 5
1 6 7 7
1 8 9
Key: 1|8 = 18

7
8 9 9
1 1 1 1
3 3 3
5

Frequency

the histogram at right could be described as:


a negatively skewed
B negatively skewed and symmetric
C positively skewed
d positively skewed and symmetric
e symmetric
5 The average number of product enquiries per
day received by a group of small businesses
who advertised in the Yellow Pages telephone
directory is given at right. Describe the shape of the
distribution of these data.

Frequency

4 mC The distribution of the data shown in

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 111213 1415
Number of enquiries

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

13

6 The number of nights per month spent interstate by a

group of flight attendants is shown on the stem plot


at right. Describe the shape of distribution of these
data and explain what this tells us about the number of
nights per month spent interstate by this group of flight
attendants.

Stem
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

Leaf
0 0 1
2 2 3
4 4 5
6 6 6
8 8 8
0 0 1
4 4
5 5
7

1
3 3 3 3 3 3 3
5 5 5 5
6 7
9

Key: 1|4 = 14 nights

7 The mass (to the nearest kilogram)

of each dog at a dog obedience


school is shown on the stem plot
below.
a Describe the shape of the
distribution of these data.
b What does this information
tell us about this group of
dogs?
Stem
0*
0*
1*
1*
2*
2*

Leaf
4
5 7 9
1 2 4 4
5 6 6 7 8 9
1 2 2 3
6 7
Key: |40 = 4 kg

8 The amount of pocket money (to the nearest 50 cents) received each week by students in a

Frequency

Grade 6 class is illustrated in the histogram below.


a Describe the shape of the distribution of these data.
b What conclusions can you reach about the amount of pocket money received weekly by this
group of students?
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.51010.5


Pocket money ($)

9 Statistics were collected over 3 AFL games on the number of goals kicked by forwards over 3 weeks.

This is displayed in the histogram below.


a Describe the shape of the histogram.
b Use the histogram to determine:
i the number of players who kicked 3 or more goals over the 3 weeks
ii the percentage of players who kicked between 2 and 6 goals over the 3 weeks.

Frequency

Number of goals kicked by


players over 3 weeks

diGiTal doC
doc-9404
WorkSHEET 1.2

14

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

5
4
3
2
1
0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Number of goals

The median, the interquartile range,


the range and the mode
1e

After displaying data using a histogram or stem plot, we can make even more sense of the data by
calculating what are called summary statistics. Summary statistics are used because they give us an idea
about:
1. where the centre of the distribution is
2. how the distribution is spread out.
We will look first at four summary statistics the median, the interquartile range, the range and the
mode which require that the data be in ordered form before they can be calculated.

inTeraCTiViTY
int-0084
The median, the
interquartile range, the
range and the mode

Units: 3 & 4

The median

AOS: DA

The median is the midpoint of an ordered set of data. Half the data are less than or equal to the
median.
Consider the set of data: 2 5 6 8 11 12 15. These data are in ordered form (that is, from lowest to
highest). There are 7 observations. The median in this case is the middle or fourth score; that is, 8.
Consider the set of data: 1 3 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 12. These data are in ordered form also; however, in
this case there is an even number of scores. The median of this set lies halfway between the 5th score (7)
7+8
and the 6th score (8). So the median is 7.5. (Alternatively, median = 2 = 7.5.)
n + 1
th pos ition.
When there are n records in a set of ordered data, the median can be located at the
2
Checking this against our previous example, we have n = 10; that is, there were

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

10 + 1

10 observations in the set. The median was located at the 2 = 5.5th position; that is, halfway between
the 5th and the 6th terms.
A stem plot provides a quick way of locating a median since the data in a stem plot are already
ordered.

Worked example 8

Consider the stem plot below which contains 22 observations. What is the median?
Stem
2*
2*
3*
3*
4*
4*

Leaf
3 3
5 7 9
1 3 3 4 4
5 8 9 9
0 2 2
6 8 8 8 9

Think
1

Find the median position, where n = 22.

Key: 3|4 = 34

WriTe

n + 1
Median =
th position
2
22 + 1
=
th position
2
= 11.5th position

Find the 11th and 12th terms.

The median is halfway between the 11th and


12th terms.

11th term = 35
12th term = 38
Median = 36.5

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

15

The interquartile range


Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

We have seen that the median divides a set of data in half. Similarly, quartiles divide a set of data in
quarters. The symbols used to refer to these quartiles are Q1, Q2 and Q3.
The middle quartile, Q2, is the median.
The interquartile range IQR = Q3 Q1.
The interquartile range gives us the range of the middle 50% of values in a set of data.
There are four steps to locating Q1 and Q3.
Step 1. Write down the data in ordered form from lowest to highest.
Step 2. Locate the median; that is, locate Q2.
Step 3. Now consider just the lower half of the set of data. Find the middle score. This score is Q1.
Step 4. Now consider just the upper half of the set of data. Find the middle score. This score is Q3.
The four cases given below illustrate this method.

Case 1
Consider data containing the 6 observations: 3 6 10 12 15 21.
The data are already ordered. The median is 11.
Consider the lower half of the set, which is 3 6 10. The middle score is 6, so Q1 = 6.
Consider the upper half of the set, which is 12 15 21. The middle score is 15, so Q3 = 15.

Case 2
Consider a set of data containing the 7 observations: 4 9 11 13 17 23 30.
The data are already ordered. The median is 13.
Consider the lower half of the set, which is 4 9 11. The middle score is 9, so Q1 = 9.
Consider the upper half of the set, which is 17 23 30. The middle score is 23, so Q3 = 23.

Case 3
Consider a set of data containing the 8 observations: 1 3 9 10 15 17 21 26.
The data are already ordered. The median is 12.5.
Consider the lower half of the set, which is 1 3 9 10. The middle score is 6, so Q1 = 6.
Consider the upper half of the set, which is 15 17 21 26. The middle score is 19, so Q3 = 19.

Case 4
Consider a set of data containing the 9 observations: 2 7 13 14 17 19 21 25 29.
The data are already ordered. The median is 17.
Consider the lower half of the set, which is 2 7 13 14. The middle score is 10, so Q1 = 10.
Consider the upper half of the set, which is 19 21 25 29. The middle score is 23, so Q3 = 23.
Worked example 9

The ages of the patients who attended the casualty department of an


inner-suburban hospital on one particular afternoon are shown below.
14
60
33

3
62
19

27
21
81

42
23
59

19
2
25

17
5
17

73
58
69

TUTorial
eles-1255
Worked example 9

Find the interquartile range of these data.


Think

16

WriTe

Order the data.

2 3 5 14 17 17 19 19 21 23
25 27 33 42 58 59 60 62 69 73 81

Find the median.

The median is 25 since ten scores lie below it and


ten lie above it.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Find the middle score of the lower half of


the data.

For the scores 2 3 5 14 17 17 19 19 21 23,


the middle score is 17.
So, Q1 = 17.

Find the middle score of the upper half of


the data.

For the scores 27 33 42 58 59 60 62 69


73 81, the middle score is 59.5.
So, Q3 = 59.5.

Calculate the interquartile range.

IQR = Q3 Q1
= 59.5 17
= 42.5

A CAS or graphics calculator can be a fast way of locating quartiles and hence finding the value of the
interquartile range.
Worked example 10

Parents are often shocked at the amount of money their


children spend. The data below give the amount spent
(to the nearest whole dollar) by each child in a group that was
taken on an excursion to the Royal Melbourne Show.
15 12 17 23 21 19 16
11 17 18 23 24 25 21
20 37 17 25 22 21 19
Calculate the interquartile range for these data.

Think

WriTe

Enter the data into a calculator. (There is no


need to order it.) Use the calculator to generate
one-variable statistics. Copy down the values of
the first and third quartiles.

Q1 = 17 and Q3 = 23

Calculate the interquartile range.

So, IQR = Q3 Q1
= 23 17
=6

The range
The range of a set of data is the difference between the highest and lowest values in that set.
It is usually not too difficult to locate the highest and lowest values in a set of data. Only when there
is a very large number of observations might the job be made more difficult. In the previous worked
example, the minimum and maximum values were 11 and 37, respectively. The range, therefore, can be
calculated as:
Range = maxX minX
= 37 11
= 26.
While the range gives us some idea about the spread of the data, it is not very informative since it
gives us no idea of how the data are distributed between the highest and lowest values.
Now let us look at another measure of the centre of a set of data: the mode.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data

17

The mode
The mode is the score that occurs most often; that is, it is the score with the highest frequency. If there is
more than one score with the highest frequency, then all scores with that frequency are the modes.
The mode is a weak measure of the centre of data because it may be a value that is close to the
extremes of the data. If we consider the set of data in Worked example 8, the mode is 48 since it occurs
three times and hence is the score with the highest frequency. In Worked example 9 there are two modes,
17 and 19, because they equally occur most frequently.

The median, the interquartile range, the


range and the mode
exercise 1e

1 We8 Write the median, the range and the mode of the sets of data shown in the following stem plots.

The key for each stem plot is 3|4 = 34.

diGiTal doC
doc-9405
Spreadsheet
one-variable
statistics

a Stem Leaf

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

7
2
2
0
4
2
1

3
4
2
7
7
3

b Stem Leaf

5 7 9
3 6 8 8
8 9 9
8

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1

0
2
4
6
8
0
3
5
7

d Stem Leaf

3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4

1
3
5
6
8
1

1
3
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
6 7
9

e Stem Leaf

1
6
8
0
2
4
6
9

0
2
4
6
8
0
3
5

60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

9
0 1 1 1
2 3 3 3 3
5 5 5
7

2
1
0
2
3
4
3
4

5
3
1
2
6
5
5

c Stem Leaf

0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1

1
2
4
6
8
0
2
4
6
8

4
6
8
0
2
4
7
9

5
6
8
0
2
5
7

7
8 9 9
1 1 1 1
3 3 3
5

8
3 6 7 8 9
2 4 6 7 8 8 9
4 5 7 8
7
8

2 For each of the following sets of data, write the median and the range.
a 2 4 6 7 9
b 12 15 17 19 21
c 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
d 3 5 7 8 12 13 15 16
e 12 13 15 16 18 19 21 23 24 26
f 3 8 4 2 1 6 5
g 16 21 14 28 23 15 11 19 25
h 7 4 3 4 9 5 10 4 2 11
i 29 23 22 33 26 18 37 22 16
3a

We9 The number of cars that used the drive-in at a McBurger restaurant during each hour, from
7.00 am until 10.00 pm on a particular day, is shown below.

14 18 8 9 12 24 25 15 18 25 24 21 25 24 14
Find the interquartile range of this set of data.
b On the same day, the number of cars stopping during each hour that the nearby Kennys Fried
Chicken restaurant was open is shown below.
7 9 13 16 19 12 11 18 20 19 21 20 18 10 14
Find the interquartile range of these data.
c What do these values suggest about the two restaurants?
18

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

4 Write down a set of data for which n = 5, the median is 6 and the range is 7. Is this the only set of data

with these parameters?


5 Is it possible to have a set of data in which the:
a lower quartile equals the lowest score?

b IQR is zero?

Give an example of each.


6 mC The quartiles for a set of data are calculated and found to be Q1 = 13, Q2 = 18 and Q3 = 25. Which

of the following statements is true?


The interquartile range of the data is 5.
The interquartile range of the data is 7.
The interquartile range of the data is 12.
The median is 12.
The median is 19.

a
B
C
d
e

7 We10 For each of the following sets of data find the median, the interquartile range, the range and the

mode.
a 16
19
b 22
23
c 1.2
6.1

12
11
25
25
2.3
3.7

8
6
27
21
4.1
5.4

7
15
36
19
2.4
3.7

26
32
31
29
1.5
5.2

32
18
32
28
3.7
3.8

15
43
39
31
6.1
6.3

51
31
29
27
2.4
7.1

29
23
20
22
3.6
4.9

45
23
30
29
1.2

8 For each set of data shown on the stem plots, find the median, the interquartile range, the range and the

mode. Compare these values for both data sets.


a Stem Leaf
b Stem Leaf
2 3 5 5 6 7 8 9 9
1* 4
3 0 2 2 3 4 6 6 7 8 8
1*
4 2 2 4 5 6 6 6 7 9
2* 1 4
5 0 3 3 5 6
2* 5 7 8 8 9
6 2 4
3* 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 4
7 5 9
3* 5 5 5 6
8 2
4* 3 4
9 7
4*
10
Key: 2|1 = 21
11 4
Key: 4|2 = 42
2*|5 = 25

1F

Boxplots

The five number summary statistics that we looked at in the previous section can be illustrated very
neatly in a special diagram known as a boxplot (or box-and-whisker diagram). Thediagram is made up
of a box with straight lines (whiskers) extending from opposite sides of the box.
A boxplot displays the minimum and maximum values of the data together with the quartiles and is
drawn with a labelled scale. The length of the box is given by the interquartile range. A boxplot gives us
a very clear visual display of how the data are spread out.
Minimum
value
Whisker

Q1

Q2
Median

Box

Maximum
value

Q3
Whisker

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about how to
construct boxplots.

25%
of data

25%
of data

25%
of data

25%
of data

A boxplot

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

19

Boxplots can be drawn horizontally or vertically.

Horizontal boxplot

Vertical boxplot

Worked example 11

The boxplot at right shows the distribution of the part-time


weekly earnings of a group of Year 12 students. Write down
the range, the median and the interquartile range for
these data.
Think

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Part-time weekly earnings ($)

WriTe

Range = Maximum value Minimum value.


The minimum value is 20 and the maximum
value is 90.

Range = 90 20
= 70

The median is located at the bar inside the box.

Median = 50

The ends of the box are at 40 and 80.


IQR = Q3 Q1

Q1 = 40 and Q3 = 80
IQR = 80 40
= 40

Earlier, we noted three general types of shape for histograms and stem plots: symmetric, negatively
skewed and positively skewed. It is useful to compare the corresponding boxplots of distributions with
such shapes.
In the figures below, a symmetric distribution is represented in the histogram and in the boxplot. The
characteristics of this boxplot are that the whiskers are about the same length and the median is located
about halfway along the box.

Symmetric histogram

Symmetric boxplot

The figures below show a negatively skewed distribution. In such a distribution, the data peak to the
right on the histogram and trail off to the left.
In corresponding fashion on the boxplot, the bunching of the data to the right means that the left-hand
whisker is longer and the right-hand whisker is shorter; that is, the lower 25% of data are sparse and
spread out whereas the top 25% of data are bunched up.
The median occurs further towards the right end of the box.

Negatively skewed histogram


20

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Negatively skewed boxplot

In the figures below, we have a positively skewed distribution. In such a distribution, the data peak to
the left on the histogram and trail off to the right.
In corresponding fashion on the boxplot, the bunching of the data to the left means that the left-hand
whisker is shorter and the right-hand whisker is longer; that is, the upper 25% of data are sparse and
spread out whereas the lower 25% of data are bunched up.
The median occurs further towards the left end of the box.

Positively skewed histogram

Positively skewed boxplot

Worked example 12

Explain whether or not the histogram and the boxplot shown below could represent the same data.

Think

WriTe

The histogram shows a distribution which is


positively skewed.
The boxplot shows a distribution which is
approximately symmetric.

The histogram and the boxplot could not represent the


same data since the histogram shows a distribution
that is positively skewed and the boxplot shows a
distribution that is approximately symmetric.

Worked example 13

The results (out of 20) of oral tests in a Year 12 Indonesian class are:
15

12

17

13

18

14

16

17

13

11

12

Display these data using a boxplot and discuss the shape obtained.
Think
1

Find the lowest and highest scores, Q1, the


median (Q2) and Q3 by first ordering the
data.

Using these five number summary


statistics, draw the boxplot.

TUTorial
eles-1256
Worked example 13

WriTe/draW

8 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 17 18
The median score is 13.5.
The lower half of the scores are
8 11 12 12 13 13.
So, Q1 = 12
The upper half of the scores are
14 15 16 17 17 18.
So, Q3 = 16.5
The lowest score is 8.
The highest score is 18.

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Results
3

Consider the spread of each quarter of the


data.

The scores are grouped around 12 and 13, as well as


around 17 and 18 with 25% of the data in each section.
The scores are more spread elsewhere.

CAS calculators can also be used to draw boxplots.


ChapTer 1 Univariate data

21

outliers
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Frequency

Units: 3 & 4

When one observation lies well away from other


25
observations in a set, we call it an outlier.
20
Sometimes an outlier occurs because data
15
have been incorrectly obtained or misread.
10
5
For example, at right we see a histogram
0
showing the weights of a group of 5-year-old
16 17 1819 20 21222324 25 26 2728 29 30313233
boys.
Weight (kg)
The outlier, 33, may have occurred because
a weight was incorrectly recorded as 33 rather
than 23 or perhaps there was a boy in this group who, for some medical reason, weighed a lot more than
his counterparts. When an outlier occurs, the reasons for its occurrence should be checked.
To identify possible outliers, we can apply a simple rule.
An outlier is a score, x, which lies outside the interval:
Q1 1.5 IQR x Q3 + 1.5 IQR.
An outlier is not included in the boxplot but simply plotted as a point beyond the end of the whisker.
Worked example 14

The times (in seconds) achieved by the 12 fastest runners in the 100-m sprint at a school athletics
meeting are listed below.
11.2 12.3 11.5 11.0 11.6 11.4
11.9 11.2 12.7 11.3 11.2 11.3
Draw a boxplot to represent the data, describe the shape of the distribution and comment on the
existence of any outliers.
Think

WriTe/draW

Determine the five number summary statistics


by first ordering the data and obtain the
interquartile range.

11.011.211.211.211.311.311.411.5
11.611.912.312.7
Lowest score = 11.0
Highest s core = 12.7
Median = Q2 = 11.35
Q1 = 11.2
Q3 = 11.75
IQR = 11.75 11.2
= 0.55

Identify any outliers by applying the outlier


rule.

Q1 1.5 IQR = 11.2 1.5 0.55


= 10.375
The lowest score lies above 10.375, so there is
no outlier below.
Q3 + 1.5 IQR = 11.75 + 1.5 0.55
= 12.575
The score 12.7 lies above 12.575, so it is an outlier
and 12.3 becomes the end of the upper whisker.

Draw the boxplot with the outlier.


11.0

22

Describe the shape of the distribution. Data


peak to the left and trail off to the right with
one outlier.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

12.0
Time (s)

13.0

The data are positively skewed with 12.7 seconds


being an outlier. This may be due to incorrect
timing or recording but more likely the top eleven
runners were significantly faster than the other
competitors in the event.

exercise 1F

Boxplots

1 We11 For the boxplots shown, write down the range, the interquartile range and the median of the

diGiTal doC
doc-9406
Spreadsheet
Boxplots

distributions which each one represents.


b

a
2 4 6 8 10 12 14

c
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

100

200

300

400

500

d
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110120 130 140

10 15 20 25 30 35

2 We12 Match each histogram below with the boxplot which could show the same distribution.
a

ii

iii

iv

3 We13 For each of the following sets of data, construct a boxplot.


a 3 5 6 8 8 9 12 14 17 18
b 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 12
c 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.6
d 11 13 15 15 16 18 20 21 22 21 18 19 20 16 18 20
e 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.3
4 mC For the distribution shown in the boxplot below, it is true to say that:
a
B
C
d
e

the median is 30
the median is 45
the interquartile range is 10
the interquartile range is 30
the interquartile range is 60

10 20 30 40 50 60 70

5 The number of clients seen each day over a 15-day period by a tax consultant is:

3 5 2 7 5 6 4 3 4 5 6 6 4 3 4
Represent these data on a boxplot.
6 The maximum daily temperatures (in C) for the month of October in Melbourne are:

18 26 28 23 16 19 21 27 31 23 24 26 21 18 26 27
23 21 24 20 19 25 27 32 29 21 16 19 23 25 27
Represent these data on a boxplot.
7 We14 The number of rides that 16 children had at the annual show are listed below.

8 5 9 4 9 0 8 7 9 2 8 7 9 6 7 8
Draw a boxplot to represent the data, describe the shape of the distribution and comment on
the existence of any outliers.
b Use a CAS calculator to draw a boxplot for these data.
a

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

23

8 A concentration test was carried out on 40 students in Year 12 across Australia. The test involved

the use of a computer mouse and the ability to recognise multiple images. The less time required to
complete the activity, the better the students ability to concentrate.
The data are shown by the parallel boxplots below.
Males
Females
20

40

60
Time (s)

100

a Identify two similar properties of the concentration spans for boys and girls.
b Find the interquartile range for boys and girls.
c Comment on the existence of an outlier in the boys data.

1G
Units: 3 & 4

The mean

The mean of a set of data is what is referred to in everyday language as the average.
For the set of data {4, 7, 9, 12, 18}:
4 + 7 + 9 + 12 + 18
5
= 10.

AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

mean =

The symbol we use to represent the mean is x, that is, a lower-case x with a bar on top. So, in this
case, x = 10.
The formal definition of the mean is:
x=

x
n

where x represents the sum of all of the observations in the data set and n represents the number of
observations in the data set.
Note that the symbol, , is the Greek letter, sigma, which represents the sum of.
The mean is also referred to as a summary statistic and is a measure of the centre of a distribution.
The mean is the point about which the distribution balances.
Consider the masses of 7 potatoes, given in grams, in the photograph below.

160 g
170 g

145 g
130 g

190 g
100 g

120 g

The mean is 145 g. The observations 130 and 160 balance each other since they are each 15 g from
the mean. Similarly, the observations 120 and 170 balance each other since they are each 25 g from
the mean, as do the observations 100 and 190. Note that the median is also 145g. That is, for this set
of data the mean and the median give the same value for the centre. This is because the distribution is
symmetric.
Now consider two cases in which the distribution of data is not symmetric.
24

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Case 1
Consider the masses of a different set of 7 potatoes, given in grams below.
100 105 110 115 120 160 200
The median of this distribution is 115 g and the mean is 130 g. There are 5 observations that are less
than the mean and only 2 that are more. In other words, the mean does not give us a good indication
of the centre of the distribution. However, there is still a balance between observations below the
mean and those above, in terms of the spread of all the observations from the mean. Therefore, the
mean is still useful to give a measure of the central tendency of the distribution but in cases where
the distribution is skewed, the median gives a better indication of the centre. For a positively skewed
distribution, as in the previous case, the mean will be greater than the median. For a negatively skewed
distribution the mean will be less than the median.

Case 2
Consider the data below, showing the weekly income (to the nearest $10) of 10 families living in a
suburban street.
$600 $1340 $1360 $1380 $1400 $1420 $1420 $1440 $1460 $1500
In this case, x =

13320
= $1332, and the median is $1410.
10

One of the values in this set, $600, is


clearly an outlier. As a result, the value of
the mean is below the weekly income of the
other 9 households. In such a casethe mean
is not very useful inestablishing the centre;
however,the balance still remains for
thisnegatively skeweddistribution.
The mean is calculated by usingthe
values of the observationsand because
of this it becomes a less reliable
measureofthe centre of thedistribution
when the distribution is skewed or contains
an outlier. Because themedianis based
on the orderoftheobservations rather
than their value, it is a better measure of
thecentre of such distributions.

Worked example 15

Calculate the mean of the set of data below.


10, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 22, 25, 27, 29
Think

WriTe

x
n
10 + 12 + 15 + 16 + 18 + 19 + 22 + 25 + 27 + 29
=
10
x = 19.3

Write the formula for calculating the mean,


where x is the sum of all scores; n is the
number of scores in the set.

x=

Substitute the values into the formula and


evaluate.

The mean, x, is 19.3.

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

25

When data are presented in a frequency table with class intervals and we dont know what the
raw data are, we employ another method to find the mean of these grouped data. This other method
is shown in the example that follows and uses the midpoints of the class intervals to represent the
raw data.
Recall that the Greek letter sigma, , represents the sum of. So, f means the sum of the
frequencies and is the total of all the numbers in the frequency column.
To find the mean for grouped data,
x=

( f m)
f

where f represents the frequency of the data and m represents the midpoint of the class interval of the
grouped data.

Worked example 16

The ages of a group of 30 people attending a superannuation seminar are


recorded in the frequency table below.

Age (class intervals)


2029
3039
4049

Frequency f
1
6
13

TUTorial
eles-1257
Worked example 16

Age (class intervals)

Frequency f

5059
6069
7079

6
3
1

Calculate the mean age of those attending the seminar.


Think
1

26

Since we dont have individual raw


ages, but rather a class interval,
we need to decide on one particular
age to represent each interval. We
use the midpoint, m, of the class
interval. Add an extra column to the
table to display these.
The midpoint of the first interval is
20 + 29
= 24.5, the midpoint of the
2
second interval is 34.5 and so on.
Multiply each of the midpoints by
the frequency and display these
values in another column headed
fm. For the first interval we have
24.5 1 =24.5. For the second
interval we have34.56=207 and
soon.

Sum the product of the midpoints


and the frequencies in the
f m column.
24.5 + 207 + 578.5 + 327 +193.5
+ 74.5 = 1405

Divide this sum by the total number


of people attending the seminar
(given by the sum of the frequency
column).

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

WriTe

Age
(class
intervals)
2029
3039
4049
5059
6069
7079

Frequency
f
1
6
13
6
3
1

Midpoint of
class interval
m
24.5
34.5
44.5
54.5
64.5
74.5

f = 30

1405
30
46.8 (correct to 1 decimal place).

So, x =

fm
24.5
207
578.5
327
193.5
74.5
(f m)
= 1405

exercise 1G

The mean

1 We15 Find the mean of each of the following sets of data.


a 5 6 8 8 9
b 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 12
c 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.6
d 11 13 15 15 16 18 20 21 22
e 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.3
2 Calculate the mean of each of the following and explain whether or not it gives us a good indication of

the centre of the data.


a 0.7 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.92 2.3
b 14 16 16 17 17 17 19 20
c 23 24 28 29 33 34 37 39
d 2 15 17 18 18 19 20
3 The number of people attending sculpture classes at the local TAFE college for each week during the
first semester is given below.
15 12 15 11 14 8 14 15 11 10
7 11 12 14 15 14 15 9 10 11
What is the mean number of people attending each week? (Express your answer to the nearest whole
number.)
4 mC The ages of a group of junior pilots joining an international airline are

Key: 2|1 = 21 years

Stem
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3

Leaf
1
2
4 5
6 6 7
8 8 8 9
0 1 1
2 3
4 4
6
8

Key: 2|4 = 24 people

Stem
0*
0*
1*
1*
2*
2*

Leaf
4
7
2 4
5 5 6 7 8
1 2 4
7 7 7

indicated on the stem plot at right.


The mean age of this group of pilots is:
a 20
B 28
C 29
d 29.15
e 29.5

5 mC The number of people present each

week at a 15-week horticultural course is given by


the stem plot at right.
The mean number of people attending each week
was closest to:
a 17.7
B 18
C 19.5
d 20
e 21.2

6 For each of the following, write down whether the mean or the median would provide a better

indication of the centre of the distribution.


a A positively skewed distribution
b A symmetric distribution
c A distribution with an outlier
d A negatively skewed distribution
7 We16 Find the mean of each set of data given below.
a
Class
Frequency,

interval
09
1019
2029
3039
4049
5059

f
1
3
6
17
12
5

Class
interval
04
59
1014
1519
2024
2529

Frequency,
f
2
5
7
13
8
6

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

27

Class
interval
049
5099
100149
150199
200249
250299

Frequency,
f
2
7
8
14
12
5

Class
interval
16
712
1318
1924
2530
3136

Frequency,
f
14
19
23
22
20
14

8 The ages of people attending a beginners course in karate

are indicated in the following frequency table.


a What is the mean age of those attending the course?
(Express your answer correct to 1decimal place.)
b Calculate the median. What does this value, compared to
the mean, suggest about the shape of the distribution?
Frequency,
f
5
5
7
4
3
2
2
1

Age
1014
1519
2024
2529
3034
3539
4044
4549

1h
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Standard deviation

The standard deviation gives us a measure of how data are spread around the mean. For the set of data
{8, 10, 11, 12, 12, 13}, the mean, x = 11.
The amount that each observation deviates (that is, differs) from the mean is calculated and shown in
the table below.
Particular observation, x

Deviation from the mean, (x x)

8
10
11
12
12
13

8 11 = 3
10 11 = 1
11 11 = 0
12 11 = 1
12 11 = 1
13 11 = 2

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with standard
deviations.

The deviations from the mean are either positive or negative depending on whether the particular
observation is lower or higher in value than the mean. If we were to add all the deviations from the mean
we would obtain zero.
If we square the deviations from the mean we will overcome the problem of positive and negative
deviations cancelling each other out. With this in mind, a quantity known as sample variance (s2) is
defined:
( x x )2
s2 =
.
n 1
Technically, this formula for variance is used when the data set is a sub-set of a larger population.
Variance gives the average of the squared deviations and is also a measure of spread. A far more
useful measure of spread, however, is the standard deviation, which is the square root of variance (s).
One reason for it being more useful is that it takes the same unit as the observations (for example, cm
or number of people). Variance would square the units, for example, cm2 or number of people squared,
which is not very practical.
Other advantages of the standard deviation will be dealt with later in the chapter.

28

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

In summary,
s=
where

x
x
n

( x x )2
n 1
represents sample standard deviation
represents the sum of
represents an observation
represents the mean
represents the number of observations.

While some of the theory or formulas associated with standard deviation may look complex, the
calculation of this measure of spread is straightforward using a statistical, graphics or CAS calculator.
Manual computation of standard deviation is therefore rarely necessary.
Worked example 17

The price (in cents) per litre of petrol at a service station was recorded each Friday over a
15-week period. The data are given below.
152.4
161.0

160.2
156.4

159.6
159.0

168.6
160.2

161.4
162.6

156.6
168.4

164.8
166.8

162.6

Calculate the standard deviation for this set of data, correct to 2 decimal places.
Think
1

On a CAS calculator, enter the data into the


first list in the spreadsheet and label it price.
Select One-Variable Statistics option and
choose price for the X1 List.
Press OK to see all statistics.

The entry, SX: = Sn 1, gives us the standard


deviation. Round the value correct to
2 decimal places.

WriTe

Sx = 4.515 92
s = 4.52 cents/L

Worked example 18

The number of students attending SRC meetings during the term is


given in the stem plot at right. Calculate the standard deviation for this
set of data, correct to 3 decimal places.

Stem Leaf
0* 4
0* 8 8
1* 1 3 4
1* 5 6 8
2* 3
2* 5
Key: 1|4 = 14 students

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

29

Think

WriTe

On your calculator, enter the data from the


stem plot into a spreadsheet.
Using the given key, the scores are: 4, 8, 8, 11,
13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 23 and 25.
To calculate the summary statistics, repeat the
instructions for Worked example 17.

The entry, SX, gives us the standard deviation.


Round the value correct to 3 decimal places.

SX = 6.363 25
s = 6.363 students

Frequency

Frequency

The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data from the mean. Consider the two sets of data
shown below.

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Score

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Score

Each set of data has a mean of 10. The set of data above left has a standard deviation of 1 and the set
of data above right has a standard deviation of 3.
As we can see, the larger the standard deviation, the more spread are the data from the mean.

exercise 1h

Standard deviation

1 We17 For each of the following sets of data, calculate the standard deviation correct

to 2decimal places.
3 4 4.7 5.1 6 6.2
7 9 10 10 11 13 13 14
12.9 17.2 17.9 20.2 26.4 28.9
41 43 44 45 45 46 47 49
0.30 0.32 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.45
2 First-quarter profit increases for 8 leading companies are given below as percentages.
2.3 0.8 1.6 2.1 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.9
Calculate the standard deviation for this set of data and express your answer correct
to 2decimal places.
a
b
c
d
e

3 The heights in metres of a group of army recruits are given below.

1.8 1.95 1.87 1.77 1.75 1.79 1.81 1.83 1.76 1.80 1.92 1.87 1.85 1.83
Calculate the standard deviation for this set of data and express your answer correct
to 2decimal places.
Stem Leaf
4 We18 Times (to the nearest tenth of a second)
11 0
for the heats in the 100m sprint at the school sports
11 2 3
carnival are given at right.
11 4 4 5
Calculate the standard deviation for this set of data
11 6 6
and express your answer correct to 2decimal places.
11 8 8 9
12 0 1
12 2 2 3
12 4 4
12 6
12 9
Key: 11|0 = 11.0 s
30

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

5 The number of outgoing phone calls from an office each day over a 4-week period is shown on the

stem plot below.


Stem Leaf
0 8 9
1 3 4 7 9
2 0 1 3 7 7
3 3 4
4 1 5 6 7 8
5 3 8
Key: 2|1 = 21 calls

Calculate the standard deviation for this set of data and express your answer correct
to 2decimal places.
6 mC A new legal aid service has been operational for only 5weeks.

The number of people who have made use of the service each day during
this period is set out at right.
The standard deviation (to 2 decimal places) of these data is:
a 6.00
B 6.34
C 6.47
d 15.44
e 16.00

rule and z-scores

The heights of a large number of students at a graduation


ceremony were recorded and are shown in the histogram at right.
This set of data is approximately symmetric and has what is
termed a bell shape. Many sets of data fall into this category
and are often referred to as normal distributions. Examples are
birth weights and peoples heights. Data which are normally
distributed have their symmetrical, bell-shaped distribution
centred on the mean value, x .

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA

Frequency

1i The 689599.7%
The 689599.7% rule

Stem Leaf
0* 2 4
0* 7 7 9
1* 0 1 4 4 4 4
1* 5 6 6 7 8 8 9
2* 1 2 2 3 3 3
2* 7
Key: 1|0 = 10 people
1*|6 = 16 people

150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220


Height (cm)

An astounding feature of this type of distribution is that we can predict what percentage of the
data lie 1, 2 or 3 standard deviations either side of the mean using what is termed the 689599.7%
rule.

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about normal
distributions.

The 689599.7% rule for a bell-shaped curve states that approximately:


1. 68% of data lie within 1 standard deviation either side of the mean
2. 95% of data lie within 2 standard deviations either side of the mean
3. 99.7% of data lie within 3 standard deviations either side of the mean.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data

31

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

68%

inTeraCTiViTY
int-0182
The 689599.7%
rule and z-scores

_
xs

_
x

99.7%

95%
_
x+ s

_
x 2s

_
x

_
x + 2s

_
x 3s

_
x

_
x + 3s

In figure 1 above, 68% of the data shown lie between the value which is 1 standard deviation
below the mean, that is x s, and the value which is 1 standard deviation above the mean, that
is, x + s.
In figure 2 above, 95% of the data shown lie between the value which is 2 standard deviations
below the mean, that is, x 2s, and the value which is 2 standard deviations above the mean, that
is x + 2s.
In figure 3 above, 99.7% of the data shown lie between the value which is 3 standard deviations
below the mean, that is, x 3s, and the value which is 3 standard deviations above the mean, that
is, x + 3s.

The wrist circumferences of a group of people


were recorded and the results are shown in the
histogram at right. The mean of the set of data
is 17.7 and the standard deviation is 0.9. Write
down the wrist circumferences between which
we would expect approximately:
a 68% of the group to lie
b 95% of the group to lie
c 99.7% of the group to lie.
Think

a The distribution can be described as

approximately bell-shaped and therefore the


689599.7% rule can be applied.
Approximately 68% of the people have a
wrist circumference between x s and x +s
(or one standard deviation either side of the
mean).

Frequency

Worked example 19

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5


Wrist circumference (cm)

WriTe

a x s = 17.7 0.9 = 16.8

x + s = 17.7 + 0.9 = 18.6


So approximately 68% of the people have a
wrist size between 16.8 and 18.6 cm.

b Similarly, approximately 95% of the people have

b x 2s = 17.7 1.8 = 15.9

c Similarly, approximately 99.7% of the people

c x 3s = 17.7 2.7 = 15.0

a wrist size between x 2s and x + 2s.

have a wrist size between x 3s and x + 3s.

x + 2s = 17.7 + 1.8 = 19.5


Approximately 95% of people have a wrist size
between 15.9 cm and 19.5 cm.
x + 3s = 17.7 + 2.7 = 20.4
Approximately 99.7% of people have a wrist
size between 15.0 cm and 20.4 cm.

Using the 689599.7% rule, we can work out the various


percentages of the distribution which lie between the
34% 34%
mean and 1 standard deviation from the mean and
between the mean and 2 standard deviations from
13.5%
13.5%
2.35% 0.15%
the mean and so on. The diagram at right
0.15% 2.35%
_
_
_
_
_
_ _
summarises this.
x 3s x 2s x s x x + s x + 2s x + 3s
Note that 50% of the data lie below themean and
68%
50% lie above the mean due to the symmetry of the
95%
99.7%
distribution about the mean.
32

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Worked example 20

The distribution of the masses of packets of Fibre-fill breakfast cereal is


known to be bell-shaped with a mean of 250 g and a standard deviation of 5 g.
Find the percentage of Fibre-fill packets with a mass which is:
a less than 260 g
b less than 245 g
c more than 240 g
d between 240 g and 255 g.
Think
1

TUTorial
eles-1258
Worked example 20

WriTe/draW

Draw the bell-shaped curve. Label the axis.


x = 250, x + s = 255, x + 2s = 260 etc.
34% 34%
13.5%
0.15% 2.35%
235 240 245
a 260 g is 2standard deviations above the

mean. Using the summary diagram, we


can find the percentage of data which is
less than 260 g.

b 245 g is 1 standard deviation below the

mean.

c 240 g is 2standard deviations below the

mean.

d Now, 240 g is 2 standard deviations

below the mean while 255 g is 1 standard


deviation above the mean.

13.5%
250

255

2.35% 0.15%

260

265

a Mass of 260 g is 2 standard deviations above the

mean. Percentage of distribution less than 260 g is


13.5% + 34% + 34% + 13.5% + 2.35% + 0.15%
= 97.5%
or 13.5% + 34% + 50%
= 97.5%
b Mass of 245 g is 1 standard deviation below the

mean. Percentage of distribution less than 245 g is


13.5% + 2.35% + 0.15%
= 16%
or 50% 34%
= 16%
c Mass of 240 g is 2 standard deviations below the

mean. Percentage of distribution more than 240 g


is 13.5% + 34% + 34% + 13.5% + 2.35% + 0.15%
= 97.5%
or 13.5% + 34% + 50%
= 97.5%
d Mass of 240 g is 2 standard deviations below the

mean. Mass of 255 g is 1 standard deviation above


the mean. Percentage of distribution between
240 g and 255 g is 13.5% + 34% + 34% = 81.5%

Worked example 21

The number of matches in a box is not always the same. When a sample of boxes was studied it
was found that the number of matches in a box approximated a normal (bell-shaped) distribution
with a mean number of matches of 50 and a standard deviation of 2. In a sample of 200 boxes,
how many would be expected to have more than 48 matches?
Think

WriTe

Find the percentage of boxes with more than


48 matches. Since 48 = 50 2, the score of
48 is 1 standard deviation below the mean.

48 matches is 1 standard deviation below the


mean. Percentage of boxes with more than
48matches
= 34% + 50%
= 84%

Find 84% of the total sample.

Number of boxes = 84% of 200


= 168 boxes

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

33

Standard z-scores
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

To find a comparison between scores in a particular distribution or in different distributions, we use


the z-score. The z-score (also called the standardised score) indicates the position of a certain score in
relation to the mean.
A z-score of 0 indicates that the score obtained is equal to the mean, a negative z-score indicates that the
score is below the mean and a positive z-score indicates a score above the mean.
The z-score measures the distance from the mean in terms of the standard deviation. A score that is
exactly one standard deviation above the mean has a z-score of 1. A score that is exactly one standard
deviation below the mean has a z-score of 1.
To calculate a z-score we use the formula:
xx
z=
s
where x = the score, x = the mean and s = the standard deviation.
Worked example 22

In an IQ test, the mean IQ is 100 and the standard deviation is 15. Dales test results give an IQ
of 130. Calculate this as a z-score.
Think

WriTe

z=

xx
s

Write the formula.

Substitute for x, x and s.

Calculate the z-score.

=2

130 100
15

Dales z-score is 2, meaning that his IQ is exactly two standard deviations above the mean.
Not all z-scores will be whole numbers; in fact most will not be. A whole number indicates only that
the score is an exact number of standard deviations above or below the mean.
Using the previous example, an IQ of 88 would be represented by a z-score of 0.8, as shown below.
xx
s
88 100
=
15

= 0.8

z=

The negative value indicates that the IQ of 88 is below the mean but by less than one standard
deviation.
Worked example 23

To obtain the average number of hours of study done by Year 12 students per week, Kate surveys
20students and obtains the following results.
12 18 15 14
9 10 13 12 18 25
15 10
3 21 11 12 14 16 17 20
a Calculate the mean and standard deviation (correct to 2 decimal places).
b Robert studies for 16 hours each week. Express this as a z-score based on the above results.
(Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.)
Think

a 1 Enter the data into your calculator.

34

WriTe

Obtain the mean from your calculator.

x = 14.25

Obtain the standard deviation from your


calculator.

s = 4.88

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

b z=

b 1 Write the formula for z-score.

Substitute for x, x and s into the formula and


evaluate.

xx
s
16 14.25
4.88

= 0.36

Comparing data
An important use of z-scores is to compare scores from different data sets. Suppose that in your maths
exam your result was 74 and in English your result was 63. In which subject did you achieve the better
result?
At first glance, it may appear that the maths result is better, but this does not take into account the
difficulty of the test. A mark of 63 on a difficult English test may in fact be a better result than 74 if it
was an easy maths test.
The only way that we can fairly compare the results is by comparing each result with its mean and
standard deviation. This is done by converting each result to a z-score.
If, for maths, x = 60 and s = 12, then

xx
z=
s
74 60
12
= 1.17
=

And if, for English, x = 50 and s = 8, then

z=

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with comparisons
of data values.

xx
s

63 50
8
= 1.625

The English result is better because the higher z-score shows that the 63 is higher in comparison to the
mean of each subject.
Worked example 24

Janine scored 82 in her physics exam and 78 in her chemistry exam. In physics, x = 62 and s = 10,
while in chemistry, x = 66 and s = 5.
a Write both results as a standardised score.
b Which is the better result? Explain your answer.
Think

a 1 Write the formula for each subject.

WriTe

a Physics: z =

xx
s
82 62
10

Substitute for x, x and s.

Calculate each z-score.

=2

b Explain that the subject with the highest

z-score is the better result.

Chemistry: z =
=

xx
s
78 66
5

= 2.4

b The chemistry result is better because of the

higher z-score.

In each example the circumstances must be analysed carefully to see whether a higher or lower z-score
is better. For example, if we were comparing times for runners over different distances, the lower z-score
would be the better one.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data

35

The 689599.7% rule and z-scores

exercise 1i

b
Frequency

d
Frequency

Frequency

Frequency

1 In each of the following, decide whether or not the distribution is approximately bell-shaped.

f
Frequency

Frequency

2 Copy and complete the entries on the horizontal scale of the following distributions, given that x = 10

and s = 2.

b
68%

95%

10

10

c
99.7%
10
3 Copy and complete the entries on the horizontal scale of the following distributions, given that x = 5

and s = 1.3.

b
68%

95%

c
99.7%
5
4 We19 The concentration ability of a randomly selected group of adults is tested during a short task

Frequency

which they are asked to complete. The length of the concentration span of those involved during the
task is shown at right.
The mean, x , is 49 seconds and the standard
deviation, s, is 14 seconds.
Write down the values between which we would
expect approximately:
a 68% of the groups concentration spans to fall
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
b 95% of the groups concentration spans to fall
Concentration span (seconds)
c 99.7% of the groups concentration spans to fall.
36

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

5 A research scientist measured the rate of hair

Frequency

growth in a group of hamsters. The findings


are shown in the histogram below.
The mean growth per week was 1.9 mm and
the standard deviation was 0.6 mm. Write
down the hair growth rates between which
approximately:
a 68% of the values fall
b 95% of the values fall
c 99.7% of the values fall.

1
2
3
Growth per week (mm)

6 The force required to break metal fasteners has a distribution which is bell-shaped. A large sample

of metal fasteners was tested and the mean breaking force required was 12 newtons with a standard
deviation of 0.3 newtons.
Write down the values between which approximately:
a 68% of the breaking forces would lie
b 95% of the breaking forces would lie
c 99.7% of the breaking forces would lie.
7 The heights of the seedlings sold in a nursery have a bell-shaped distribution. The mean height is 7 cm
and the standard deviation is 2.
Write down the values between which approximately:
a 68% of seedling heights will lie
b 95% of seedling heights will lie
c 99.7% of seedling heights will lie.
8 mC A set of scores in a competition has a mean of 15 and a standard deviation of 3. The distribution
of the scores is known to be bell-shaped. Which one of the following could be true?
a 68% of the scores lie between 3 and 15.
B 68% of the scores lie between 15 and 18.
C 68% of the scores lie between 12 and 15.
d 68% of the scores lie between 13.5 and 16.5.
e 68% of the scores lie between 12 and 18.
9 mC A distribution of scores is bell-shaped and the mean score is 26. It is known that 95% of scores lie

between 21 and 31.


It is true to say that:
a 68% of the scores lie between 23 and 28.
B 97.5% of the scores lie between 23.5 and 28.5.
C The standard deviation is 2.5.
d 99.7% of the scores lie between 16 and 36.
e The standard deviation is 5.
10 We20 The distribution of heights of a group of Melbourne-based employees who work for a

large international company is bell-shaped. The data have a mean of 160 cm and a standard deviation
of 10 cm.
Find the percentage of this group of employees who are:
a less than 170 cm tall
b less than 140 cm tall
c greater than 150 cm tall
d between 130 cm and 180 cm in height.
11 The number of days taken off in a year by employees of a large company has a distribution which is
approximately bell-shaped. The mean and standard deviation of this data are shown below.
Mean = 9 days
Standard deviation = 2 days
Find the percentage of employees of this company who, in a year, take off:
a more than 15 days
b fewer than 5 days
c more than 7 days
d between 3 and 11 days
e between 7 and 13 days.
ChapTer 1 Univariate data

37

12 mC The mean number of Drool-mints in a packet is 48. The data have a standard deviation of 2. If

the number of mints in a packet can be approximated by normal distribution. The percentage of packets
which contain more than 50 Drool-mints is:
a 0.15%
B 2.5%
C 16%
d 50%
e 84%
13 We21 The volume of fruit juice in
diGiTal doC
doc-9407
SkillSHEET 1.2
percentages

a certain type of container is not


always the same. When a sample of
these containers was studied it was
found that the volume of juice they
contained approximated a normal
distribution with a mean of 250 mL
and a standard deviation of 5 mL.
In a sample of 400 containers, how
many would be expected to have a
volume of:
a more than 245 mL?
b less than 240 mL?
c between 240 and 260 mL?
14 A particular bolt is manufactured such that the length is not always the same. The distribution of the

lengths of the bolts is approximately bell-shaped with a mean length of 2.5 cm and a standard deviation
of 1 mm.
a In a sample of 2000 bolts, how many would be expected to have a length:
i between 2.4 cm and 2.6 cm?
ii less than 2.7 cm?
iii between 2.6 cm and 2.8 cm?
b The manufacturer rejects bolts which have a length of less than 2.3 cm or a length of greater than
2.7 cm. In a sample of 2000 bolts, how many would the manufacturer expect to reject?
15 We22 In a maths exam, the mean score is 60 and the standard deviation is 12. Chifunes mark is 96.

Calculate her mark as a z-score.


16 In an English test, the mean score was 55 with a standard deviation of 5. Adrian scored 45 on the

English test. Calculate Adrians mark as a z-score.


17 IQ tests have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Calculate the z-score for a person with an

IQ of 96. (Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.)


18 The mean time taken for a racehorse to run 1 km is 57.69 s, with a standard deviation of 0.36 s.

Calculate the z-score of a racehorse that runs 1 km in 58.23s.


19 In a major exam, every subject has a mean score of 60 and a standard deviation of 12.5. Clarissa

obtains the following marks on her exams. Express each as a z-score.


a English 54
d Geography 32

b Maths 78
e Art 95

c Biology 61

20 We23 The length of bolts being produced by a machine needs to be measured. To do this, a sample of

20 bolts are taken and measured. The results (in mm) are given below.
20
17

19
17

18
21

21
20

20
17

17
19

19
18

21
22

22
22

21
20

a Calculate the mean and standard deviation of the distribution.


b A bolt produced by the machine is 22.5 mm long. Express this result as a z-score. (Giveyour

answer correct to 2 decimal places.)


21 mC In a normal distribution, the mean is 21.7 and the standard deviation is 1.9. A score of

20.75 corresponds to a z-score of:


a 1
B 0.5

C 0.5

d 1

e 0.75

22 mC In a normal distribution the mean is 58. A score of 70 corresponds to a standardised score of 1.5.

The standard deviation of the distribution is:


a 6
B 8
C 10
38

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

d 12

e 9

23 We24 Kens English mark was 75 and his maths mark was 72. In English, the mean was 65 with a

standard deviation of 8, while in maths the mean mark was 56 with a standard deviation of 12.
a Convert the mark in each subject to a z-score.
b In which subject did Ken perform better? Explain your answer.
24 In the first maths test of the year, the mean mark was 60 and the standard deviation was 12. In the

second test, the mean was 55 and the standard deviation was 15. Barbara scored 54 in the first test and
50 in the second test. In which test did Barbara do better? Explain your answer.
25 The table below shows the average number of eggs laid per week by a random sample of chickens with
3 different types of living conditions.
Number of eggs per week
Cage chickens

Barn chickens

Free range chickens

5.0

4.8

4.2

4.9

4.6

3.8

5.5

4.3

4.1

5.4

4.7

4.0

5.1

4.2

4.1

5.8

3.9

4.4

5.6

4.9

4.3

5.2

4.1

4.2

4.7

4.0

4.3

4.9

4.4

3.9

5.0

4.5

3.9

5.1

4.6

4.0

5.4

4.1

4.1

5.5

4.2

4.1

a Copy and complete the following table by calculating the mean and standard deviation of barn

chickens and free range chickens correct to 1 decimal place.


Living conditions

Free
Cage Barn range

Mean

5.2

Standard deviation

0.3

b A particular free range chicken lays an

average of 4.3 eggs per week. Calculate the


z-score relative to this sample to 2 decimal
places.
The number of eggs laid by free range
chickens is normally distributed. A free
range chicken has a z-score of 1.
c Approximately what percentage of chickens
lay fewer eggs than this chicken?
d Referring to the table showing the number of
eggs per week, construct boxplots for each
set of data.
i State the median of each set of data.
ii What could be concluded about the
egg-producing capabilities of chickens in
different living conditions?
ChapTer 1 Univariate data

39

populations and simple random


samples
1J

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

populations

A group of Year 12 students decide to base their statistical investigation for a maths project on what
their contemporaries that is, other Year 12 students spend per year on Christmas and birthday
presents for their family members. One of their early decisions is to decide what the population is
going to be for their investigation. That is, are they looking at Year 12 students in Australia or in
Victoria or in metropolitan Melbourne or in their suburb or just in their school? In practice, it is
difficult to look at a large population unless, of course, you have a lot of resources available to you!
The students decide that their population will be the Year 12 students at their school. This means that
any conclusions they draw as a result of their investigation can be generalised to Year 12 students at
their school but not beyond that.

Samples
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about simple
random samples.

Given that there are 95 students in Year 12 at the school, it would be too time-consuming to interview
all of them. A smaller group known as a sample is therefore taken from the population. The way in
which this smaller group is chosen is of paramount importance. For the investigation to have credibility,
the sample should be a random selection from the population and every member of that population
should have an equal chance of being chosen in the sample. Also, the selection of one person from the
population should not affect whether or not another person is chosen; that is, the selections should be
independent. A simple random sample provides such a sample.
The students conducting the investigation decide to choose a sample of 12 fellow students. While it
would be simplest to choose 12 of their mates as the sample, this would introduce bias since they would
not be representative of the population as a whole.
The students obtain a list of names of the 95 students in Year 12. They then write next to the
name of each student a number from 1 to 95. Using a calculator, the students generate 12 random
numbers between 1 and 95. Alternatively, the students could have used a table of random numbers.
Any point on the table can be taken as the starting point. The students decide which direction to
move through the table; for example, across the table to the right or to the left or down. Once a
direction is chosen, they must stay with that movement and write down the 2-digit numbers as they
go along.
The numbers chosen by the students are then matched to the numbers on the name list and the
students in their sample can be identified.
These 12 students are then asked what they spent in the last year on family presents.
The students conducting the investigation can then record the data.
Random numbers can also be generated with the aid of a CAS calculator.
Worked example 25

Generate 5 random numbers (integers) between 1 and 50.


Think

40

WriTe

From the calculator menu choose


probability and random integer.

Since the numbers be generated are to be


between 1 and 50 and there are to be 5
numbers enter 1, 50 and 5 in that order.

rand Int (1, 50, 5)

An example of a set of numbers is


displayed.

{48, 46, 8, 26, 21}.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

displaying the data


The raw data are given below in dollars.
25 30 35 38 34 22 30 40 35 25 32 40
Since there are not many responses, a stem plot is an appropriate
way of displaying the data.
To summarise and comment further on the sample, it is useful to use some
of the summary statistics covered earlier in this chapter. The most efficient
way to calculate these is to use a CAS calculator. Using the steps outlined in
the previous sections, we obtain a list of summary statistics for these data.

Stem Leaf
2* 2
2* 5 5
3* 0 0 2 4
3* 5 5 8
4* 0 0
Key: 2|2 = 22 dollars
2*|5 = 25 dollars

x = 32.2
s=6
Q1 = 27.5
median = 33
Q3 = 36.5
To measure the centre of the distribution, the median and the mean are used. Since there are no
outliers and the distribution is approximately symmetric, the mean is quite a good measure of the centre
of the distribution. Also, the mean and the median are quite close in value.
To measure the spread of the distribution, the standard deviation and the interquartile range are used.
Since s = 6, and since the distribution is approximately bell-shaped, we would expect that approximately
95% of the data lie between 32.2+12 = 44.2 and 32.212 = 20.2. It is perhaps a little surprising
to think that 95% of students spend between $20.20 and $44.20 on family presents. One might have
expected there to be greater variation on what students spend. The data, in
that sense, are quite bunched.
The interquartile range is equal to 36.5 27.5 = 9. This means
that 50% of those in the sample spent within $9 of each other on
family presents. Again, one might have expected a greater variation
in what students spent. It would be interesting to know whether
students confer about what they spend and therefore whether they
tended to allocate about the same amount of money to spend.
At another school, the same investigation was undertaken and
the results are shown in the following stem plot.
Stem
2*
2*
3*
3*
4*
4*
5*
5*
6*
6*
7*
7*

Leaf
0
5 5
5
5
0
5
0
5

5
0
5
0

Key: 2|2 = 22 dollars


2*|5 = 25 dollars
The summary statistics for these
data are as follows:
x = 47.5, s = 16.3, Q1 = 35,
median = 50, Q3 = 60.
The distribution is approximately symmetric, albeit very spread out. The mean and the median are
therefore reasonably close and give us an indication of the centre of the distribution. The mean value for
this set of data is higher than for the data obtained at the other school. This indicates that students at this
school in this year level, in general, spend more than their counterparts at the other school. Reasons for
ChapTer 1 Univariate data

41

this might be that this school is in a higher socio-economic area and students receive greater allowances, or
perhaps it is that at this school there is a higher proportion of students from cultures where spending more
money on family presents is usual.
The range of money spent on family presents at this school and at this particular year level is $55.
This is certainly much higher than at the other school. The interquartile range at this school is $25. That
is, the middle 50% of students spend within $25 of each other which is greater than the students at the
other school.

exercise 1J

populations and simple random samples

1 mC Students are selecting a sample of students at their school to complete an investigation. Which of

the following are examples of choosing this sample randomly?


a Choosing students queuing at the tuckshop.
B Assigning numbers to a list of student names and using a random number table to select random
numbers.
C Calling for volunteers.
d Choosing the girls in an all-girls science class.
e Choosing students in a bus on the way home.
2 Conduct an investigation into how much money students in your year level earn per week (this might
be an allowance or a wage). Write a report on your findings, ensuring you include:
a an explanation of the population for your investigation
b the manner in which your sample was selected
c the number in your sample
d your results as raw data
e your results in a stem plot or histogram
f the summary statistics for your data.
Comment on your results based on the summary statistics.
3 Repeat question 2, but this time investigate the following for students in your year level:
a the number of hours spent on homework each week
b the number of hours spent working in part-time jobs.
4 Conduct a similar investigation to that which you completed in questions 2 and 3; however, this time
sample students in another year group. Compare these data with those obtained for your year level.

42

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Summary
Types of data

Univariate data are data with one variable. Sets of data that contain two variables are called
bivariate data and those that contain more than two variables are called multivariate data.
Numerical data involve quantities that are measurable or countable.
Categorical data, as the name suggests, are data that are divided into categories or groups.
Discrete data are produced when a variable can take only certain fixed values.
Continuous data are produced when a variable can take any value between two values.

Stem plots

A stem-and-leaf plot (or stem plot) is a useful way of displaying data containing up to about
50observations.
A stem plot is constructed by breaking the numerals of a record into two parts: a stem and
a leaf. The last digit is always the leaf and any preceding digits form the stem.
When asked to represent data using a stem-and-leaf plot, it is always assumed that the stem-andleaf plot willbe ordered.
If data are bunched then it may be useful to break the stems into halves or even fifths.

dot plots,
frequency
histograms and
bar charts

On a frequency histogram, the vertical axis displays the frequency and the horizontal axis displays
the classintervals.
Data given in raw form should be summarised first in a frequency table.

describing the shape


of stem plots and
histograms

When data are displayed in a histogram or a stem plot, we say that the distribution of those data is:
1. symmetric if there is a single peak and the data trail off on either side of this peak in roughly the
samefashion
2. negatively skewed if the data peak to the right and trail off to the left
3. positively skewed if the data peak to the left and trail off to the right.

The median, the


interquartile range,
the range and the
mode

The median is the midpoint of a set of data. Half the data are less than or equal to the median.
When there are n observations in a set of ordered data, the median can be located at the

Boxplots

n + 1

th position.
2
The interquartile range IQR = Q3 Q1.
The interquartile range gives us the range of the middle 50% of values in our set of data.
There are four steps to locating Q1 and Q3.
Step 1: Write down the set of data in ordered form from lowest to highest.
Step 2: Locate the median, that is, locate Q2.
Step 3: Now consider just the lower half of the set of data. Find the middle score. This score is Q1.
Step 4: Now consider just the upper half of the set of data. Find the middle score. This score is Q3.
The range of a set of data is the difference between the highest and lowest values in that set.
The mode is the score that occurs most often. If there is more than one score with the highest
frequency, then all scores with that frequency are the modes.

When data are displayed in a


boxplot we say that the
Minimum
Q2
distribution of the data is:
Q1
value
Median
1. symmetric if the whiskers
Whisker
are about the same length
and the median is about
halfway along the box
2. negatively skewed if the
left-hand whisker is longer
25%
25%
than the right-hand whisker
of data
of data
and the median occurs closer
to the right-hand end of the box

Box

25%
of data
A boxplot

Q3

Maximum
value
Whisker

25%
of data

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

43

3. positively skewed if the left-hand whisker is shorter than the right-hand whisker and the median
occurs closer to the left-hand end of the box.
4. An outlier is a score, x, which lies outside the interval:
Q1 1.5 IQR x Q3 + 1.5 IQR
The mean

x
The mean is given by x = n where x represents the sum of all the observations in the data set
and n represents the number of observations in the data set.
The mean is calculated by using the values of the observations and because of this it becomes a
less reliable measure of the centre of the distribution when the distribution is skewed or contains an
outlier.
( f m )
where f represents the frequency of the data and
To find the mean for grouped data, x =
f
m represents the midpoint of the class interval of the grouped data.
The more symmetrical the distribution, the closer the value of the mean is to the median.

Standard deviation

The standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data from the mean. The symbol for standard
deviation is s.
where: represents the sum of
( x x ) 2
x represents an observation
s=
n 1
x represents the mean
n represents the number of observations
The larger the standard deviation, the more spread are the data from the mean.

The 689599.7% rule


and z-scores

The 689599.7% rule for a bell-shaped curve states that:


1. approx. 68% of data lie within 1 standard deviation either side of the mean
2. approx. 95% of data lie within 2 standard deviations either side of the mean
3. approx. 99.7% of data lie within 3 standard deviations either side of the mean.
The z-score is used to measure the position of a score in a data set relative to the mean.
xx
, where x is the score, x is the mean and s is
The formula used to calculate the z-score is z =
s
the standard deviation.
Scores can be compared more accurately by their z-scores, which consider the mean and the
standard deviation of the data set in their calculations.
When comparing scores, read the question carefully to see if a higher or lower z-score is a better
outcome.

populations and
simple random
samples

44

A population, in statistics, is a group of people (or objects) to whom you can apply any
conclusions or generalisations that you reach in your investigation.
A sample, in statistics, is a smaller group of people (or objects) who have been chosen from the
population and are involved in the investigation.
A simple random sample is a random selection from the population such that every member of that
population has an equal chance of being chosen in the sample and the choice of one member does
not affect the choice of another member.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Chapter review
1 The best distances that a group of twenty 16-year-old competitors achieved in the long jump event at an

athletics meeting are recorded.


This is an example of:
a discrete, numerical data
B continuous, numerical data
C categorical data
d discrete, categorical data
e continuous, categorical data
2 The observations shown on the stem-and-leaf plot below right are:
a 20 21 26 27 28 29 30 31 35
B 20 20 21 26 27 28 29 30 31 31 35
C 20 21 26 27 28 29 30 31 35
d 20 20 21 26 27 28 29 29 30 31 31 35
e 20 21 26 27 28 29 29 30 31 35

m U lTip l e
C ho iC e

Stem Leaf
2* 0 0 1
2* 6 7 8 9 9
3* 0 1 1
3* 5
Key: 2|1 = 21

Stem Leaf
8 59
a seating capacity of 150, during the Australian Open Tennis Tournament are
9 2349
displayed in the stem plot at right. Which of the following statements is untrue
10 558
about the data?
11 01667
a The smallest number of people attending was 85.
12 47788
B Only during six sessions did attendance fall below 100.
13 5799
C The largest number of people attending was 140.
14 02
d On six occasions the number of people attending was more than 130.
e On one occasion the number of people attending was only eight less than the
Key: 9|2 = 92
seating capacity.
4 Which one of the following frequency tables accurately summarises the scores shown below?
3 The number of people attending 25 of the sessions at an outside court, which has

7
1
3
a

Score Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

2
3
2
5
2
4
6
3
2

Score Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

9
3
8

2
3
3
4
1
3
4
3
4

6
4
1

3
6
7

8
2
6

7
8
5

Score Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

4
7
2

3
2
3
1
5
2
3
4
3

9
9
4

2
4
9
C

Score Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

3
2
1
3
1
5
3
2
4

Score Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

3
4
3
2
2
1
3
2
1

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

45

5 The distribution of data shown in the stem plot at right could best be

Frequency

described as:
a negatively skewed
B negatively skewed with one outlier
C positively skewed
d positively skewed with one outlier
e symmetric
6 The distribution of the data shown in the histogram below could best be
described as:
a negatively skewed
B negatively skewed with one outlier
C positively skewed
d positively skewed with one outlier
e symmetric

Stem Leaf
2* 3 4
2* 5 6 8
3* 0 1 2 3 4 4
3* 5 5 7 9 9
4* 0 1 3 3
4* 6 8 8
5* 0 1
5* 6
6*
6* 9
Key: 3|1 = 31

7 A set of data contains 7 observations and has a median of 5 and a range of 3. The set of data could be:
a 4 4 5 6 7
d 1 3 5 5 5 6 7

B 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
e 3 5 7

C 4 5 5 5 6 7 7

8 The median of the set of data shown in the stem plot below is:

a 5

Stem Leaf
1 2 3
2 0 4 5 7
3 1 2 5 9
4 1 3 6 7
5 2 9 9
6 3
Key: 2|4 = 24
C 9

B 7

d 9.5

e 37

9 For the distribution shown in this boxplot, it is true to say that:


a
B
C
d
e

the range is 35
the interquartile range is 10
the median is 20
the interquartile range is 25
the median is equal to the interquartile range

10 15 20 25 30 35

10 A distribution has a range of 80, an interquartile range of 30 and a median of 50. Which one of the

following boxplots could represent this distribution?


C

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 x

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

11 The boxplot at right represents the lengths of barracuda

caught by fishing boats during one day. Which one of


the following statements is not true about these data?
a The data contain an outlier.
B The shortest length is 0.4 m.
C The median is 60 cm.
d The interquartile range is 0.2 m.
e The distribution is positively skewed.
46

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Length of fish (m)

1.2

12 For the following set of data, 14 18 20 21 23 23 24 25 29 30, the mean is:


a 10

B 22.666666

C 22.7

d 23

e 24.222222

13 The ages of a group of students entering university for the first time is shown on the stem plot below.

What is the mean age?


a 18
B 18.9
C 19
d 20.9
e 21

Frequency

Stem Leaf
1
1* 5 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9
2 0 0 0 1 1
2* 6 8
3 1
3* 5
Key: 1*|5 = 15 years
14 In which case below would you expect the mean to be greater than the median?
a
B Stem Leaf
1*
1* 5
2* 1 4
2* 5 7 8 8 9
3* 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4
3* 5 5 5 6
4* 3 4
4*
C The data:
d
11 13 16 17 18 18 19 20
Frequency

Key: 2|4 = 24

15 In which case in question 14 is the median not necessarily the better measure of the centre of the data?
16 The Millers obtained a number of quotes on the price of having their home painted. The quotes, to the

nearest hundred dollars, were:

4200
5100
4700
4600

4800
5000
4700
4900

The standard deviation for this set of data, to the nearest whole dollar, is:
B 278
C 324
d 325

a 277

17 The number of Year 12 students who spent their spare periods studying

in the resource centre during each week of terms 3 and 4 is shown on the
stem plot at right.
The standard deviation for this set of data, to the nearest whole number is:
a 10
B 12
C 14
d 17
e 35

e 4750

Stem Leaf
0 8
1
2 5 6 6 7
3 0 2 3 6 9
4 7 9
5 6
6 1
Key: 2|5 = 25 students

18 The lifetime (in hours) of a particular type of battery is known to have a distribution which is bell-

shaped. A large number of batteries of this type are sampled and are found to have a mean lifetime
of 1200 hours and a standard deviation of 10 hours. We would expect that approximately 95% of the
batteries in the sample would have a lifetime (in hours) between:
a 10 and 1200
B 1170 and 1230
C 1200 and 1210
d 1180 and 1220
e 1190 and 1210
ChapTer 1 Univariate data

47

19 A set of marks from a maths test has a mean of 45 and a standard deviation of 5. The distribution of

the marks is known to be bell-shaped. Which of the following statements is false?


a Approximately 68% of the marks lie between 40 and 50.
B The distribution is approximately symmetric.
C Approximately 95% of the marks lie between 35 and 50.
d A mark in the twenties would be most unusual.
e Approximately 99.7% of the marks lie between 30 and 60.
20 The mean length of a large batch of broom handles is 120 cm. The data have a standard deviation of

3cm. The percentage of broom handles, in this batch, which are shorter than 114 cm is:
a 0.15%
B 2.5%
C 13.5%
d 16%
e 34%
21 The mean birth weight of babies
at a hospital is 2.8 kg with a standard
deviation of 0.4 kg. The standardised score
for a weight of 3.3 kg would be:
a 0.73
B 1.25
C 1.04
d 1.25
e 1.04

Sh orT
anS Wer

1 Write an example of a variable which produces:


a categorical data
b numerical data that are:
i discrete

ii continuous.

2 The money (rounded to the nearest whole dollar) raised by fifteen Year 12 students is shown below.

78

84

61

73

71

83

87

65

60

67

71

82

84

79

78

Construct a stem plot for the amount raised using:


a the stems 6, 7 and 8
b the stems 6, 7 and 8 split into halves
c the stems 6, 7 and 8 split into fifths.
Discuss your results.
3 a The following frequency table shows the speeds of cars recorded by police. The cars were travelling
through a 60 km/h zone. Construct a histogram to display the data.
Class interval
5051.9
5253.9
5455.9
5657.9
5859.9
6061.9
6263.9
6465.9
6667.9
6869.9
7071.9
7273.9
7475.9
b Check your work using a CAS calculator.
c Draw two conclusions about these data.
48

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Frequency
3
5
6
7
9
10
9
10
8
5
3
4
2

Stem Leaf
0 8 9
1 2 3 4
2 1 2 2
3 0 1 4
4 3 5 6
5 1 3 5
6 4 6
7 6
Key: 0|8 = $8
5 Find the range, the median, the mode and the interquartile range of this set of data.
4 The money raised (to the nearest whole dollar) by each student

in a Year 3 class on the school walkathon is shown in the stem


plot at right.
a Describe the shape of the distribution of these data.
b Describe how this distribution would need to change for it
to become a symmetric one.

7
3 5 7 9
5 8
7

Stem Leaf
0
2
0* 5 6 6 8 9
1
0 2 2 4 4 4
1* 5 5 7 8 8 9
2
1 3
2* 6
Key: 1|4 = 14
6 a For the set of data below, construct a boxplot to display the distribution.

2
1

5
4

4
6

6
8

3
7

7
5

9
2

8
9

5
5

3
6

b Describe the shape of the distribution.


7 The ages of a group of people attending a classical music recital are shown in the frequency table below.

Age (class interval)


4044
4549
5054
5559
6064
6569
7074
7579

Frequency
4
6
11
16
23
18
10
2

Calculate the mean age of those attending the recital.


8 A chemical component is added to a filtering system on a weekly basis. The amount of chemical

component required each week varies. The amounts required (in mL) over the past 20 weeks are shown
in the stem plot below.
Calculate to 2 decimal places the standard deviation of the amounts used.
Stem
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3

Leaf
1
2 2
4 4 4 5
6 6
8 8 9 9
0
2 2
4 5
6
8

Key: 3|8 = 0.38 mL


ChapTer 1 Univariate data

49

9 The life spans of dogs of a particular breed follow a bell-shaped distribution. A group of this particular

breed at a dog club was found to have a mean life span of 12 years with a standard deviation of
1.2years.
a For this group, write down the expected values between which the life spans of approximately:
i 68% of the dogs would lie
ii 95% of the dogs would lie
iii 99.7% of the dogs would lie.
b What does this information suggest about this breed?
10 Ricardo scored 85 on an entrance test for a job. The test has a mean score of 78 and a standard
deviation of 8. Kory sits a similar test and scores 27. In this test, the mean is 18 and the standard
deviation is 6. Based on this test, who is the better candidate for the job? Explain your answer.
e x Tended
r e S p onS e

1 Mr Fahey gives the same test to the two Year 10 classes that he teaches, 10C and 10E. The test is out of

20. The results in 10C are:


4
13
17

7
14
17

7
14
18

9
15
18

9
15
18

10
15
19

10
16
19

11
17

12
17

8
13
14

9
13
15

10
13
15

11
13
15

11
14
16

12
14
16

12
14
19

12
14

13
14

The results in 10E are:

a For each of these sets of data:


i display the data using a histogram or a stem plot. Give reasons for your choices. Also describe

the shapes of the distribution


calculate the median, the interquartile range, the range and the mode
represent each set of data using a boxplot
calculate the mean and the standard deviation
state whether the mean or the median is a better measure of the centre of each distribution
comment as to whether the 689599.7% rule can be applied to either of the distributions.
b Using the summary statistics you have calculated, comment on and compare the performances of
10C and 10E on the test.
2 A group of office workers and a group of sports instructors were asked to complete 5 minutes of
exercise as part of a study of heart rates. Following the exercise, participants rested for 2minutes before
their pulse rates were measured. The results are set out below in the stem plots.
ii
iii
iv
v
vi

Pulse rates for office


workers (beats/min)
Stem Leaf
7 6
8
9 5
10 6 7
11 0 2
12 0 1 2 4 6 7 9
13 0 0 4
a
b
c
d
e
f

50

Pulse rates for sports


instructors (beats/min)
Stem Leaf
6 2 4 8 8 9
7 2 2 3 5 7 9
8 2 8
9 6
10 8
Key: 12|4 = 124 beats/min

Describe the shape of each distribution.


Calculate the median, the interquartile range, the mode and the range for both.
Represent each set of data using a boxplot.
Calculate the mean and the standard deviation for both sets of data.
Comment as to whether the 689599.7% rule can be applied to either of the distributions.
Use the summary statistics that you have calculated to comment on the pulse rates of each group,
noting any differences between the two.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

3 A hatch of Atlantic salmon has been reared in a coastal environment over a period of 12 months. The

lengths (to the nearest cm) of a sample of 20, out of the total number of 10 000 fish, are shown below.
13 16 17 14 16 19 15 17 16 15
16 18 16 13 17 14 18 15 19 16
a Describe the type of data that the variable produces.
b Construct an appropriate stem plot from these data and use it to describe the shape of the distribution.
c Using your stem plot, calculate the five number summary statistics and then draw a boxplot.
d Describe the shape of the distribution from the boxplot.
e Does the stem plot or boxplot give a better indication of the distributions shape?
f For a symmetric distribution the mean is the same as the median. Is that the case here?
g Given that the distribution is symmetric, the whole population of these salmon would form a normal
or bell-shaped distribution. Find the standard deviation (to 2 decimal places) for this sample and use
it, along with the mean, to find the number of fish with lengths greater than 17.75 cm.
The same number of salmon was reared in a river environment over the same period of time. The
lengths of 20fish in a sample are shown below.
18 20 17 19 16 19 19 17 16 18
19 18 12 18 17 14 18 15 19 17
h Use an appropriate method to help you describe the shape of this distribution.
i Determine how many of this population of 10 000 salmon would have a length greater than
19.25 cm (calculate the standard deviation to 2 decimal places).
j Comment on the growth of each hatch of salmon over the 12 months.
4 The birth weights (in kg) of 50 of the 220 babies that were born at a hospital during a one-month period
are listed below.
2.9 2.7 3.1 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.9 2.6 3.2 4.1
2.3 2.8 2.4 3.2 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.9 3.0 2.2
3.4 3.1 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.9 3.4 3.1 2.3 3.5
3.1 3.0 2.9 3.6 3.1 2.7 2.6 1.8 1.9 3.6
2.0 3.4 3.5 2.4 3.5 3.0 2.2 2.8 3.5 3.1
a Construct a frequency histogram for the data using class intervals of 1.51.9, 2.02.4, 2.52.9 and
so on.
b Comment on the shape of the distribution.
c It has been said that the mean birth weight of babies is 3 kg. Using the data given, comment on
this statement.
d Using the mean and standard deviation (to 2 decimal places) for this sample of 50 birth weights,
determine how many of the 220 babies born at the hospital had weights:
i between 2.35 kg and 3.43 kg
ii between 3.43 kg and 3.97 kg
iii greater than 3.97 kg.

diGiTal doC
doc-9408
Test Yourself
Chapter 1

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

DA

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

51

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9399: Warm up with a quick quiz on
univariate data. (page 1)

1a

Types of data

diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 1.1 doc-9400: Apply your knowledge of univariate data
to construct and analyse stem plots. (page 2)

1C

dot plots, frequency histograms and bar charts

diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9401: Create a segmented bar chart. (page 9)
SkillSHEET 1.1 doc-9402: Practise converting a fraction into a
percentage. (page 10)
Spreadsheet doc-9403: Conduct a survey and plot your results on a
histogram. (page 10)

1d describing the shape of stem plots and


histograms
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 1.2 doc-9404: Apply your knowledge of univariate data
to construct and analyse stem plots and boxplots and to construct
histograms. (page 14)
TUTorial
We7 eles-1254: Learn how to describe the shape of stem plots
and bar charts. (page 12)

inTeraCTiViTY
Measures of centre int-0084: Use the interactivity to calculate the
mean, median and mode of a set of univariate data. (page 15)

1F

Boxplots

diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc-9406: Conduct a survey and use a spreadsheet to
study the effect of uniformly spread data. (page 23)
TUTorial
We13 eles-1256: Learn how to construct a boxplot using a CAS
calculator. (page 21)

1G

The mean

TUTorial
We16 eles-1257: Watch a tutorial on calculating the mean using
data in a frequency table. (page 26)

1i

The 689599.7% rule and z-scores

diGiTal doC
SkillSHEET 1.2 doc-9407: Refine your knowledge of percentages.
(page 38)
TUTorial
We20 eles-1258: See how normal distributions can be used to
determine percentages above or below a certain mass. (page 33)
inTeraCTiViTY
The 689599.7% rule and z-scores int-0182: Use the interactivity
to consolidate your understanding of the normal distribution and
confidence intervals. (page 32)

1e The median, the interquartile range, the range


and the mode

Chapter review

diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc-9405: Conduct a survey and find the median of a
set of data. (page 18)

diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc-9408: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 51)

TUTorial
We9 eles-1255: Discover how to calculate the interquartile range
of a set of univariate data. (page 16)

52

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Answers CHAPTER 1

exercise 1B

Stem plots
2
5
8 12 13 13 16
17 21 23 24 25 25 26
30 32
11 23 23 30 35 39 41
47 55 62
102 115 118 122 123
136 136 137 141 143
155 155 156 157
51 53 53 54 55 55 56
57 59
4 5 8 10 12 16 19 19
21 25 29
Leaf
5
1 8 9
3 7 9
1 2 5 6 7 9
1 2 3 5
2
Key: |50 = $5
Buskers earnings are inconsistent.
Stem Leaf
3 7 9
4 2 9 9
5 1 1 2 3 7 8 9
6 1 3 3 8
Key: |73 = 37 years
It seems to be an activity for older people.
C
Stem Leaf
1* 9
2
2* 5 8 8 9 9 9
3 0 0 2 2 2 3 3 4
3* 5 5 7 8 9
Key: |52 = 25 years
Ages are spread considerably; not all
parents are young.
Stem Leaf
1* 9
2 1 2 4
2* 5 6 8 9 9
3 1 1 2 3 4
3*
4 0 1
Key: |12 = 21 hit outs
Bulldogs, Melbourne, St Kilda
Stem Leaf
18 5 7 9
19 1 5 6 6 7 9
20 1 3 3 5 9
21 7
22 1
Key: 18
|5 = 1.85 m

1
16
27
b 10
42
c 101
123
144
d 50
56
e 1
21
2 Stem
0
1
2
3
4
5

1 a

4
5

6
3

Stem
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2

0 8
3 8

1 a

0 0 0

Key: 51
|5 = $515 000
There are two groups, one with house
prices between $510 000 and $550 000 and
the other with prices between $580 000
and $670 000.
b
9 a Stem

Leaf
4 3 7 7 8 8 9 9 9
5 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 3

Leaf
4 3
4* 7 7 8 8 9 9 9
5 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 3
5*

7
9 9
1 1 1
3

11.9
22.9
33.9
44.9
55.9
66.9

1
2
2
6
5
1

Class interval

Frequency

1014
1519
2024
2529
3034
3539

3
9
10
10
10
1

Key: |34 = 43 cm
Leaf
3
7
8 9 9 9
0 0 0 1
2 3

2 a

Key: |34 = 43 cm
10 a Stem

Leaf
1 5 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 9
2 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 3 3 3
Key: |51 = 15 mm

b Stem

7
9
0
3

Frequency

b Stem

7
8
0
2

7
9
0
3

Class

Key: |34 = 43 cm

4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5

5
6
8
0
2

exercise 1C dot plots, frequency


histograms and bar charts

2 3

c Stem

Leaf

Key: |51 = 15 mm
Values are bunched together; they vary
little.

0 0 8

Frequency

Types of data

1 Numerical a, b, c, g, h
Categorical d, e, f, i, j, k, l, m
2 Discrete c, g, m
Continuous a, b, h
3 C
4C

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

Score

Frequency

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1

6
5
4
3
2
1
01 2 3 4 5 6 7
Score

b
Frequency

exercise 1a

Leaf
5 7
5 6
6
8

8 Stem

10
8
6
4
2

0 10 1520 25 303540

Leaf

1
1* 5 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 9
2 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 3 3 3
2*
Key: |51 = 15 mm

Score

Frequency

UniVariaTe daTa

2
1
00.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Score

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

53

Number of students

3 Check your histograms against those


shown in question 2 answers.
4
8
6
4
2
0

3 4 5 6 7
Number of hours

10

2and5) interstate per month. A few stay


away more than this and a very few stay
away a lot more.
7 a Symmetric
b This tells us that there are few lowweight dogs and few heavy dogs but
most dogs have a weight in the range of
10 to 19 kg.
8 a Symmetric
b Most students receive about $8 (give or
take $2).
9 a Positively skewed b i 15
ii 85%
exercise 1e

The median, the


interquartile range, the range and the
mode

0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Hours/week

5 a NZ

US
UK
India
China
Thailand
Fiji
Singapore
HK
Malaysia

26.5%
13.5%
12.8%
10.1%
7.5%
6.4%
6.2%
6.0%
5.9%
5.1%

1
a
b
c
d
e
2

UK 12.8%
Thailand 6.4%
HK 5.9%

6 Participation in activities

Range
56
17
18
18
72

Median
6
17
6
10
18.5
4
19
4.5
23

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i

NZ 26.5%
US 13.5%
India 10.1%
China 7.5%
Fiji 6.2%
Singapore 6.0%
Malaysia 5.1%

Median
37
5
11
42.5
628

Mode
38, 49
5
8, 11
43
613, 628, 632

Range
7
9
6
13
14
7
17
9
21

4554 years 18.1%


5564 years 14%
65 and over 12.5%

The statement seems untrue as there are


similar participation rates for all ages.
However, the data dont indicate types of
activities.
exercise 1d describing the shape of
stem plots and histograms
1 a Symmetric
b Negatively skewed
c Positively skewed
d Symmetric
e Symmetric
f Positively skewed
2 a Symmetric, no artliers
b Symmetric, no artliers
c Symmetric, no artliers
d Negatively skewed, no artliers
e Negatively skewed, no artliers
f Positively skewed, no artliers
3 E
4 C
5 Negatively skewed
6 Positively skewed. This tells us that most
of the flight attendants in this group spend
a similar number of nights (between

54

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

21
27.5
3.7

a
b
c
8

18
8
3

45
20
5.9

42
32

21
7

91
30

Median

12
7
350
100
20

6
2
100
30
10

8
5
250
65
25

a
b
c
d
e

b iv
c i
d ii
2 a iii
3 The boxplots should show the following:

Minimum
value

Q1

Median

Q3

3
3
4.3
11
0.4

6
5
4.6
15.5
0.7

8.5
7
5
18
0.9

14
9
5.4
20
1.1

a
b
c
d
e

Maximum
value
18
12
5.6
22
1.3

4 D
5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Number of clients seen in a day

2
4
6
8
Number of rides

10

The data are negatively skewed with an


outlier on the lower end. The reason for
the outlier may be that the person wasnt
at the show for long or possibly didnt like
the rides.
8 a Two similar properties: both sets of
data have the same minimum value and
similar IQR value.
b Boys IQR = 16
Girls IQR = 16.5
c The reason for an outlier in the boys
data may be that the student did not
understand how to do the test, or he
stopped during the test rather than
working continuously.

Mode
15, 23, 32
29
3.7

Interquartile
Median
range
Range Mode
a
b

Interquartile
range

7 a

Interquartile
range
Range

Range

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Temperature (C)

for the two restaurants but there is no


indication of the actual numbers of cars.
4 An example is 2 3 6 8 9. There are many
others.
5 a Yes. The lowest score occurs several
times. An example is 2 2 2 3 5 6.
b Yes. There are several data points that
have the median value. An example is
3 5 5 5 5 5 7.
6 C

Median

Boxplots

3 a 10
b 8
c The IQRs (middle 50%) are similar
1824 years 14.2%
2534 years 21.1%
3544 years 20.3%

exercise 1F

46
34

The data in set a have a greater spread than


in set b, although the medians are similar.
The spread of the middle 50% (IQR) of
data for set a is bigger than for setb but
the difference is not as great as the spread
for all the data (range).

exercise 1G

The mean
b 7.125
c 4.9875
..
.
d 16.7 .
e 0.8818
a 1.0783 No, because of the outlier.
b 17 Yes
c 30.875 Yes
d 15.57 No, because of the outlier.
12
4 D
5 A
a Median
b Mean
c Median
d Median
a 36.09
b 16.63
c 168.25
d 18.55
a x = 24.4
b median = 22
The distribution is positively skewed
confirmed by the table and the boxplot.

1 a 7.2
2

3
6
7
8

i boxplots will show:

Standard deviation
2.36
c 6.01
0.06
0.06 m

1 a 1.21
b
d 2.45
e
2 0.48%
3
4 0.51 seconds
5 15.49
6
exercise 1i

z-scores
1 a Yes
d No

Cage
5.15
Barn
4.35
FR
4.1
ii It could be concluded that the more
space a chicken has, the fewer eggs it
lays because the median is greatest for
cage eggs.

C
The 689599.7% rule and
b Yes
e No

c No
f Yes

2 a 8 and 12
b 6 and 14
c 4 and 16
3 a 3.7 and 6.3
b 2.4 and 7.6
c 1.1 and 8.9
4 a 35 s and 63 s
b 21 s and 77 s
c 7 s and 91 s
5 a 1.3 mm a nd 2.5 mm
b 0.7 mm a nd 3. 1 mm
c 0.1 mm a nd 3. 7 mm
6 a 11.7 N and 12.3 N
b 11.4 N and 12.6 N
c 11.1 N and 12.9 N
7 a 5 and 9
b 3 and 11
c 1 and 13
8E
9C
10 a 84%
b 2.5%
c 84%
d 97.35%
11 a 0.15%
b 2.5%
c 84%
d 83.85%
e 81.5%
12 C
13 a 336
b 10
c 380
14 a i 1360
ii 1950
iii 317
b 100
15 3
16 2
17 0.27
18 1.5
19 a 0.48
b 1.44
c 0.08
d 2.24
e 2.8
20 a x = 19.55, s = 1.76
b 1.68
21 B
22 B
23 a English 1.25, Maths 1.33
b Maths mark is better as it has a higher

exercise 1J populations and simple


random samples

1
2
3
4

mUlTiple ChoiCe

B
A
D
B
D

4.7

3.9

3.8

Q1

4.1

med

5.15

4.35

4.1

Q3

5.5

4.6

4.2

Xmax

5.8

4.9

4.4

4
9
14
19

D
E
A
C

5
10
15
20

C
B
B
B

b Stem

Leaf
6 0 1
6* 5 7
7 1 1 3
7* 8 8 9
8 2 3 4 4
8* 7
Key: 6|0 = $6

compared to 0.5 in the first test.


s = 0.3
FR x = 4.1 s = 0.2
b z = 1.18
c 84%
Xmin

C
E
D
D

6 0 1 5 7
7 1 1 3 8 8 9
8 2 3 4 4 7
Key: 6|0 = $6

25 a Barn x = 4.4

Barn Free range

3
8
13
18

1 Many answers possible.


2 a Stem Leaf

z-score.

Cage

D
C
C
C

ShorT anSWer

24 Second test, Barbaras z-score was 0.33

2
7
12
17

symmetrical. More than half the drivers


exceeded the limit. The fastest drivers
were about 15 km/h over the limit. Many
other conclusions are possible.
4 a Positively skewed
b There would need to be a shift of some
of the amounts in the twenties to the
thirties and forties.
5 Range = 24, median = 14, mode = 14,
interquartile range = 9.5

1 2

ChapTer reVieW
1
6
11
16
21

c The data are approximately

6 a

Answers will vary.


Answers will vary.
Answers will vary.

Stem Leaf
6 0 1
6
6 5
6 7
6
7 1 1
7 3
7
7
7 8 8 9
8
8 2 3
8 4 4
8 7
8
Key: 6|0 = $6

3 a

3 4

6 7

8 9 10

b Approximately symmetric
7 60.4 years
8 0.05 mL
9 a i 10.8 and 13.2 years
ii 9.6 and 14.4 years
iii 8.4 and 15.6 years
b There is a large range of life spans for

these dogs. The oldest dog is almost


twice as old as the youngest.
10 Kory is the better candidate as he has a
greater z-score (1.5 compared with 0.875).
exTended reSponSe

1 a i A stem plot is more appropriate since

there are only 25 observations in each


set.
10C
10E
Stem Leaf
Stem Leaf
0
0
0
0
0 4
0
0 7 7
0
0 9 9
0 8 9
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 2 3
1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3
1 4 4 5 5 5
1 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5
1 6 7 7 7 7
1 6 6
1 8 8 8 9 9
1 9
Key: 1|3 = 13
The distribution of 10C is negatively skewed
with no outliers.
The distribution of 10E is symmetric with no
outliers.
ii

Class Median
10C
10E

Interquartile
range
Range Mode

15
13

7
2.5

15
11

17
14

iii 10E
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
10C

Stem plot b is probably an appropriate


display. No real need for stems in fifths.
Frequency

exercise 1h

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

10
8
6
4
2

iv

Class
0 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76

Speed (km/h)

10C
10E

Mean
13.64
13.2

Standard
deviation
4.24
2.35

ChapTer 1 Univariate data

55

indication, whereas for 10E the mean


and the median are close anyway.
vi The 689599.7% rule can be applied
to the distribution of 10Es data since it
is approximately bell-shaped.
b We use the median of the 10C scores
to give us an indication of the centre of
the distribution. The median of the 10C
scores is 15. For 10E, the distribution is
symmetric and hence we use the mean
to give us an indication of the centre
of the distribution. The mean of 10E
scores is 13.2. The range of the 10C
scores is 15 whereas for 10E the range
is 11. Also, the standard deviation for
10C is 4.24 and for 10E it is 2.35. This
means that the scores in 10C are more
spread out than those in 10E, which are
relatively bunched. So, while in 10C
there are more students with higher
marks than in 10E, the range of marks in
10C is greater and this would make it a
more challenging class toteach.
2 a Office workers: negatively skewed with
outlier. Sports instructors: positively
skewed with outlier.
b

Median
IQR
Range
Mode
c

Office workers

Sports
instructors

121.5 beats/min
19.5 beats/min
58 beats/min
130 beats/min

73 beats/min
14 beats/min
46 beats/min
68, 72 beats/min

Office workers

70

80

90 100 110 120 130 140


Beats per minute

Sports instructors

60

70

80 90 100
Beats per minute

Office workers

110

Sports instructors

x = 116.8 beats/min x = 76.9 beats/min


s = 15.3 beats/min s = 12.4 beats/min

56

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

e Not used since the distributions are not

bell-shaped.
f Office workers: Pulse rates are generally
very high, clustered around 120130
beats/min. Also, there is one person
whose rate was much lower than the
rest. This outlier (76) produces a large
range and makes the mean slightly lower
than the median. As a result the median
is a more appropriate measure of the
centre of the data rather than the mean.
Sports instructors: Pulse rates are
generally low, clustered around
6070beats/min, although there are
a few people with rates much higher,
which makes the mean slightly higher
than the median and also produces quite
a large range. As a result of the skewed
distribution the median is the more
appropriate measure of the centre of the
data rather than the mean, although there
is little difference between these values.
3 a Discrete, numerical data
b Stem Leaf
1
1 3 3
1 4 4 5 5 5
1 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
1 8 8 9 9
Key: 1|3 = 13 cm
Looks to be slightly negatively skewed.
c Q2 = 16 cm
Q1 = 15 cm
Q3 = 17 cm
Lowest score = 13 cm
Highest score = 19 cm
14 16 18 20
Fish length (cm)

d
e
f
g
h

Symmetric
Given the data itself, the boxplot does.
Mean = 16 cm = median
s = 1.75 cm, 1600
12

14 16 18 20
Fish length (cm)

Negatively skewed with an outlier at the


lower end
i 1600

j The river fish seem to be larger overall.

Only 1600 of the coastal fish lie above


17.75 cm, whereas 1600 of the river fish
lie above 19.25 cm. All the quartiles
for the river fish are higher than those
for the coastal ones. It would seem that
the river fish have grown more than the
coastal fish.

4 a

Class
interval

Tally

1.51.9

1.7

2.02.4

2.2

2.52.9

17

2.7

16

3.2

Frequency Mid-point

3.03.4

3.53.9

3.7

4.04.4

4.2

Frequency

v For 10C the median provides a better

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
Birth weight (kg)

b Somewhat symmetrical or slightly

positively skewed

c Mean = 2.89 kg, s = 0.54 kg

The mean of the sample is only just less


than the suggested mean, in fact it is
only about 0.2 of 1standard deviation
away from it. So the suggestion is
probably right.
d i 149
ii 29
iii 5

ChapTer 2

Bivariate data
diGiTal doC
doc-9409
10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS
2a
2B
2C
2d
2e
2F
2G

Dependent and independent variables


Back-to-back stem plots
Parallel boxplots
Two-way frequency tables and segmented bar charts
Scatterplots
Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient
Calculating r and the coefficient of determination

dependent and independent


variables
2a

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Dependent variable

In this chapter we will study sets of data that contain two variables. These are known as bivariate data.
We will look at ways of displaying the data and of measuring relationships between the two variables.
The methods we employ to do this depend on the type of variables we are dealing with; that is, they
depend on whether the data are numerical or categorical.
We will discuss the ways of measuring the relationship between the following pairs of variables:
1. a numerical variable and a categorical variable (for example, height and nationality)
2. two categorical variables (for example, gender and religious denomination)
3. two numerical variables (for example, height and weight).
In a relationship involving two variables, if the values of one variable depend on the values of
another variable, then the former variable is referred to as the dependent variable and the latter variable
is referred to as the independent variable.
When a relationship between two sets of variables is being examined, it is important to know which
one of the two variables depends on the other. Most often we can make a judgement about this, although
sometimes it may not be possible.
Consider the case where a study compared the heights of company employees against their annual
salaries. Common sense would suggest that the height of a company employee would not depend on the
persons annual salary nor would the annual salary of a company employee depend on the persons
height. In this case, it is not appropriate to designate one variable as independent and one as dependent.
In the case where the ages of company employees are compared with
their annual salaries, you might reasonably expect that the annual salary of
an employee would depend on the persons age. In this case, the age of the
employee is the independent variable and the salary of the employee is the
dependent variable.
It is useful to identify the independent and dependent variables where
possible, since it is the usual practice when displaying data on a graph to
place the independent variable on the horizontal axis and the dependent
Independent variable
variable on the vertical axis.

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

57

Worked example 1

For each of the following pairs of variables, identify the independent variable and the dependent
variable. If it is not possible to identify this, then write not appropriate.
a The number of visitors at a local swimming pool and the daily temperature
b The blood group of a person and his or her favourite TV channel
Think

WriTe

a It is reasonable to expect that the number of

visitors at the swimming pool on any day will


depend on the temperature on that day (and not
the other way around).
b Common sense suggests that the blood type

a Daily temperature is the independent variable;

number of visitors at a local swimming pool is


the dependent variable.
b Not appropriate

of a person does not depend on the persons


TVchannelpreferences. Similarly, the choice
of a TVchannel does not depend on a persons
bloodtype.

exercise 2a

dependent and independent variables

1 We1 For each of the following pairs of variables, identify the independent variable and the dependent

variable. If it is not possible to identify this, then write not appropriate.


a The age of an AFL footballer and his annual salary
b The growth of a plant and the amount of fertiliser it receives
c The number of books read in a week and the eye colour of the readers
d The voting intentions of a woman and her weekly consumption of red meat
e The number of members in a household and the size of the house
f The month of the year and the electricity bill for that month
g The mark obtained for a maths test and the number of hours spent preparing for the test
h The mark obtained for a maths test and the mark obtained for an English test
i The cost of grapes (in dollars per kilogram) and the season of the year
2 mC In a scientific experiment, the independent variable was the amount of sleep (in hours) a new

mother got per night during the first month following the birth of her baby. The dependent variable
would most likely have been:
a the number of times (per night) the baby woke up for a feed
B the blood pressure of the baby
C the mothers reaction time (in seconds) to a certain stimulus
d the level of alertness of the baby
e the amount of time (in hours) spent by the mother on reading
3 mC A paediatrician investigated the relationship between the amount of time children aged two to five

spend outdoors and the annual number of visits to his clinic. Which one of the following statements is
not true?
a When graphed, the amount of time spent outdoors should be shown on the horizontal axis.
B The annual number of visits to the paediatric clinic is the dependent variable.
C It is impossible to identify the independent variable in this case.
d The amount of time spent outdoors is the independent variable.
e The annual number of visits to the paediatric clinic should be shown on the vertical axis.
4 mC Alex works as a personal trainer at the local gym. He wishes to analyse the relationship between

the number of weekly training sessions and the weekly weight loss of his clients. Which one of the
following statements is correct?
a When graphed, the number of weekly training sessions should be shown on the vertical axis, as it
is the dependent variable.
B When graphed, the weekly weight loss should be shown on the vertical axis, as it is the
independent variable.
58

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

C When graphed, the weekly weight loss should be shown on the horizontal axis, as it is the

independent variable.
d When graphed, the number of weekly training sessions should be shown on the horizontal axis, as

it is the independent variable.


e It is impossible to identify the dependent variable in this case.

2B

Back-to-back stem plots

In chapter 1, we saw how to construct a stem plot for a set of univariate data. We can also extend a
stem plot so that it displays bivariate data. Specifically, we shall create a stem plot that displays the
relationship between a numerical variable and a categorical variable. We shall limit ourselves in this
section to categorical variables with just two categories, for example, gender. The two categories are
used to provide two back-to-back leaves of a stem plot.
A back-to-back stem plot is used to display bivariate data, involving a numerical variable and a
categorical variable with 2 categories.
Worked example 2

The girls and boys in Grade 4 at Kingston Primary School submitted projects
on the Olympic Games. The marks they obtained out of 20 are given below.
Girls marks

16

17

19

15

12

16

17

19

19

16

Boys marks

14

15

16

13

12

13

14

13

15

14

TUTorial
eles-1259
Worked example 2

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA

Display the data on a back-to-back stem plot.


Think
1

Identify the highest and lowest scores in order


to decide on the stems.

Create an unordered stem plot first. Put the


boys scores on the left, and the girls scores on
the right.

WriTe

Highest score = 19
Lowest score = 12
Use a stem of 1, divided into fifths.
Leaf
Boys
3 2 3 3
4 5 4 54
6

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Stem Leaf
Girls
1
1
2
1
5
1
6 7 6 7 6
1
9 9 9

See more
Watch
a video about
constructing backto-back stem plots.

Key: 1| 2 = 12
3

Now order the stem plot. The scores on the


left should increase in value from right to left,
while the scores on the right should increase in
value from left to right.

Leaf
Boys
3 3 3 2
5 5 4 44
6

Stem Leaf
Girls
1
2
1
5
1
6 6 6 7 7
1
9 9 9

Key: 1| 2 = 12

The back-to-back stem plot allows us to make some visual comparisons of the two distributions.In the
previous example, the centre of the distribution for the girls is higher than the centre of the distribution
for the boys. The spread of each of the distributions seems to be about the same. For the boys, the scores
are grouped around the 1215 mark; for the girls, they are grouped around the 1619 mark. On the
whole, we can conclude that the girls obtained better scores than the boys did.
ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

59

To get a more precise picture of the centre and spread of each of the distributions, we can use the
summary statistics discussed in chapter 1. Specifically, we are interested in:
1. the mean and the median (to measure the centre of the distributions), and
2. the interquartile range and the standard deviation (to measure the spread of the distributions).
We saw in chapter 1 that the calculation of these summary statistics is very straightforward and rapid
using a CAS calculator.
Worked example 3

The number of how to vote cards handed out by various Australian Labor Party and Liberal
Party volunteers during the course of a polling day is shown below.
Labor
Liberal

180
193
204
287

233
202
215
273

246
210
226
266

252
222
253
233

263
257
263
244

270
247
272
250

229
234
285
261

238
226
245
272

226
214
267
280

211
204
275
279

Display the data using a back-to-back stem plot and use this, together with summary statistics,
to compare the distributions of the number of cards handed out by the Labor and Liberal
volunteers.
Think
1

60

Construct the stem plot.

Use a calculator to obtain summary statistics


for each party. Record the mean, median,
IQR and standard deviation in the table.
(IQR = Q3 Q1)

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

WriTe

Leaf
Labor
0
3
4 2
4 1 0
9 6 6 2
8 4 3
7 6
7 2
3
0

Stem
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Leaf
Liberal
4
5
6
3
4
0
1
2
0

Key: 18|0 = 180


5
3
3 6 7
2 3 5 9
5 7
Labor

Liberal

Mean

227.9

257.5

Median

227.5

264.5

IQR

36

29.5

Standard deviation

23.9

23.4

Comment on the relationship.

exercise 2B

From the stem plot we see that the Labor distribution


is symmetric and therefore the mean and the median
are very close, whereas the Liberal distribution is
negatively skewed.
Since the distribution is skewed, the median is a
better indicator of the centre of the distribution than
the mean.
Comparing the medians therefore, we have the
median number of cards handed out for Labor at
228 and for Liberal at 265, which is a big difference.
The standard deviations were similar, as were the
interquartile ranges. There was not a lot of difference
in the spread of the data.
In essence, the Liberal party volunteers handed
out many more how to vote cards than the Labor
party volunteers did.

Back-to-back stem plots

1 We2 The marks out of 50 obtained for the end-of-term test by the students in German and French

classes are given below. Display the data on a back-to-back stem plot.
German

20 38 45 21 30 39 41 22 27 33 30 21 25 32 37 42 26 31 25 37

French

23 25 36 46 44 39 38 24 25 42 38 34 28 31 44 30 35 48 43 34

2 The birth masses of 10 boys and 10 girls (in kilograms, to the nearest 100 grams) are recorded in the

table below. Display the data on a back-to-back stem plot.


Boys
Girls

3.4
3.0

5.0
2.7

4.2
3.7

3.7
3.3

4.9
4.0

3.4
3.1

3.8
2.6

4.8
3.2

3.6
3.6

4.3
3.1

3 We3 The number of delivery trucks making deliveries to a supermarket each day over a 2-week period

was recorded for two neighbouring supermarkets supermarket A and supermarket B. The data are
shown below.
A
B

11
10

15
15

20
20

25
25

12
30

16
35

21
16

27
31

16
32

17
21

17
23

22
26

23
28

24
29

a Display the data on a back-to-back stem plot.


b Use the stem plot, together with some summary statistics, to compare the distributions of the

number of trucks delivering to supermarkets A and B.


4 The marks out of 20 obtained by males and females for a science test in a Year 10 class are given below.

Females
Males

12
10

13
12

14
13

14
14

15
14

15
15

16
17

17
19

a Display the data on a back-to-back stem plot.


b Use the stem plot, together with some summary statistics, to compare the distributions of the

marks of the males and the females.


5 The end-of-year English marks for 10 students in an English class were compared over 2 years. The

marks for 2011 and for the same students in 2012 are shown below.
2011
2012

30
22

31
26

35
27

37
28

39
30

41
31

41
31

42
33

43
34

46
36

a Display the data on a back-to-back stem plot.


b Use the stem plot, together with some summary statistics, to compare the distributions of the

marks obtained by the students in 2011 and 2012.


ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

61

6 The age and gender of a group of people attending a fitness class are recorded below.

Female
Male

23
22

24
25

25
30

26
31

27
36

28
37

30
42

31
46

a Display the data on a back-to-back stem plot.


b Use the stem plot, together with some summary statistics, to compare the distributions of the ages

of the female members to the male members of the fitness class.

7 The scores on a board game for a group of kindergarten children and for a group of children in a

preparatory school are given below.


Kindergarten
Prep. school

3
5

13
12

14
17

25
25

28
27

32
32

36
35

41
44

47
46

50
52

a Display the data on a back-to-back stem plot.


b Use the stem plot, together with some summary statistics, to compare the distributions of the

scores of the kindergarten children compared to the preparatory school children.


8 mC The pair of variables that could be displayed on a back-to-back stem plot is:
a
B
C
d
e

the height of a student and the number of people in the students household
the time put into completing an assignment and a pass or fail score on the assignment
the weight of a businessman and his age
the religion of an adult and the persons head circumference
the income of an employee and the time the employee has worked for the company

9 mC A back-to-back stem plot is a useful way of displaying the relationship between:


a
B
C
d
e

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

62

the proximity to markets in kilometres and the cost of fresh foods on average per kilogram
height and head circumference
age and attitude to gambling (for or against)
weight and age
the money spent during a day of shopping and the number of shops visited on that day

2C

parallel boxplots

We saw in the previous section that we could display relationships between a numerical variable and a
categorical variable with just two categories, using a back-to-back stem plot.
When we want to display a relationship between a numerical variable and a categorical variable with
two or more categories, a parallel boxplot can be used.
A parallel boxplot is obtained by constructing individual boxplots for each distribution and
positioning them on a common scale.
Construction of individual boxplots was discussed in detail in chapter 1 on univariate data. In this
section we concentrate on comparing distributions represented by a number of boxplots (that is, on the
interpretation of parallel boxplots).

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Worked example 4

The four Year 7 classes at Western Secondary College complete the same end-of-year maths test.
Themarks, expressed as percentages for the four classes, are given below.
7A
7B
7C
7D

40
60
50
40

43
62
51
42

45
63
53
43

47
64
55
45

50
70
57
50

52
73
60
53

53
74
63
55

54
76
65
59

57
77
67
60

60
77
69
61

69
78
70
69

63
82
72
73

63
85
73
74

68
87
74
75

70
89
76
80

75
90
80
81

80
92
82
82

85
95
82
83

89
97
85
84

90
97
89
90

Display the data using a parallel boxplot and use this to describe any similarities or differences in
the distributions of the marks between the four classes.
Think
1

Use your CAS calculator to


determine the five number
summary for each data set.

WriTe/draW

Min
Q1
Median = Q2
Q3
Max

Draw the boxplots, labelling each


class. All four boxplots share a
common scale.

7A
40
51
61.5

7B
60
71.5
77.5

7C
50
58.5
69.5

7D
40
51.5
65

72.5
90

89.5
97

78
89

80.5
90

7D
7C
7B
7A
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Maths mark (%)

Describe the similarities and


differences between the four
distributions.

Class 7B had the highest median mark and the range of the
distribution was only 37. The lowest mark in 7B was 60.
We notice that the median of 7As marks is 61.5. So, 50% of
students in 7A received less than 61.5. This means that about
half of 7A had scores that were less than the lowest score in 7B.
The range of marks in 7A was the same as that of 7D with
the highest scores in each equal (90), and the lowest scores in
each equal (40). However, the median mark in 7D (65) was
slightly higher than the median mark in 7A (61.5) so, despite a
similar range, more students in 7D received a higher mark than
in 7A.
While 7D had a top score that was higher than that of 7C,
the median score in 7C (69.5) was higher than that of 7D and
almost 25% of scores in 7D were less than the lowest score
in 7C. In summary, 7B did best, followed by 7C, then 7D and
finally 7A.

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

63

exercise 2C

parallel boxplots

1 We4 The heights (in cm) of students in 9A, 10A and 11A were recorded and are shown in the table below.

9A 120 126 131 138 140 143 146 147 150 156 157 158 158 160 162 164 165 170
10A 140 143 146 147 149 151 153 156 162 164 165 167 168 170 173 175 176 180
11A 151 153 154 158 160 163 164 166 167 169 169 172 175 180 187 189 193 199

diGiTal doC
doc-9410
Spreadsheet
parallel boxplots

a Construct a parallel boxplot to show the data.


b Use the boxplot to compare the distributions of height for the 3classes.
2 The amounts of money contributed annually to superannuation schemes by people in 3 different age

groups are shown below.


2029
3039
4049

2 000 3 100 5 000 5 500 6 200 6 500 6 700 7 000 9 200 10 000
4 000 5 200 6 000 6 300 6 800 7 000 8 000 9 000 10 300 12 000
10 000 11 200 12 000 13 300 13 500 13 700 13 900 14 000 14 300 15 000

a Construct a parallel boxplot to show the data.


b Use the boxplot to comment on the distributions.
3 The numbers of jars of vitamin A, B, C and multi-vitamins sold per week by a local chemist are shown

below.
Vitamin A
Vitamin B
Vitamin C
Multi-vitamins

5
10
8
12

6
10
8
13

7
11
9
13

7
12
9
15

8
14
9
16

8
15
10
16

9
15
11
17

11
15
12
19

13
17
12
19

14
19
13
20

Construct a parallel boxplot to display the data and use it to compare the distributions of sales for the
4 types of vitamin.
4 The daily share price of two companies was recorded over a period of one month. The results are

presented below as parallel boxplots.


Company A
Company B
65

70

75 80 85 90 95 100 105
Price per share (cents)

State whether each of the following statements is true or false.


a The distribution of share prices for company A is symmetrical.
b On 25% of all occasions, share prices for company B equalled or exceeded the highest price
recorded for company A.
c The spread of the share prices was the same for both companies.
d 75% of share prices for company B were at least as high as the median share price for company A.
5 Last year, the spring season of the Australian Opera

included two major productions staged at the


Sydney Opera House: The Pearlfishers and Orlando.
The number of A-reserve tickets sold for each
performance of the two operas is shown below as
parallel boxplots.
The Pearlfishers

Number of A-reserve tickets sold

64

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

950

850
900

750
800

700

600
650

550

500

450

400

Orlando

a Which of the two productions proved to be more popular with the public, assuming A-reserve

ticket sales reflect total ticket sales? Explain your answer.


b Which opera had a larger variability in the number of patrons purchasing A-reserve tickets?

Support your answer with the necessary calculations.


6 mC The results for a maths test given to classes in two different year levels, one in Year 8 and the

other in Year 10, are given by the parallel boxplots below.


Year 8
Year 10
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
Results out of 100
a The percentage of Year 10 students who obtained a mark greater than 87 was:
a 2%
d 25%

B 5%
e 75%

C 20%

b From the parallel boxplots, it can be concluded that:


a
B
C
d
e

the Year 8 results were similar to the Year 10 results


the Year 8 results were lower than the Year 10 results and less variable
the Year 8 results were lower than the Year 10 results and more variable
the Year 8 results were higher than the Year 10 results and less variable
the Year 8 results were higher than the Year 10 results and more variable

diGiTal doC
doc-9411
WorkSHEET 2.1

Two-way frequency tables and


segmented bar charts
2d

When we are examining the relationship between two categorical variables, the two-way frequency table
is an excellent tool. Consider the following example.
Worked example 5

At a local shopping centre, 34 females and 23 males were asked which of the two major political
parties they preferred. Eighteen females and 12 males preferred Labor. Display these data in a
two-way frequency table.
Think
1

Draw a table. Record the respondents sex in


the columns and party preference in the rows of
the table.

WriTe

Party preference Female


Labor
Liberal
Total

Male

Total

We know that 34 females and 23 males were


asked. Put this information into the table and
fill in the total.
We also know that 18 females and 12 males
preferred Labor. Put this information in the table
and find the total of people who preferred Labor.

Party preference Female


Labor
18
Liberal
Total
34

Male
12

Total
30

23

57

Fill in the remaining cells. For example, to


find the number of females who preferred
the Liberals, subtract the number of females
preferring Labor from the total number of
females asked: 34 18 = 16.

Party preference Female


Labor
18
Liberal
16
Total
34

Male
12
11
23

Total
30
27
57

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with segmented
graphs.

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

65

In Worked example 5, we have a very clear breakdown of data. We know how many females preferred
Labor, how many females preferred the Liberals, how many males preferred Labor and how many males
preferred the Liberals.
If we wish to compare the number of females who prefer Labor with the number of males who prefer
Labor, we must be careful. While 12 males preferred Labor compared to 18 females, there were fewer males
than females being asked. That is, only 23 males were asked for their opinion, compared to 34 females.
To overcome this problem, we can express the figures in the table as percentages.
Worked example 6

Fifty-seven people in a local shopping centre


were asked whether they preferred the Australian
Labor Party or the Liberal Party. The results are
given at right.
Convert the numbers in this table to percentages.
Think

Party preference Female


Labor
18
Liberal
16
Total
34

Male
12
11
23

Total
30
27
57

WriTe

Draw the table, omitting the total column.


Fill in the table by expressing the number in each cell
as a percentage of its columns total. For example,
to obtain the percentage of males who prefer Labor,
divide the number of males who prefer Labor by the
total number of males and multiply by 100%.
12
100% = 52.2% (correct to 1 decimal place)
23

Party preference
Labor
Liberal
Total

Female
52.9
47.1
100.0

Male
52.2
47.8
100.0

We could have calculated percentages from the table rows, rather than columns. To do that we would, for
example, have divided the number of females who preferred Labor (18) by the total number of people
who preferred labor (30) and so on. The table below shows this:
Party preference
Labor
Liberal

Female
60.0
59.3

Male
40.0
40.7

Total
100
100

By doing this we have obtained the percentage of people who were female and preferred Labor (60%),
and the percentage of people who were male and preferred Labor (40%), andso on. This highlights facts
different from those shown in the previous table. In other words, different results can be obtained by
calculating percentages from a table in different ways.
As a general rule, when the independent variable (in this case the respondents gender) is placed
in the columns of the table, the percentages should be calculated in columns.
Comparing percentages in each row of a two-way table allows us to establish whether a
relationship exists between the two categorical variables that are being examined. As we can see
from the table in Worked example 6, the percentage of females who preferred Labor is about the
same as that of males. Likewise, the percentage of females and males preferring the Liberal Party
are almost equal. This indicates that for the group of people participating in the survey, party
preference is not related to gender.

When comparing two categorical variables, it can be useful to


represent the results from a two-way table (in percentage form)
graphically. We can do this using segmented bar charts.
A segmented bar chart consists of two or more columns, each
of which matches one column in the two-way table. Each column is
subdivided into segments, corresponding to each cell in that column.
For example, the data from Worked example 6 can be displayed
using the segmented bar chart shown at right.
The segmented bar chart is a powerful visual aid for comparing
and examining the relationship between two categorical variables.
66

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Percentage

Segmented bar charts

Party
preference
Liberal
Labor

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Female Male
Gender

Worked example 7

Sixty-seven primary and 47 secondary school students were asked about their
attitude to the number of school holidays which should be given. They were
TUTorial
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asked whether there should be fewer, the same number, or more school
Worked example 7
holidays. Five primary students and 2 secondary students wanted fewer
holidays, 29 primary and 9 secondary students thought they had enough holidays (that is, they
chose the same number) and the rest thought they needed to be given more holidays.
Present these data in percentage form in a two-way frequency table and a segmented bar
chart. Compare the opinions of the primary and the secondary students.
Think
1

Put the data in a table. First, fill in the given


information, then find the missing information
by subtracting the appropriate numbers from
the totals.

Calculate the percentages. Since the


independent variable (the level of the student:
primary or secondary) has been placed in
the columns of the table, we calculate the
percentages in columns. For example, to
obtain the percentage of primary students who
wanted fewer holidays, divide the number of
such students by the total number of primary
students and multiply by 100%.

WriTe/draW

Attitude

Primary

Secondary

Fewer

Same

29

38

More

33

36

69

Total

67

47

114

Attitude

Primary

Total

Secondary

Fewer

7.5

4.3

Same

43.3

19.1

More

49.2

76.6

Total

100.0

100.0

5
That is, 67
100% = 7.5%.

Rule out the set of axes. (The vertical axis


shows percentages from 0 to 100, while the
horizontal axis represents the categories
from the columns of the table.) Draw two
columns to represent each category primary
and secondary. Columns must be the same
width and height (up to 100%). Divide each
column into segments so that the height of
each segment is equal to the percentage in the
corresponding cell of the table. Add a legend to
the graph.

Attitude
More
Same
Fewer

100
90
80
70
Percentage

60
50
40
30
20
10
Primary

Secondary

School level
4

Comment on the results.

Secondary students were much keener on having


more holidays than were primary students.

Two-way frequency tables and


segmented bar charts
exercise 2d

1 We5 In a survey, 139 women and 102 men were asked whether they approved or disapproved of

a proposed freeway. Thirty-seven women and 79 men approved of the freeway. Display these data in
a two-way table (not as percentages).

diGiTal doC
doc-9413
Spreadsheet
Two-way frequency
table

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

67

2 Students at a secondary school were asked whether the length of lessons should be 45 minutes or

1hour. Ninety-three senior students (Years 1012) were asked and it was found 60 preferred 1-hour
lessons, whereas of the 86 junior students (Years 79), 36 preferred 1-hour lessons. Display these data
in a two-way table (not as percentages).
3 For each of the following two-way frequency tables, complete the missing entries.
a Attitude
b Attitude
Female
Male
Total
Female
Male
For
25
For
47
i
i
ii
21
Against
Against
ii
iii
iv
iii
Total
51
92
Total
30
v
v
c

Party preference
Labor
Liberal
Total

Female
i

Total
21
iv

63

Male
42%

53%

ii
iv

iii

4 We6 Sixty single men and women were asked whether they prefer to rent by themselves, or to share

accommodation with friends. The results are shown below.


diGiTal doC
doc-9412
SkillSHEET 2.1
expressing one number
as a percentage of
another

Preference
Rent by themselves
Share with friends
Total

Men
12
9
21

Women
23
16
39

Total
35
25
60

Convert the numbers in this table to percentages.


The information in the following two-way frequency table relates to questions 5 and 6.
The data show the reactions of administrative staff and technical staff to an upgrade of the
computer systems at a large corporation.
Attitude
Administrative staff
Technical staff
Total
For
53
98
151
Against
37
31
68
Total
90
129
219
5 mC From the previous table, we can conclude that:
a 53% of administrative staff were for the upgrade
B 37% of administrative staff were for the upgrade
C 37% of administrative staff were against the upgrade
d 59% of administrative staff were for the upgrade
e 54% of administrative staff were against the upgrade
6 mC From the previous table, we can conclude that:
a
B
C
d
e

98% of technical staff were for the upgrade


65% of technical staff were for the upgrade
76% of technical staff were for the upgrade
31% of technical staff were against the upgrade
14% of technical staff were against the upgrade

7 We7 Delegates at the respective Liberal Party and Australian Labor Party conferences were surveyed

on whether or not they believed that marijuana should be legalised. Sixty-two Liberal delegates were
surveyed and 40 of them were against legalisation. Seventy-one Labor delegates were surveyed and
43were against legalisation.
Present the data in percentage form in a two-way frequency table and a segmented bar chart.
Comment on any differences between the reactions of the Liberal and Labor delegates.
8 mC The amount of waste recycled by 100 townships across Australia was rated as low, medium or

high and the size of the town as small, mid-sized or large.


The results of the ratings are:
Amount of waste
recycled
Low
Medium
High

68

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Small
6
8
5

Type of town
Mid-sized
7
31
16

Large
4
5
18

a The percentage of mid-sized towns rated as having a high level of waste recycling is closest to:
a 41%

B 25%

C 30%

d 17%

e 50%

b The variables, Amount of waste recycled and Type of town, as used in this rating are:
a both categorical variables
C numerical and categorical respectively
e neither categorical nor numerical variables

2e

B both numerical variables


d categorical and numerical respectively

Scatterplots

We often want to know if there is a relationship between two numerical variables. A scatterplot, which
gives a visual display of the relationship between two variables, provides a good starting point.
Consider the data obtained from last years 12B class at Northbank Secondary College. Each
student in this class of 29 students was asked to give an estimate of the average number of hours they
studied per week during Year 12. They were also asked for the ATAR score they obtained.
Average hours
of study
14
17
14
19
20
10
28
25
18
19

ATAR
score
54
72
63
72
58
47
85
75
63
61

The figure at right shows the data plotted on a scatterplot.


It is reasonable to think that the number of hours of study put
in each week by students would affect their ATAR scores and
so the number of hours of study per week is the independent
variable and appears on the horizontal axis. The ATAR score is
the dependent variable and appears on the vertical axis.
There are 29 points on the scatterplot. Each point represents
the number of hours of study and the ATAR score of one
student.
In analysing the scatterplot we look for a pattern in the way
the points lie. Certain patterns tell us that certain relationships
exist between the two variables. This is referred to as
correlation. We look at what type of correlation exists and how
strong it is.
In the figure above right we see some sort of pattern: the
points are spread in a rough corridor from bottom left to top
right. We refer to data following such a direction as having a
positive relationship. This tells us that as the average number of
hours studied per week increases, the ATAR score increases.
The point (26, 35) is an outlier. It stands out because it is well
away from the other points and clearly is not part of the corridor
referred to previously. This outlier may have occurred because
a student exaggerated the number of hours he or she worked in
a week or perhaps there was a recording error. This needs to be
checked.
We could describe the rest of the data as having a linearform as
the straight line in the diagram at right indicates.

Average hours
of study
17
16
14
29
30
30
23
26
22

ATAR
score
59
76
59
89
93
96
82
35
78

AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

100
90
ATAR score

ATAR
score
59
67
74
90
62
89
71
60
84
98

80
70
60
50
40

(26, 35)

5 10 15 20 25 30
Average number of hours
of study per week

100
90
ATAR score

Average hours
of study
18
16
22
27
15
28
18
19
22
30

Units: 3 & 4

80
70
60
50
40
0

5 10 15 20 25 30
Average number of hours
of study per week

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

69

When describing the relationship between twovariables displayed on a scatterplot, we need to


commenton:
(a) the direction whether it is positive or negative
(b) the form whether it is linear or non-linear
(c) the strength whether it is strong, moderate or weak
(d) possible outliers.
Below is a gallery of scatterplots showing the various patterns we look for.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Weak, positive
linear relationship

Moderate, positive
linear relationship

Strong, positive
linear relationship

Weak, negative
linear relationship

Moderate, negative
linear relationship

Strong, negative
linear relationship

Perfect, negative
linear relationship

No relationship

Perfect, positive
linear relationship

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

The scatterplot at right shows the number of hours people spend at


work each week and the number of hours people get to spend on
recreational activities during the week.
Decide whether or not a relationship exists between the variables
and, if it does, comment on whether it is positive or negative; weak,
moderate or strong; and whether or not it has a linear form.

Think

70

The points on the scatterplot are spread in a


certain pattern, namely in a rough corridor from
the top left to the bottom right corner. This tells
us that as the work hours increase, the recreation
hours decrease.

The corridor is straight (that is, it would be


reasonable to fit a straight line into it).

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

WriTe

Hours for recreation

Worked example 8

25
20
15
10
5
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Hours worked

The points are neither too tight nor too dispersed.

The pattern resembles the central diagram in the


gallery of scatterplots shown previously.

There is a moderate, negative linear relationship


between the two variables.

Worked example 9

Data showing the average weekly number of hours studied by each student in
12B at Northbank Secondary College and the corresponding height of each
student (to the nearest tenth of a metre) are given in the table below.

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Worked example 9

Average hours of study


Height (m)

18 16 22 27 15 28 18 20 10 28 25 18 19 17
1.5 1.9 1.7 2.0 1.9 1.8 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.1

Average hours of study


Height (m)

19

22

30

14

17

14

19

16

14

29

30

30

23

22

2.0 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.5 2.1

Construct a scatterplot for the data and use it to comment on the direction, form and strength of
any relationship between the number of hours studied and the height of the students.
Think

A calculator can be used to assist you in


drawing a scatterplot.
Average number of hours
studied each week

WriTe

30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
0

Comment on the direction of any relationship.

1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2


Height (m)

There is no relationship; the points appear


to be randomly placed.
ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

71

Comment on the form of the relationship.

There is no form, no linear trend, no quadratic


trend, just a random placement of points.

Comment on the strength of any relationship.

Since there is no relationship, strength is not


relevant.

Draw a conclusion.

Clearly, from the graph, the number of hours spent


studying for VCE has no relation to how tall you
might be.

Scatterplots

exercise 2e

1 For each of the following pairs of variables, write down whether or not you would reasonably expect a

c
Fitness level (s)

20 40 60 80
Age

120
100
80
60
0

10
20
Cigarettes smoked

e
25
20
15
10
5
0

5 10 15 20
Hours spent
gardening per week

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

2 4 6 8 1012 1416

100
80
60
40
20
0

4 8 12 16
Weekly hours of study

Time under water (s)

14
12
10
8
0

Hours spent using a


computer per week

Weekly expenditure on
gardening magazines ($)

Haemoglobin
count (g/dl)

Marks at school (%)

relationship to exist between the pair and, if so, comment on whether it would be a positive or negative
association.
a Time spent in a supermarket and money spent
b Income and value of car driven
c Number of children living in a house and time spent cleaning the house
d Age and number of hours of competitive sport played per week
e Amount spent on petrol each week and distance travelled by car each week
f Number of hours spent in front of a computer each week and time spent playing the piano each
week
g Amount spent on weekly groceries and time spent gardening each week
2 We8 For each of the scatterplots below, describe whether or not a relationship exists between the
variables and, if it does, comment on whether it is positive or negative, whether it is weak, moderate
or strong and whether or not it has a linear form.

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

5 10 15 20 25
Age

Hours spent
cooking per week

3 mC From the scatterplot shown at right, it would be reasonable to

observe that:
a as the value of x increases, the value of y increases
B as the value of x increases, the value of y decreases
C as the value of x increases, the value of y remains the same
d as the value of x remains the same, the value of y increases
e there is no relationship between x and y

72

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

4 We9 The population of a municipality (to the nearest ten thousand) together with the number of

primary schools in that particular municipality is given below for 11municipalities.


Population
( 1000)
Number of
primary schools

110

130

130

140

150

160

170

170

180

180

190

diGiTal doC
doc-9414
Spreadsheet
Scatterplot

Construct a scatterplot for the data and use it to comment on the direction, form and strength of any
relationship between the population and the number of primary schools.
5 The table below contains data for the time taken to do a paving job and the cost of the job.

Construct a scatterplot for the data. Comment on whether a relationship exists between the time
taken and the cost. If there is a relationship, describe it.
Time taken
(hours)
5
7
5
8
10
13
15
20
18
25
33

Cost of job
($)
1000
1000
1500
1200
2000
2500
2800
3200
2800
4000
3000

6 The table below shows the time of booking (how many days in advance) of the tickets for a musical

performance and the corresponding row number in A-reserve seating.


Time of
booking

Row
number

Time of
booking

Row
number

Time of
booking

Row
number

15

14

12

25

15

14

10

28

15

17

11

29

14

20

10

29

14

21

30

11

13

22

31

13

13

24

Construct a scatterplot for the data. Comment on whether a relationship exists between the time
of booking and the number of the row and, if there is a relationship, describe it.

pearsons productmoment
correlation coefficient
2F

In the previous section, we estimated the strength of association by looking at a scatterplot and forming
a judgment about whether the correlation between the variables was positive or negative and whether the
correlation was weak, moderate or strong.
A more precise tool for measuring correlation between two variables is Pearsons
productmoment correlation coefficient. This coefficient is used to measure the strength of linear
relationships between variables.

inTeraCTiViTY
int-0183
pearsons
productmoment
correlation coefficient

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

73

The symbol for Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient is r. The value of r ranges
from 1 to 1; that is, 1 r 1.
Following is a gallery of scatterplots with the corresponding value of r for each.

r=1

r = 1

r = 0.7

r = 0.5

r = 0.9

r = 0.8

r = 0.3

r = 0.2

r=0

Value of r

The two extreme values of r (1 and 1) are shown in the


first two diagrams respectively.
From these diagrams we can see that a value of
r = 1 or 1 means that there is perfect linear association
between the variables.
The value of the Pearsons productmoment
correlation coefficient indicates the strength of the
linear relationship between two variables. The diagram
below gives a rough guide to the strength of the
correlation based on the value of r.

1
0.75
0.5
0.25
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1

} Strong positive linear association


} Moderate positive linear association
} Weak positive linear association

No linear association

} Weak negative linear association


} Moderate negative linear association
} Strong negative linear association

Worked example 10

For each of the following:


i Estimate the value of Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient
(r) from the scatterplot.
ii Use this to comment on the strength and direction of the relationship
between the two variables.
a

74

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

TUTorial
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Worked example 10

Think

WriTe

a i Compare these scatterplots with those in the

gallery of scatterplots shown previously and


estimate the value of r.
ii Comment on the strength and direction of the

relationship.

a i r 0.9

ii The relationship can be described as a strong,

positive, linear relationship.


b i r 0.7
ii The relationship can be described as a

b Repeat parts i and ii as in a.

moderate, negative, linear relationship.


c i r 0.1
ii There is almost no linear relationship.

c Repeat parts i and ii as in a.

Note that the symbol means approximately equal to. We use it instead of the = sign to emphasise that
the value (in this case r) is only an estimate.
In completing the worked example above, we notice that estimating the value of r from a scatterplot is
rather like making an informed guess. In the next section of work, we will see how to obtain the actual
value of r.

pearsons productmoment
correlation coefficient
exercise 2F

1 What type of linear relationship does each of the following values of r suggest?
a 0.21
b 0.65
c 1
d 0.78

e 1
f 0.9
g 0.34
h 0.1
2 We10 For each of the following:
i Estimate the value of Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient (r), from the scatterplot.
ii Use this to comment on the strength and direction of the relationship between the two variables.
a

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

75

3 mC A set of data relating the variables x and y is found to have an r value of 0.62. The scatterplot that

could represent the data is:

diGiTal doC
doc-9415
WorkSHEET 2.2

A set of data relating the variables x and y is found to have an r value of 0.45. A true statement
about the relationship between x and y is:
a There is a strong linear relationship between x and y and when the x-values increase, the y-values
tend to increase also.
B There is a moderate linear relationship between x and y and when the x-values increase, the
y-values tend to increase also.
C There is a moderate linear relationship between x and y and when the x-values increase, the
y-values tend to decrease.
d There is a weak linear relationship between x and y and when the x-values increase, the y-values
tend to increase also.
e There is a weak linear relationship between x and y and when the x-values increase, the y-values
tend to decrease.
mC

Calculating r and the coefficient


of determination
2G

Units: 3 & 4
Topic:

pearsons productmoment correlation


coefficient (r )

Concept:

The formula for calculating Pearsons correlation coefficient r is as follows:

AOS: DA

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

with r.

Do more
Interact

r=

1 n xi x yi y

n 1 i = 1 sx s y

where n is the number of pairs of data in the set


sx is the standard deviation of the x-values
sy is the standard deviation of the y-values
x is the mean of the x-values
y is the mean of the y-values.
The calculation of r is often done using a CAS calculator.
There are two important limitations on the use of r. First, since r measures the strength of a linear
relationship, it would be inappropriate to calculate r for data which are not linear for example, data
which a scatterplot shows to be in a quadratic form.
Second, outliers can bias the value of r. Consequently, if a set of linear data contains an outlier, then r
is not a reliable measure of the strength of that linear relationship.
The calculation of r is applicable to sets of bivariate data which are known to be linear in form and
which do not have outliers.

76

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

With those two provisos, it is good practice to draw a scatterplot for a set of data to check for a linear
form and an absence of outliers before r is calculated. Having a scatterplot in front of you is also useful
because it enables you to estimate what the value of r might be as you did in the previous exercise,
and thus you can check that your workings on the calculator are correct.
Worked example 11

The heights (in centimetres) of 21 football players were recorded against the
number of marks they took in a game of football. The data are shown in the
following table.

TUTorial
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Worked example 11

a Construct a scatterplot for the data.


b Comment on the correlation between the heights of players and the number of marks that they

take, and estimate the value of r.

c Calculate r and use it to comment on the relationship between the heights of players and the

number of marks they take in a game.

Height (cm)
184
194
185
175
186
183
174
200
188
184
188

Number of marks taken


6
11
3
2
7
5
4
10
9
7
6

Height (cm)
182
185
183
191
177
184
178
190
193
204

Think

a Height is the independent variable, so plot it on

Number of marks taken


7
5
9
9
3
8
4
10
12
14

WriTe/draW

14

the x-axis; the number of marks is the dependent


variable, so show it on the y-axis.

12

Mark

10
8
6
4
2
0

172 176 180 184 188 192 196 200 204


Height

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

77

b Comment on the correlation between the

b The data show what appears to be a linear form

variables and estimate the value of r.


c 1 Because there is a linear form and there

of moderate strength.
We might expect r 0.8.
c

are no outliers, the calculation of r is


appropriate.
2

Use a calculator to find the value of r.


Round to 2 decimal places.

r = 0.859 311 . . .
0.86

The value of r = 0.86 indicates a strong


positive linear relationship.

r = 0.86. This indicates there is a strong positive


linear association between the height of a player
and the number of marks he takes in a game.
That is, the taller the player, the more marks we
might expect him to take.

Correlation and causation


Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
correlation and
causation.

In Worked example 11 we saw that r = 0.86. While we are entitled to say that there is a strong
association between the height of a footballer and the number of marks he takes, we cannot assert that
the height of a footballer causes him to take a lot of marks. Being tall might assist in taking marks, but
there will be many other factors which come into play; for example, skill level, accuracy of passes from
teammates, abilities of the opposing team, and so on.
So, while establishing a high degree of correlation between two variables may be interesting and can
often flag the need for further, more detailed investigation, it in no way gives us any basis to comment
on whether or not one variable causes particular values in another variable.

The coefficient of determination (r 2)


The coefficient of determination is given by r 2. It is very easy to calculate we merely square
Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient (r). The value of the coefficient of determination
ranges from 0 to 1; that is, 0 r 2 1.
1. The coefficient of determination is useful when we have two variables which have a linear
relationship. It tells us the proportion of variation in one variable which can be explained by
the variation in the other variable.
2. The coefficient of determination provides a measure of how well the linear rule linking the
two variables (x and y) predicts the value of y when we are given the value of x.

Worked example 12

A set of data giving the number of police traffic patrols on duty and the number
of fatalities for the region was recorded and a correlation coefficient of r = 0.8
was found. Calculate the coefficient of determination and interpret its value.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Think
1

Calculate the coefficient of determination by


squaring the given value of r.

Coefficient of determination = r 2
= (0.8)2
= 0.64

Interpret your result.

We can conclude from this that 64% of the


variation in the number of fatalities can be
explained by the variation in the number of police
traffic patrols on duty. This means that the number
of police traffic patrols on duty is a major factor in
predicting the number of fatalities.

Concept: 10
Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

78

WriTe

TUTorial
eles-1263
Worked example 12

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Note: In the previous worked example, 64% of the variation in the number of fatalities was due to the
variation in the number of police cars on duty and 36% was due to other factors; for example, days of
the week or hour of the day.

Calculating r and the coef ficient


of determination
exercise 2G

1 We11 The yearly salary ( $1000) and the number of votes polled in the Brownlow medal count are

given below for 10 footballers.


Yearly salary
( $1000)
Number of votes

180

200

160

250

190

210

170

150

140

180

24

15

33

10

16

23

14

21

31

28

a Construct a scatterplot for the data.


b Comment on the correlation of salary and the number of votes and make an estimate of r.
c Calculate r and use it to comment on the relationship between yearly salary and number of

diGiTal doC
doc-9416
Spreadsheet
pearsons
productmoment
correlation

votes.
2 We12 A set of data, obtained from 40 smokers, gives the number of cigarettes smoked per

day and the number of visits per year to the doctor. The Pearsons correlation coefficient for
these data was found to be 0.87. Calculate the coefficient of determination for the data and
interpret its value.
3 Data giving the annual advertising budgets ( $1000) and the yearly profit increases (%) of

8 companies are shown below.


Annual advertising budget
( $1000)

11

Yearly profit increase (%)


a
b
c
d
e

14

2.2

15

2.2

17

3.2

20

4.6

25

5.7

25

6.9

27

7.9

9.3

Construct a scatterplot for these data.


Comment on the correlation of the advertising budget and profit increase and make an estimate of r.
Calculate r.
Calculate the coefficient of determination.
Write the proportion of the variation in the yearly profit increase that can be explained by the
variation in the advertising budget.

4 Data showing the number of tourists visiting a small country in a month and the corresponding average

monthly exchange rate for the countrys currency against the American dollar are given below.
Number of tourists
( 1000)

Exchange rate

1.2

1.1

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

10
0.6

a Construct a scatterplot for the data.


b Comment on the correlation between the number of tourists and the exchange rate and give an

estimate of r.
c Calculate r.
d Calculate the coefficient of determination.
e Write the proportion of the variation in the number of tourists that can be explained by the

exchange rate.
5 Data showing the number of people in 9 households against weekly grocery costs are given below.

Number of people in household


Weekly grocery costs ($)

60

180

210

120

150

160

65

200

90

a Construct a scatterplot for the data.


b Comment on the correlation of the number of people in a household and the weekly grocery costs

and give an estimate of r.


ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

79

c Calculate r.
d Calculate the coefficient of determination.
e Write the proportion of the variation in the weekly grocery costs that can be explained by the

variation in the number of people in a household.


6 Data showing the number of people on 8 fundraising committees and the annual funds raised are given

below.
Number of people
on committee
Annual funds
raised ($)

4500

8500

6100

12 500

7200

10 000

4700

8800

a Construct a scatterplot for these data.


b Comment on the correlation between the number of people on a committee and the funds raised

and make an estimate of r.


c Calculate r.
d Based on the value of r obtained in part c, would it be appropriate to conclude that the increase

in the number of people on the fundraising committee causes the increase in the amount of funds
raised?
e Calculate the coefficient of determination.
f Write the proportion of the variation in the funds raised that can be explained by the variation in
the number of people on a committee.
The following information applies to questions 7 and 8. A set of data was obtained from a large group of
women with children under 5 years of age. They were asked the number of hours they worked per week
and the amount of money they spent on child care. The results were recorded and the value of Pearsons
correlation coefficient was found to be 0.92.
7 mC Which of the following is not true?
a The relationship between the number of

working hours and the amount of money


spent on child care is linear.
There is a positive correlation between the
number of working hours and the amount
of money spent on child care.
The correlation between the number of
working hours and the amount of money
spent on child care can be classified as
strong.
As the number of working hours increases,
the amount spent on child care increases
as well.
The increase in the number of hours
worked causes the increase in the amount
of money spent on child care.

8 mC Which of the following is not true?


a The coefficient of determination is about

0.85.
B The number of working hours is the major

factor in predicting the amount of money


spent on child care.
C About 85% of the variation in the number
of hours worked can be explained by the
variation in the amount of money spent on
child care.
d Apart from number of hours worked, there could be other factors affecting the amount of money
spent on child care.
17
e About
of the variation in the amount of money spent on child care can be explained by the
20
variation in the number of hours worked.
80

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

9 An investigation is undertaken with people following the Certain Slim diet to explore the link between

weeks of dieting and total weight loss. The data are shown below.
Total weight
loss (kg)

Number of
weeks on the diet

1.5

4.5

3.5

6.5

8.5

10

6.5

10

2.5

a Display the data on a scatterplot.


b Describe the association between the two variables in terms of direction, form and strength.
c Is it appropriate to use Pearsons correlation coefficient to explain the link between the number of
d
e
f
g
h

weeks on the Certain Slim diet and total weight loss?


Estimate the value of Pearsons correlation coefficient from the scatterplot.
Calculate the value of this coefficient.
Is the total weight loss affected by the number of weeks staying on the diet?
Calculate the value of the coefficient of determination.
What does the coefficient of determination say about the relationship between total weight loss
and the number of weeks on the Certain Slim diet?

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

81

Summary
dependent and
independent variables

Bivariate data are data with two variables.


In a relationship involving two variables, if the values of one variable depend on the values of
another variable, then the former variable is referred to as the dependent variable and the latter
variable is referred to as the independent variable.
When data are displayed on a graph, the independent variable is placed on the horizontal axis and
the dependent variable is placed on the vertical axis.

Back-to-back stem
plots

A back-to-back stem plot displays bivariate data involving a numerical variable and a categorical
variable with two categories.
Together with summary statistics, back-to-back stem plots can be used to compare the
two distributions.

parallel boxplots

To display a relationship between a numerical variable and a categorical variable with two or more
categories, we can use a parallel boxplot.
A parallel boxplot is obtained by constructing individual boxplots for each distribution and
positioning them on a common scale.

Two-way frequency
tables and segmented
bar charts

The two-way frequency table is a tool for examining the relationship between two categorical
variables.
If the total number of scores in each of the two categories is unequal, percentages should be
calculated to analyse the table properly.
When the independent variable is placed in the columns of the table, the numbers in each column
should be expressed as a percentage of that columns total.
The data in a two-way frequency table in percentage form can be represented graphically as a
segmented bar chart.
The columns in a segmented bar chart match the columns in a two-way frequency table. Each
segment corresponds to each cell in the table.

Scatterplots

A scatterplot gives a visual display of the relationship between two numerical variables.
In analysing the scatterplot we look for a pattern in the way the points lie. Certain patterns tell us
that certain relationships exist between the two variables. This is referred to as a correlation. We
look at what type of correlation exists and how strong it is.
When describing the relationship between two variables displayed on a scatterplot, we need to
comment on:
(a) the direction whether it is positive or negative
(b) the form whether it is linear or non-linear
(c) the strength whether it is strong, moderate or weak
(d) possible outliers.

pearsons product
moment correlation
coefficient

Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient is used to measure the strength of a linear


relationship between two variables.
The symbol for Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient is r.
The calculation of r is applicable to sets of bivariate data which are known to be linear in form and
which dont have outliers.

82

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

The value of r can be estimated from the


scatterplot; 1 r 1.

1
0.75

Value of r

0.5
0.25
0

Strong positive linear association


Moderate positive linear association
Weak positive linear association
No linear association

0.25
0.5
0.75
1

Weak negative linear association


Moderate negative linear association
Strong negative linear association

The formula for calculating Pearsons correlation coefficient r is as follows:


r=

1 n xi x yi y

n 1 i = 1 sx s y

where n is the number of pairs of data in the set


sx is the standard deviation of the x-values
sy is the standard deviation of the y-values
x is the mean of the x-values
y is the mean of the y-values.
The calculation of r is often done using a CAS calculator.
Even if we find that two variables have a very high degree of correlation, for example r = 0.95, we
cannot say that the value of one variable is caused by the value of the other variable.
If r = 1 or 1 there is a perfect linear relationship.
Calculating r and
the coefficient of
determination

The coefficient of determination = r 2; 0 r 2 1.


The coefficient of determination is useful when we have two variables which have a linear
relationship. It tells us the proportion of variation in one variable which can be explained by the
variation in the other variable.
To change the value of r 2 to a percentage, multiply it by 100.

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

83

Chapter review
m U lT ip l e
C h oiCe

1 In a study on the effectiveness of vitamin C, a researcher asked a group of people with cold and flu

symptoms to record the number of days these symptoms persisted and their daily dosage (in mg) of
vitamin C. If the researcher wishes to represent these data graphically, which of the following should
she do?
a Show the number of days the symptoms persisted on the x-axis, as this is the independent variable
and the daily dosage of vitamin C on the y-axis, as this is the dependent variable.
B Show the daily dosage of vitamin C on the x-axis, as this is the dependent variable and the
number of days the symptoms persisted on the y-axis, as this is the independent variable.
C Show the number of days the symptoms persisted on the x-axis, as this is the dependent variable
and the daily dosage of vitamin C on the y-axis, as this is the independent variable.
d Show the daily dosage of vitamin C on the x-axis, as this is the independent variable and the
number of days the symptoms persisted on the y-axis, as this is the dependent variable.
e It is impossible to decide which of the two variables is dependent and which one is independent,
so it does not matter which axes we use.
2 A back-to-back stem plot is a useful way of displaying the relationship between:
a the number of children attending a day care centre and whether or not the centre has federal
B
C
d
e

funding
height and wrist circumference
age and weekly income
weight and the number of takeaway meals eaten each week
the age of a car and amount spent each year on servicing it

The following information relates to questions 3 and 4.


The salaries of people working at five different advertising companies are shown on the following
parallel boxplots.
3 The company with the largest interquartile range is:
a Company A
B Company B
C Company C
d Company D
e Company E

Company A
Company B
Company C
Company D

4 The company with the lowest median is:


a Company A
B Company B
C Company C
d Company D
e Company E

Company E
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110120130140 150
Annual salary ( $1000)

Questions 5 and 6 relate to the following information.


Data showing reactions of junior staff and senior staff to a relocation of offices are given below in a
two-way frequency table.
Attitude

Junior staff

Senior staff

Total

For

23

14

37

Against

31

41

72

Total

54

55

109

5 From this table, we can conclude that:


a 23% of junior staff were for the relocation
B 42.6% of junior staff were for the relocation
C 31% of junior staff were against the relocation
d 62.1% of junior staff were for the relocation
e 28.4% of junior staff were against the relocation

84

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

6 From this table, we can conclude that:


a 14% of senior staff were for the relocation
B 37.8% of senior staff were for the relocation
C 12.8% of senior staff were for the relocation
d 72% of senior staff were against the relocation
e 74.5% of senior staff were against the relocation

7 The relationship between the variables x and y is

shown on the scatterplot at right.


The correlation between x and y would be best described as:
a a weak positive association
B a weak negative association
C a strong positive association
d a strong negative association
e non-existent
8 A set of data relating the variables x and y is found to have an r value of 0.83.
The scatterplot that would best represent this data set is:
a

x
d

x
e

9 A set of data comparing age with blood pressure is found to have a Pearsons correlation coefficient of

0.86. The coefficient of determination for these data would be closest to:
d 0.43
a 0.86
B 0.74
C 0.43

e 0.74

1 For each of the following, write down which is the dependent and which is the independent variable or

whether it is appropriate to classify the variables as such.


a The number of injuries in a netball season and the age of a netball player
b The suburb and the size of a home mortgage
c IQ and weight
2 The number of hours of counselling received by a group of 9 full-time firefighters and 9 volunteer
firefighters after a serious bushfire is given below.
Full-time

Volunteer

10

11

11

12

13

13

14

15

S ho rT
a n S W er

a Construct a back-to-back stem plot to display the data.


b Comment on the distributions of the number of hours of counselling of the full-time firefighters

and the volunteers.


ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

85

3 The IQ of 8 players in 3 different football teams were recorded and are shown below.

Team A

120

105

140

116

98

105

130

102

Team B

110

104

120

109

106

95

102

100

Team C

121

115

145

130

120

114

116

123

Display the data in parallel boxplots.


4 Delegates at the respective Liberal and Labor Party conferences were surveyed on whether or not they

believed that uranium mining should continue. Forty-five Liberal delegates were surveyed and 15 were
against continuation. Fifty-three Labor delegates were surveyed and 43 were against continuation.
a Present the data as percentages in a two-way frequency table and a segmented bar chart.
b Comment on any difference between the reactions of the Liberal and Labor delegates.

5 a Construct a scatterplot for the data given in the table below.

Age
Pulse rate

15
79

17
74

18
75

16
85

19
82

19
76

17
77

15
72

17
70

b Use the scatterplot to comment on any relationship which exists between the variables.
6 For the variables shown on the scatterplot below, give an estimate of the value of r and use it to

comment on the nature of the relationship between the two variables.


y

x
7 The table at right gives data relating the percentage of lectures attended

by students in a semester and the corresponding mark for each student


in the exam for that subject.
a Construct a scatterplot for these data.
b Comment on the correlation between the lectures attended and the
examination results and make an estimate of r.
c Calculate r.
d Calculate the coefficient of determination.
e Write the proportion of the variation in the examination results
that can be explained by the variation in the number of lectures
attended.

86

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Lectures
Exam
attended (%) result (%)
70
80
59
62
85
89
93
98
78
84
85
91
84
83
69
72
70
75
82
85

1 An investigation into the relationship between

Salary bracket
age and salary bracket among some employees of a
( $1000)
Age
large computer company is made and the results are
2039
32 21 43 23 22 27 37
shown at right.
4059
29 31 37 26 33 37
a State which is the independent variable and
which is the dependent variable.
6079
41 29 39 42 47 45 43 38
b State which of the following you could use to
8099
43 48 38 37 49 51 53 59
display the data:
100120
48 37 55 61
i back-to-back stem plot
ii parallel boxplot
iii scatterplot
iv two-way frequency table in percentage form.
c State which of the following you could calculate in order to find out more about the relationship
between age and salary bracket:
i r, the Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient
ii the coefficient of determination.

e x Ten d ed
reS p o n S e

2 For marketing purposes, the administration of the Arts Centre needs to compare the ages of people

attending two different concerts: a symphony orchestra concert and a jazz concert. Twenty people were
randomly selected from each audience and their ages were recorded as shown.
Event
Symphony orchestra
concert
Jazz concert

Ages of people attending the event


20, 23, 30, 35, 39, 42, 45, 45, 47, 48,
48, 49, 49, 50, 53, 54, 56, 58, 58, 60
16, 18, 19, 19, 20, 23, 24, 27, 29, 30,
33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 62

a Display the data on a back-to-back stem plot.


b For each category calculate the following statistics:
ii Xmin
ii Q1
iv Q3
v Xmax
vii interquartile range (IQR)
viii standard deviation.

iii median
vi mean

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

87

c Use the stem plot together with some summary statistics to compare the distributions of the ages

of patrons attending the two concerts.


One month later, at the beginning of the opera season, twenty people were again selected (this
time from the opera audience) and their ages were recorded as shown.
Event
Opera

Ages of people attending the event


12, 18, 29, 30, 33, 35, 38, 39, 42, 46,
49, 50, 54, 56, 56, 57, 59, 63, 65, 68

The administration of the Arts Centre now wishes to compare all three distributions of the ages.
Explain why it is not possible to use a back-to-back stem plot for this task.
Calculate the eight summary statistics for the ages of the opera-goers (as in part b above).
Display the data for the three events using parallel boxplots.
Use the boxplots and some summary statistics to compare the three distributions.
3 In one study, 380 Year 12 students were asked how often they were engaged in any sporting activity
outside school. Students were also asked to classify their stress level in relation to their VCE studies.
The results at right were obtained.
d
e
f
g

Level of stress
Low
Medium
High

diGiTal doC
doc-9417
Test Yourself
Chapter 2

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

DA

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

88

Engaged in sporting activity outside school


Regularly
Sometimes
Never
16
32
36
12
40
56
6
52
130

In this study, which would be the independent variable: stress level, or the amount of sporting activity?
How many students in this study reported a high level of stress?
How many students were engaged in sport activity outside of school?
Represent the data in a two-way frequency table in percentage form.
Display the data from part d using a segmented bar chart.
Comment on any relationship between the stress level and the amount of sporting activity for this
group of Year 12 students.
4 The data in the table below show the number of hours spent by students learning to touch-type and their
corresponding speed in words per minute (wpm).
a
b
c
d
e
f

Time (h)
Speed (wpm)

20
34

33
46

22
38

39
53

40
52

37
49

46
60

44
58

24
36

36
42

50
65

48
63

29
40

State which variable is independent and which is dependent.


Represent the data on a scatterplot.
Use the scatterplot to comment on the relationship between the two variables.
Is it appropriate to use these data to calculate the value of Pearsons productmoment correlation
coefficient? Explain.
e Estimate the value of r from the scatterplot.
f Calculate the value of r using a CAS calculator. Does the value of r support the observations you
made in part c?
g Calculate the coefficient of determination and interpret the result.
a
b
c
d

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9409: Warm up with a quick quiz on
bivariate data. (page 57)

2B

Back-to-back stem plots

TUTorial
We 2 eles-1259: Watch a tutorial on displaying data on a back-toback stem plot. (page 59)

2C

parallel boxplots

diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9410: Compare two sets of data using parallel
boxplots. (page 64)
WorkSHEET 2.1 doc-9411: Identify independent and dependent
variables and construct parallel boxplots and back-to-back stem
plots. (page 65)

2d Two-way frequency tables and segmented


bar charts
diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9413: Construct a two-way frequency table. (page 67)
SkillSHEET 2.1 doc-9412: Practise expressing one number as a
percentage of another. (page 68)
TUTorial
We 7 eles-1260: Learn how to present data in a two-way table.
(page 67)

2e

Scatterplots

diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc-9414: Investigate the relationship between two
variables by constructing a scatterplot (page 73)
TUTorial
We 9 eles-1261: Watch a worked example on constructing a
scatterplot to determine the relationship between the heights of
students and the number of hours they study. (page 71)

2F pearsons productmoment correlation


coefficient
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 2.2 doc-9415: Displaying data using scatterplots and
recognising linear and non-linear relationships. (page 76)
TUTorial
We 10 eles-1262: Watch a worked example on estimating r and
using it to comment on the relationship between two variables.
(page 74)
inTeraCTiViTY
Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient int-0183: Use the
interactivity to consolidate your knowledge of Pearsons product
moment correlation coefficient and how it relates to bivariate data.
(page 73)

2G Calculating r and the coefficient of


determination
diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc-9416: Investigate Pearsons productmoment
correlation coefficient and the coefficient of determination.
(page 79)
TUTorialS
We11 eles-1244: Watch a worked example on how to construct a
scatterplot and use it to estimate the value of r. (page 77)
We12 eles-1263: Watch a worked example on calculating the
coefficient of determination and how it is used to interpret the
relationship between two variables. (page 78)

Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc-9417: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 88)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

89

Answers CHAPTER 2
BiVariaTe daTa
exercise 2a dependent and
independent variables
1 a Independent age, dependent salary
b Independent amount of fertiliser,
dependent growth
c Not appropriate
d Not appropriate
e Independent number in household,
dependent size of house
f Independent month of the year,
dependent size of electricity bill
g Independent number of hours,
dependent mark on the test
h Not appropriate
i Independent season, dependent
cost
2 C
3 C
4 D
exercise 2B

4 a Key:1 |2 = 12 marks

Back-to-back stem plots

1 Key: 2|3 = 23

Leaf Stem Leaf


German
French
2 1 1 0 2
3 4
7 6 5 5 2* 5 5 8
3 2 1 0 0 3
0 1 4 4
9 8 7 7 3* 5 6 8 8 9
2 1 4
2 3 4 4
5 4* 6 8
2 Key: 2*|7 = 2.7 (kg)

Leaf Stem Leaf


Boys
Girls
2* 6 7
4 4 3
0 1 1 2 3
8 7 6 3* 6 7
3 2 4
0
9 8 4*
0 5

5 a

3 a Key: 2*|5 = 25 trucks

Leaf Stem Leaf


A
B
2 1 1
0
7 7 6 6 5 1* 5 6
4 3 2 1 0 2
0 1 3
7 5 2* 5 6 8 9
3
0 1 2
3* 5

6 a

b For supermarket A the mean is 19, the

median is 18.5, the standard deviation is


4.9 and the interquartile range is 7. The
distribution is symmetric.
For supermarket B the mean is 24.4,
the median is 25.5, the standard
deviation is 7.2 and the interquartile
range is 10. The distribution is
symmetric.
The centre and spread of the distribution
of supermarket B is higher than that of
supermarket A.
There is greater variation in the number
of trucks arriving at supermarket B.

90

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Leaf Stem Leaf


Females
Males
1
0
3 2
1
2 3
5 5 4 4
1
4 4 5
7 6
1
7
1
9
For the marks of the females, the
mean is 14.5, the median is 14.5,
the standard deviation is 1.6 and the
interquartile range is 2. The distribution
is symmetric.
For the marks of the males, the mean
is 14.25, the median is 14, the standard
deviation is 2.8 and the interquartile
range is 3.5. The distribution is
symmetric.
The centre of each distribution is about
the same. The spread of marks for the
boys is greater, however. This means
that there is a wider variation in the
abilities of the boys compared to the
abilities of the girls.
Key: 2*|6 = 26 marks
Leaf Stem Leaf
2007
2008
2
2
2* 6 7 8
1 0 3
0 1 1 3 4
9 7 5 3* 6
3 2 1 1 4
6 4*
The distribution of marks for 2007 and
for 2008 are each symmetric.
For the 2007 marks, the mean is 38.5,
the median is 40, the standard deviation
is 5.2 and the interquartile range is 7.
The distribution is symmetric.
For the 2008 marks, the mean is
29.8, the median is 30.5, the standard
deviation is 4.2 and the inter-quartile
range is 6.
The spread of each of the distributions
is much the same, but the centre of each
distribution is quite different with the
centre of the 2008 distribution lower.
The work may have become a lot
harder!
Key: 3*|6 = 36 years old
Leaf Stem Leaf
Female
Male
4 3 2
2
8 7 6 5 2* 5
1 0 3
0 1
3* 6 7
4
2
4* 6
For the distribution of the females,
the mean is 26.75, the median is 26.5,
the standard deviation is 2.8 and the
interquartile range is 4.5.
For the distribution of the males, the
mean is 33.6, the median is 33.5,

the standard deviation is 8.2 and the


interquartile range is 12.
The centre of the distributions is very
different: it is much higher for the
males. The spread of the ages of the
females who attend the fitness class is
very small but very large for males.
7 a Key: 5|0 = 50 points
Leaf Stem Leaf
Kindergarten
Prep.
3
0
5
4 3
1
2 7
8 5
2
5 7
6 2
3
2 5
7 1
4
4 6
0
5
2
b For the distribution of scores of the
kindergarten children, the mean is 28.9,
the median is 30, the standard deviation
is 15.4 and the interquartile range is 27.
For the distribution of scores for the
prep. children, the mean is 29.5, the
median is 29.5, the standard deviation is
15.3 and the interquartile range is 27.
The distributions are very similar. There
is not a lot of difference between the
way the kindergarten children and the
prep. children scored.
8 B
9 C
exercise 2C

1 a

parallel boxplots
11A
10A
9A

120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200


Height (cm)

b Clearly, the median height increases

2 a

from Year 9 to Year 11. There is greater


variation in 9As distribution than in
10As. There is a wide range of heights
in the lower 25% of the distribution
of 9As distribution. There is a greater
variation in 11As distribution than in
10As, with a wide range of heights in
the top 25% of the 11A distribution.
4049 age
group
3039 age
group
2029 age
group

10
15
5
Annual superannuation contribution ( $1000)

b Clearly, there is a great jump in

contributions to superannuation for


people in their 40s. The spread of
contributions for that age group is
smaller than for people in their 20s or
30s, suggesting that a high proportion
of people in their 40s are conscious
of superannuation. For people in their 20s
and 30s, the range is greater, indicating a
range of interest in contributing to super.

exercise 2e

C
Multi-vitamin
15
10
Number of jars sold

20

Overall, the biggest sales were of multivitamins, followed by vitamin B, then C


and finally vitaminA.
4 a True
b True
c False
d True
5 a The Pearlfishers
b Orlando
6 a D
b C

b
c
d

exercise 2d

Two-way frequency tables


and segmented bar charts

Attitude

Female

Male

Total

37

79

116

Against

102

23

125

Total

139

102

241

For

3 B
4

Lesson length Junior Senior Total


50

33

83

1 hour

36

60

96

Total

86

93

179

i
iv
b i
iv
c i
iii

22
45
12
42
47%
100%

ii 26
v 41
ii 9
v 33
ii 58%
iv 100%

Preference

Men

59%

Share with friends

43%

41%

100%

100%

Attitude

Liberal

Labor

For

35.5

39.4

Against

64.5

60.6

100.0

100.0

Total

Attitude
Against
For

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

2000

Percentage

5 10 15 20 25 30
Hours of paving

Strong positive association of linear


form, no outliers
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

There is not a lot of difference in the


reactions.
8 a C
b A

4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32
Time of booking
(Number of days
before the performance)

pearsons productmoment
correlation coefficient
1 a No association
b Moderate positive
c Strong negative
d Strong negative
e Strong positive

140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250
Yearly salary ( $1000)

association. r is approximately 0.6.


c r = 0.66. There is a moderate negative
linear association between the yearly
salary and the number of votes. That is,
the larger the yearly salary of the player,
the fewer the number of votes we might
expect to see.
2 Coefficient of determination is 0.7569.
The portion of variation in the number of
visits to the doctor that can be explained
by the variation in the number of cigarettes
smoked is about 76%.
3 a

exercise 2F

Labor

b There is moderate, negative linear

Strong negative association of linear


form, no outliers

Delegates

3000

Liberal

4000

1000

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

100 120 140 160 180 200


Population ('000)

6 C

1 a

Women

57%

Strong positive
Weak negative
No association
i r 0.8
ii Strong, negative, linear association
i r 0.6
ii Moderate, positive, linear association
i r 0.2
ii No linear association
i r 0.2
ii No linear association
i r=1
ii Perfect, positive, linear association
i r 0.8
ii Strong, positive, linear association
i r0
ii No linear association
i r 0.7
ii Moderate, negative, linear association

exercise 2G Calculating r and the


coefficient of determination

Moderate positive association of linear


form, no outliers

iii 21

Rent by themselves
Total
5D
7

iii 19

Cost ($)

3 a

45 minutes

f
g
h
2 a

3 B
4E

10

Number of
primary schools

e
f

Scatterplots
Yes positive association
Yes positive association
Yes positive association
Yes negative association
Yes positive association
Yes negative association
No no association
Weak, negative association of linear
form
Strong, negative association of linear
form
Moderate, positive association of linear
form
Strong, positive association of linear
form
No association
Non-linear association

Yearly profit increase (%)

1 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
2 a

Number of votes

Row number in A-Reserve

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Annual advertising budget ( $1000)

b There is strong, positive linear

association. r is approximately 0.8.

c r = 0.98
d Coefficient of determination is 0.96.
e The proportion of the variation in

the yearly profit increase that can


be explained by the variation in the
advertising budget is 96%.

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

91

f The proportion of the variation in the

10

8
7

5
4
3
2

90 100 110 120 130 140 150


IQ

linear form and r is approximately 0.9.


c r = 0.96
d Coefficient of determination is 0.92.
e The proportion of the variation in the
number of tourists that can be explained
by the variation in the exchange rate is
92%.

150

association of linear form.

d
f

g
h

50
2 3 4 5 6
Number of people in household

indicates association showing linear


form and there are no outliers.
r 0.9
e r = 0.96
We cannot say whether total weight loss
is affected by the number of weeks people
stayed on the Certain Slim diet. We can
only note the degree of correlation.
r2 = 0.92
The coefficient of determination tells us
that 92% of the variation in total weight
loss can be explained by the variation
in the number of weeks on the Certain
Slim diet.

c r = 0.98
d Coefficient of determination is 0.96.
e The proportion of the variation in

ShorT anSWer

the weekly grocery costs that can be


explained by the variation in the number
of people in the household is 96%.
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4

b
c
2 a

b There is almost perfect positive

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

For

66.7

18.9

Against

33.3

81.1

Total

100.0

100.0

3 A
8 D

4 E
9 E

Attitude
Against
For

Labor

b Clearly, the reaction to uranium mining

is affected by political affiliation.


5 a
85
80

75

5 B
70

1 a Number of injuries dependent, age of

0 3 4 5 6 7 8
Number of people on committee

association of a linear form and r is


nearly 1.
c r = 0.99
d No. High degree of correlation does
not mean we can comment on whether
one variable causes particular values in
another.
e Coefficient of determination is 0.98.

2 A
7 D

Labor

Delegates

mUlTiple ChoiCe

1 D
6 E

Liberal

Liberal

ChapTer reVieW

b There is strong, positive association of a

linear form and r is approximately 0.9.

Attitude

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

c It is appropriate since the scatterplot

100

4 a

b The scatterplot shows strong, positive

5 a

200

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of weeks on the diet

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2


Exchange rate

b There is strong, negative association of a

Weekly grocery costs ($)

Team A

Percentage

Annual funds raised ( $1000)

Team B

Pulse rate

92

Team C

9 a
Total weight loss (kg)

Number of tourists ( 1000)

6 a

funds raised that can be explained by the


variation in the number of people on the
committee is 98%.
7 E
8 C

player independent
Suburb independent, size of
mortgage dependent
It is not appropriate to designate one or
other as independent or dependent.
Leaf Stem Leaf
Full-time
Volunteer
1
0
2 2
0
4 4 3 3
0
6 5
0
0
8
1
0 1 1
1
2 3 3
1
4 5
1
1
Key: 0|3 = 3 hours
Both distributions are symmetric
with the same spread. The centre
of the volunteers distribution
is much higher than that of the
full-time firefighters distribution.
Clearly, the volunteers needed more
counselling.

15 16 17 18 19
Age

b There appears to be an extremely

weak or no association between the


variables.
6 r is approximately equal to 0.7. There
is a moderate, negative linear association
between the variables x andy.
7 a
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55

Exam result (%)

4 a

60 70 80 90 100
Lectures attended (%)

b There is strong, positive correlation of a

linear form between the variables and r


is approximately equal to 0.8.
c r = 0.96

exTended reSponSe

1 a Age is independent and salary bracket is

the dependent variable.

b Parallel boxplot
c Neither, since we have categorical data

versus numerical data and not numerical


data versus numerical data.
2 a Key: 1|6 = 16 years old
Leaf Stem Leaf
Jazz concert
Symphony concert
9986
1
97430
2
03
98430
3
059
65320
4
25578899
5
034688
2
6
0
b

Symphony Jazz
Summary concert
concert
i

Xmin

20

16

ii

Q1

40.5

21.5

iii

Median

48

31.5

iv

Q3

53.5

41

Xmax

60

62

vi

Mean

45.45

32.35

vii

IQR

13

19.5

viii

Standard
deviation

11.20

12.04

c Overall, it appears that people who

attended the symphony concert were


older than those who attended the jazz
concert. The spread of ages is nearly

Stress level
High
Medium
Low

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

Percentage

exam results that can be explained by


the variation in the number of lectures
attended is 93%.

the same (slightly higher for the jazz


audience).
d Back-to-back stem plots can be used
only for data with two categories. Since
there are three events, parallel boxplots
should be used.
e Xmin = 12, Q1 = 34, median = 47.5,
Q3 = 56.5, Xmax = 68, mean = 44.95,
IQR=22.5, standard deviation = 15.55
Opera
Jazz

Regularly Sometimes Never

Symphony
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
Age

Amount of exercise

f Overall, it appears that for this group

g Overall, the people who went to the

symphony concert and to the opera


were of similar ages and older than
those who went to the jazz concert. The
ages of people who went to the opera
are the most spread out, while the ages
of people who attended the symphony
concert are the least spread out.
3 a The amount of sporting activity is
independent; the level of stress is
dependent.
b 188
c 158

of students, stress levels are related to


the amount of physical activity they are
engaged in outside of school.
4 a Hours spent touch-typing
independent, speed of touch-typing
dependent.
b

Speed (wpm)

d The coefficient of determination is 0.93.


e The proportion of the variation in the

0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Time (h)

Engaged in sport activity


outside school

Level of
stress
Regularly Sometimes Never
Low

47.1%

25.8%

16.2%

Medium

35.3%

32.3%

25.2%

High

17.6%

41.9%

58.6%

Total

100%

100%

65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30

100%

c Strong, positive, linear relationship

between the two variables

d Yes, since the scatterplot shows a linear


e
f
g

relationship with no outliers.


r is about 0.9
r = 0.97; yes
r2 = 0.94. This means that 94% of
variation in the speed of touch-typing
can be explained by variation in the
number of hours spent touch-typing.

ChapTer 2 Bivariate data

93

ChapTer 3

Introduction to regression
diGiTal doC
doc-9418
10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS
3a
3B
3C
3d
3e
3F

Fitting a straight line by eye


Fitting a straight line the 3-median method
Fitting a straight line least-squares regression
Interpretation, interpolation and extrapolation
Residual analysis
Transforming to linearity

Fitting straight lines to bivariate data


The process of fitting straight lines to bivariate data enables us to analyse relationships between the
data and possibly make predictions based on the given data set.
We will consider the three most common techniques for fitting a straight line and determining its
equation, namely:
1. Line fit by eye
2. 3-median method
3. Least squares.
The linear relationship expressed as an equation is often referred to as the linear regression equation
or line.
Recall from the previous chapter that when we display bivariate data as a scatterplot, the independent
variable is placed on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable is placed on the vertical axis. When
the relationship between two variables (x and y) is described in equation form, such as y = mx + c, the
subject, y, is the dependent variable and x is the independent variable.

3a

Fitting a straight line by eye

Consider the set of bivariate data points shown at right. In this case the x-values
could be heights of married women, while y-values could be the heights of their
husbands. We wish to determine a linear relationship between these two random
variables.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
x

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with lines of best
fit.

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

95

Of course, there is no single straight line which would go through all the points, so we can only
estimate such a line.
Furthermore, the more closely the points appear to be on or near a straight line, the more confident
we are that such a linear relationship may exist and the more accurate our fitted line should be.
Consider the estimate, drawn by eye in the figure below right. It is clear that most of the points
are on or very close to this straight line. This line was easily drawn since the points are
y
very much part of an apparent linear relationship.
However, note that some points are below the line and some are above it.
Furthermore, if x is the height of wives and y is the height of husbands, it seems
that husbands are generally taller than their wives.
Regression analysis is concerned with finding these straight lines using various
methods so that the number of points above and below the lines are balanced.

Method of fit ting lines by eye


There should be an equal number of points above and below the line. For example, if there are 12 points
in the data set, 6 should be above the line and 6 below it. This may appear logical or even obvious, but
fitting by eye involves a considerable margin of error.
Worked exaMple 1

Fit a straight line to the data in the figure at right using


the equal-number-of-points method.

x
Think

draW

Note that the number of points (n) is 8.

Fit a line where 4 points are above the line.


Using a clear plastic ruler, try to fit the best
line.

x
3

The first attempt has only 3 points below


the line where there should be 4. Make
refinements.

x
4

The second attempt is an improvement, but


the line is too close to the points above it.
Improve the position of the line until a better
balance between upper and lower points is
achieved.

exercise 3a

Fit ting a straight line by eye

The questions in this exercise represent data collected by groups of students conducting different
environmental projects. The students have to fit a straight line to their data sets.
Note:For many of these questions your answers may differ somewhat from those at the end of the
chapter. The answers are provided as a guide but there are likely to be individual differences when fitting
straight lines by eye.
96

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

1 We1
a y

Fit a straight line to the data in the scatterplots using the equal-number-of-points method.
b y

c y

x
d y

e y

h y

g y

2 For the following scatterplots, fit a line of best fit by eye and determine the equation of the line.
b

y
4

Time (seconds)

3
2
1
0

30
20
10
0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x

5
10 15
Age (years)

Fitting a straight line


the 3-median method
3B

Fitting lines by eye is useful but it is not the most accurate of methods. Greater accuracy is achieved
through closer analysis of the data. Upon closer analysis, it is possible to find the equation of a line of
best fit of the form y = mx + c where m is the gradient and c is the y-intercept. Several mathematical
methods provide a line with a more accurate fit.
One of these methods is called the 3-median method. It involves the division of the data set into
3groups and the use of the 3 medians in these groups to determine a line of best fit.
It is used when data show a linear relationship. It can even be used when the data contain outliers.
The 3-median method is best described as a step-by-step method.
Step 1. Plot the points on a scatterplot. This is shown in figure 1.
Step 2. Divide the points into 3 groups using vertical divisions (see
figure 2 on page 98). The number of points in a data set will
not always be exactly divisible by 3. Thus, there will be three
alternatives, as follows.
(a) If the number of points is divisible by 3, divide them into
3 equal groups, for example, 3, 3, 3 or 7, 7, 7.
(b) If there is 1 extra point, put the extra point in the middle
group, for example, 3, 4, 3 or 7, 8, 7.
(c) If there are 2 extra points, put 1 extra point in each of the
outer groups, for example, 4, 3, 4 or 8, 7, 8.

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

Figure 1
ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

97

Step 3. Find the median point of each of the 3 groups and mark each
median on the scatterplot (see figure 3). Recall that the median
is the middle value. So, the median point of each group has
an x-coordinate which is the median of the x-values in the
group and a y-coordinate which is the median of the y-values
in the group.
(a) The left group is the lower group and its median
is denoted by (xL, yL).
(b) The median of the middle group is denoted
by (xM, yM).
(c) The right group is the upper group and its median
is denoted by (xU, yU).
Note: Although the x-values are already in ascending order on the
scatterplot, the y-values within each group may need re-ordering
before you can find the median.
To complete steps 4 and 5, three different approaches may
be taken from here: graphical, arithmetic or you can use a CAS
calculator.

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

Figure 2
y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

(xU, yU)
(xM, yM)
(xL, yL)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

Figure 3

Graphical approach

y
The graphical approach is fast and, therefore, usually the preferred
7
method (see figure 4).
6
Step 4. Draw in the line of best fit. Place your ruler so that it passes
5
through the lower and upper medians. Move the ruler a third of
4
the way toward the middle group median while maintaining the
3
slope. Hold the ruler there and draw the line.
2
Step 5. Find the equation of the line (general form y = mx + c).
1
First, use the coordinates of the lower and upper medians to find
yU yL
0
.
the gradient: m =
xU xL
Next, find the y-intercept. If the scale on the axes begins at zero,
you can read off the y-intercept of the line. Otherwise, substitute
the coordinates of any point on the line into equation and solve for c.

(xM, yM)

(xU, yU)

(xL, yL)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

Figure 4

arithmetic approach
Using the arithmetic approach, you will proceed as follows.
yU yL
.
Step 4. Calculate the gradient (m) of the line. Use the rule: m =
xU xL
Step 5. Calculate the y-intercept (c) of the line.
Use the rule: c = 13 [(yL + yM + yU) m(xL + xM + xU)]
Thus, the equation of the regression line is y = mx + c.

Using a CaS calculator


Most CAS calculators have an inbuilt function, such as MedianMedian, for fitting a line using the
3-median method. This function can be used in most of the exercise questions.
Worked exaMple 2

Find the equation of the regression line for the data in the table below using the 3-median method.
Give coefficients correct to 2 decimal places.
x
y

98

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

1
1

2
3

3
2

4
6

5
5

7
6

Think
1

Plot the points on a scatterplot and divide the


data into 3 groups. Note there are 6 points, so
the division will be 2, 2, 2.

WriTe/draW

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Find the median point of each group. Since


each group has only 2 points, medians are
found by averaging them.
We now have the option of following either the
graphical approach or the arithmetic approach.
2

Method 1: Using the graphical approach


3 Mark in the medians and place a ruler on the
outer 2 medians. Maintaining the same slope
on the ruler, move it one-third of the way
towards the middle median. Draw the line.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

(xL, yL) = (1.5, 2)


(xM, yM) = (3.5, 4)
(xU, yU) = (6, 5.5)

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Read off the y-intercept from the graph.

y-intercept = 1

Use the coordinates of the lower and upper


medians to calculate the gradient (m). The
points are: (1.5, 2) and (6.5, 5).

Gradient (m) =

Write the equation of the 3-median


regression line.

Method 2: Using the arithmetic approach


3

Find the gradient using the formula, and the


upper and lower medians found previously.
(This is the same as the graphical approach.)

yU yL
xU xL

5.5 2
6 1.5
3.5
=
4.5
7
=
9
0.78

y = mx + c
= 0.78x + 1
yU yL
m= x x
U
L
5.5 2
=
6 1.5
= 3.5
4.5
7
=9
0.78
ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

99

Find the y-intercept by substituting the


coordinates of all 3medians in the formula.

c = 1 [(yL + yM + yU) m(xL + xM + xU)]


3
1
= [(2 + 4 + 5.5) 7 (1.5 + 3.5 + 6)]
3
9
1
7
= [11.5 (11)]
3
9
1
= [11.5 8.555]
3
c 0.98

State the regression equation.

y = 0.78x + 0.98

Note: There are slight variations in the values of the y-intercept of the line between the graphical and
the arithmetic approaches. This is because the arithmetic method gives precise values for the y-intercept,
whereas the graphical method gives approximate values.

Fit ting a straight line


the 3-median method
exercise 3B

diGiTal doCS
doc-9419
SkillSHEET 3.1
Finding the median
doc-9420
SkillSHEET 3.2
Gradient
doc-9398
SkillSHEET 3.3
The equation of
astraight line

Find the regression line for the data in the table below using the 3-median method.

1 We2

2 Copy and complete the following table for the division of data points into three groups in the 3-median

regression line method. The first row of the table has been completed for you.
Total number of
points (n)

Lower group

Middle group

Upper group

10

11
12
13
14
26
43
58
698
3 Using the data in the table below, find the regression line using the 3-median method on your CAS

calculator.
x

10

20

20

30

40

50

55

60

65

75

80

60

50

70

40

55

40

30

10

25

15

Questions 4 and 5 refer to the data in the table below.


Day
Temperature (C)

1
14

2
13

3
15

4
17

5
16

6
18

7
19

8
17

9
22

10
20

11
21

4 MC The gradient of the 3-median regression line for the above data set is:
a 0.56

B 0.75

C 1

d 0.88

e 0.5

5 MC The y-intercept of the 3-median regression line for the data set above is:
a 12.00

100

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

B 12.15

C 17.83

d 23.52

e 36.44

12
24

6 The sales figures (in thousands) for a company over a 10-month period were recorded as follows.

Month (x)
Sales (y)

10

85

77

81

73

68

72

64

57

53

49

Find the equation of the 3-median regression line.


7 During an experiment, a research worker gathers the following data set:

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

11 16 15 13 19 22 26 24 28 31 30 32 36 29 39 40 44
Reservoir capacity (megalitres)

a Plot the data as a scatterplot.


b Find the equation of the 3-median regression line from the graph.
8 The graph at right shows the daily water level in a reservoir during

a drought. From the graph (you may use the formulas or your
calculator to check your answers):
a find the coordinates of the points used to find the gradient.
Use these to find the gradient.
b find the coordinates of the median of the middle group
c estimate the y-intercept (use the graph and medians)
d state the relationship between water level and day as an equation.
9 Since management instituted new policies, the productivity at DMH

5
4
3
2
1
0

car plant has been improving. The scatterplot below shows the
number of cars produced each week over a 10-week period.

6 8
Day

10

Number of cars produced

120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
0

a
b
c
d
e

6 8
Week

10

What are the coordinates of the points used to find the gradient? Use them to find the gradient.
What are the coordinates of the median of the middle group?
Using the graph and medians found, estimate the y-intercept.
State the relationship between cars produced and week as an equation.
Check your answers using a CAS calculator.

10 MC The graph at right represents the height of Louise,

measured each year. Which graph best shows the line of best
fit using the 3-median method?
140
120
Height (cm)

120
Height (cm)

140
100
80
60

100

40

80

20

60

40
20
0

6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)

6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

101

C
140

140

120

120

100
80
60

80
60
40

20

20
2

6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)

140

6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)

6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)

120
Height (cm)

100
80
60

100
80
60

40

40

20

20

140

120
Height (cm)

100

40

Height (cm)

Height (cm)

6 8 10 12 14
Age (years)

11 MC When using the 3-median method for fitting a straight line, which of the following statements is false?

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with least squares
regression.

a
B
C
d
e

The straight line is not affected by outliers.


The two outside medians are used for the gradient of the line.
For the y-intercept move the line one-third of the way towards the middle median.
The gradient changes when moving the line towards the middle median.
The number of points in each group must be balanced.

Fitting a straight line


least-squares regression
3C

Another method for finding the equation of a straight line which is fitted to data is known as the
method of least-squares regression. It is used when data show a linear relationship and have no
obvious outliers.
To understand the underlying theory behind least-squares, consider the
y
regression line shown below.
We wish to minimise the total of the vertical lines, or errors in some way.
For example, balancing the errors above and below the line. This is reasonable,
but for sophisticated mathematical reasons it is preferable to minimise the sum
of the squares of each of these errors. This is the essential mathematics of leastsquares regression.
The calculation of the equation of a least-squares regression line is simple
using a CAS calculator.

Worked exaMple 3

A study shows the more calls a teenager makes on their mobile phone, the less time they spend
on each call. Find the equation of the linear regression line for the number of calls made plotted
against call time in minutes using the least-squares method on a CAS calculator. Express
coefficients correct to 2decimal places.
Number of minutes (x)
Number of calls ( y)

102

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

1
11

3
9

4
10

7
6

10
8

12
4

14
3

15
1

Think

WriTe

Enter the data into your calculator and


use it to find the equation of least squares
regression line.

y = 0.634 271x + 11.7327

Write the equation with coefficients


expressed to 2 decimal places.

y = 0.63x + 11.73

Write the equation in terms of the variable


names. Replace x with number of minutes
and y with number of calls.

Number of calls = 0.63 no. of minutes + 11.73

Calculating the least-squares regression


line by hand
The least-squares regression equation minimises the average deviation of the points in the data set from
the line of best fit. This can be shown using the following summary data and formulas to arithmetically
determine the least-squares regression equation.

Summary data needed:


x
y
sx
sy
r

the mean of the independent variable (x-variable)


the mean of the dependent variable (y-variable)
the standard deviation of the independent variable
the standard deviation of the dependent variable
Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient.

Formula to use:
The general form of the least-squares regression line is
y = mx + c
where:
s
the slope of the regression line is m = r sxy
the y-intercept of the regression line is c = y mx.
s
Alternatively, if the general form is given as y = a + bx, then b = r sxy and a = y bx.
Worked exaMple 4

A study to find a relationship between the height of husbands and the


height of their wives revealed the following details.
TUTorial
eles-1264
Mean height of the husbands: 180 cm
Worked example 4
Mean height of the wives: 169 cm
Standard deviation of the height of the husbands: 5.3 cm
Standard deviation of the height of the wives: 4.8 cm
Correlation coefficient, r = 0.85
The form of the least-squares regression line is to be:
Height of wife = m height of husband + c
a Which variable is the dependent variable?
b Calculate the value of m for the regression line (to 2 decimal places).
c Calculate the value of c for the regression line (to 2 decimal places).
d Use the equation of the regression line to predict the height of a wife whose husband is 195 cm
tall (to the nearest cm).
Think

a Recall that the dependent variable is the subject of

the equation in y = mx + c form; that is, y.

WriTe

a The dependent variable is the height

of the wife.

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

103

sy

b m = rs

b 1 The value of m is the gradient of the regression

line. Write the formula and state the required


values.
2

= 0.85

Substitute the values into the formula and


evaluate m.

= 0.7698
0.77

4.8
5.3

c c = y mx

c 1 The value of c is the y-intercept of the

y = 169, x = 180 and m = 0.7698 (from part b)

regression line. Write the formula and state the


required values.
2

r = 0.85, sy = 4.8 and sx = 5.3

= 169 0.7698 180


= 30.436
30.44

Substitute the values into the formula and


evaluate c.

d y = 0.77x + 30.44 or

d 1 State the equation of the regression line,


using the values calculated from parts b and
c. In this equation, y represents the height of

height of wife = 0.77 height of husband


+ 30.44

the wife and x represents the height of the


husband.
2

The height of the husband is 195 cm, so


substitute x = 195 into the equation and evaluate.

= 0.77 195 + 30.44


= 180.59

Write a statement, rounding your answer to


the nearest cm.

Using the equation of the regression line


found, the wifes height would be 181 cm.

Fit ting a straight line


least-squares regression
exercise 3C

diGiTal doC
doc-9421
Spreadsheet
least-squares
regression

1 We3 Find the equation of the linear regression line for the following data set using the least-squares

method.
x

10

12

15

17

10

13

15

14

18

19

23

2 Find the equation of the linear regression line for the following data set using the least-squares method.

35

28

22

16

19

14

3 Find the equation of the linear regression line for the following data set using the least-squares method.

10

16

12

16

11

21

4 We4 The following summary details were calculated from a study to find a relationship between

mathematics exam marks and English exam marks from the results of 120 Year 12 students.
Mean mathematics exam mark = 64%
Mean English exam mark = 74%
Standard deviation of mathematics exam mark = 14.5%
Standard deviation of English exam mark = 9.8%
Correlation coefficient, r = 0.64
The form of the least-squares regression line is to be:
Mathematics exam mark = m English exam mark + c.
a Which variable is the dependent variable (y-variable)?
b Calculate the value of m for the least-squares regression line (correct to 2 decimal places).
c Calculate the value of c for the least-squares regression line (correct to 2 decimal places).
d Use the regression line to predict the expected mathematics exam mark if a student scores 85% in
an English exam (to the nearest percentage).
104

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

5 Find the least-squares regression equation, given the following summary data.
a x = 5.6
sx = 1.2
y = 110.4
sy = 5.7
r = 0.7
b x = 110.4
sx = 5.7
y = 5.6
sy = 1.2
r = 0.7
c x = 25
sx = 4.2
y = 10 200
sy = 250
r = 0.88
d x = 10
sx = 1
y = 20
sy = 2
r = 0.5
6 Repeat questions 1, 2 and 3, collecting the values for x, sx, y, sy and r from the calculator. Use these

data to find the least-squares regression equation.


Compare your answers to the ones obtained earlier from questions 1, 2 and 3. What do you notice?
7 A mathematician is interested in the behaviour patterns of her kitten, and collects the following data on
two variables. Help her manipulate the data.
x
y

1
20

2
18

3
16

4
14

5
12

6
10

7
8

8
6

9
4

10
2

a Fit a least-squares regression line.


b Comment on any interesting features of this line.
c Now fit the opposite regression line, namely:

20

18

16

14

12

10

10

d In comparing the regression line from part a with that from part c, what other interesting features

do you find?
8 MC The best estimate of the least-squares regression line for the
scatterplot at right is:
1
2

a y = 2x

1
2

C y= x+2

B y= x

1
2

d y= x2

y
4
3
2
1

1
2

e y= x1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

9 MC Given the summary details

x = 5.4
sx = 1.8
y = 12.5
sy = 1.4
r = 0.57
the values of m and c for the equation of the regression line y = mx + c are
d 0.44 and 14.9
a 0.44 and 14.9 B 0.73 and 14.6 C 0.44 and 10.1
e 1.32 and 3.8
10 The life span of adult males in a certain country over the last 220 years has been recorded.
Year

1780 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

Life span
51.2
(years)

52.4

51.7

53.2

53.1

54.7

59.9

62.7

63.2

66.8

72.7

79.2

a Fit a least-squares regression line to these data.


b Plot the data and the regression line on a scatterplot.
c Do the data really look linear? Discuss.
11 The price of a long distance telephone call changes as the duration of the call increases. The cost of a

sample of calls from Melbourne to Slovenia are summarised in the table below.
Cost of call ($)

1.25

1.85

2.25

2.50

3.25

3.70

4.30

4.90

5.80

Duration of call
(seconds)

30

110

250

260

300

350

420

500

600

Cost of call ($)

7.50

8.00

9.25

10.00

12.00

13.00

14.00

16.00

18.00

Duration of call
(seconds)

840

1000

1140

1200

1500

1860

2400

3600

7200

a What is the independent variable likely to be?


b Fit a least-squares regression line to the data.
c View the data on a scatterplot and comment on the reliability of the regression line in predicting

the cost of telephone calls. (That is, consider whether the regression line you found proves that
costs of calls and duration of calls are related.)
ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

105

12 MC In a study to find a relationship between the height of plants and the hours of daylight they were

exposed to, the following summary details were obtained.


Mean height of plants = 40 cm
Mean hours of daylight = 8 hours
Standard deviation of plant height = 5 cm
Standard deviation of daylight hours = 3 hours
Pearsons correlation coefficient = 0.9
The most appropriate regression equation is:
a height of plant (cm) = 13.6 + 0.54 hours of daylight
B height of plant (cm) = 8.5 + 0.34 hours of daylight
C height of plant (cm) = 2.1 + 0.18 hours of daylight
d height of plant (cm) = 28.0 + 1.50 hours of daylight
e height of plant (cm) = 35.68 + 0.54 hours of daylight
13 You saw with the 3-median method that at least six points were needed to perform meaningful analysis

and generate a linear equation. Is the same true of least-squares linear regression?
Consider the following data set.
diGiTal doC
doc-9422
WorkSHEET 3.1

a
b
c
d

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

12

16

17

21

25

29

Perform a least-squares regression on the first two points only.


Now add the 3rd point and repeat.
Repeat for the 4th, 5th and 6th points.
Comment on your results.

interpretation, interpolation
and extrapolation
3d

interpreting slope and intercept (m and c)


Once you have a linear regression line, the slope and intercept can give important information about the
data set.
The slope (m) indicates the change in dependent variable as independent variable increases by 1unit.
The y-intercept indicates the value of the dependent variable when independent variable = 0.
Worked exaMple 5

In the study of the growth of a species of bacterium, it is


assumed that the growth is linear. However, it is very
expensive to measure the number of bacteria in a sample.
Given the data listed below, find:
a the equation, describing the relationship between the
two variables
b the rate at which bacteria are growing
c the number of bacteria at the start of the experiment.
Day of experiment

Number of bacteria

500

11

1000 1100 2100 2500

Think

a 1 Find the equation of the least-squares

WriTe

regression line using your calculator.


Replace x and y with the variables in
question.

Number of bacteria = 202.5 + 206.25


day of experiment

b The rate at which bacteria are growing is given

b m is 206.25, hence on average, the number of

by the gradient of the least-squares regression.


106

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

bacteria increases by approximately 206 per day.

c The number of bacteria at the start of the

c The y-intercept is 202.5, hence the initial number

experiment is given by the y-intercept of the


least-squares regression line.

of bacteria present was approximately 203.

interpolation and extrapolation


As we have already observed, any linear regression method produces a linear equation in the form:
y = mx + c,
where m is the gradient and c is the y-intercept.
This equation can be used to predict the y-value for a given value of x. Of course, these are only
approximations, since the regression line itself is only an estimate of the true relationship between the
bivariate data. However, they can still be used, in some cases, to provide additional information about
the data set (that is, make predictions).
There are two types of prediction: interpolation and extrapolation.

interpolation
Interpolation is the use of the regression line to predict values within the range of data in a set, that
is, the values that are in between the values already in the data set. If the data are highly linear (r near
+1 or 1) then we can be confident that our interpolated value is quite accurate. If the data are not highly
linear (r near 0) then our confidence is duly reduced. For example, medical information collected from
a patient every third day would establish data for day 3, 6, 9, . . . and so on. After performing regression
analysis, it is likely that an interpolation for day 4 would be accurate, given a high r value.

extrapolation
Extrapolation is the use of the regression line to predict values outside the range of data in a set, that is,
values that are smaller than the smallest value already in the data set or larger than the largest value.
Two problems may arise in attempting to extrapolate from a data set. Firstly, it may not be reasonable
to extrapolate too far away from the given data values. For example, suppose there is a weather data
set for 5 days. Even if it is highly linear (r near +1 or 1) a regression line used to predict the same data
15 days in the future is highly risky. Weather has a habit of randomly fluctuating and patterns rarely stay
stable for very long.
Secondly, the data may be highly linear in a narrow band of the given data set. For example, there may
be data on stopping distances for a train at speeds of between 30 and 60 km/h. Even if they are highly
linear in this range, it is unlikely that things are similar at very low speeds (015 km/h) or high speeds
(over 100 km/h).
Generally, one should feel more confident about the accuracy of a prediction derived from
interpolation than one derived from extrapolation. Of course, it still depends upon the correlation
coefficient (r). The closer to linearity the data are, the more confident our predictions in all cases.
Worked exaMple 6

Using interpolation and the following data set, predict the height of an 8-year-old girl.
Age (years)
Height (cm)

1
60

3
76

Think

5
115

7
126

9
141

11
148

WriTe

y = 9.23x + 55.63

Find equation of the least-squares regression line


using your calculator. (Age is the independent
variable and height is the dependent one.)

Replace x and y with the variables in question.

Height = 9.23 age + 55.63

Substitute 8 for age into equation and evaluate.

When age = 8,
Height = 9.23 8 + 55.63
= 129.5 (cm)

Write the answer.

At age 8, the predicted height is 129.5 cm.

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

107

Worked exaMple 7

Use extrapolation and the data from Worked example 6 to predict the height of the girl when she
turns 15. Discuss the reliability of this prediction.
Think

WriTe

Use the regression equation to calculate the


girls height at age 15.

Height = 9.23 age + 55.63


= 9.23 15 + 55.63
= 194.08 cm

Analyse the result.

Since we have extrapolated the result (that is, since


the greatest age in our data set is 11 and we are
predicting outside the data set) we cannot claim that
the prediction is reliable.

interpretation, interpolation
and extrapolation
exercise 3d

diGiTal doC
doc-9423
Spreadsheet
interpolation/
extrapolation

1 We5 A drug company wishes to test the effectiveness of a drug to increase red blood cell counts

in people who have a low count. The following data are collected.
Day of experiment
Red blood cell count

210

240

230

260

260

290

Find:
a the equation, describing the relationship between the variables in the form y = a + bx
b the rate at which the red blood cell count was changing
c the red blood cell count at the beginning of the experiment (that is, on day 0).
2 A wildlife exhibition is held over 6 weekends and features still and live displays. The number of live

animals that are being exhibited varies each weekend. The number of animals participating, together
with the number of visitors to the exhibition each weekend, is shown below.
Number of animals

Number of visitors

311

220

413

280

379

334

Find:
a the rate of increase of visitors as the number of live animals is increased by 1
b the predicted number of visitors if there are no live animals.
3 An electrical goods warehouse produces the following data showing the selling price of electrical goods

to retailers and the volume of those sales.


diGiTal doC
doc-9424
SkillSHEET 3.4
Using the regression
line to make
predictions

Selling price ($)


Sales volume ( 1000)

60

80

100

120

140

160

200

220

240

260

400

300

275

250

210

190

150

100

50

Perform a least-squares regression analysis and discuss the meaning of the gradient and y-intercept.
4 A study of the dining-out habits of various income groups in a particular suburb produces the results

shown in the table below.


Weekly income ($)

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Number of restaurant
visits per year

5.8

2.6

1.4

1.2

4.8

11.6

4.4

12.2

Use the data to predict:


a We6 the number of visits per year by a person on a weekly income of $680
b We7 the number of visits per year by a person on a weekly income of $2000.
5 Fit a least-squares regression line to the following data.

108

10

12

17

21

27

35

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Find:
a the regression equation
b y when x = 3
c y when x = 12
d x when y = 7
e x when y = 25.
f Which of b to e above are extrapolations?
6 The following table represents the costs for shipping a consignment of shoes from Melbourne factories.
The cost is given in terms of distance from Melbourne. There are two factories that can be used. The
data are summarised below.
Distance from
Melbourne (km)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Factory 1 cost ($)

70

70

90

100

110

120

150

180

Factory 2 cost ($)

70

75

80

100

100

115

125

135

a
b
c
d

Find the least-squares regression equation for each factory.


Which factory is likely to have the lowest cost to ship to a shop in Melbourne?
Which factory is likely to have the lowest cost to ship to Mytown, 115 kilometres from Melbourne?
Which factory has the most linear shipping rates?

7 A factory produces calculators. The least-squares regression line for cost of production (C ) as a

function of numbers of calculators (n) produced is given by:

a
b
c
d
e

C = 600 + 7.76n
Furthermore, this function is deemed accurate when producing between 100 and 1000calculators.
Find the cost to produce 200 calculators.
How many calculators can be produced for $2000?
Find the cost to produce 10 000 calculators.
What are the fixed costs for this production?
Which of a to c above is an interpolation?

8 A study of the relationship between IQ and results in a mathematics exam produced the following

results. Unfortunately, some of the data were lost. Copy and complete the table by using the leastsquares equation with the data that were supplied.
Note: Only use (x, y) pairs if both are in the table.
IQ

80

Test result (%)

56

60

92

102

68

65

105
74

107

111

71

73

115

121
92

9 The least-squares regression line for a starting salary (s) as a function of number of years of

schooling(n) is given by the rule: s = 18 500 + 900n.


a Find the salary for a person who completed 10 years of schooling.
b Find the salary for a person who completed 12 years of schooling.
c Find the salary for a person who completed 15 years of schooling.
d Mary earned $30 400. What was her likely schooling experience?
e Discuss the reasonableness of predicting salary on the basis of years of schooling.

3e

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA

residual analysis

There are situations where the mere fitting of a regression line to some data is not enough to convince us
that the data set is truly linear. Even if the correlation is close to +1 or 1 it still may not be convincing
enough.
The next stage is to analyse the residuals, or deviations, of each data point from the straight line.
A residual is the vertical difference between each data point and the regression line.

Calculating residuals
A sociologist gathers data on the heights of brothers and sisters in families from different ethnic
backgrounds. He enters his records in the table below.
x

12

10

12

16

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with residual
analysis.

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

109

He then plots each point, and fits a regression line as shown in figure 1, which follows. He then decides
to calculate the residuals.
The residuals are simply the vertical distances from the line to each point. These lines are shown as
blue and red bars in figure 2.
y

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

10 x

10 x

Figure 2

Figure 1

Finally, he calculates the residuals for each data point. This is done in two steps.
Step 1. He calculates the predicted value of y from the regression equation.
Step 2. He calculates the difference between this predicted value and the original value.
Worked exaMple 8

Consider the data set below. Find the equation of the least-squares regression
line and calculate the residuals.
x

10

15

24

47

77

112

187

309

Think

WriTe

y = 28.7x 78.7

Find the equation of a least-squares


regression line using a calculator.

Use the equation of the least-squares


regression line to calculate the predicted
y-values (these are labelled as ypred)
for every x-value in the table. That is,
substitute each x-value into the equation
and evaluate record results in the table.

x-values

y-values

5.0

6.0

Calculate residuals for each point by


subtracting predicted y-values from
the actual y-value. (That is, residual =
observed y-value predicted y-value).
Record results in the table.

x-values
y-values
Predicted
y-values
Residuals
( y ypred)

Predicted
y-values
Residuals
( y ypred)

8.0

15.0

24.0

50.05

21.38

7.3

35.98

64.66

55.05

27.38

0.7

20.98

40.66

6
47.0

7
77.0

8
112.0

9
187.0

10
309.0

93.34

122.02

150.7

179.38 208.06

46.34

45.02

38.7

7.62 100.94

Notes
1. The residuals may be determined by (y ypred); that is, the actual values minus the predicted values.
2. The sum of all the residuals always adds to 0 (or very close to 0 after rounding), when least-squares
regression is used. This can act as a check for our calculations.

introduction to residual analysis


As we observed in the previous worked example, there is not really a good fit between the data and the
least-squares regression line; however, there seems to be a pattern in the residuals. How can we observe
this pattern in more detail?
110

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

The answer is to plot the residuals themselves against the original x-values. If there is a pattern, it
should become clearer after they are plotted.

Types of residual plots


There are three basic types of residual plots. Each type indicates whether or not a linear relationship
exists between the two variables under investigation.
Note: The points are joined together to see the patterns more clearly.

Residuals

(+)
Positive

The points of the residuals are randomly scattered


above and below the x-axis. The original data
probably have a linear relationship.

Negative
()

Residuals

(+)
Positive

Negative
()

The points of the residuals show a curved pattern


(), with a series of negative, then positive and
back to negative residuals along the x-axis. The
original data probably have a non-linear relationship.
Transformation of the data may be required.

Residuals

(+)
Positive

Negative
()

The points of the residuals show a curved pattern


(), with a series of positive, then negative and
back to positive residuals along the x-axis. The
original data probably have a non-linear relationship.
Transformation of the data may be required.

The transformation of data suggested in the last two residual plots will be studied in more detail in the
next section.
Worked exaMple 9

Using the same data as in Worked example 8, plot the residuals and discuss the features of the
residual plot.
Think
1

Generate a table of values of residuals


against x.

WriTe/draW

x-values
Residuals
(y ypred)
x-values
Residuals
(y ypred)

55.05

27.38

46.34

45.02

3
0.7
8

20.98

40.66

38.7

7.62

10
100.94

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

111

Plot the residuals against x. To see the


pattern clearer, join the consecutive
points with straight line segments.

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
60

Residual

If the relationship was linear the


residuals would be scattered randomly
above and below the line. However, in
this instance there is a pattern which
looks somewhat like a parabola.This
should indicate that the data were not
really linear, but were more likely to be
quadratic. Comment on the residual plot
and its relevance.

10 x

The residual plot indicates a distinct pattern suggesting


that a non-linear model could be more appropriate.

residual analysis

exercise 3e

1 We8 Find the residuals for the following data.

9.7

12.7

13.7

14.4

14.5

2 We9 For the results of question 1, plot the residuals and discuss whether the relationship between

x and y is linear.
3 MC Which of the following scatterplots shows linear relationship between the variables?
iii
i
ii
80
80
80
70
70
70
60
60
60
50
50
50
40
40
40
30
30
30
20
20
20
10
10
10
0

20

40

60

80

20

40

a All of them

B None of them

d ii only

e ii and iii only

60

80

20

40

60

80

C i and iii only

4 Consider the following table from a survey conducted at a new computer manufacturing factory. It shows

the percentage of defective computers produced on 8 different days after the opening of the factory.
Day
Defective rate (%)

10

11

15

10

12

a The results of least-squares regression were: m = 1.19, c = 16.34, r = 0.87. Use the above
b
c
d
e

information to calculate the predicted defective rates (ypred).


Find the residuals (y ypred).
Plot the residuals and comment on the likely linearity of the data.
Estimate the defective rate after the first day of the factorys operation.
Estimate when the defective rate will be at zero. Comment on this result.

5 The following data represent the number of tourists booked into a hotel in central Queensland during

the first week of a drought. (Assume Monday = 1.)


Day
Bookings in hotel

112

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Mon.

Tues.

Wed.

Thurs.

Fri.

Sat.

Sun.

158

124

74

56

31

35

22

The results of least-squares regression were:


m = 22.5, c = 161.3, r = 0.94.
a Find the predicted hotel bookings (ypred) for each day of the week.
b Find the residuals (y ypred).
c Plot the residuals and comment on the likely linearity of the data.
d Would this regression line be a typical one for this hotel?
6 MC A least-squares regression is fitted to

the points shown in the scatterplot at right.


Which of the following looks most similar
to the residual plot for the data?

y
40
30
20
10
0

y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

x
C

y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

7 From each table of residuals, decide whether or not the relationship between the variables is likely to be

linear.
a
x
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

y
2
4
7
11
21
20
19
15
12
6

Residuals
1.34
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.97
2.3
1.2
0.15
0.9
2.8

x
23
21
19
16
14
11
9
6
4
3

y
56
50
43
41
37
31
28
22
19
17

Residuals
0.12
0.56
1.30
0.20
1.45
2.16
0.22
3.56
2.19
1.05

5
94

7
180

x
1.2
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.6
2.7
2.9
3.0
3.1

y
23
25
24
26
28
29
34
42
56
64

Residuals
0.045
0.003
0.023
0.089
0.15
0.98
0.34
0.01
0.45
1.23

8 Consider the following data set.

x
y
a
b
c
d
e

0
1

1
4

2
15

3
33

4
60

6
134

8
240

9
300

10
390

Plot the data and fit a least-squares regression line.


Find the correlation coefficient and interprete its value.
Calculate the coefficient of determination and explain its meaning.
Find the residuals.
Construct the residual plot and use it to comment on the appropriateness of the assumption that
the relationship between the variables is linear.

diGiTal doC
doc-9425
WorkSHEET 3.2

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

113

3F
inTeraCTiViTY
int-0184
Transforming to
linearity
eleSSon
eles-0050
Which way to stretch?

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Transforming to linearity

Although linear regression might produce a good fit (high r value) to a set of data, the data set may still
be non-linear. To remove (as much as is possible) such non-linearity, the data can be transformed.
Either the x-values, y-values, or both may be transformed in some way so that the transformed data
are more linear. This enables more accurate predictions (extrapolations and interpolations) from the
regression equation. In Further Mathematics, six transformations are studied:
Logarithmic transformations:
y versus log10 (x)
log10 ( y) versus x
y2 versus x
Quadratic transformations:
y versus x2
1 versus x
Reciprocal transformations:
y versus 1x
y

Choosing the correct transformations


To decide on an appropriate transformation, examine the points on a scatterplot with high values of
x and/or y (that is, away from the origin) and decide for each axis whether it needs to be stretched or
compressed to make the points line up. The best way to see which of the transformations to use is to
look at a number of data patterns.

Quadratic transformations
1. Use y versus x2 transformation.
Stretch
x-values

2. Use y versus x2 transformation.

Do more
Interact
with transforming
data.

Stretch
x-values
3. Use y2 versus x transformation.

4. Use y2 versus x transformation.

Stretch
y-values

Stretch
y-values

logarithmic and reciprocal transformations


1. Use y versus log10 (x) or y versus 1
x
transformation.

Compress
x-values

3. Use log10 (y) versus x or


1 versus x transformation.
y
Compress
y-values

114

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

2. Use y versus log10 (x) or y versus 1


x
transformation.
Compress
x-values

4. Use log10 (y) versus x or 1 versus x


y
transformation.
Compress
y-values

Testing transformations
As there are at least two possible transformations for any given non-linear scatterplot, the decision
as to which is the best comes from the coefficient of correlation. The least-squares regression
equation that has a Pearson correlation coefficient closest to 1 or 1 should be considered as the
most appropriate. However, there may be very little difference so common sense needs to be
applied. It is sometimes more useful to use a linear function rather than one of the six non-linear
functions.
Worked exaMple 10

Apply a quadratic transformation to the data from Worked example 8,


reproduced here. The regression line has been determined as

TUTorial
eles-1265
Worked example 10

y = 28.7x 78.7 with r = 0.87.


x

10

15

24

47

77

112

187

309

Think
1

Plot the data and the regression line to


check that a quadratic transformation is
suitable.
One option is to stretch the x-axis. This
requires an x2 transformation.

Square the x-values to give a transformed


data set.

Find the equation of the least-squares


regression line for the transformed
data.
Using a calculator or spreadsheet:
(a) gradient (m) = 2.78
(b) y-intercept (c) = 28.0
(c) correlation (r) = 0.95.

Plot the new transformed data and


regression line.

WriTe/draW

y
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50

Stretch
x-values

10

x2

16

25

36

49

15

24

47

77 112 187 309

64

81 100

y = 2.78xT 28 where xT = x2; that is,


y = 2.78x2 28

Notes
1. These data are still not truly linear,
but are less parabolic. Perhaps
another transformation would
improve things even further. This
could involve transforming the
y-values, such as log10 (y), and
applying another linear regression.

y
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50

20 40 60 80 100 x2

2. See Worked examples 11 and 12


for a CAS calculator approach to
transforming data.

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

115

Worked exaMple 11

Apply a logarithmic transformation to the following data which represent a


patients heart rate as a function of time. The regression line has been
determined as
Heart rate = 93.2 6.97 time, with r = 0.90.
Time after operation (h)

Heart rate (beats/min)

100

80

65

55

50

51

48

46

Think
1

WriTe

Transform the y data by


calculating the log of
y-values or, in this problem,
the log of heart rate.

Time

log
(heart log y
rate)

2 1.903 1.813 1.740 1.694 1.708 1.681 1.663

Use a calculator to find the


equation of least-squares
regression line for x and
log y.

log10( y) = 1.98 0.05x

Rewrite the equation in


terms of the variables in
question.

log10(heart rate) = 1.98 0.05 time (i.e. time = number of hours


after the operation.)

State the value of r and


comment on the result.

r = 0.93
There is a slight improvement of the correlation coefficient that
resulted from applying logarithmic transformation.

Further investigation
Often all appropriate transformations need to be performed to choose the best one. Extend Worked
example 11 by compressing the y data using the reciprocals of the y data or even compress the x data. Go
back to the steps for transforming the data. Did you get a better r value and thus a more reliable line of
best fit? (Hint:The best transformation gives r = 0.98.)

Using the transformed line for predictions


Once the appropriate model has been established and the equation of least-squares regression line has
been found, the equation can be used for predictions.
Worked exaMple 12

a Using a calculator, apply a reciprocal transformation to the

following data.

b Use the transformed regression equation to predict the number of students

wearing a jumper when the temperature is 12 C.

116

Temperature
(C)

10

15

20

25

30

35

Number of students
in a class wearing
jumpers

18

10

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Think

WriTe/draW

a 1 Construct the scatterplot.

Students

Temperature is the independent


variable, while the number of
students wearing jumpers is the
dependant one.
Therefore, put temperature
on the horizontal axis and
students on the vertical axis.

y
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

The x-values should be


compressed, so it may be
appropriate to transform the x-data
by calculating the reciprocal of
temperature). Reciprocate each
1
x-value (that is, find ).
x
Use a CAS calculator to find
the equation of least-squares
1
and y.
regression line for
x
Replace x and y with the
variables in question.

b 1 Substitute 12 for x into

10

14 18 22
Temperature

26

30

34

1
Temperature

1
x

1
5

1
10

1 1
15 20

1
1 1
25 30 35

Number of students
wearing jumpers

18

10

y = 94.583xT 0.4354, where xT = 1x


or y = 94.583
x 0.4354
The number of students in class wearing jumpers
= 94.583 0.4354.
Temperature
b Number of students wearing jumpers

94.583
0.4354
Temperature
94.583
=
0.4354
12
= 7.447

equation of regression line


and evaluate.

Write your answer to the


nearest whole number.

7 students are predicted to wear jumpers when the temperature


is 12 C.

Note: If the residual plot exhibits a clear pattern, the relationship between the variables is probably
not linear. To find an appropriate model, a logarithmic, quadratic or receiprocal transformation can be
attempted.

exercise 3F

Transforming to linearity

1 We 10 Apply a quadratic (x2) transformation to the following data set. The regression line has been

determined as y = 27.7x + 186 with r = 0.91.


x
y

2
96

3
95

92

90

14

100

diGiTal doC
doc-9482
Spreadsheet
Transforming data

2 We 11 The average heights of 50 girls of various ages were measured as follows.

Age group (years)


Average height (cm)

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

128

144

148

154

158

161

165

164

166

167

The original linear regression yielded:


Height = 3.76 age + 104.7, with r = 0.92.
ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

117

a Plot the original data and regression line.


b Apply log10 (x) transformation.
c Perform regression analysis on the transformed data and comment on your results.
3 a Use the transformed data from question 2 to predict the heights of girls of the following ages:
i 7 years old
ii 10.5 years old
iii 20 years old.
b Which of the predictions in part a were obtained by interpolating?
4 Comment on the suitability of transforming the data of question 2 in order to improve predictions of

heights for girls under 8 years old or over 18.


5a

We12 Apply a reciprocal transformation to the following data obtained by a physics student
studying light intensity.

Distance from light source (metres)


Intensity (candlepower)

10

90

60

28

22

20

12

b Use the transformed regression equation to predict the intensity at a distance of 20metres.

Horsepower

Driver ability

6 For each of the following scatterplots suggest an appropriate transformation(s).


a
b

Engine revs

Survival rate during crash

Blood alcohol level

Number of people on plane

7 Use the equation y = 0.2x2 12.5, found after transformation, to predict values of y for the given

x-value (correct to 2 decimal places):


a x = 2.5

b x = 2.5.

8 Use the equation y = 1.12 log10 (x) 25, found after transformation, to predict values of y for the given

x-value (correct to 2 decimal places):

a x = 2.5

b x = 2.5

c x = 0.

9 Use the equation log10 (y) = 0.2x + 0.03, found after transformation, to predict values of y for the given

x-value (correct to 2 decimal places):


a x = 2.5
b x = 2.5.
1
10 Use the equation y = 0.2x 12.5, found after transformation, to predict values of y for the given x-value
(correct to 2 decimal places):
a x = 2.5
b x = 2.5.
11 The seeds in the sunflower are arranged in spirals for a compact head. Counting

the number of seeds in the successive circles starting from the centre and moving
outwards, the following number of seeds were counted.
Circle
Number
of seeds

118

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

7th

8th

9th

10th

13

21

34

55

89

144

233

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Plot the data and fit in a least-squares regression line.


Find the correlation coefficient and interprete its value.
Using the equation of the regression line, predict the number of seeds in the 11th circle.
Find the residuals.
Construct the residual on plot. Is the relation between the number of the circle and the number of
seeds linear?
f What type of transformation could be applied to:
i the x-values? Explain why.
ii the y-values? Explain why.
12 Apply the log10 (y) transformation to the data used in question 11.
a Fit a least-squares regression line to the transformed data and plot it with the data.
b Find the correlation coefficient. Is there an improvement? Why?
c Find the equation of the least-squares regression line for the transformed data.
d Calculate the coefficient of determination and interprete its value.
e Using the equation of the regression line for the transformed data, predict the number of seeds for
the 11th circle.
f How does this compare with the prediction from question 11?
a
b
c
d
e

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

119

Summary
Fitting a straight line
by eye

Make sure there are an equal number of points above/below the fitted line.

Fitting a straight
line the 3-median
method

Assuming data points are in order of increasing x-values:


Step 1. Divide data points into 3 groups.
Step 2. Adjust for unequal groups: if there is 1 extra point, put it in the middle; if there are
2 extra points, put them in the end groups.
Step 3. Calculate the medians for the 3 groups (xL, yL), (xM, yM), (xU, yU).
For a graphical approach:
Step 4. Place a ruler through the two outer medians and move the ruler one-third of the way
towards the middle median.
Step 5. Calculate the y-intercept and the gradient and use these to find the equation of the
regression line.
For an arithmetic approach:
yU yL
Step 4. Calculate the gradient using the formula: m = x x .
Step 5. Calculate the y-intercept using the formula:

c = 3 [(yL + yM + yU) m(xL + xM + xU)].


Step 6. Substitute m and c into the equation y = mx + c.
Fitting a straight
line least-squares
regression

Use a calculator to find the equation of the least-squares regression line. The equation can be
obtained in one of these forms:
y = mx + b
or
y = a + bx.
To find the equation of the least-squares regression line by hand:
(a) The summary data needed are:
(i) x and sx the mean and standard deviation of the independent variable
(ii) y and sy the mean and standard deviation of the dependent variable
(iii) r Pearsons productmoment correlation coefficient.
(b) The formulas to use are:
sy
(i) m = r s
(ii) c = y mx
x
where m is the slope of the regression line and c is the y-intercept.
Alternatively, if the general form of the regression line is given as y = a + bx, then
sy
b = r s and a = y bx.
x

interpretation,
interpolation and
extrapolation

The slope (m) of the regression line y = mx + c indicates the change in the dependent variable as
independent variable increases by 1.
The y-intercept, c, indicates the value of the dependent variable when independent variable = 0.
Interpolation is the use of the regression line to predict values between the values already in the
data set (predicting within the range of data set).
Extrapolation is the use of the regression line to predict values smaller than the smallest value
already in the data set or larger than the largest value (predicting outside the data set).

residual analysis

120

Calculate predicted values (ypred) from the regression equation (y = mx + c) for all values of x.
Calculate residuals (y ypred) for all values of x (actual values predicted values).
Construct the residual plot.
If the residual plot shows points randomly scattered around zero (i.e. there is no clear pattern), the
relationship between the variables in question is probably linear.
If the residual plot shows a clear pattern, the relationship between variables is probably not linear.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Transforming to
linearity

Transform non-linear data to linearity by using one or more of the following possible
transformations.
1
Compressing axis: y versus log10 (x)
y versus x
1
log10 (y) versus x
y versus x
2
y2 versus x
Stretching axis:
y versus x
Quadratic transformations
1. Use y versus x2 transformation.

2. Use y versus x2 transformation.

Stretch
x-values

Stretch
x-values
3. Use y2 versus x transformation.

4. Use y2 versus x transformation.

Stretch
y-values

Stretch
y-values

Logarithmic and reciprocal transformations


1. Use y versus log10 (x) or y versus 1
x
transformation.

Compress
x-values

3. Use log10 (y) versus x or


1 versus x transformation.
y
Compress
y-values

2. Use y versus log10 (x) or y versus 1


x
transformation.

Compress
x-values

4. Use log10 (y) versus x or 1 versus x


y
transformation.
Compress
y-values

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

121

Chapter review
M U lT ip l e
C h oiCe

Use the figure at right to answer questions 1 and 2.

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

1 The most appropriate line of best fit for the figure is:
a

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

7
6
5
4
3
2
1

e 8

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

d 8

C 8

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 The gradient of the 3-median regression line is:


5
2

1
2

1
5

3
5

2
5

3 In using the 3-median method for 34 points, the number of points placed in each group is:
a 10, 14, 10
B 11, 12, 11
C 12, 10, 12
d 10, 12, 14
e dependent on the decision of the person doing the calculations

4 The correlation between two variables x and y is 0.88. Which of the following statements is true?

As y increases it causes x to increase.


As y increases it causes x to decrease.
There is a poor fit between x and y
As x increases, y tends to increase.
As x increases, y tends to decrease.

a
B
C
d
e

5 When calculating a least-squares regression line, a correlation coefficient of 1 indicates that:

the y-axis variable depends linearly on the x-axis variable


the y-axis variable increases as the x-axis variable decreases
the y-axis variable decreases as the x-axis variable decreases
all the data lie on the same straight line
the two variables depend upon each other

a
B
C
d
e

6 For the following data set

x
y

25
78

36
153

45
267

78
456

the coefficient of determination (to 2 decimal places) is closest to:


a 14.14
B 381.97
d 0.95
e 0.94

89
891

99
1020

C 0.91

7 Given the following summary statistics

y = 172.5
sy = 7.4
r = 0.9
x = 154.4 sx = 5.8
the values of m and c, respectively, for the equation of the regression line y = mx + c are:
a 0.71 and 32.72
B 1.15 and 4.79
C 0.44 and 10.1

d 0.04 and 0.16


e 1.32 and 3.8

8 A 3-median regression fit yielded the equation y = 4.3x 2.4. The value of y when x = 4.4 is:
a 21.32
d 1.58

122

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

B 18.92
e 2.4

C 16.52

110
1410

9 A least-squares regression is fitted to the 7points as shown.


40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

The residual plot would look most similar to:


a

3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4

4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3

3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3

3
2
1
0
1
2
3

10 After a transformation, a relationship was found to be y = 0.4x2+ 12.1. The predicted value for y given

that x = 2.5 is:


a 6.25
d 13.1

B 2.5
e 12.5

C 14.6

1 Find the equation of the line passing through the point (5, 7.5) with a gradient of 3.5.

S ho rT
a n S W er

2 Fit a 3-median line to the following data.


y
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
0

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 x

Express the equation with exact values of m and c.


3 Find the equation of the 3-median regression line for the following data set.

x-values

10

11

15

y-values

23

21

20

14

16

12

4 Use the data from question 2 to fit a least-squares regression line. Express the equation in the form

y = a + bx.

5 Find the least-squares regression line and the correlation coefficient for the data in question 3. Express

your answers to 2 decimal places.


6 Use the following summary statistics to find:
a the slope, m, of the least-squares regression line
b the y-intercept, c, of the least-squares regression line

where y = mx + c is the equation of the regression line.


y = 10
sy = 2.5
r = 0.9
x = 15
sx = 5

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

123

7 Using the least-squares regression line from question 5, copy and complete the following table of

predicted values.
x
ypred

11

13

15

17

20

8 For the least-squares regression line from question 5, find the residuals.
e x T ended
r e S ponS e

Task 1
1 Consider this data set which measures the sales figures for a new salesperson.

Day
Units sold

1
1

2
2

3
4

4
9

5
20

6
44

7
84

8
124

The least-squares regression yielded the following equation:


Units sold = 16.7 day 39.1
The correlation coefficient was 0.90.
a Use a CAS calculator to construct the scatterplot of the data. What kind of relationship between
the variables does the scatterplot suggest?
b Comment on using the regression line to predict for small values of the independent variable.
c Use the equation of the regression line to predict the sales figures for the 10th day.
2 Transform the data from question 1 using a quadratic (x2) transformation.
3 Perform a least-squares regression on the transformed data from question 2.
4 Use the regression line for the transformed data to predict the sales figures for the 10th day. Is this a
better prediction than the one found in 1c?

Task 2
1 A mining company wishes to predict its gold production output. It collected the following data over a

9-month period.
Month (1 = January) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept.
Production (tonnes)
3
8 10.8 12 11.6 14 15.5 15 18.1
a Plot the data and fit a line of best fit by eye.
b State the equation of this line.
c Fit a straight line to the original data using the 3-median

method, stating the equation of this line.


diGiTal doC
doc-9426
Test Yourself
Chapter 3

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

DA

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

124

d Find the equation of the least-squares regression line.


e Using the line from part d, predict the production after

12 months.
f Comment on the accuracy, usefulness and simplicity of the

methods.
2 Using the data from question 1 above, answer the following
questions.
a Looking at the original data set, discuss whether linearity is a reasonable assertion.
b Research into goldmines has indicated that after about 10 months, production tends not to increase
as rapidly as in earlier months. Given this information, a logarithmic transformation is suggested.
Transform the original data using this method.
c Fit a straight line to this transformed data using least-squares regression.
d Discuss whether or not this transformation has removed any non-linearity.
e Predict the level of production of gold after 12 months using the equation obtained in part d.
Compare the prediction from question 1 e above with the one obtained using the logarithmic
transformation.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9418: Warm up with a quick quiz on
introduction to regression. (page 95)

3B

Fitting a straight line the 3-median method

diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 3.1 doc-9419: Practise finding the median. (page 100)
SkillSHEET 3.2 doc-9420: Practise calculating the gradient (I).
(page 100)
SkillSHEET 3.3 doc-9398: Practise finding the equation of a straight
line. (page 100)

3C Fitting a straight line least-squares


regression
diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9421: Investigate least-squares regression.
(page 104)
WorkSHEET 3.1 doc-9422: Fitting a straight line by eye and using the
3-median regression line. (page 106)
TUTorial
We 4 eles-1264: Learn how to find the equation of the leastsquares regression line using r, sx, and sy. (page 103)

3d

interpretation, interpolation and extrapolation

diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9423: Investigate interpolation and extrapolation
on a scatterplot. (page 108)
SkillSHEET 3.4 doc-9424: Practise using the regression line to make
predictions. (page 108)

3e

residual analysis

diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 3.2 doc-9425: Fitting a line by using the equal-number-ofpoints method, the 3-median method, calculate r, calculate residuals
and make predictions using interpolation and extrapolation. (page 113)

3F

Transforming to linearity

diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc-9482: Investigate different transformations to
linearity. (page 117)
TUTorialS
We 10 eles-1265: Watch a tutorial on applying a
parabolic transformation to data using a CAS calculator.
(page 115)
inTeraCTiViTY
Transforming to linearity int-0184: Use the interactivity to consolidate
your understanding of applying appropriate transformations to
achieve linearity. (page 114)
eleSSon
Which way to stretch? eles-0050: Discover how to use a scatterplot
displaying a non-linear relationship to determine how to transform
data to achieve linearity. (page 114)

Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc-9426: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 124)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

125

Answers CHAPTER 3
inTrodUCTion To
reGreSSion

b y = 0.15x + 21.87
c y = 52.38x + 8890.48
d y = x + 30

exercise 3a Fitting a straight line by eye


(Note: Best fit lines are indicated as a guide
only.)

6 The least-squares regression equations are

exercise 3B Fitting a straight line


the 3-median method
1 y = 2x 3.2
x

n
Lower
(total)
group
10
3
11
4
12
4
13
4
14
5
26
9
43
14
58
19
698
233
3 y = 0.95x + 78.8
5 B

b y

c y

7 a

d y

b
8 a
b
c

e y

d
9 a
b
c
d
e

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Middle Upper
group
group
4
3
3
4
4
4
5
4
4
5
8
9
15
14
20
19
232
233
4 D
6 y = 4x + 90

10 15 20

y = 1.93x + 3.71
(2, 4.2) and (8, 2.4), 0.3
(5, 3.1)
Approximately 4.7 (using calculator
4.733)
Level = 0.3 day + 4.7
(2, 65) and (9, 100), 5
(5.5, 70)
From the graph, approximately 50
Number of cars = 5 week + 50

Cars
x

85

10 A
exercise 3C

126

y = 5x + 50.83

70
0

h y

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Week

11 D

Fitting a straight line


least-squares regression
1 y = 1.04x + 4.57
2 y = 3.72x + 35.47
3 y = 1.2x + 9.06
4 a The mathematics exam mark
b 0.95
c 6.07
d 75%
5 a y = 3.33x + 91.78

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

80
70
60
50
0
1780 1830 1880 1930 19802030
Year

c The data definitely are not linear; there

are big increases from 18801920,


19402000.
11 a Duration of call
b Cost of call ($) = $0.002 57 duration
of call (sec) + $4.27
c
18
12
y = 0.003x + 4.27

6
0

100

g y

b
Age

2 a y = 0.4x + 1.3
b Time = 2 age + 2.5

Cost ($)

1 a y

exactly the same as obtained in questions


1, 2 and 3.
7 a y = 2x + 22
b A perfect fit
c y = 0.5x + 11
d The two lines are inverses of each other.
8 E
9 A
10 a y = 0.119x 164.7

1500 3000 4500 6000 7500


Duration (s)

The line does not fit closely for all data


points. The equation is not reliable due
to outliers. If you eliminate the last two
calls then there is a direct relationship.
12 D
13 a y = 4x + 8, perfect fit, but meaningless
b y = 2.5x + 10, good fit, but almost

meaningless

c y = 2.8x + 9.5, y = 3.1x + 8.9,

y = 3.3x + 8.4, good fit.

d Perhaps converging to the correct line?


exercise 3d interpretation, interpolation
and extrapolation
b 14 cells per day
1 a y = 157.3 + 14x
c 157
2 a 48.5, or 49 people per extra animal
b 31.8, or 32 visitors
3 y = 1.72x + 464, r = 0.98. Gradient
shows a drop of 1720 sales for every $1
increase in the price of the item. Clearly,
the y-intercept is nonsensical in this case
since an item is not going to be sold for
$0! This is a case where extrapolation of
the line makes no sense.
4 a 7
b 18
b 10.4
c 40.9
5 a y = 3.381x + 0.286
d 1.99
e 7.31
f c
6 a Factory1: y = 1.51x + 43.21;
Factory 2: y = 0.96x + 56.61
b Factory 1 is cheaper at $43.21
(compared to Factory 2 at $56.61).

(compared to Factory1 at $216.86).


d Factory 2 is marginally more linear
(Factory 1: r = 0.97; Factory 2: r = 0.99).
7 a $2152
b 180
c $78 200
d $600
e a, b only
8
Test result
IQ
(%)
80
56
87
60
92
68
102
65
105
73
106
74
107
71
111
73
115
80
121
92
9 a $27 500
c $32 000
e Various answers
exercise 3e

x
1

2
9.7
7.46
2.24
3
12.7
9.82
2.88
4
13.7
12.18
1.52

5
14.4
14.54
0.14
2.4
6
14.5
16.9
2 By examining the original scatterplot, and
residual plot, data are clearly not linear.
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

138.8

19.2

124

116.3

7.7

74

93.8

19.8

56

71.3

31

48.8

17.8

35

26.3

8.7

3.8

Residuals

58.7

23.8

3
ypred

Residuals

34.0

15

13.96

1.04

37.9

4
5
7
8
9
10
11

10
12
4
9
7
3
4

11.58
10.39
8.01
6.82
5.63
4.44
3.25

1.58

35.8

27.8

5.7

16.4

10

68.5

12

d 15.15%
e 13.7 days. Unlikely that extrapolation

140
120

Average height
(cm)

0.954

128

144

1.041

148

1.079

154

1.114

158

1.146

161

1.176

165

1.204

164

1.230

166

1.255

167

r = 0.95, most non-linearity removed.

3 a i 123.3 cm ii 143.9 cm
iii 176.7 cm
b a ii
4 Normal growth is linear only within given

7
8

range; eventually the girl stops growing.


Thus logarithmic transformation is a big
improvement over the original regression.
a y = 90.867xT + 2.572 where
1
xT = (r = 0.9788)
x
b Intensity is 7.1 candlepower.
a Compresst he y- or x-values using logs
or reciprocals.
b Stretch the y-values using y2 or
compress the x-values using logs or
reciprocals.
c Compress the y- or x-values using logs
or reciprocals.
a 11.25
b 11.25
a 24.55
b Cannot take the log of a negative
number.
c Cannot take the log of zero.
a 3.39
b 0.34
a 0.08
b 0.08

9
10
11 a

240
180
120

y = 59.07 + 21.74x

60

30
0

c y = 117.2xT + 24.26 where xT = log10 (x),

60

30

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Age group (years)

log (age group)

18.2

e
Residuals

15.3

3.1

3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

160

M T W T F S S

23.1

No apparent
pattern in the
residuals
likely to be linear

180

Slight pattern in residuals may not


be linear
d Decline in occupancy likely due to
drought an atypical event.
6 C
7 a Non-linear
b Linear
c Non-linear
8 a y = 37.93x 57.73
b r = 0.958. This means that there is a
strong positive relationship between
variables x and y.
c 0.9177, therefore 91.8% of the variation
in y can be explained by the variation in x.

3D
4 a, b

22

25
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25

1.61
4.01
2.18
1.37
1.44
0.75

Residuals

158

7
c

ypred

1 2 3 4 5 6

Defective
Day rate (%)

r = 0.97, which shows some improvement.

2 a

Bookings
Day in hotel

Transforming to linearity

1 y = 2.62xT + 128.15 where xT = x2,

5 a, b

b $29 300
d About 13 years

residual analysis
y
ypred
Residuals

1
5.1
4.1

exercise 3F

Seeds

that far from data points is accurate.


Unlikely that there would be 0%
defectives.

Average
height (cm)

c Factory 2 is cheaper at $167.47

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x

There is a clear pattern; the relationship


between the variables is non-linear.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Circle

8 9 10

b r = 0.87, which means it is a strong and

positive relationship.

c 180

ChapTer 3 Introduction to regression

127

Circle

Seeds

Residual

MUlTiple ChoiCe

40.33

20.59

1.85

13

14.89

ShorT anSWer

21

28.36

1 y = 3.5x + 25

34

37.37

55

89

25.58

144

7.41

10

233

74.67

1 A
5 D
9 C

2E
6C
10 C

38.12

Residuals

60
30
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Circle

30

i Stretch using x2
1
ii Compress either log10 (y) or

12 a

Logseeds

1.8
1.2
0.6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Circle

b r = 0.9999, this is an almost perfect


c

e
f

128

relation.
log10 ( y) = 0.2094x + 0.2746
log10 (number of seeds) = 0.2094
circle number + 0.2746
0.9999, 99.99% (100.0%) of variation
in number of seeds is due to number of
circles. This is a perfect relation, often
found in nature (see the Golden Ratio).
378
This is a much better prediction as it
follows the steep upward trend.

Task 2

4 E
8 C

1 a

2 y=

ypred

3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17

20.6
18.1
15.6
13.1
10.6
8.1
5.6
3.2

20

0.65

y
23

ypred
23.1

2 4 6 8 10

Something like y = 1.26x + 5.77


y = 1.25x + 5.58
y = 1.55x + 4.27
22.87
Simplicity of eye fitting versus
accuracy in this case is quite good.
Little difference in the sum of squared
errors. Least-squares regression gives
quite a different answer from the other
2 methods, with consequent change
in errors. (The 3-median method is
subject to errors due to outliers, and
computational errors.)
2 a Not very linear, logarithmic
transformation suggested
b
c
d
e
f

2
4
8
9
10
11
15

21
20
14
16
9
12
5

21.85
19.35
14.35
13.1
11.85
10.6
5.6

log10 (month)

0.85

0.65
0.35
2.9
2.85
1.4

0.6

exTended reSponSe

Task 1
1 a Likely to be a y versus x2 relationship
b A poor predictor for most values of x
c 128

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

20
16
12
8
4

y ypred
0.1

x
1

2.4

3 B
7 B

9
22
x
7
21
3 y = 1.33x + 24.56 4 y = 2.055 + 1.364x
5 y = 1.25x + 24.35, r = 0.96
b 16.75
6 a 0.45

3 y = 1.96xT 13.86, where xT = x2


4 182

ChapTer reVieW

Day

16

25

36

49

Units
sold

20

44

84 124

64

Production
(tonnes)

0.301

0.477

10.8

0.602

12

0.699

11.6

0.778

14

0.845

15.5

0.903

15

0.954

18.1

c y = 14.08xT + 3.30, where xT = log10 (x)


d Square of residual error is reduced,

correlation (0.98) is closer to 1, graph


looks more linear
e Prediction of 18.49 against 22.87 using
untransformed data. Given the nature of
the data, likely to be more accurate.

Chapter 4

Time series
DiGitaL DOC
doc-9427
10 Quick Questions

Chapter COntentS
4a
4B
4C
4D
4e
4F

Time series and trend lines


Fitting trend lines and forecasting
Smoothing time series
Smoothing with an even number of points
Median smoothing
Seasonal adjustment

4a

time series and trend lines

In previous chapters we looked at bivariate, or (x, y), data where both x and y could vary independently.
In this chapter we shall consider cases where the x-variable is time and, generally, where time goes up in
even increments such as hours, days, weeks or years. In these cases we have what is called a time series.
The main purpose of a time series is to see how some quantity varies with time. For example, a company
may wish to record its daily sales figures over a 10-day period.
Time
Sales ($)

Day 1
5200

Day 2
5600

Day 3
6100

Day 4
6200

Day 5
7000

Day 6
7100

Day 7
7500

Day 8
7700

Day 9
7700

Day 10
8000

Sales ($)

We could also make a graph of this time series as shown below.


10 000
9 000
8 000
7 000
6 000
5 000
4 000
0

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Days

As can be seen from this graph, there seems to be a trend upwards clearly, this company is
increasing its revenues!

types of trend

Units: 3 & 4

Although many types of trend exist, in Further Mathematics we shall be looking at trends that are
classified as secular, seasonal, cyclic and random.

Secular trends
If over a reasonably long period of time a trend appears to be either increasing or decreasing steadily, with
no major changes of direction, then it is called a secular trend. It is important to look at the data over a long
period. If the trend in the previous figure continued for, say, 30 days, then we could safely conclude that
the company was indeed becoming more profitable. What appears to be a steady increase over a short term
say, stock market share prices can turn out to be something quite different over the long run.

AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Chapter 4 Time series

129

Seasonal trends

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
seasonal trends.

Seasons
Months

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about cyclic
trends.

Seasons
Winter, spring, summer, autumn
Jan., Feb., Mar., . . ., Nov., Dec.

Quarters 1st quarter (Q1),


2nd quarter (Q2),
3rd quarter (Q3),
4th quarter (Q4)
Days
Monday to Friday
Days

Houses sold

AOS: DA

Cycle peaks every 12 months


12
10
8
6
4
2
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4t
2007
2008
2009

Cycle
Four seasons in a year
12 months in a year

Example
Rainfall
Grocery store monthly sales
figures
Four quarters in a year Quarterly expenditure
figures of a company

Five days in a week

Daily sales for a store open


from Monday to Friday only
Number of hamburgers sold
at a takeaway store daily

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday,


Seven days in a week
Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday

Cyclic trends
Like seasonal trends, cyclic trends show fluctuations
upwards and downwards, but not according to
season. Businesses often have cycles where at times
profits increase, then decline, then increase again.
A good example of this would be the sales of a new
major software product. At first, sales are slow; then
they pick up as the product becomes popular. When
enough people have bought the product, sales may
fall off until a new version of the product comes
on the market, causing sales to increase again. This
cycle can be repeated many times, which is why
there are many versions of some software products.

No regular periods between peaks


Software products sold

Units: 3 & 4

Certain data seem to fluctuate during the year, as


the seasons change. Consequently, this is termed
a seasonal trend. The most obvious example of a
seasonal trend would be total rainfall during summer,
autumn, winter and spring in a year.
The name seasonal is not specific to the seasons
of a year. It could also be related to other constant
periods of highs and lows. For example, sales figures
at a fast-food store could be consistently higher
on Saturdays and Sundays and drop off during the
weekdays. Here the seasons are days of the week and
repeat once every week.
A key feature of seasonal trends is that the seasons
occur at the same time each cycle.
Here are some common seasonal periods.

250
200
150
100
50
0

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4t
2007
2008
2009

Trends may seem to occur at random. This can be caused


by external events such as floods, wars, new technologies or
inventions, or anything else that results from random causes.
There is no obvious way to predict the direction of the trend
or even when it changes direction.
In the figure at right, there are a couple of minor fluctuations
at t = 4 and t = 8, and a major one at t = 12. The major fluctuation
could have been caused by a change in government which
positively affected profits.
130

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Profits

random trends
30
26
22
18
14
0

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 t
Years

WOrkeD eXaMpLe 1

Write/DraW

Attempt to t a line using your eye.


By trial and error, a line such as the
one at right could be the trend line.

Temp. (C)

think

Evaluate the trend.

38.4
38.2
38.0
37.8
37.6
37.4
37.2
0

38.4
38.2
38.0
37.8
37.6
37.4
37.2
0

Temp. (C)

State the type of trend and t a straight line to the time


series data at right, which represent the body temperature
of a patient with appendicitis, taken every hour.

Units: 3 & 4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Hours

AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Hours

The trend is secular and upward.


It is unlikely that the temperature will continue to rise
indenitely, but the line may be signicant over the short term.

plotting time series


To make better judgements about the type of time series, data in tabular form need to be plotted on
a time-series plot. This is similar to a scatterplot with some notable differences.
1. The independent variable is always time. This may be in days, days of the week, time of the day,
weeks, months, quarters, years and so on. Thus, the x-axis variable is time.
2. As the periods are often labels and not numerical, the x-axis may be scaled using these
period labels.
3. The points are connected. As they occur in chronological order, joining the points assists in
identifying the type of trend or time series pattern that may exist.
So that we can enter the data into a CAS calculator, time periods that are labels (and not numerical)
need to be converted to numerals. For this, an association table is needed.
An association table summarises how the time periods are to be converted to numerical values. The first
point is converted to 1, the second to 2 and so on, until the series is fully converted. Here are two examples.

example 1
Week 1
Mon.
1

Week 1
Tues.
2

Week 1
Wed.
3

Week 1
Thurs.
4

Week 1
Fri.
5

Week 1
Sat.
6

Week 1
Sun.
7

Week 2
Mon.
8

Week 2
Tues.
9

example 2
Jan.
2009
1

Feb.
2009
2

Mar.
2009
3

Apr.
2009
4

May
2009
5

June
2009
6

July
2009
7

Aug.
2009
8

WOrkeD eXaMpLe 2

The following table displays the school fees collected over a 10-week period. Plot the data and
decide on the type of time-series pattern. If there is a secular trend, t a straight line.
Week beginning 8 Jan. 15 Jan. 22 Jan. 29 Jan. 5 Feb. 12 Feb. 19 Feb. 26 Feb. 5 Mar. 12 Mar.
$ 1000

1.5

2.5

14.0

4.5

13.0

4.5

8.5

0.5

5.0

1.0

Chapter 4 Time series

131

Write/DraW

Set up an association table.


One method is to add another
row and enter the numerical
time code for each of the ten
weeks starting at 1, 2, . . . ,
through to 10.
Construct a scatterplot of
the data. Place weeks on the
horizontal axis and school
fees on the vertical axis.

Week
8 15 22 29 5 12 19 26
5
12
beginning Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Feb. Feb. Feb. Feb. Mar. Mar.
$ 1000

1.5 2.5 14.0 4.5 13.0 4.5 8.5 0.5

5.0

Time code

School fees

think

1.0
10

y
15
12
9
6
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x
Week

Identify the pattern as either


seasonal, cyclical or random.
If there is a secular trend, is
it upwards or downwards?

The school fees can be classied as cyclical or random with a


secular downward trend. This is evident by the reducing totals
in school fees collected.

Use a calculator to fit a leastsquares regression line.

y = 7.2 0.31x, where y represents school fees in thousands of dollars


and x = 1 corresponds to week beginning on 8th of January.

exercise 4a

For questions 1 to 5, identify whether the trends are likely to be secular, seasonal, cyclic or random for:
1 the amount of rainfall, per month, in Western Victoria
2 the number of soldiers in the United States army, measured annually
3 the number of people living in Australia, measured annually
4 the share price of BHP Billiton, measured monthly
5 the number of seats held by the Liberal Party in Federal Parliament.
6 Fit a trend line by eye to the data in the graph at right.
40
7 We1 A wildlife park ranger is travelling on safari
35
towards the centre of a wildlife park. Each day (t), he
30
records the number of sightings (y) of zebra that he
25
notes. He draws up the table below.
Temperature (C)

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trend lines

time series and trend lines

20
15
10

t
y

1
6

2
9

3
13

4
8

5
9

6
14

7
15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Days

8
17

9
14

Fit a trend line to the data. What type of trend is best reflected by these data?
132

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

10
11

11
15

12
19

8 We2 The monthly share prices of a recently privatised telephone company were recorded as

follows.
Date

Jan. 09

Feb. 09

Mar. 09

Apr. 09

May 09

June 09

July 09

Aug. 09

2.50

2.70

3.00

3.20

3.60

3.70

3.90

4.20

Price ($)

Graph the data (let 1 = Jan., 2 = Feb. . . . and so on) and fit a trend line to the data.
Comment on the feasibility of predicting share prices for the following year.
9 Plot the following monthly sales data for umbrellas. Fit a trend line. Discuss the type of

trend best reflected by the data and the limitations of your trend line.
Month

Jan.

Feb.

10

Sales

Mar. Apr.
15

May June

40

70

July Aug. Sept. Oct.

95

100

90

60

Nov. Dec.

35

20

10

10 Consider the data in the figure below, which represent the price of oranges over a 19-week period.

Price (cents)

100
80
60
40
20
0

10

15
Weeks

20

25

a Fit a straight trend line to the data.


b From the graph, predict the price in week 25.
11 The following table represents the quarterly sales figures (in thousands) of a popular software product.

Plot the data and fit a trend line using the best fit by eye method. Discuss the type of trend best reflected
by these data.
Quarter Q1-07 Q2-07 Q3-07 Q4-07 Q1-08 Q2-08 Q3-08 Q4-08 Q1-09 Q2-09 Q3-09 Q4-09
Sales

120

135

150

145

140

120

100

110

120

140

190

220

12 The number of employees at the Comnatpac Bank was recorded over a 10-month period. Plot and fit a

trend line to the data. What would you say about the trend?
Month

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Employees

6100

5700

5400

5200

4800

4400

4200

4000

3700

3300

4B

Fitting trend lines and forecasting

Using our eyes to fit a straight line to a set of data or to predict values can be an inadequate mathematical
technique (as we saw in chapter 3). In this section we shall look at using either the 3-median or leastsquares regression techniques to calculate the equation of a trend line.

Secular and random trends


It is important to note that the techniques for fitting trend lines are used on the original data where the
trend is clearly linear; that is, random or secular. These techniques cannot be applied effectively to
cyclical or seasonal trends.
Always plot time-series data, so that the type of pattern or trend can be easily seen.
Chapter 4 Time series

133

association tables and forecasting


An association table is often required to convert period labels to a numerical value, so that a straight-line
equation can be calculated. It is best to set up an extra row if data are in tabular form, or to change the
labels shown on the axis of a time-series plot to numerical values. Here are three examples.

example 1
Year
Time code

2006
1

2007
2

2008
3

2009
4

example 2

example 3
1
2
3
4
5
6

40
CD sales

1st Quarter 2008


2nd Quarter 2008
3rd Quarter 2008
4th Quarter 2008
1st Quarter 2009
2nd Quarter 2009

30
20
10

For forecasting, use the association table to devise


a time code for any period in the future. This
time code will then be used in the straight-line
equation.
From the three examples we can calculate that for:
Example 1: 2013 would have a time code of 8
Example 2: 1st Quarter 2010 would have a time code of 9
Example 3: Monday week 4 would have a time code of 22.

Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri.

Sat. Sun. Mon. t

WOrkeD eXaMpLe 3

A new tanning salon has opened in a shopping centre, with customer numbers for its rst days shown
in the following table. Fit a straight line to the data set using the least-squares regression method.
Period
Number of
customers

Mon.

Tues.

Wed.

Week 1
Thurs.

Fri.

Sat.

Sun.

Mon.

11

13

16

18

19

20

Week 2
Tues. Wed.
23

27

Use the equation of the straight line to predict the number of customers for:
a Monday week 4
b Thursday week 2.
think
1

Complete an association
table, where
Monday week 1 is 1,
Tuesday week 1 is 2,
Wednesday week 2
is 10.
Use a calculator to find
the equation of leastsquares regression line.

Write

Period
Number of
customers
Time code

Week 1
Week 2
Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed.
9

11

13

16

18

19

20

23

27

10

y = 5.67 + 1.97x
Number of customers = 5.67 + 1.97 time code
where time code 1 corresponds to Monday of week 1.

Monday week 4,
a Number of customers = 5.67 + 1.97 time code
the time code is 22.
= 5.67 + 1.97 22
Substitute t = 22 into
= 49.01
the equation and
Number of customers = 49
evaluate. Round to the
nearest integer.

3 a For

134

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

b Number of customers = 5.67 + 1.97 time code

b For Thursday week 2, the time code is

11. Substitute t = 11 into the equation


and evaluate. Round to the nearest
whole number.

= 5.67 + 1.97 11
= 27.34
Number of customers = 27

Note: Remember that forecasting is an extrapolation and if going too far into the future, the prediction is
not reliable, as the trend may change.

Once an equation has been determined for a time series, it can be used to analyse the situation.
For the period given in the previous worked example, the equation is:
Number of customers = 5.67 + 1.97 time code.
The y-intercept (5.67) has no real meaning, as it represents the time code of zero, which is the day
before the opening of the salon. The gradient or rate of change is of more importance. It indicates that
the number of customers is changing; in this instance, growing by approximately 2 customers per day
(gradient of +1.97).
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 4

The forecast equation for calculating share prices, y, in a sugar company was obtained from data
of the share prices over the past 5 years. The equation is y = 0.42t + 1.56, where t = 1 represents the
year 2001, t = 2 represents the year 2002 and so on.
a Rewrite the equation putting it in the context of the question.
b Interpret the values of the gradient and y-intercept.
c Predict the share price in 2013.
think

Write

a The x-variable represents the time codes and

the y-variable represents the share price in


dollars.

a Share price = $0.42 time code + $1.56

Time code t = 1 is 2001, t = 2 is 2002 and so on.

b The y-intercept of 1.56 represents the

b The y-intercept of $1.56 represents the approximate

c If t = 1 is 2001, then for 2013, the time code

c Share price = $0.42 time code + $1.56

starting value; that is, when t = 0. The


gradient of 0.42 represents the rate of
change in share price with respect to time.
That is, it will grow as it has a positive
gradient.

value of the shares in 2000. The gradient of +$0.42


means that on average the share price will grow by
$0.42 (42 cents) each year.

will be t = 13. Substitute into the equation


given.

exercise 4B

= $0.42 13 + $1.56
= $5.46 + $1.56
= $7.02

Fitting trend lines and forecasting

1 We3 The following table represents the number of cars remaining to be completed on an assembly

line. Fit a straight line to the following data using the least-squares regression method.
Time (hours)
Cars remaining

1
32

2
26

3
27

4
23

5
16

6
17

7
13

8
10

9
9

a Predict the number of cars remaining to be completed after 11hours.


b At what rate is the numbers of cars on the assembly line being reduced by?

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SkillSHEET 4.1
Gradient-intercept
method for
sketching linear
graphs

2 From the equation of the trend line, it should be possible to predict when there are no cars left on the

assembly line. This is done by finding the value of t which makes y= 0. Using the equation from
question 1, find the time when there will be no cars left on the assembly line.
Chapter 4 Time series

135

3 When the MicroHard Company first started, it

y
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Number of staff

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3-median
method

employed only one person. Each month the


company has grown, so that after 12 months there
are 14 people working there. The time-series data
are shown by the graph at right.
a Fit a 3-median line to the data.
b Predict the number of employees after a further
12 months.
4 The table below shows the share price of

6
8
Months

MicroHard during a volatile period in the stock


market. Using your CAS calculator:
a fit a least-squares regression line
b fit a 3-median line.
Comment on your result. What type of trend is this?
Day

10

11

12

13

10

14

12

15

16

Price ($) 2.75 3.30 3.15 2.25 2.10 1.80 1.50 2.70 4.10 4.20 3.55 1.65 2.60 2.95 3.25 3.70
5 The following time series shows the number of internet websites on a webring over a 9-month

period. Plot the data and fit a 3-median trend line. Comment on this line as a predictor of further
growth.
Time (months)

Sites (millions)

2.00

2.20

2.50

3.10

3.60

4.70

6.10

7.20

8.50

6 We4 The forecast equation for calculating prices, y, of shares in a steel company was obtained from

data of the share prices of the past 6 years. The equation is.
y = 0.72t + 2.56
where t = 1 represents the year 2010, t = 2 represents the year 2011 and so on.
a Rewrite the equation putting it in the context of the question.
b Interpret the values of the gradient and the y-intercept.
c Predict the share price in 2020.
7 The Teeny-Tiny-Tot Company has started to make prams. Its sales figures for the first 8 months are

given in the table below.


Date

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sales

65

95

130

115

145

170

190

220

a Using the sequence Jan. = 1, Feb. = 2, . . ., calculate the equation of the trend line using the least-

squares regression method.


b Plot the data points and the trend line on the same set of axes.
c Use the trend line equation to predict the companys sales for December.
d Comment on the suitability of the trend line as a predictor of future trends, supporting your

arguments with mathematical statements.


8 The sales figures of Harold Courtenays latest novel (in thousands of units) are given in the table below.

The book was released a week before the first figures were collected.
Time (weeks)

Sales (1000)

17

21

25

28

27

26

a
b
c
d

136

Calculate the equation of the trend line for these data using the least-squares regression method.
Plot the data points and the trend line on the same set of axes.
Use the trend line equation to predict the sales for weeks 10, 12 and 14.
Comment on the suitability of the trend line as a predictor of future trends, supporting your
arguments with mathematical statements.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

9 The average quarterly price of coffee (per 100 kg) has been recorded for 3 years.

Quarter Q1-07 Q2-07 Q3-07 Q4-07 Q1-08 Q2-08 Q3-08 Q4-08 Q1-09 Q2-09 Q3-09 Q4-09
Price ($)
a
b
c
d

358

323

316

336

369

333

328

351

389

387

393

402

Calculate the equation of the trend line for these data using the least-squares regression method.
Plot the data points and the trend line on the same set of axes.
Use the trend line equation to predict the price for the next quarter.
Comment on the suitability of the trend line as a predictor of future trends, supporting
your arguments with mathematical statements.

10 A mathematics teacher gives her students a test each month for 10 months, and the

class average is recorded. The tests are carefully designed to be of similar difficulty.
Test
Mark (%)
a
b
c
d

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

57

63

62

67

65

68

70

72

74

77

Calculate the equation of the trend line for these data using the least-squares regression method.
Plot the data points and the trend line on the same set of axes.
Use the trend line equation to predict the results for the last exam in December.
Comment on the suitability of the trend line as a predictor of future trends, supporting your
arguments with mathematical statements.

4C

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WorkSHEET 4.1

Smoothing time series

When the data fluctuates a lot, it is often hard to see the underlying trend. In order to reveal the trend,
we may need to try and remove some of these fluctuations before attempting to fit the trend line. This
process is referred to as smoothing.
There are two basic techniques for smoothing random or cyclical variation: median smoothing and
moving-average smoothing.
Median smoothing is preferred where there are small data sets, as it can be done graphically on a
time-series plot. Also, for data sets with many outliers due to the volatile random or cyclical trend,
median smoothing is preferred. We have seen earlier that the median is not affected by outliers, while the
mean is.
Moving-average smoothing is an option that is preferred for data sets with few random fluctuations.

Moving-average smoothing
This technique relies on the principle that averages of data can be used to
represent the original data. When applied to time series, a number of data points
are averaged, then we move on to another group of data points in a systematic
fashion and average them, and so on. It is generally quite simple. Consider the
following example:
Notice how the third column in the table at right is computed from the first two.
1. Take the first three y-values (i.e. first, second and third) and find their average
12 + 10 + 15 = 12.3

; place the result against t = 2.


3
2. Move down one line and again take three y-values (i.e. second, third and fourth.)
10 + 15 + 13
Find their average
= 12.7 and place the result against t = 3.

3
3. Continue moving down the table until you reach the last three points.
As we use three points to average, moving down the table from top to bottom,
the process is called a 3-point moving-average smoothing.
The number of points averaged at a time may vary: we could have a 4-point
smoothing, a 5-point smoothing or even an 11-point smoothing. Although it is
preferable to choose an odd number, such as 3 or 5, it is possible to choose even
numbers as well, with a slight change in the method. Later in the chapter, we will
discuss how to choose the number of points for smoothing.

Time (t) Data (y)


1
12

2
10

3
15

4
13

5
16

Moving average
12 + 10 + 15
= 12.3
3
10 + 15 + 13
= 12.7
3
15 + 13 + 16
= 14.7
3
13 + 16 + 13
= 14.0
3

13

16 + 13 + 18
= 15.7
3

18

13 + 18 + 21
= 17.3
3

21

18 + 21 + 19
= 19.3
3

19

Chapter 4 Time series

137

Moving-average smoothing with


odd numbers of points
As seen above, the method for smoothing with an odd number (3, 5, . . .) is quite simple, and can be done
in a vertical tabular form. It is crucial that the time values be equally spaced, but they dont have to be in
the sequence 1, 2, 3.
Note: There are fewer smoothed points than original ones. For a 3-point smooth, 1 point at either end is
lost; while for a 5-point smooth, 2 points at either end are lost.
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 5

The temperature of a sick patient is measured every 2 hours and the results are recorded.
a Use a 3-point moving-average technique to smooth the data.
b Plot both original and smoothed data on the same set of axes.
c Predict the temperature for 18 hours using the last smoothed value.

AOS: DA
Topic:
Concept:

9
3

2
36.5

4
37.2

6
36.9

8
37.1

think

a 1 Put the data in a table.


2

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Calculate a 3-point moving-average


for each data point.
Note: The lost values are at
t = 2 and t = 16. Therefore, the first
point plotted is (4, 36.87).

b 1 Plot the data. The smoothed line is

the thicker, red one.


Note: The smoothed data start at the
2nd time point and finish at the 7th
point.

10
37.3

Time (h) Temp. (C)


2
36.5

Comment on the result.

c Last smoothed data point is 37.50.

14
37.5

16
37.8

Smoothed temp. (C)

37.2

1
(36.5 + 37.2 + 36.9) = 36.87
3

36.9

1
(37.2 + 36.9 + 37.1) = 37.07
3

37.1

1
(36.9 + 37.1 + 37.3) = 37.10
3

10

37.3

1
(37.1 + 37.3 + 37.2) = 37.20
3

12

37.2

1
(37.3 + 37.2 + 37.5) = 37.33
3

14

37.5

1
(37.2 + 37.5 + 37.8) = 37.50
3

16

37.8

38
37.5
37
36.5
36
0

12
37.2

Write/DraW

Temperature (C)

Units: 3 & 4

Time (hours)
Temp. (C)

4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Number of hours

The smoothed line has removed much of the fluctuation


of the original time series and, in fact, clearly exposes the
secular trend (upwards) in temperature.
c The temperature at 18 hours is predicted to be 37.5 C.

prediction using moving averages


Because the moving average does not generate a single linear equation, there are limited possibilities for
using the resultant smoothed data for prediction. However, there are two things that can be done.
1. Predict the next value use the last smoothed value to predict the next time point. In the previous
example, our prediction for t = 18 would be temperature = 37.50. This is not necessarily an accurate
prediction but it is the best we can do without a linear trend equation.
138

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

2. Fit a single straight line to the smoothed data using either the 3-median or least-squares regression
techniques, one could find a single equation for the smoothed data points. This is often the preferred
technique.

how many points should be in the


moving average?
When smoothing data, it is important to decide on the number of points to be used. Several factors that
should be taken into account are discussed below. Here are some basic hints. (n = the number of points
in the time series and p = the number of points taken at a time to be averaged.)
1. For small data sets, the value of p should be considerably smaller than n. For example, if
n = 7, p should be no more than about 4.
2. The most common practice if there is a cyclic variation that we want to remove, is to let p length
of cycle. If the data shows seasonal variation, p should be proportional to the number of seasons. For
example, if there are quarterly data with seasonal variation, use p = 4.
Other preferred choices for number of points used in the smoothing procedures include:
Monthly sales figures
use 12 point centred
Daily sales for a store open each day of the week
use 7 point
Daily sales for a store open from Monday to Friday only
use 5 point
Quarterly electricity consumption figures
use 4 point centred
3. It is always preferable to use an odd value of p, regardless of whether n is even or odd.
4. The larger the value of p, the smoother the trend line of the resulting data becomes. More of the
fluctuations will be removed. However, you can go too far as the bigger p is, the more data points are
lost: when p = 3, we lose 2 points, if p = 5 4 points, if p = 7 6 points etc. Therefore if the set is
small, we may lose nearly all data by selecting large value of p!

Moving-average smoothing using a spreadsheet


A spreadsheet can be devised
to calculate the average data
values and then the new set
of smoothed points plotted
on a graph. At right is a
section of the spreadsheet for
Worked example 5.
Below right are the
formulas used. Note the
row and column numbers
carefully. There is no need
to calculate the first (C1)
and last (C8) average, as
these are the lost values. It
should be clear how to turn
this into a 5-point, or 7-point
smooth. Why wouldnt we
go any further?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

A
time

B
temp.

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16

36.5
37.2
36.9
37.1
37.3
37.2
37.5
37.8

C
smooth

=SUM(B1:B3)/3
=SUM(B2:B4)/3
=SUM(B3:B5)/3
=SUM(B4:B6)/3
=SUM(B5:B7)/3
=SUM(B6:B8)/3

Chapter 4 Time series

139

Smoothing time series

exercise 4C

1 We5 The following table represents sales of a textbook.


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Spreadsheet
Moving average

Year (t)
Sales (y)

2002
2250

2003
2600

2004
2400

2005
2750

2006
2900

2007
2450

2008
3100

2009
3400

a Use a 3-point moving average technique to smooth the data.


b Plot both the original and smoothed data.
c Predict the sales for 2010 using the last smoothed value.
2 The sales of a certain car seem to have been declining in recent months. The management wishes to

find out if this is the case.


Month
Sales

Jan.
120

Feb.
70

Mar.
100

Apr.
110

May
90

June
80

July
70

Aug.
90

Sept.
80

Oct.
100

Nov.
60

Dec.
60

a Using a 3-point moving average, smooth the data and comment on the result. Use Jan. = 1, Feb. = 2 . . .
b Using the least-squares regression method, find the equation of the trend line for the smoothed data.
c Use the equation to predict the number of sales for March next year. Comment on the predictions.
3 Perform a 5-point moving average smoothing on the data from question 2 and discuss the result.
4 Consider the quarterly rainfall data below. Rainfall has been measured over a 3-year period. Perform a

3-point moving average and comment on whether there is an underlying secular trend.
Time (t)
Rainfall
(mm)

Spring Summer Autumn Winter Spring Summer Autumn Winter Spring Summer Autumn Winter
2006
2006
2007
2007 2007
2007
2008
2008 2008
2008
2009
2009

100

50

65

120

90

50

60

110

85

40

50

100

5 The attendance at Bendigo Football Club games was recorded over 10 years. Management wishes to

see if there is a trend.


Year

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

75

72

69

74

66

72

61

64

69

65

Attendance
( 1000)

a Perform a 3-point moving average smoothing on the data and comment on the result.
b Using the 3-median line of best fit on the smoothed data, find the equation of the trend line.
c Use the equation from b to predict the attendance in 2011. Comment on the prediction.
6 Use a spreadsheet solution to complete a 3-point moving average smoothing on the following data

which represent sales figures for a 21-week period.

140

Week

Sales

Week

Sales

34

12

44

27

13

47

31

14

49

37

15

41

41

16

52

29

17

48

32

18

44

37

19

49

47

20

56

10

38

21

54

11

41

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Smoothed data

Smoothed data

7 Coffee price data are shown below. Perform a 3-point moving average to smooth the data. Plot the

smoothed and original data and comment on your result.


Quarter
Price ($)

Q1-07 Q2-07 Q3-07 Q4-07 Q1-08 Q2-08 Q3-08 Q4-08 Q1-09 Q2-09 Q3-09 Q4-09
358

323

316

336

369

333

328

351

389

387

393

402

8 The sales of a new car can vary due to the effect of advertising and promotion. The sales figures for

Nassin Motor Companys new sedan are shown in the table. Use 5-point moving averages to smooth
the data. Plot the data, and use the last smoothed value to predict sales for the next month.
Month
Sales

Feb.
141

Mar.
270

Apr.
234

May
357

June
267

July
387

Aug.
288

Sept.
303

Oct.
367

Nov.
465

Dec.
398

9 A large building site requires varying numbers of workers. The weekly employment figures over the

last 7 weeks have been recorded. By performing a 3-point moving average smoothing, predict the
number of people required for the next week.
Week

Employees

67

78

54

82

69

88

94

Smoothing with an even


number of points
4D

As mentioned in the previous section, it is usually preferable to use an odd number of points. However,
there are situations when an even number of points should be used that is, a 4-point, 6-point or even
12-point moving average. When we used an odd number of points, the result was automatically centred;
that is, the y-data had the same t-values as the original (except at the first and last lost points). This
does not occur with an even-point smoothing, as shown in the following example of a 4-point moving
average.
Time
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

y-value
6

10

14


12

11

15
16

4-point average (smoothed value)


Calculation
Result

(6 + 10 + 14 + 12) 4

10.5

(10 + 14 + 12 + 11) 4

11.75

(14 + 12 + 11 + 15) 4

13

(12 + 11 + 15 + 16) 4

13.5

Chapter 4 Time series

141

Observe that the first average (10.5) is not aligned with any particular year it is aligned with
2007.5! Also note that there are now three lost values (the seven original records reduced to four). In
other words, the moving average is not centred properly. To align the data correctly, an additional step
needs to be performed; this is called centring.
Use the following procedure to centre the data:
Step 1. Find the average of the first two smoothed points and align it with the 3rd time point.
Step 2. Find the average of the next two smoothed points and align it with the 4th time point.
Step 3. Repeat, leaving two blank entries at both top and bottom of the table.
This is demonstrated in the following table, using the data from the previous table.
4-point average (smoothed value)
Time
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Calculation

y-value

Result

10

(6 + 10 + 14 + 12) 4

14

(10 + 14 + 12 + 11) 4

12

(14 + 12 + 11 + 15) 4

11

(12 + 11 + 15 + 16) 4

15

16

4-point average after centring


Calculation

Result

(10.5 + 11.75) 2

11.125

(11.75 + 13) 2

12.375

(13 + 13.5) 2

13.25

10.5

11.75

13

13.5

The first average (11.125) is now aligned with 2008, the second (12.375) aligned with 2009 and so
on. This process not only introduces an extra step, but an extra averaging (or smoothing) as well. It is
usually preferable to stick with an odd-point smoothing to reduce these difficulties.
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 6

The quarterly sales figures for a dress shop (in thousands of dollars)
were recorded over a 2-year period. Perform a centred 4-point moving
average smoothing and plot the result. Comment on any trends that has
been revealed.
Time

tUtOriaL
eles-1331
Worked example 6

Summer Autumn Winter Spring Summer Autumn Winter


27
22
19
25
31
25
22
Sales ( $1000)
think
1

Arrange the data in a


table.
Note: Code the time
column.
Calculate a 4-point
moving average in
column 3.

Spring
29

Write/DraW

Time

Sales

27

22

4-point moving average

4-point centred
moving average

(27 + 22 + 19 + 25) 4 = 23.25


Note: Table c ontinues . . .

142

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Average the pairs


of averages to find
the 4-point centred
data. This is done in
column 4.

Time Sales
3

4-point centred
moving average

4-point moving average

(23.25 + 24.25) 2 = 23.75

19
(22 + 19 + 25 + 31) 4 = 24.25

(24.25 + 25.00) 2 = 24.63

25
(19 + 25 + 31 + 25) 4 = 25.00

(25.00 + 25.75) 2 = 25.38

31
(25 + 31 + 25 + 22) 4 = 25.75

(25.75 + 26.75) 2 = 26.25

25
(31 + 25 + 22 + 29) 4 = 26.75

Plot the data. The


smoothed line is the
red one.
Note: The smoothed
data start at the 3rd
time point and finish
at the 6th point.

22

29
35
Sales ( $1000)

25

15

Interpret the results.

4 5
Time

Observe the steadily increasing trend (even with only four smoothed points)
that was not obvious from the original data.

even point smoothing with spreadsheets


The spreadsheet for the 4-point moving average of Worked example 6 is shown below.

Chapter 4 Time series

143

The formulas are shown below. Note the cell row and column labels.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

A
time

B
sales

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

27
22
19
25
31
25
22
29

C
fourpoint

D
centred

=SUM(B1:B4)/4
=SUM(B2:B5)/4
=SUM(B3:B6)/4
=SUM(B4:B7)/4
=SUM(B5:B8)/4

=SUM(C2:C3)/2
=SUM(C3:C4)/2
=SUM(C4:C5)/2
=SUM(C5:C6)/2

There is little difference between this and a 3-point moving average spreadsheet, except that the SUMs
are located (columns C and D) to correspond to the appropriate term in the time series (columns A and B).

exercise 4D

of points

Smoothing with an even number

1 We 6 Perform a 4-point centred moving average to smooth the following data and plot the result.

Comment on any trends that you find.


t
y

1
75

2
54

3
62

4
60

5
70

6
45

7
54

8
59

9
62

10
64

2 The price of oranges fluctuates from season to season. Data have been recorded for 3years. Perform a

4-point centred moving average, plot the data and comment on any trends.
t

Autumn Winter Spring Summer Autumn Winter Spring Summer Autumn Winter Spring Summer
2007
2007 2007
2007
2008
2008 2008
2008
2009
2009 2009
2009

Price

45

67

51

44

52

76

63

48

58

80

66

52

3 a Use a spreadsheet to complete the following table. The time series represents the temperature of a

hospital patient over 15 days.


Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Temperature
36.6
36.4
36.8
37.2
36.9
36.5
37.2
37.4
37.1
37.4
37.6
36.9
37.2
37.6
36.9

4-point moving average

4-point centred moving average

36.75
36.825
36.85
36.95
37
37.05
37.275
37.375
37.25
37.275
37.325
37.15

b Using the smoothed data, find the equation of the least-squares regression line.
c Use the trend line to predict the temperature of the patient on day 16.
144

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

4 The sales of summer clothing vary according to the season. The following table gives seasonal sales

data (in thousands of dollars) for 3 years at a Darryl Jones department store.
Season Q3-06 Q4-06 Q1-07 Q2-07 Q3-07 Q4-07 Q1-08 Q2-08 Q3-08 Q4-08 Q1-09 Q2-09
Sales

78

92

90

73

62

85

83

70

61

78

74

59

a Calculate a 4-point centred moving average.


b Plot the original and smoothed data on the same set of axes.
c Determine if there is an underlying upwards or downwards trend.
5 Calculate a 6-point centred moving average on the data from question 3.
6 An athlete wishes to measure her performance in running a 1 km race. She records her times over the

last 10 days.
Day
Time (s)
a
b
c
d

10

188

179

183

180

173

171

182

168

171

166

Perform a 4-point centred moving average smoothing.


Plot the original and smoothed data on the same set of axes.
Determine if there is a significant improvement in her times.
Fit a 3-median trend line to the smoothed data and predict her expected running time for day11.

7 The following table shows the share price index of Industrial Companies during an unstable fortnights

trading. By calculating a 4-point centred moving averages, determine if there seems to be an upward or
downward trend.
Day
Index

4e

10

678

762

692

714

689

687

772

685

688

712

Median smoothing

An alternative to moving-average smoothing is to replace the averaging of a group of points with the
median of each group. It is a faster technique requiring no calculations (provided you use odd-point
median smoothing). Often it can be done directly on a graph of a time series.

Median smoothing from a table


By placing the data in a table, median smoothing can be performed simply and quickly. Look at each
group of three points (for smoothing with 3-point medians) and choose the middle value. Progress
through the table one point at a time. As with other methods, points will be lost at the beginning and end
of the table.
Chapter 4 Time series

145

WOrkeD eXaMpLe 7

Perform a 3-point median smoothing on the data in the table below. The table shows the cost of an
airline ticket between Perth and Melbourne over an 8-month period. Construct a time-series plot
of the original data and smoothed data on the same set of axis.
Time
Cost ($)

340

350

320

340

300

330

350

310

think

The first 3 values are 340, 350 and 320;


when ordered (i.e. 320, 340, 350), the
median value is 340. Place it against
t = 2.
Move 1 column to the right; the next
3values are 350, 320 and 340. The
median value is 340; place it against
t = 3.
Continue moving along the table until all
medians are found.
(Note that we loose values for t = 1 and
t = 8).
Construct a time series plots for both the
original and smoothed data on the same
set of axis.

Time

Cost ($) 340 350 320 340 300 330 350 310
3-point
moving
median
($)

Cost ($)

Write/DraW

340 340 320 330 330 330

y
380
360
340
320
300
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
Time

Generally, the effect of median smoothing is to remove some random fluctuations. It performs poorly on
cyclical or seasonal fluctuations unless the size of the range being used (3, 5, 7, . . . points) is chosen
carefully.

Median smoothing from a graph


Provided the graph has clearly marked data points, it is possible to find a median smooth directly
from it.
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 8

Perform a 3-point median smoothing on the graph of a time series below.


y
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
0

146

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

10 x

think

Write/DraW

Read the data values and compute the


median.

Plot the medians on the graph.

The 1st group of 3 points is: 12, 18, 16 so median = 16.


The 2nd group of 3 points is: 18, 16, 8 so median = 16.
The 3rd group of 3 points is: 16, 8, 12 so median = 12.
The 4th group of 3 points is: 8, 12, 16 so median = 12.
The 5th group of 3 points is: 12, 16, 12 so median = 12.
The 6th group of 3 points is: 16, 12, 8 so median = 12.
The 7th group of 3 points is: 12, 8, 10 so median = 10.
The 8th group of 3 points is: 8, 10, 14 so median = 10.
y
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6

Note: Median smoothing has indicated a


downward trend that is probably not in
the real time series. This indicates that
moving-average smoothing would be the
preferred option.

exercise 4e

10 x

Median smoothing

1 We7 Perform a 3-point median smoothing on the following data and plot the result. Comment on any
trends that you find. These are the same data as in question 1, Exercise 4D, so compare the graphs of

the median smooth with the moving-average smooth.


t
y

1
75

2
54

3
62

4
60

5
70

6
45

7
54

8
59

9
62

10
64

2 The maximum daily temperatures for a year were recorded as a monthly average. Perform a 3-point

median smoothing on the data. Comment on your result.


Month

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Temp. (C)

31

29

27

24

21

20

22

3 We8 Perform a 3-point median smoothing on the graphical

time series shown at right. Comment on the effectiveness of


the result.

Aug. Sept.
21

23

shown at right. Comment on the effectiveness of the result.

Nov.

Dec.

25

27

26

y
20
16
12
8
4
0

4 Perform a 3-point median smoothing on the graphical time series

Oct.

10 x

y
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
0

8 10 12 x

5 Perform a 3-point median smoothing on the data in the following table, which represent the share price

of the HAL computer company over the last 15 days.


Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Price 1.45 1.67 1.56 1.72 1.58 1.71 1.67 1.82 1.56 1.78 1.88 1.56 1.67 1.71 1.82

Chapter 4 Time series

147

6 Perform a 5-point median smoothing on the data in the following table, which represent the share price

of the Pear-Shaped Computer Company over an 8-week trading period.


Day

Price

Day

Price

Day

Price

Day

Price

0.87

11

1.04

21

1.01

31

1.89

1.34

12

1.19

22

0.98

32

1.75

1.14

13

1.09

23

1.12

33

1.55

1.08

14

1.10

24

1.07

34

1.35

0.89

15

1.04

25

1.23

35

1.15

0.67

16

1.02

26

1.32

36

1.30

0.98

17

0.94

27

1.45

37

1.20

1.23

18

0.98

28

1.56

38

1.17

1.06

19

0.89

29

1.67

39

1.07

10

1.08

20

1.00

30

1.78

40

0.87

DiGitaL DOC
doc-9432
WorkSHEET 4.2

4F

A seasonal trend is similar to a cyclical trend where there are defined peaks and troughs in the timeseries data, except for one notable difference.
Seasonal trends have a fixed and regular period of time between one peak and the next peak in the
data values. Conversely, there is a fixed and regular period of time between one trough and the
next trough.
Joes Fast Food daily hamburger sales
As we have seen in the sections on
fitting a straight line to a time series,
120
Sat.
it is difficult to find an effective linear
Sat.
100
Sat.
equation for such data. As well, the
80
sections on smoothing indicated that
60
seasonal data may not lend themselves
40
to the techniques of moving-average
20
or median smoothing. We may just
Tues.
Tues.
Tues.
have to accept that the data vary from
0
5
10
15
20
25 t
season to season and treat each record
Day of the week
individually.
For example, the unemployment rate in Australia is often quoted as 6.8% seasonally adjusted.
The Government has accepted that each season has its own time series, more or less independent of
the other seasons. How can we remove the effect of the season on our time series? The technique of
seasonally adjusting, or deseasonalising, will modify the original time series, hopefully removing the
seasonal variation, and exposing any other trends (secular, cyclic, random) which may be hidden by
seasonal variation.
Number of hamburgers sold

interaCtiVitY
int-0185
Seasonal adjustment

Seasonal adjustment

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about
deseasonalising
data

148

Deseasonalising time series


The process of deseasonalising time series data involves calculating seasonal indices. A seasonal index
compares a particular season to the average season.
That is, the seasonal index measures by what factor a particular season is above or below the
average of all seasons for the cycle. For example:
Seasonal index = 1.3 means that season is 1.3 times the average season (that is, the figures for this
season are 30% above the seasonal average). It is a peak or high season.
Seasonal index = 0.7 means that season is 0.7 times the average season (that is the figures for this
season are 30% below the seasonal average). It is a trough or low season.
Seasonal index = 1.0 means that season is the same as the average season or neither a peak nor a
trough.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

To deseasonalise the data, we divide each value by the corresponding seasonal index. That is,
Deseasonalised figure or value =

actual original figure or value .


seasonal index

The method of deseasonalising time series is best demonstrated with an example. Observe carefully the
various steps, which must be performed in the order shown.
WOrkeD eXaMpLe 9

Unemployment figures have been collected over a 5-year period and


presented in this table. It is difficult to see any trends, other than
seasonal ones.
a Calculate the seasonal indices.
b Deseasonalise the data using the seasonal
Season
2005 2006
indices.
Summer
6.2
6.5
c Plot the original and deseasonalised data.
Autumn
8.1
7.9
d Comment on your results, supporting your
statements with mathematical evidence.
Winter
8.0
8.2
Spring
think

a 1 Find the yearly averages over the

four seasons for each year and put


them in a table.

Divide each term in the original


time series by its yearly average.
That is, divide each value for
2005 by the yearly average for
2005 (i.e. by 7.3750); next divide
each value for 2006 by the yearly
average for 2006 (i.e. by 7.5750)
etc.

Determine the seasonal averages


from this second table. That is,
find the average of all five values
for summer; next find the average
of all values for autumn and so
on. These are called seasonal
indices.

7.7

2007

2008

2009

6.4

6.7

6.9

8.3

8.5

8.1

7.9

8.2

8.3

7.5

7.7

7.6

Write/DraW

a 2005: (6.2 + 8.1 + 8.0 + 7.2) 4 = 7.3750

2006: (6.5 + 7.9 + 8.2 + 7.7) 4 = 7.5750


2007: (6.4 + 8.3 + 7.9 + 7.5) 4 = 7.5250
2008: (6.7 + 8.5 + 8.2 + 7.7) 4 = 7.7750
2009: (6.9 + 8.1 + 8.3 + 7.6) 4 = 7.7250
Year
Average

7.2

tUtOriaL
eles-1266
Worked example 9

2005
7.3750

2006
7.5750

2007
7.5250

2008
7.7750

2009
7.7250

Summer 2005: 6.2 7.3750 = 0.8407


Autumn 2005: 8.1 7.3750 = 1.0983
Winter 2005: 8.0 7.3750 = 1.0847
Spring 2005: 7.2 7.3750 = 0.9763
Summer 2006: 6.5 7.5750 = 0.8581
..
.
Spring 2009: 7.6 7.7250 = 0.9838
Season

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Summer

0.8407

0.8581

0.8505

0.8617

0.8932

Autumn

1.0983

1.0429

1.1030

1.0932

1.0485

Winter

1.0847

1.0825

1.0498

1.0547

1.0744

Spring

0.9763

1.0165

0.9967

0.9904

0.9838

Summer:
(0.8407 + 0.8581 + 0.8505 + 0.8617 + 0.8932) 5 = 0.8608
Autumn:
(1.0983 + 1.0429 + 1.1030 + 1.0932 + 1.0485) 5 = 1.0772
Winter:
(1.0847 + 1.0825 + 1.0498 + 1.0547 + 1.0744) 5 = 1.0692
Spring:
(0.9763 + 1.0165 + 0.9967 + 0.9904 + 0.9838) 5 = 0.9927
Season
Summer Autumn
Seasonal index 0.8608 1.0772

Winter
1.0692

Spring
0.9927

Chapter 4 Time series

149

seasonal index. That is, divide all summer


figures by summer seasonal index (0.8608), all
autumn figures by the autumn seasonal index
(1.0772) and so on. This gives the seasonally
adjusted or deseasonalised time series.
Note: Your answers may vary a little,
depending upon how and when you rounded
your calculations.

b Summer 05: 6.2 0.8608 = 7.2023

Autumn 05: 8.1 1.0772 = 7.5195


..
.
Spring 09: 7.6 0.9927 = 7.6557
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring

c Graph the original and the seasonally adjusted c

(deseasonalised) time series.

d Note that most, but not all, of the seasonal

Unemployment figures

b Divide each term in the original series by its

2005
7.202
7.520
7.482
7.253

2006
7.551
7.334
7.669
7.756

2007
7.435
7.705
7.388
7.555

2008
7.783
7.891
7.669
7.756

2009
8.015
7.520
7.763
7.656

8.5
8.0
7.5
7.0
6.5
6.0
0

8
12 16
Time period

20

d There appears to be a slight upward trend in

variation has been removed. However, by using


least-squares, we could more confidently fit a
straight line to the deseasonalised data.

unemployment figures.

Spreadsheet solution
Although a CAS calculator can be used to solve some parts of Worked example 9, a spreadsheet can be
used to solve the entire problem. Such a spreadsheet has been constructed on the following page.
Note: The input data are in the table below. They should also appear at the top of your spreadsheet.
Step 1. Yearly averages are calculated just below the data table.
Step 2. Each term is divided by the appropriate yearly average.
Step 3. Seasonal indices are calculated (to the right of step 2).
Step 4. Deseasonalised data are calculated (below step 2).
Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
Step 1

Yearly ave.

2005
6.2
8.1
8
7.2
7.375

2006
6.5
7.9
8.2
7.7
7.575

2007
6.4
8.3
7.9
7.5
7.525

2008
6.7
8.5
8.2
7.7
7.775

2009
6.9
8.1
8.3
7.6
7.725
Step 3

150

Step 2

Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring

2005
0.840 678
1.098 305
1.084 746
0.976 271

2006
0.858 086
1.042 904
1.082 508
1.016 502

2007
0.850 498
1.102 99
1.049 834
0.996 678

2008
0.861 736
1.093 248
1.054 662
0.990 354

Step 4

Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring

2005
7.202 264
7.519 508
7.481 972
7.252 767

2006
7.550 76
7.333 841
7.669 022
7.756 431

2007
7.434 595
7.705 175
7.388 448
7.554 965

2008
7.783 091
7.890 842
7.669 022
7.756 431

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

2009
Seasonal indices
0.893 204 0.860 84
1.048 544 1.077 198
1.074 434 1.069 237
0.983 819 0.992 725
4.000 000
2009
8.015 422
7.519 508
7.762 546
7.655 698

The formulas corresponding to the spreadsheet follow. Note carefully the row and column addresses.
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
3
4
Season
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
5
Summer
6.2
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.9
6
Autumn
8.1
7.9
8.3
8.5
8.1
7
Winter
8
8.2
7.9
8.2
8.3
8
Spring
7.2
7.7
7.5
7.7
7.6
9
10 Step 1 Yearly
=SUM
=SUM
=SUM
=SUM
=SUM
ave.
(D5:D8)/4 (E5:E8)/4 (F5:F8)/4 (G5:G8)/4 (H5:H8)/4
11
Step 3
12 Step 2 Season
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Seasonal indices
13
Summer =D5/D$10 =E5/E$10 =F5/F$10 =G5/G$10 =H5/H$10 =SUM(D13:H13)/5
14
Autumn =D6/D$10 =E6/E$10 =F6/F$10 =G6/G$10 =H6/H$10 =SUM(D14:H14)/5
15
Winter =D7/D$10 =E7/E$10 =F7/F$10 =G7/G$10 =H7/H$10 =SUM(D15:H15)/5
16
Spring =D8/D$10 =E8/E$10 =F8/F$10 =G8/G$10 =H8/H$10 =SUM(D16:H16)/5
17
=SUM(I13:I16)
18 Step 4
19
20
21
22

Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

=D5/$I$13
=D6/$I$14
=D7/$I$15
=D8/$I$16

=E5/$I$13
=E6/$I$14
=E7/$I$15
=E8/$I$16

=F5/$I$13
=F6/$I$14
=F7/$I$15
=F8/$I$16

=G5/$I$13
=G6/$I$14
=G7/$I$15
=G8/$I$16

=H5/$I$13
=H6/$I$14
=H7/$I$15
=H8/$I$16

Notes
1. By adding/deleting columns between columns D and H, you could increase/decrease the number of
years. Remember to change the denominator in the seasonal indices (I13 . . . I16)
2. By adding/deleting more rows between Rows 5 and 8, you could increase/decrease the number of
seasons (see Exercise 4F, question 5). Do not forget to change the denominator in row 10.

Forecasting with seasonal time series


In the previous section we smoothed out the seasonal variation and are now able to see any secular
trend more clearly. If there is an upward or downward secular trend, then a straight line equation can be
calculated and used for making predictions into the future. Using either the 3-median or least-squares
regression methods of the deseasonalised data is always preferred.
Once the equation of the regression line for deseasonalised data has been obtained, it can be used for
forecasting.
However, the prediction obtained using such equation will also be deseasonalised or smoothed out to
the average season. But as we have the relevant seasonal indices, we should be able to use it to remove
the smoothing; that is, to re-seasonalise the predicted value.
The formula for re-seasonalising is:

Units: 3 & 4
AOS: DA
Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Seasonalised figure or value = deseasonalised figure or value seasonal index.


WOrkeD eXaMpLe 10

Use the deseasonalised data from Worked example 9 to find the equation of the straight line for
the deseasonalised data using the least-squares regression method. Predict the unemployment
figure for summer in 2010. The deseasonalised data are reproduced below. (The seasonal index for
summer is 0.8608.)
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring

2005
7.202
7.520
7.482
7.253

2006
7.551
7.334
7.669
7.756

2007
7.435
7.705
7.388
7.555

2008
7.783
7.891
7.669
7.756

2009
8.015
7.520
7.763
7.656

Chapter 4 Time series

151

Write

think
1

Use a calculator to find the equation of


the least-squares regression line for the
deseasonalised data.

Deseasonalised unemployment (%)


= 0.0227 time code + 7.357,
where time code 1 represents summer 2005.

Using the association table, the summer of


2010 will be represented by t = 21. Substitute
into the equation.

Summer of 2010:
Deseasonalised unemployment (%)
= 0.0227 21 + 7.357
= 7.834%

The predicted value is very high for summer.


Re-seasonalise by using the seasonal
index for summer, which was 0.8608.
That is, this was a season or period of low
unemployment.

Seasonalised value
= deseasonalised value seasonal index
= 7.834 0.8608
= 6.74%

WOrkeD eXaMpLe 11

Quarterly sales figures for a pool chemical supplier between 2007 and 2012
were used to determine the following seasonal indices.
Season
Seasonal index

1st quarter
1.8

2nd quarter
1.2

3rd quarter
0.2

4th quarter
0.8

tUtOriaL
eles-1267
Worked example 11

Using the seasonal indices provided in the table, calculate the following.
a Find the deseasonalised figure if the actual sales figure for the second quarter in 2011 was
$4680.
b Find the deseasonalised figure if the actual sales figure for the third quarter in 2011 was $800.
c Find the predicted value if the deseasonalised predicted value for the first quarter in 2013 is
expected to be $4000.
think

Write

Use the formula for deseasonalising.


a Use the 2nd quarter seasonal index.

b Use the 3rd quarter seasonal index to obtain

deseasonalised figure.

c Use the seasonalising formula and select the

1st quarter seasonal index.

actual figure
seasonal index
4680
=
1.2
= $3900
actual figure
b Deseasonalised figure =
seasonal index
800
=
0.2
= $4000
a Deseasonalised figure =

c Seasonalised figure

= deseasonalised figure seasonal index


= 4000 1.8
= $7200
The forecast sales figure for the first quarter in
2013 is $7200.

Seasonal indices
Finally, it should be noted that the sum of all the seasonal indices gives a specific result, which can be
used to answer certain types of queries.
The sum of the seasonal indices is equal to the number of seasons.
152

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

This can be summarised as follows.


Number of
seasons
12
4
26
5
7

Type of data
Monthly figures
Quarterly figures
Fortnightly figures
Daily figures for data from Monday to Friday only
Daily figures for data from Monday to Sunday

Cycle
A year
A year
A year
A week
A week

Sum of all the


seasonal indices
12
4
26
5
7

WOrkeD eXaMpLe 12

A fast food store that is open seven days a week has the following seasonal indices.
Season
Index

Monday
0.5

Tuesday
0.2

Wednesday
0.5

Thursday
0.6

Friday

Saturday
2.2

Sunday
1.1

The index for Friday has not been recorded. Calculate the missing index.
think

Write

The sum of the seasonal indices is equal to


the number of seasons.

There are 7 seasons (Monday to Sunday),


therefore the sum of indices is 7.

The missing index is the sum of all the other


seasons subtracted from the total.

Friday index
= 7 (sum of all the other indices)
= 7 (0.5 + 0.2 + 0.5 + 0.6 + 2.2 + 1.1)
= 7 5.1
= 1.9

exercise 4F

Seasonal adjustment

Note: Your answers may vary slightly, depending upon rounding. Try to round to 4 decimal places
for all intermediate calculations.
1 We 9 The price of sugar ($/kg) has been recorded over
Season
2007
2008
2009
3 years on a seasonal basis.
Summer
1.03
0.98
0.95
a Compute the seasonal indices.
Autumn
1.26
1.25
1.21
b Deseasonalise the data using the seasonal indices.
Winter
1.36
1.34
1.29
c Plot the original and deseasonalised data.
d Comment on your results, supporting your statements
Spring
1.14
1.07
1.04
with mathematical evidence.

DiGitaL DOC
doc-9433
Spreadsheet
Seasonal adjustment

2 Data on the total seasonal rainfall (in mm) have been accumulated over a 6-year period.

Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
a
b
c
d

2004
103
93
143
123

2005
97
84
124
109

2006
95
82
121
107

2007
117
100
156
125

2008
118
99
155
122

2009
120
98
151
124

Compute the seasonal indices.


Deseasonalise the original time series.
Plot the original and deseasonalised time series.
Comment on your result, supporting your statements
with mathematical evidence.

Chapter 4 Time series

153

3 It is known that young people (1825) have problems in finding work; these problems are different

from those facing older people. The youth unemployment statistics are recorded separately from the
overall data. Using the youth unemployment figures for five years shown below:
Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring
a
b
c
d

2005
7.6
10.9
11.7
9.9

2006
7.7
11.3
12.4
10.5

2007
7.8
11.9
12.8
10.8

2008
7.7
12.6
13.5
11.4

2009
7.9
13.1
13.9
11.9

Compute the seasonal indices.


Deseasonalise the time series.
Plot the original and deseasonalised time series.
Comment on your result, supporting your statements with mathematical evidence.

4 The unemployment rate in a successful European economy is given in the table below as a percentage.

Quarter
2007
2008
2009
a
b
c
d
e

1
5.8
6.1
5.7

2
4.9
5.1
4.5

3
3.5
3.2
4.1

4
6.7
6.5
7.1

Compute the seasonal indices.


Deseasonalise the time series.
Plot the original and deseasonalised time series.
Find the equation of the line-of-best-fit for the deseasonalised data using the least-squares method.
Use the equation of the line from part d to predict the unemployment rate for:
i quarter 1 in 2010
ii quarter 3 in 2014.
Comment on each of the predictions.

5 It is possible to seasonally

adjust time series for other than


the usual 4 seasons. Consider an
expensive restaurant that wishes
to study its customer patterns on
a daily basis. In this case a
season is a single day and there
are 7 seasons in a weekly cycle.
Data are total revenue each day
shown in the table which
follows. Modify the spreadsheet
solution to allow for these
7 seasons and deseasonalise the
following data over a 5-week
period. Comment on your result,
supporting your statements with
mathematical evidence.

154

Season

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Monday

1036

1089

1064

1134

1042

Tuesday

1103

1046

1085

1207

1156

Wednesday

1450

1324

1487

1378

1408

Thursday

1645

1734

1790

1804

1789

Friday

2078

2204

2215

2184

2167

Saturday

2467

2478

2504

2526

2589

Sunday

1895

1786

1824

1784

1755

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

A line-of-best-fit for deseasonalised data was given as:


Deseasonalised monthly sales = 1500 time code + 10 000
where June 2012 represents t = 1.
The predicted actual expected sales figure for June 2013, if the June seasonal index is 0.8, would be:
a $23 600
B $29 500
C $19 500
D $36 875
e $35 000
7 The following table gives the deseasonalised figures and corresponding seasonal indices for umbrella
sales.
6 We10

MC

Season
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Number of umbrellas
24
24
25
26
25
27
27
28
30
31
33
34
(deseasonalised)
Index
1.15 0.90 0.20 0.20 0.35 0.45 3.0 2.10 2.15 0.95 0.40 0.15
a Find the equation of the straight line for the deseasonalised data using the least-squares regression

method.
b Predict the umbrella sales for January the following year.
8 We11 Quarterly sales figures for an ice-cream parlour between

2010 and 2012 were used to determine the following seasonal


indices.
Season
1st quarter 2nd quarter 3rd quarter 4th quarter
Seasonal
1.50
1.00
0.25
1.25
index
Using the seasonal indices provided in the table, calculate the
following.
a Find the deseasonalised figure, if the actual sales figure for
the second quarter in 2011 was $3000.
b Find the deseasonalised figure, if the actual sales figure for
the third quarter in 2011 was $800.
c Find the predicted value, if the deseasonalised predicted
value for the first quarter in 2013 is expected to be $3200.
9 We12 A newsagency store that is open seven days a week has the following seasonal indices.
Season
Index

Mon.
0.5

Tues.
0.2

Wed.

Thurs.
0.6

Fri.
1.5

Sat.
2.2

Sun.
1.1

Find the value of the missing index.


10 Complete the following table of seasonal indices.

Season
Index

Summer
1.23

Autumn
0.89

Winter

Spring
1.45

Questions 11 and 12 relate to the following table, which contains the seasonal indices for the
monthly sales of spring water in a particular supermarket.
Season
Index

Jan.
1.05

Feb.

Mar.
1.0

Apr.
1.0

May
0.95

June
0.85

July
0.8

Aug.
0.9

Sept.
0.95

Oct.
1.05

Nov.
1.10

Dec.
1.15

11 MC The seasonal index missing from the table is:


a 1.0
D 1.15

B 1.05
e 1.20

C 1.10

12 MC If the actual sales figure for June 2012 was $102 000, then the deseasonalised figure would be:
a $96 900
D $120 000

B $86 700
e $102 000

C $107 368.42

Chapter 4 Time series

155

Summary
time series

A time series is a set of measurements taken over (usually) equally spaced time intervals, such as
hourly, daily, weekly, monthly or annually.

trend lines

There are 4 basic types of trend.


1. Secular: increasing or decreasing steadily
2. Seasonal: varying from season to season
3. Cyclic: similar to seasonal but not tied to a calendar cycle
4. Random: variations caused by external triggers happening at random

Fitting trend lines

The trend line is a straight line that can be used to represent the entire time series. Trend lines can
be used for predicting the future values of the time series. The line can be found in several ways.
1. No smoothing:
for time series that are clearly linear; that is, slightly random or have secular trends
fit the line of best fit by eye, or using the 3-median or least-squares regression method to
raw data.
2. With smoothing:
for time series that are random, secular or have cyclical trends
fit the line of best fit using either the 3-median or least-squares regression method to smoothed
data.
3. With deseasonalising:
for time series that have seasonal trends only
fit the line of best fit using either the 3-median or least-squares regression method to
deseasonalised data.

Smoothing time series


(primarily for random
and secular trends)

Smoothing involves replacing the original time series with another one from which most of
the variation has been removed, in order to see if there is a secular trend. There are three basic
smoothing techniques. In all cases, points are lost at the start and end of the time series. Refer to
the text for detailed descriptions of the techniques involved.

Moving-average
smoothing with an
odd number of points

Moving-average smoothing works best with an odd number of points. For a 3-point moving
average, two points are lost; one point at each end of the time series.

Moving-average
smoothing with an
even number of points

Moving-average smoothing with an even number of points is a 2-step process. For example, with
4 points first perform a 4-point moving average smoothing, then centre by averaging pairs of the
4-point averages. For a 4-point centred smoothing, four points are lost; two points at each end of
the time series.

Median smoothing

Median smoothing is usually done with an odd number of points. The number of points lost is the
same as for moving-average smoothing.

Deseasonalisation
(only for seasonal
trends)

Deseasonalising a time series involves replacing the original time series with another one where most
or all of the seasonal variation is removed. To deseasonalise the data:
1. Calculate seasonal indices.
Average over all seasons for each year these are the yearly averages.
Divide each point in the original time series by its corresponding yearly average.
Using this new series, average over all years for each season these are the seasonal indices.
2. Deseasonalise the data by dividing each point in the original time series by its corresponding
seasonal index.
actual original figure or value
Deseasonalised figure or value =
seasonal index
To seasonalise (predicted) figures:
Seasonalised figure or value = deseasonalised figure or value seasonal index.
The sum of the seasonal indices is equal to the number of seasons.

156

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Chapter review
Price of oranges ($)

1 The price of oranges over a 16-month period is recorded in the figure.

M U Ltip L e
C hO iC e

50
40
30
20
10
0

8 10 12 14 16 t
Months

The trend can be described as:


a Cyclic
B Seasonal
C Random
D Secular
e There is no trend.
2 A 3-median trend line was fitted to the data from question 1 using the values below. The gradient of
this line is:
t
$

1
20

2
28

3
10

a 4.93

4
14

5
18

B 0.18

6
24

7
16

8
26

9
16

10
18

11
22

12
20

D 3.30

C 0.313

13
17

14
25

15
20

16
5

e 17.8

3 From another 16-month time series for the price of apples, it was found that

the least-squares trend line was: price = 0.415 month + 8.45. A prediction
for the price of apples in month 18 is:
a 8.45
B 0.42
C 6.64
e unable to be determined with the above information

D 15.92

4 A least-squares trend line has been fitted to the time series in the figure below.
y
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Its equation is most likely to be:


a y = 10t
B y = 8t + 10

10 t

C y = 8t

D y = 8t 10

e y = 8t + 10

5 The following data represent the number of employees in a car manufacturing plant. The data are

smoothed using a 3-point moving average.


Year
Number

2002
350

2003
320

2004
300

2005
310

2006
270

2007
240

The first two points in the smoothed trend line are:


a 320 and 300
B 320 and 310
C 323 and 310
D 335 and 310
6 How many points will the smoothed trend in question 5 contain?
a 8
B 7
C 6
D 5
7 Consider the following data.
Time
y-value

2003
12

2004
13

2005
16

2006
16

2007
17

2008
19

2008
200

2009
160

e 323 and 273


e 4

2009
22

The value, after a 4-point moving average smoothing after centring, plotted against the year 2006 is:
a 16.25
B 14.25
C 15.5
D 17
e 14.875
Chapter 4 Time series

157

8 A 3-point median smoothing is performed on the data in the figure below. The last smoothed value is:
y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
a 25

B 21.7

C 20

10 t
D 15

e 9

9 Seasonal indices and adjustment can be used when:


a
B
C
D
e

there are random variations in the data


there are seasonal variations along with a secular trend
there are seasonal variations only
there are seasonal or cyclic variations
there are at least 4 seasons worth of data

10 The seasonal indices below were obtained from a time series.

Season
Index

Spring
1.12

Summer
0.78

Autumn
0.92

Winter

The value of the winters seasonal index is:


B 0.94
C 1.08
e unable to be determined from the given information
a 1.18

D 1.06

11 Using the data from question 10, a seasonally adjusted value for the summer of 2010, when the original

value was 520, is closest to:


a 406
B 667
C 464
e cannot be determined without additional information

D 614

The following information relates to questions 1213.


The time series plot below shows the revenue from sales (in dollars) each month made by a
Queensland souvenir shop over a 3-year period.
20 000

Revenue ($)

15 000

10 000

5 000

12

18

24

30

36

Month
12 This time series plot indicates that, over the 3-year period, revenue from sales each month showed:
a no overall trend
B no correlation
e an increasing trend with seasonal variation

C positive skew

D an increasing trend only

13 A 3-median trend line is fitted to these data. Its slope (in dollars per month) is closest to:
a 125

158

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

B 146

C 167

D 188

e 255

1 The number of uniforms sold in a school uniform shop is reported in the table.

Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

S hO rt
a n S W er

Number of uniforms sold


118
92
53
20
47
102
90
42
35
26
12
58

Fit a trend line to these data. What type of trend is best reflected by these data? Can you explain
these trends?
2 Fit a least-squares trend line for the following data, which represent the sales at a snack bar during the

recent Melbourne show. State the gradient and y-intercept.


Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Sales ($)
2300
2200
2600
3100
2900
3200
3300
3500

3 Fit a 3-median trend line to the data below.


y
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 t

a State the gradient and y-intercept as exact values.


b Use your line to predict a value when t = 35.
4 A hotel records the number of rooms booked over an 11-day period. Fit a trend line using the least-

squares method.
Day
Rooms

1
12

2
18

3
15

4
20

5
22

6
20

7
25

8
24

9
26

10
28

11
30

a State the gradient and y-intercept, rounded to 2 decimal places.


b Predict the number of rooms booked for days 12 and 13.
Chapter 4 Time series

159

5 Perform a 3-point moving average smoothing on the following rainfall data. Plot the original and

smoothed data on the same set of axes. Give all answers rounded to 1 decimal place.
Day
Rain (mm)

1
2

2
5

3
4

4
6

5
3

6
7

7
6

8
9

6 Apply a 5-point moving average smoothing to the following seasonal data of coat sales.

Season

Sales ($)

Winter 2008

690

Spring 2008

500

Summer 2008

400

Autumn 2008

720

Winter 2009

780

Spring 2009

660

Summer 2009

550

Autumn 2009

440

7 Apply a 4-point centred moving average smoothing to the data from question 6. Compare your results.

What do you notice about the number of smoothed data points in each case?
8 Perform a 3-point median smoothing on the data shown below. Plot the smoothed points and join them

with straight line segments.


y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

10 t

9 The seasonal indices for the price of shares in CSP fruit canneries are:

Season
Winter
Spring
Summer
Autumn

Index
1.7
0.6
0.5
1.2

Use seasonal indices shown in the table above to deseasonalise the following data:
Share price
Season (2009)
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Winter

160

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Seasonalised
150
100
300
400

Deseasonalised

task 1
1 Jazzas CD store has been opened for the past three weeks. The sales figures for the store were recorded

e X ten D eD
reS p O n S e

and tabulated as follows.


Jazzas CD store daily sales figures number of CDs sold
Average daily
Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. sales for the week
Week 1

10

12

15

24

45

Week 2

12

14

18

26

53

Week 3

15

10

16

21

33

58

a Plot the above data as a time series plot and comment on the type of
b
c
d
e

trend that exists. Justify your choice.


How many seasons are there?
How many cycles are there?
Calculate the average daily sales for each of the weeks.
Complete the table of seasonal indices for each day.
Jazzas CD Store daily sales figures number of CDs sold
Mon.

Tues.

Week 1

10
= 0.5263
19

0.4211

Week 2

12

0.4091

Week 3

= 0.5455
0.5882

Wed.

Thurs.

Fri.

12
=
19

0.7895

1.2632

14

0.8182

= 0.6364

Sat.

2.4091

0.3922

1.2941

2.2745

f Complete the following table of seasonal indices.

Seasonal
indices

Mon.

Tues.

Wed.

0.5533

1.2224
= 0.4075
3

0.6318

Thurs.
2.4312

Fri.

= 0.8104

Sat.

1.2464

g Interpret what an index of 2.3507 means.


2 Use the results from question 1 to answer question 2.
a Complete the table of deseasonalised CD sales figures.

Jazzas CD store daily sales figures number of CDs sold


Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
Thurs.
Week 1
Week 2

18.07
21.69

Week 3

27.11

19.63
9
=
0.4075
10
=
0.4075

Fri.

Sat.
19.14

18.99
22.16

18.51
22.21

19.26
20.86

25.32

25.91

26.48

b Find the equation of the trend line using the least-squares method and interpret the values of the

gradient and the y-intercept.


c Using the trend line, predict the deseasonalised sales figures for:
i Monday week 4
ii Saturday week 4
iii Saturday week 6.
d Using the deseasonalised values from part c, calculate the actual expected future sales for each.

Comment on the reliability of the predictions.


Chapter 4 Time series

161

task 2
The next 8 questions relate to the following data, which represent seasonal rainfall (mm) in an Australian city.
Season
Rainfall (mm)

1
43

2
75

3
41

4
13

5
47

6
78

7
50

8
19

9
51

10
83

11
55

12
25

1 Plot the data points and try to fit a trend line by eye. Comment on the ease of fitting the line to this plot.
2 Now, try to fit a trend line using the 3-median method. Compare the result with that of question 1.
3 Finally, fit a trend line using the least-squares technique. Again, compare your result with the previous

ones.
4 To smooth out the seasonal variation, 3-point and 5-point moving average smoothings are tried. Compare
the results of these two methods with the results from questions 1 to 3 by plotting the smoothed data.
5 Upon observing the results with the 5-point smoothing, a trend appears. Take the data from the 5-point
moving average smoothing and fit a straight line using the least-squares method. Put the first smoothed
point at t = 3 and then centre the time data. State the y-intercept and gradient. Compare this trend line with
that from question 3.
6 Given the seasonal nature of the data, a 4-point moving average smoothing is tried. After calculating
the 4-point moving average, fit a least-squares regression line, following the method of question 5.
Compare the results obtained with those from question 5.

DiGitaL DOC
doc-9434
Test Yourself
Chapter 4

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

DA

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

162

7 Finally, try seasonal adjustment. Take t = 1 to be summer and find the seasonal indices. Then,

seasonally adjust the data.


8 Take the seasonally adjusted data from question 7 and fit a trend line using least-squares method.
Comment on this result.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

ICT activities
Chapter opener
DiGitaL DOC
10 Quick Questions doc-9427: Warm up with a quick quiz on time
series. (page 129)

4a

time series and trend lines

DiGitaL DOC
Spreadsheet doc-9421: Investigate the least-squares trend line.
(page 132)

4B

Fitting trend lines and forecasting

DiGitaL DOCS
SkillSHEET 4.1 doc-9430: Gradient-intercept method for sketching
linear graphs (page 135)
Spreadsheet doc-9429: Investigate the 3-median method. (page 136)
WorkSHEET 4.1 doc-9428: Plotting time series data and fitting trend
lines using various techniques (page 137)

4C

Smoothing time series

DiGitaL DOC
Spreadsheet doc-9431: Investigate the moving average. (page 140)

4D

Smoothing with an even number of points

tUtOriaL
We 6 eles-1331: Watch a tutorial on performing a centred 4-point
moving average on time series data and plotting the result. (page 142)

4e

Median smoothing

DiGitaL DOC
WorkSHEET 4.2 doc-9432: Recognise trends, 3-point moving
average, 4-point centred moving average, 6-point centred moving
average and 5-point median smoothing. (page 148)

4F

Seasonal adjustment

DiGitaL DOC
Spreadsheet doc-9433: Make comparisons between seasonalised
and original data. (page 153)
tUtOriaLS
We 9 eles-1266: Watch a tutorial on computing seasonal indices
and then using them to deseasonalise data. (page 149)
We 11 eles-1267: Watch a tutorial on calculating deseasonalised
values, given actual values using seasonal indices.(page 152)
interaCtiVitY
Seasonal adjustment int-0185: Use the interactivity to consolidate
your understanding of seasonal adjustment. (page 148)

Chapter review
DiGitaL DOC
Test Yourself doc-9434: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 162)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Chapter 4 Time series

163

Answers CHAPTER 4

7 Although there are some random

variations, the trend could also be secular.


y
20
10
0

2 4

6 8 10 12 t

year is an extrapolated value (outside the


plotted values) and can only be treated as
an approximate value at best.

2 4 6 8 10 12
Date

Price (cents)

100
80
60
40
20
5

10 15 20 25 t
Weeks

b Prediction for t = 25 is about 92 cents.


11 Difficult to fit an accurate trend line, due

2007

2008
Quarter

2009

12 At current rate (about 300/month), bank

will have no employees in another year!


Although not likely, there is a clear
downward trend.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

80
70
60
50

Price ($)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Months

d Given fairly even increase in averages,

trend line is an excellent predictor.

exercise 4C

Smoothing time series


Smoothed data:

1 a
2416.7

2583.3
y
3400
3000
2600
2200

4 6 8
Months

10

2683.3

2700.0

2816.7

2983.3

c Use 2983.3 to predict sales for 2010.


2 a Smoothed data: possible downward

trend, but still fluctuations.

96.7 93.3 100.0 93.3

80

80

80

90

80

73.3

130
110
90
70
50
0

4 6 8 10 12 t
Month

b Price = 2.39t + 102.17


c 66.32, the data are cyclical and the

prediction is based on smoothed data


that have removed this trend.

4 6 8 10 12 t
Months

c y(Dec.) = 293.96 (294)


d Excellent predictor
8 a y = 3.77t 1.83
b
Sales ( 1000)

Sales ( 1000)

to likely cyclical nature of software sales


business.

164

300
250
200
150
100
50
0

last year secular, so overall trend line


would be a poor predictor.
10 a y = 1.93t + 56.9
b
c 78%

2002 2004 2006 2008 2010

Time code t = 1 represents 2010, t = 2


represents 2011 and so on.
b The y-intercept of $2.56 represents
the approximate value of the shares in
2009. The gradient of +$0.72 means that
the share value will grow by $0.72 (72
cents) each year.
c $10.48
7 a y = 20.36t + 49.64
b

240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
0

10

6 a Share price = $0.72 time code + $2.56

nature of the data.

6 8
Months

10
8
6
4
2
0

Sales

Price ($)

6
5
4
3
2
1

9 Impossible to fit a trend line, given cyclical


10 a

exercise 4B Fitting trend lines and


forecasting
1 y = 2.9t + 33.72
a 2
b 2.9 per hour
2 11.63 hours
3 a n = 1.125t + 3.1875
b y(24) = 30.1875 or 31 employees
4 a Least-squares: y = 0.044t + 2.48
b 3-median: y = 0.018t + 2.79
Neither very effective as predictor,
note small gradients (0.018 and 0.044).
Probably a random (or cyclical) trend.
5
1
5 y = t + ; given the exponential nature of
6
6
data, it is a very poor predictor.

8 Predicting a share price in the following

c $398
d The first 2 years seemed seasonal, the

Mark %

Sites (millions)

Temp. (C)

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t
Days

420
380
340
300
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 t
Quarters

Sales

time series and trend lines


Note: Your answers may vary slightly due to
using eye method.
1 Seasonal
2 Random
3 Secular, upwards
4 Random or cyclical
5 Cyclical
6 Definite secular trend downward

c y(10) = 35.87, y(12) = 43.37,

y(14) = 50.95

d A poor predictor, given nature of data


9 a y = 6.35t + 315.8

90

90

88

82

84

80

78

130
110
90
70
50
0

4 6 8 10 12 t
Month

Smoothed data: definite downward trend


is now apparent.
4

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 t
Weeks

98

Sales

exercise 4a

7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000

71.7 78.3 91.7 86.7 66.7 73.3 85.0 78.3 58.3 63.3

Rainfall (mm)

Number of employees

tiMe SerieS

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

4 6 8 10 12 t
Quarters

72

5 a

71.7 69.7 70.7 66.3 65.7 64.7 66.0

Smoothed data: shows a clear downward


trend.
b Attendance = 1.2t + 75.23
c 60.83 (60 830), this is a reasonable
prediction as long as the trend continues
to decline as given by the negative
gradient.
Week
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Sales
34
27
31
37
41
29
32
37
47
38
41
44
47
49
41
52
48
44
49
56
54

Smoothed data
30.67
31.67
36.33
35.67
34.00
32.67
38.67
40.67
42.00
41.00
44.00
46.67
45.67
47.33
47.00
48.00
47.00
49.67
53.00

Smoothed data; prediction for week 7 is 87.


exercise 4D

Smoothing with an even


number of points
1

Q3-06

Q4-06

58.25

57.125

56

57.375

Q1-07

81.25

Q2-07

78.475

Q3-07

76.625

Q4-07

75.375

Q1-08

74.88

Q2-08

73.875

Q3-08

71.875

Q4-08

69.375

8 10 t

Smoothed data indicated a general


downward trend, possibly with a cyclic
trend in original data.
2
t
Price ($)
Autumn 07
Winter 07
Spring 07
52.625
Summer 07
54.63
Autumn 08
57.25
Winter 08
59.25
Spring 08
60.50
Summer 08
61.75
Autumn 09
62.63
Winter 09
63.50
Spring 09
Summer 09

Q1-09
Q2-09
b

Day Smoothed

2 4 6 8 10 12 t
Seasons

420
400
380
360
340
320
300
0

4 6 8 10 12 t
Quarters

Smoothed data: Some but not all seasonal


fluctuation removed.

Sales

8 253.8

303

306.6 320.4 322.4

362

364.2

500
400
300
200
100
0

2 4 6 8 10 12 t
Months

Smoothed data: most random variation


smoothed, slight upward trend possible.
Prediction for 12th month is 419.

3 a

Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Temperature
36.6
36.4
36.8
37.2
36.9
36.5
37.2
37.4
37.1
37.4
37.6
36.9
37.2
37.6
36.9

4-point
moving
average
36.75
36.825
36.85
36.95
37
37.05
37.275
37.375
37.25
37.275
37.325
37.15

4-point
centred
moving
average

6 a

Day Smoothed

180.625

36.78

177.75

36.92

176.625

37.03

175.00

37.07

173.25
172.375

37.14

37.24

9
10

10

37.27

11

37.29

12

37.29

13
36.7875
36.8375
36.9
36.975
37.025
37.1625
37.325
37.3125
37.2625
37.3
37.2375

14
15
b
190
Time (s)

Price ($)

332.3 325.0 340.3 346.0 343.3 337.3 356.0 375.7 389.7 394.0

2 4 6 8 10 12 t
Seasons

downward trend.
5

Smoothed data indicate a strong upward


trend of almost 12 cents over 3 years.

100
90
80
70
60
50
0

c Smoothed data indicate a clear

80
70
60
50
40
0

Smoothed

62.125 60.375

Season

4 a

y
80
70
60
50
40

Price ($)

b Temperature = 0.056d + 36.654


c 37.6

66.33 71.33 68.33 79.67 83.67

Sales ( $1000)

Smoothed data did not remove seasonal


trend; from the figure, there may be a
slight trend downward.

180
170
160
0

6 8
Day

10

c Yes, there is a significant improvement

in times.
d 167

Chapter 4 Time series

165

1
2
3

712.75

704.75

711.75

708.25

711.25

1.2274, 1.0288

b
Season

10

Index

800
775
750
725
700
675
650
2

6 8
Day

10

Smoothing indicates a very flat trend.


exercise 4e

Median smoothing

9 10

Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

62 60 62 60 54 54 59 62
y
80
70
60
50
40
0

8 10 t

Not nearly as effective as moving average


smooth in demonstrating trend.
2

Temp (C)

Temp.
(C)

Month
Jan.
Feb.

29

Mar.

27

Apr.

24

May

21

Jun.

21

Jul.

21

Aug.

22

Sep.

23

Oct.

25

Nov.

26

32
30
28
26
24
22
20
0

6 8 10 12
Months

Smoothing had virtually


no effect on data
only minor variations
smoothed.

16
12
8
4
6

8 10 t

Effective at smoothing out small random


variations.

166

Smoothed
1.00
1.01
1.07
1.12
1.23
1.32
1.45
1.56
1.67
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.55
1.35
1.30
1.20
1.17
1.17

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

2007
1.211
1.178
1.186
1.221

2008
1.152
1.169
1.169
1.146

1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
0.9
0

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Autumn 115.614 104.426 101.939 124.316 123.023 121.830


Winter

116.506 101.027

Spring

119.557 105.949 104.005 121.501 118.585 120.529

160
140
120
100
80
0

2009
1.117
1.132
1.125
1.114

98.582 127.098 126.283 123.024

4 8 12 16 20 24
Seasons

d Probable drought in 200506


3 a Seasonal indices: 0.7141, 1.100, 1.1832,

1.0027

b
Season

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Summer 10.6431 10.7832 10.9232 10.7832 11.0633


Autumn

9.9090 10.2726 10.8181 11.4544 11.9090

Winter

9.8884 10.4800 10.8181 11.4097 11.7478

Spring

9.8732 10.4716 10.7708 11.3692 11.8678

14
12
10
8
0

8 12 16 20 t

d Youth unemployment increases in all

seasons except in summer

4 a Seasonal indices: 1.1143, 0.9183,

0.6829, 1.2845

Quarter

2007

5.205

5.336

5.125

5.216

2008

5.474

5.554

4.686

5.060

2009

5.115

4.900

6.004

5.528

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Seasonal adjustment

Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring

1.56
1.67
1.58
1.71
1.67
1.71
1.67
1.78
1.78
1.78
1.67
1.67
1.71

1.1467, 0.9336

3 20y

Smoothed

1 a Seasonal indices: 0.8504, 1.0692,

Dec.

8 10 12

Smoothed Day
21
22
1.08
23
1.08
24
0.98
25
0.98
26
0.98
27
1.06
28
1.06
29
1.08
30
1.08
31
1.09
32
1.09
33
1.09
34
1.04
35
1.02
36
0.98
37
0.98
38
0.98
39
0.98
40

exercise 4F

Price ($)

Day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

2004

Summer 109.643 103.257 101.128 124.548 125.612 127.741

Smoothed out much of the variation,


indicates a slight upward trend.

705.50

d Slight trend downwards


2 a Seasonal indices 0.9394, 0.8044,

y
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
0

Rainfall (mm)

Index

Youth unemployment

Day

Unemployment

4 6 8 10 12 t
Time period

d Deseasonalised unemployment rate

= 0.0188 t + 5.1448

e i 6.0

ii 3.9
5 Seasonal indices: 0.6341, 0.6613, 0.8329,

1.0354, 1.2822, 1.4850, 1.0692. Restaurant


should probably close Mon.Tues., steady
sales over 5-week period see table below.

Season

Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5

Monday

1633.86 1717.45 1678.02 1788.42 1643.33

Tuesday

1667.88 1581.69 1640.66 1825.14 1748.02

Wednesday 1740.94 1589.66 1785.36 1654.49 1690.51

2 4 6 8 10 12
Seasons

Thursday

1588.81 1674.77 1728.86 1742.38 1727.89

Friday

1620.72 1718.99 1727.57 1703.39 1690.13

Saturday

1661.32 1668.72 1686.23 1701.05 1743.47

Sunday

1772.29 1670.35 1705.89 1668.48 1641.36

7 Same number of smoothed data points. (In

Revenue

2800

fact a 4-point centred is a special case of a


5-point smoothing.)

2200
1600
1000
0

Season

14 21 28 35 t
Time period

Winter 08
Spring 08
Summer 08
Autumn 08
Winter 09
Spring 09
Summer 09
Autumn 09

6A
7 a Deseasonalised umbrella sales = 0.9161

t + 21.8788
b 39
8 a $3000
b $3200
9 0.9
10 0.43
11 E

c $4800
12 D

Chapter reVieW
MULtipLe ChOiCe

1C
6C
11 B

2B
7A
12 E

3 D
8 D
13 C

4 E
9 B

5 C
10 A

y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

110

9 250, 200, 250, 235

50
30
10
0

2 4

6 8 10 12
Month

Day
Ave.

2
3.7

3
5.0

4
4.3

5
5.3

6
5.3

1 e

10
8
6
4
2

Winter 08
Spring 08
Summer 08
Autumn 08
Winter 09
Spring 09
Summer 09
Autumn 09

Week 1

10
19

Week 2

12
22

Seasonal
indices

Sales ($)
2 a

618
612
622
630

have about 2.35 times the sales compared


to the average daily sales.
2 a See table bottom of page
b Deseasonalised CD sales = 0.4993t +
17.43
y-intercept of 17.4342 (17.43) means
that these sales were expected the day
before the data were calculated.
The gradient of 0.4993 (0.5) means
that as each day goes by Jazza can
expect an increase in sales by half a
CD each day (or more logically by 1
CD every two days).
c i Monday week 4, t = 19
Deseasonalised CD sales = 26.91
ii Saturday week 4, t = 24
Deseasonalised CD sales = 29.40
iii Saturday week 6, t = 36
Deseasonalised CD sales = 35.395
d i Monday week 4: 15 CDs
approximately
ii Saturday week 4: 69 CDs
approximately
iii Saturday week 6: 83 CDs
approximately
The first two predictions are reliable as
they are only one week into the future.
The Saturday week 6 prediction of 83
CDs is not so reliable as it is far into
the future and the trend may change in
the meantime, such as during holidays
and so on.

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 t
Week 1
Week 2 Week 3
Cycle

= 0.5263 0.4211

12
19

= 0.5455 0.4091

14
22

Week 3 0.5882

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Day

Season

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

7
7.3

10

Task 1
1 a The time series is seasonal. There are
peaks and troughs occurring on the
same days of the week. There is also an
upward secular trend. This can also
be seen from the table as each day, week
after week more CDs are sold.
b 6
c 3: there are 3 weeks of figures given

Rainfall (mm)

eXtenDeD reSpOnSe

3 a Gradient , y-intercept 3
6
b 30.83
4 a Gradient 1.58, y-intercept 12.33
b y(12) = 32, y(13) = 33

70

Its very difficult to fit a trend line as data


is seasonal. Summer uniform is mostly
bought at the end of the year and then the
beginning of the year. Winter uniform
is mostly bought near winter these are
peacks. The sales decrease throughout the
other parts of the year.
2 Gradient 184.52, y-intercept 2057.14

588.75
620
658.75
642.5

90

Number of CDs sold

Number of uniforms sold

ShOrt anSWer

Sales ($)

d Week 1: 19, week 2: 22, week 3: 25.5


e, f See tables bottom of page
g An index of 2.3507 means that Saturdays

0.3922

Mon.

Tues.

0.5533

1.2224
3

= 0.6316
= 0.6364

16
25.5

= 0.6349
Wed.

= 0.4075 0.6318

0.7895

1.2632

0.8182

26
22

21
22

2.4312
3

= 2.3684

= 1.1812 2.4091

= 0.8235 1.2941

Thurs.

45
19

Fri.

= 0.8104 1.2462

2.2745
Sat.
7.052
3

= 2.3507

Jazzas CD store daily sales figures Number of CDs sold


Mon. Tues.

Wed.

Thurs.

Fri.

Sat.

Week 1 18.07 19.63

18.99

18.51

19.26

19.14

Week 2 21.69

9
0.4075

= 22.09 22.16

22.21

20.86

53
2.3507

= 22.55

Week 3 27.11

10
0.4075

= 24.54 25.32

25.91

26.48

58
2.3507

= 24.67

Chapter 4 Time series

167

3-point smooth:
Rainfall (mm)

Rainfall (mm)

Task 2
1 Very difficult to fit an accurate trend line.
However, there seems to be an upward
trend.
100
80
60
40
20
2

Rainfall (mm)

Rainfall (mm)

The positive gradient suggests an upward


trend 1.4 mm, i.e. increase of rainfall by
each season.

6 8 10 12
Season

100
80
60
40
20

Rainfall (mm)

Rainfall (mm)

No improvement using this method.

6 8 10 12
Season

Season
3

10

11 12

Rainfall 43 75 41

13

47

78 50 19

51

83

55 25

53 43 33.7 46 58.3 49 40

51

63 54.3

3-pt ave.
5-pt ave.

168

6 8 10 12
Season

6 8 10 12
Season

4
1

100
80
60
40
20
0

10 11 12

Rainfall 43 75 41

13

47

78

50

19

51

83 55 25

4-pt ave.

43.8 50.8 45.8 41.4 49 56.2 51.6 46.6

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Season
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Spring

Seasonal index
0.9741
1.6346
1.0042
0.3871

Seasonally adjusted data:

6 8 10 12
Season

The 3-point average has only slightly


reduced the variation, while the 5-point
smooth seems more effective.
5 y = 0.74t + 43.32
A positive trend. However, it is fairly weak
(m = 0.74).

3 y = 0.02t + 48.47

100
80
60
40
20
0

100
80
60
40
20
0

5-point smooth:

6 8 10 12
Season

2 y = 1.375t + 38.9

Season

100
80
60
40
20
0

43.5 44.4 45.8 47.8 49.0 50.1 51.4 52.8

Least-squares: y = 1.36t + 39.27.


A stronger increasing trend shown.

Season
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Rainfall
43
75
41
13
47
78
50
19
51
83
55
25

8 y = 1.66t + 37.70

Seas. adj.
44.1
45.9
40.8
33.6
48.2
47.7
49.8
49.1
52.4
50.8
54.8
64.6

Strongest trend yet (m = 1.66). Also, all


12 points used rather than 8 or 10 as in
moving average smoothing.

Exam practice 1 CHAPTERS 14


Core Data analysis

M U Ltip L e
C hO iC e

The following information relates to questions 1 and 2.


The frequency table below shows the number of bedrooms in homes (units and houses) on a street.
x
1
2
3
4
5
f
6
9
7
4
2

20 minutes

each question is worth


one mark.

1 The mode of the data is:


a 1

B 2

C 3

D 9

e 28

C 2.54

D 5.55

e 61.36

2 The mean of the data is closest to:


a 2

B 2.50

The following information relates to questions 3 and 4.


The parallel boxplots below represent the scores of two indoor soccer teams over a season containing
12 matches.
Team A
Team B
1

6 7 8
Scores

9 10 11 12 13

3 The boxplot for Team B is best described as:


a symmetric
D negatively skewed with outliers

B negatively skewed
e positively skewed with outliers

C positively skewed

4 From the data, it can be concluded that for the season shown:
a
B
C
D
e

Team B won more games than Team A


Team A won more games than Team B
Team A scored the lowest score out of the two teams
Team A scored the highest score out of the two teams
Team Bs scores were more variable than Team As scores

5 A population has a mean of 82.1 and a standard deviation of 2.3. Approximately 95% of the population

will lie in the range:


a (5.0, 95.0)
B (75.2, 89.0)
C (79.8, 84.4)
D (77.5, 86.7)
e (78.0, 86.2)
6 The height of a student is 182 cm and was taken from a sample with a mean of 175 cm and a standard
deviation of 4 cm. The z-score for the students height is:
a 1.75
B 1.02
C 0.75
D 1.02
e 1.75
7 A set of bivariate data has the following statistics:
r = 0.6754, x = 8.93, sx = 2.38, y = 18.87, sy=5.09
The equation of the least-squares regression line y= a + bx is closest to:
a y = 5.97 + 1.44x
B y = 1.44 + 5.97x
C y = 5.97 1.44x
D y = 16.1 0.32x
e y = 16.1 + 0.32x
8 A student constructs a scatterplot from the set of data given.
x
y

1
12

2
16

3
24

4
25

5
32

6
38

7
56

8
80

9
95

To linearise the scatterplot, he applies an x2 transformation. The equation of the least-squares


regression line is closest to:
a y = 8.08 + 10.02x
B y = 9.63 + 1.02x2
C y = 9.63 + 1.02x

2
D y = 8.08 + 10.02x
e y = 8.44 + 0.95x2
The following information relates to questions 9 and 10.
The following table shows the seasonal indices for the quarterly attendances at a swimming pool.
Quarter
Seasonal index

1
1.12

2
0.95

4
1.09

Exam practice 1

169

9 The value of the missing seasonal index for quarter 3 is:


a 0.84

B 0.91

C 0.95

D 1.00

e 1.05

10 The actual number of pool visits in the first quarter of a particular year is 146 089. The deseasonalised

number is closest to:


a 130 437
B 138 785
C 146 000
D 153 778
y
11 A 3-median trend line is fitted to the following time series data.
x
y

1
12

2
16

3
15

4
18

5
26

6
22

7
27

8
26

9
29

35

10
34

30
25

Its slope is closest to:

20

13
1
C
7
2
25
7
D
e
12
13
12 For the time series data below, the value of the 3-point moving
median centred at t = 5 is:
a 2

t
C

1
12

a 5
e X t enDeD
r e S pOnS e
10 minutes

2
16

3
13

B 17

4
17

5
19

C 18

6
18

D 19

e 163 620

15
10
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x

7
20
e 20

total marks

= 12

A Melbourne-based telephone support service relies on the work of 65 volunteers. A sample of 15


volunteers is selected to look at job satisfaction among volunteers. The 15 volunteers are asked to rate
their satisfaction with the volunteer work on a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 is not at all satisfied and 10 is very
satisfied, along with the number of hours they work on average. The results are shown below.
Average hours
Satisfaction

2
6

2
5

2.5
3

3
6

3
5

4
7

5
9

5
10

7
8

8
9

10
9

12
8

13
10

15
9

20
10

a Assuming a linear relationship, use the data above to determine the least-squares regression

equation that could be used to determine the level of job satisfaction from the number of hours
[1 mark]
worked. Write your answer in terms of the variables given.
b A residual plot is constructed to test the assumption of linearity for the relationship.
Residual
3
2
1
0
1

10 12 14 16 18 20

Average hours

3
i Explain the features of this residual plot that suggest the relationship is not linear.
A log10 (x) transformation is applied in the attempt to linearise the data. The table below shows the
transformed values.
ii Find the missing value correct to 2 decimal places.

DiGitaL DOC
doc-10284
Solutions
exam practice 1

170

Average hours 2
2 2.5 3
3
Log (hours)
0.30 0.30 0.40 0.48 0.48
Satisfaction
6
5
3
6
5

4
7

5
5
7
8
10 12 13 13 20
0.70 0.70 0.85 0.90 1 1.08 1.11 1.18 1.30
9
10
8
9
9
8
10
9
10

iii Find the equation of the least-squares regression line for the transformed

data, in terms of job satisfaction and hours.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

[1

+ 1 + 1 = 3 marks]
total marks = 4

ChapTer 5

Arithmetic and geometric


sequences
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions
doc-9435

ChapTer ConTenTS
5a
5B
5C
5d
5e
5F
5G
5h
5i

Recognition of arithmetic sequences


Finding the terms of an arithmetic sequence
The sum of a given number of terms of an arithmetic sequence
Recognition of geometric sequences
Finding the terms of a geometric sequence
The sum of a given number of terms of a geometric sequence
Applications of geometric sequences
Finding the sum of an infinite geometric sequence
Contrasting arithmetic and geometric sequences through graphs

introduction
Patterns occur naturally in many real-life situations; for example the addition of interest to bank
accounts, plant spacing in a winery and the stacking of logs in a pile. Two of the most common patterns
are termed arithmetic and geometric sequences. Recognition of these two patterns is important in
analysing situations that occur normally in the real world. Look at the sequence in the shaded column on
this bank statement.

5a

Date

Description

1.1.2006
1.1.2007
1.1.2008
1.1.2009

Deposit
Interest
Interest
Interest

Debit

Credit

Balance

1000.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

1000.00
1100.00
1200.00
1300.00

recognition of arithmetic sequences

A sequence in mathematics is an ordered set of numbers.


An arithmetic sequence is one in which:
1. the difference between any two successive terms is the same, or
2. the next term in the sequence is found by adding the same number.
Consider the arithmetic sequence:
4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22.
The difference between each successive term is +3, or similarly, the next term is found by adding 3 to the
previous term. We can see that a positive common difference gives a sequence that is increasing. We say
that the common difference is +3, stated as d = +3.
+3

+3

+3

10

+3

13

+3

16

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video about
arithmetic
sequences.

+3

19

22

The first term of the sequence is 4. We refer to the first term of a sequence as a. So in this
example, a = 4.
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

171

In this arithmetic sequence, the first term is 4, the second term is 7, the third term is 10 and so on.
Another way of writing this is:
t1 = 4, t2 = 7 and t3 = 10.
There are 7 terms in this sequence. Because there is a countable number of terms in the sequence, it is
referred to as a finite sequence.
The arithmetic sequence below
7

37,

30,

23,

16,

9 ...

is an infinite sequence since it continues endlessly as indicated by the ellipsis (. . .) after the final term
shown. The first term, a, is 37 and the common difference, d, is 7. We can see that a negative common
difference gives a sequence that is decreasing.
1. An arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers for which the difference between successive
terms is the same.
2. The first term of an arithmetic sequence is referred to as a.
3. The common difference between successive terms is referred to as d.
4. tn is the term number; for example, t6 refers to the 6th term in the sequence.
Worked example 1

Which of the following are arithmetic sequences?


a 7, 13, 19, 25, 31, . . .
b 81, 94, 106, 120, 133, . . .
1
1
1
c 1.3, 2.5, 3.7, 4.9, 6.3, . . .
d 1 , 1, , 0, , . . .
2

Think

a 1 Write the sequence.

WriTe

a 7, 13, 19, 25, 31,

Calculate the difference between the first


term, t1, and the second term, t2.

t2 t1 = 13 7
=6

Calculate the difference between the second


term, t2, and the third term, t3.

t3 t2 = 19 13
=6

Calculate the difference between the third


term, t3, and the fourth term, t4.

t4 t3 = 25 19
=6

Calculate the difference between t5 and t4.

t5 t4 = 31 25
=6

Check that the differences are the same and


write your answer.

There is a common difference of 6, therefore


d = 6.
This is an arithmetic sequence.

b 1 Write the sequence.

b 81, 94, 106, 120, 133, . . .

Calculate the difference between the first


term, t1, and the second term, t2.

t2 t1 = 94 (81)
= 13

Calculate the difference between the second


term, t2, and the third term, t3.

t3 t2 = 106 (94)
= 12

There is no need to do any further checks as


the two differences are not the same.

There is no common difference.


This is not an arithmetic sequence.

c 1 Write the sequence.

172

c 1.3, 2.5, 3.7, 4.9, 6.3, . . .

Calculate the difference between t2 and t1.

2.5 1.3 = 1.2

Calculate the difference between t3 and t2.

3.7 2.5 = 1.2

Calculate the difference between t4 and t3.

4.9 3.7 = 1.2

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Calculate the difference between t5 and t4.

6.3 4.9 = 1.4

Check that the differences are the same.

There is no common difference.


This is not an arithmetic sequence.

d 1 Write the sequence.

1
2

d 1 , 1,
1

1
2

, 0, 1,
2

11 = 1

Calculate the difference between t2 and t1.

Calculate the difference between t3 and t2.

Calculate the difference between t4 and t3.

Calculate the difference between t5 and t4.

1
2

Check that the differences are the same.

1
2

1 = 12
1
2

=1
2

0=1
2

There is a common difference of 1.


2
This is an arithmetic sequence.

Worked example 2

Write the value of a and d for each of the following arithmetic sequences.
2 2 3
3
3
a 1.2, 3.6, 6, 8.4, 10.8, . . .
b 1 , , , 1 , 2 , . . .
5 5 5
5
5
Think

WriTe

a 1 Write the sequence.

a 1.2, 3.6, 6, 8.4, 10.8,

What is the first term?

a = 1.2

What is the difference between t2 and t1?


You need check only once as the question
states that this is an arithmetic sequence.

t2 t1 = 3.6 1.2
= +2.4
d = +2.4

Write your answer.

The arithmetic sequence has a first term, a,


of 1.2 and a common difference, d, of +2.4.

b 1 Write the sequence.

2 2 3
, ,
5 5 5

b 1 ,

13, 23, . . .
5

What is the first term?

a = 125

What is the difference between t2 and t1?

t 2 t1 =

Write your answer.

The arithmetic sequence has a first term, a,


of 125 and a common difference, d, of +1.

exercise 5a

2
5

= +1
d = +1

125

recognition of arithmetic sequences

State which of the following are arithmetic sequences.


a 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, . . .
b 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, . . .
d 3, 7, 11, 15, 20, . . .
e 4, 8, 11, 15, 19, . . .
g 1, 1, 2, 4, 8, . . .
h 2, 2, 4, 4, 8, . . .

1 We1a

2 We2

c 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .
f 3, 30, 300, 3000, 30 000, . . .
i 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, . . .

For those arithmetic sequences found in question 1, write the values of a and d.
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

173

3 We1b State which of the following are arithmetic sequences.


a 123, 23, 77, 177, 277, . . .
c 7, 1, 5, 11, 17, . . .
e 5, 2, 9, 16, 23, . . .
g 1, 0, 1, 3, 5, . . .

b 1, 3, 1, 5, 3, . . .
d 67, 27, 13, 53, 93, . . .
f 7, 18, 29, 30, 39, . . .
h 0, 10, 21, 32, 43, . . .

4 For those arithmetic sequences found in question 3, write the values of a and d.
5 We1c State which of the following are arithmetic sequences.
a 0.7, 1, 1.3, 1.6, 1.9, . . .
c 3.5, 2, 0.5, 1, 2.5, . . .
e 2, 0.1, 2.1, 3.3, 4.5, . . .

b 2.3, 3.2, 5.2, 6.2, 7.2, . . .


d 2.7, 2.5, 1.7, 1.5, 0.7, . . .
f 5.2, 6, 6.8, 7.6, 8.4, . . .

6 For those arithmetic sequences found in question 5, write the values of a and d.
7 We1d State which of the following are arithmetic sequences.
1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

1
2

a , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , ...
1 3
2
4
5 5
5
5
1 1 1
, , 1, 1 ,
3 3
3

c , , 1, 1 , 1 , . . .
e

2, . . .

1 3
4 4
3

1
4

3
4

1
4

b , , 1 , 1 , 2 , ...
d
f

, 0, 3, 11, 21, . . .
4
4
2
4
1 1 1 1 1
, , , , , ...
2 4 6 8 10

8 For those arithmetic sequences found in question 7, write the values of a and d.
9

Show which of the following situations are


arithmetic sequences.
a A teacher hands out 2 lollies to the first
student, 4 lollies to the second student,
6 lollies to the third student and 8 lollies
to the fourth student.
b The sequence of numbers after rolling a
die 8 times.
c The number of layers of paper after each
folding in half of a large sheet of paper.
d The house numbers on the same side of a street on a newspaper delivery route.
e The cumulative total of the number of seats in the first ten rows in a regular cinema (for example,
with 8 seats in each row, so there are 8 seats after the first row, 16 seats after the first 2 rows, and
so on).

10 For those arithmetic sequences found in question 9, where appropriate information is given, write the

value of a and d.
11 For the following arithmetic sequences:
a 4, 13, 22, 31, . . . which term, tn, will be equal to 58?
b 9, 4.5, 0, . . . which term, tn, will be equal to 18?
c 60, 49, 38, . . . which term, tn, will be the first to be greater than 10?
d 100, 87, 74, . . . which term, tn, will be the first to be less than 58?
12 Jenny receives 5 dollars for completing the first kilometre of a walkathon and 7 dollars more for

completing each subsequent kilometre. Write the arithmetic sequence that represents the amount
received by Jenny for each kilometre walked from 1 to 10 kilometres.
13 Each week, Johnny buys a pack of 9 basketball cards. In the first week Johnny has 212 cards in his

collection. Give the total number of cards Johnny has for each of the first five weeks.
14 mC Which of the following could be the first five terms of an arithmetic sequence?
a 1, 3, 9, 12, 15, . . .
C 3, 3, 6, 6, 9, . . .
e 3, 1, 0, 1, 3, . . .

B 266, 176, 86, 4, 94, . . .


d 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, . . .

15 mC 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38

For the arithmetic sequence above, it is true to say that it is:


a an infinite sequence with a = 3 and d = 7
B an infinite sequence with a = 7 and d = 3
C an infinite sequence with t2 = 10 and d = 7
d a finite sequence with a = 3 and d = 7
e a finite sequence with a = 7 and d = 3
174

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Finding the terms of an


arithmetic sequence
5B

inTeraCTiViTY
int-0007
number patterns

Consider the arithmetic sequence for which a = 8 and d = 10.


+10

+10

Now, t1 = 8
t2 = 8 + 10
t3 = 8 + 10 + 10
t4 = 8 + 10 + 10 + 10
t5 = 8 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10

18

+10

28

+10

38

t1 = a
t2 = a + d
t3 = a + d + d
t4 = a + d + d + d
t5 = a + d + d + d + d

48

t2 = a + 1d
t3 = a + 2d
t4 = a + 3d
t5 = a + 4d

We notice a pattern emerging. That pattern can be described by the equation:


tn = 8 + (n 1) 10
where n represents the number of the term.
For example, if n = 4, then the fourth term is:
t4 = 8 + (4 1) 10
= 8 + 3 10
= 38.
Therefore, the 4th term is 38.
We can generalise this rule for all arithmetic sequences.
where tn is the nth term
a is the first term
d is the common difference.

tn = a + (n 1) d

This rule enables us to find any term of an arithmetic sequence provided we know the value of a and d.
Worked example 3

Find the 20th term of the following arithmetic sequence.


5, 40, 75, 110, 145, . . .
Think

WriTe

Find the value of a.

a=5

Find the value of d. You need to calculate only


one difference as the question states that it is an
arithmetic sequence.

d = t2 t1
= 40 5
= 35

Use the rule tn = a + (n 1) d where n is 20 for


the 20th term.

Write the answer.

t20 = 5 + (20 1) 35
= 5 + 19 35
= 670
The 20th term is 670.

If we are given only two terms of an arithmetic sequence, we are able to use the rule tn=a + (n 1) d to
set up two simultaneous equations to find the value of a and d and hence write the rule for the arithmetic
sequence.
Worked example 4

The third term of an arithmetic sequence is 1 and the fifth term is 11.
a Write the rule for the arithmetic sequence.
b Find the 50th term of the sequence.
Think

a 1 We know that t3 = 1 and that

tn = a + (n 1) d, where n = 3.

WriTe

a t3 = a + 2d = 1

ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

175

We know that t5 = 11 and that


tn = a + (n 1) d, where n = 5.

t5 = a + 4d = 11

Solve the 2 equations simultaneously


using the elimination technique.
Eliminate a, by subtracting
equation [1] from equation [2].

a + 2d = 1
a + 4d = 11
2d = 12
d=6

Evaluate a by substituting d = 6 into either


of the two equations.

Substituting d = 6 into [1]:


a + 12 = 1
a = 13

To find the rule, substitute values for


a and d into tn = a + (n 1) d.

tn = 13 + (n 1) 6
= 13 + 6n 6
= 19 + 6n

b 1 To find the 50th term or t50, substitute

n = 50 into the rule found.

Write your answer.

[1]
[2]
[2] [1]

b tn = 19 + 6n

t50 = 19 + 6 50
= 19 + 300
= 281

The 50th term is 281.

Worked example 5

If the first three terms of an arithmetic sequence are 5.2, 7.4 and 9.6, which
term is equal to 53.6?
Think

WriTe

Find the rule for the arithmetic sequence.


Identify the value of a (it is the 1st term).
Calculate the value of d.
Substitute the values of a and d into
tn = a + (n 1) d.

a = 5.2
d = t2 t1
= 7.4 5.2
= 2.2
tn = 5.2 + (n 1) 2.2
= 5.2 + 2.2n 2.2
= 3 + 2.2n

Which term is equal to 53.6?


Substitute 53.6 for tn and solve for n.

53.6 = 3 + 2.2n
50.6
n=
2.2
= 23

Write your answer.

The term 53.6 is the 23rd term.

TUTorial
eles-1268
Worked example 5

Worked example 6

An ant colony is studied and found to have a population of 10 000 in the first week of the study.
The population increases by 500 each week after that.
a Write a rule for the number of ants in the colony in week n of the study.
b When will the ant population double in size?

176

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Think

a 1 We know that a = 10 000 and

d = 500 and that tn = a + (n 1) d.

a tn = 10 000 + (n 1) 500

= 10 000 + 500n 500

tn = 9500 + 500n

Substitute and simplify.

b 1 Using the rule found, we need to find

which term is equal to 10 000 doubled or


tn = 20 000.

WriTe

Write your answer.

tn = 9500 + 500n
20 000 = 9500 + 500n
10 500 = 500n
10 500
n=
500
= 21
The ant population will double to 20 000
in the 21stweek.

Finding the terms of an


arithmetic sequence
exercise 5B

1 We3 For each of the arithmetic sequences given, find:


a the 25th term of the sequence 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, . . .
b the 19th term of the sequence 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .
c the 30th term of the sequence 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, . . .
d the 27th term of the sequence 7, 1, 5, 11, 17, . . .
e the 33rd term of the sequence 5, 2, 9, 16, 23, . . .
f the 39th term of the sequence 14.1, 28.2, 42.3, 56.4, 70.5, . . .
2 We4 Evaluate the following.
a The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 13 and the 5th term is 31. What is the 17th term of

this sequence?

b The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 23 and the 5th term is 277. What is the 20th term of

this sequence?

c The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 0 and the 6th term is 8. What is the 32nd term of this

sequence?

d The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 5 and the 7th term is 19. What is the 40th term of this

sequence?
3 We5 Evaluate the following.
a The first 3 terms of an arithmetic sequence are 3, 9 and 15. Which term is equal to 141?
b The first 3 terms of an arithmetic sequence are 9, 6 and 3. Which term is equal to 72?
c The first 3 terms of an arithmetic sequence are 1.7, 2.5 and 3.3. Which term is equal to 28.1?
d The first 3 terms of an arithmetic sequence are 1.5, 2 and 2.5. Which term is equal to 140.5?
4 We6 A batsman made 23 runs in

his first innings, 33 in his second


and 43 in his third. If he continued
to add 10 runs each innings, write
a rule for the number of runs he
would have made in his nth innings.
5 In a vineyard, rows of wire

fences are built to support the vines.


The length of the fence in row 1 is
40 m, the length of the fence in row
2is 43 m, and the length of the
fence in row 3 is 46 m. If the lengths
of the fences continue in this
pattern, write down a rule for the
length of a fence in row number n.
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

177

6 A marker is placed 15 m from a white line by a P.E. teacher. The next marker is placed 25 m from the

white line and the next 35 m from the white line. The teacher continues placing markers in this pattern.
a Write a rule for the distance of marker n from the white line.
b How many markers will need to be placed before the last marker is at least 100 metres from
the line?
7 mC The 41st term of the arithmetic sequence 4.3, 2.1, 0.1, 2.3, 4.5, . . . is:
a 83.7

B 85.9

C 92.3

d 172.4

e 178.5

8 mC The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 2 and the 5th term is 2.5. The 27th term of this

sequence is:
a 32.5
B 35.5
C 42.5
d 89.5
e 96
9 mC The numbers 8, 1 and 6 form the first three terms of an arithmetic sequence. In this arithmetic
sequence the term which is equal to 258 is the:
a 30th
B 32nd
C 37th
d 39th
e 42nd
10 Find the 28th term of the arithmetic sequence 5.2, 6, 6.8, 7.6, 8.4, . . .
1 3

11 Find the 31st term of the arithmetic sequence 5 , 5 , 1, 1 5 , 15 , . . .


12 The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 16 and the 5th term is 4.2. What is the 19th term of this

sequence?
1

13 The 4th term of an arithmetic sequence is 3 2 and the 7th term is 6 2 . What is the 25th term of this

sequence?

14 The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 15 and the 8th term is 45. Which term of the sequence is

equal to 183?
15 The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 1 and the 6th term is 15. Which term of the sequence is

equal to 167?

16 mC The 3rd term of a sequence is 1 and the fifth is 14. The term which is equal to 141.5 is the:
a 9th

B 11th

C 18th

d 20th

e 22nd

17 Peter plants his first tomato seedling 0.5 m from the fence, the next 1.3 m from the fence and the next 2.1 m

from the fence. If he continues to plant in this pattern, how far will the 14thseedling be from the fence?
18 Olivia began her china collection in 1951.

She was given 3 pieces of china that


year and added 2 pieces each year after
that. How many pieces did Olivia have
in her collection in the year 2000?
19 The membership of a local

photography club was 7 in its first year.


If the club added 4 members to its
membership each year, write a rule for
the number of members in the club in
year n.
20 The first fence post in a fence is 12 m from the road, the next is 15.5 m from the road and the next is

19 m from the road. The remainder of the fence posts are spaced in this pattern.
a Write a rule for the distance of fence post n from the road.
b If 100 posts are to be erected, how far will the last post be from the road?

The sum of a given number of terms


of an arithmetic sequence
5C

When the terms of an arithmetic sequence are added together, an arithmetic series is formed. So, 5, 9,
13, 17, 21, . . . is an arithmetic sequence whereas 5 + 9 + 13 + 17 + 21 + . . . is an arithmetic series.
The sum of n terms of an arithmetic sequence is given by Sn.
Consider the finite arithmetic sequence below.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
178

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

The sum of this arithmetic sequence is given by S10 since there are 10 terms in the sequence.
So,
S10 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10
= 55
Note that the sum of the first and last terms is 11. Also, the sum of the second and second last
terms is 11. Similarly, the sum of the third and third last term is 11. This pattern continues with
the fourth and fourth last terms as well as with the fifth and fifth last terms. There are in fact five
lots of 11.
We can formalise this pattern to obtain a rule which applies to all arithmetic sequences.
Let Sn = a + (a + d ) + (a + 2d ) + . . . + (l 2d ) + (l d ) + l
where l is the last term of the sequence.
By reversing the order of the series above, we obtain
Sn = l + (l d ) + (l 2d ) + . . . + (a + 2d ) + (a + d ) + a
By adding these two equations, we obtain
2Sn = (a + l) + (a + d + l d ) + (a + 2d + l 2d ) + . . . (l d) + (a + d) + (a + l)
2Sn = (a + l) + (a + l) + (a + l) + . . . (a + l) + (a + l)
2Sn = n(a + l) where n represents the number of terms in the sequence.
Sn = 1n(a + l)

So,

The sum of n terms of an arithmetic sequence with a as its first term and l as its last term is
given by:
n
Sn = (a + l).
2
Recall that the nth term of an arithmetic sequence is given by:
tn = a + (n 1)d.
So, for the sum of n terms, l is the last term; that is, tn = l.
So, the last term is:
l = a + (n 1)d.
n
Substituting this into
Sn = (a + l )
2
n
we obtain
Sn = {a + [a + (n 1)d]}
2
n
= [2a + (n 1)d]
2
An alternative formula for the sum of n terms of an arithmetic sequence when the value of a and
d are known, is given by:
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1)d ].
2
Worked example 7

Find the sum of the first ten given terms of the arithmetic sequence:
4, 10, 16, 22, 28, 34, 40, 46, 52, 58.
Think

WriTe

Method 1:
1

We know the values of the first and last term


and that there are ten terms in the series.

a=4
l = 58
n = 10

n
Use the series formula Sn = (a + l).
2

n
Sn = (a + l)
2
10
S10 = (4 + 58)
2
= 5 62
= 310
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

179

Method 2:
1 We know the value of a and d and n.

a=4
d = 10 4 = 6
n = 10

n
Use the formula Sn = [2a + (n 1)d].
2

n
Sn = [2a + (n 1)d]
2
10
Sn = [2 4 + (10 1)6]
2
S10 = 5[8 + 9 6]
= 5[8 + 54]
= 5 62
= 310

Write the answer.

The sum of the first 10 terms is 310.

Worked example 8

The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 5 and the seventh term is 29.
What is the sum of the first 10 terms of this sequence?
Think
1

Find the value of a and d.


The value of a is given.
To find the common difference, d, use the
formula tn = a + (n 1)d, as we know the value
of the 7th term is 29.

n
Use the formula Sn = [2a + (n 1)d].
2

Write your answer.

WriTe

a=5
tn = a + (n 1)d
t7 = 5 + 6 d
= 29
5 + 6d = 29
6d = 24
d=4

TUTorial
eles-1269
Worked example 8

10
[2 5 + (10 1)4]
2
= 5[10 + 9 4]
= 230

S10 =

If a = 5 and d = 4, the sum of the first ten terms


is 230.

Worked example 9

The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 4 and the 8th is 11. What is the sum of the first
30 terms of the sequence?
Think
1

180

Find out the value of a and d by setting up


two simultaneous equations using
tn = a + (n 1)d.
Eliminate a by subtracting equation 1 from
equation 2.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

WriTe

t3 = a + 2d
=4
t8 = a + 7d
= 11
a + 2d = 4
a + 7d = 11
5d = 15
d = 3
Substitute d = 3 into equation [1].
a + 2d = 4
a + 2 3 = 4
a6=4
a = 10

[1]
[2]
[1]
[2]
[2] [1]

n
Use the formula Sn = [2a + (n 1)d ].
2
To find the sum of the first 30 terms.
Write your answer.

30
[2 10 + (30 1)(3)]
2
= 15[20 + 29 3]
= 1005

S30 =

If a = 10 and d = 3, the sum of the first 30 terms


is 1005.

Worked example 10

The first term of a sequence is 7 and the sum of the first 25 terms is 1625. Find:
a the 25th term
b the first five terms of the sequence.
Think

a 1 We know a = 7 and S25 = 1625 and the

WriTe

25th term is the last term, l.


n
Use the formula Sn = (a + l ).
2

n
use Sn = [2a + (n 1)d ] or tn = a + (n 1)d
2
having found that the 25th term is 137.

We know that a = 7 and d = +6, so generate


the first five terms of the sequence.

= 1625
12.5(7 + l ) = 1625
7

+ l = 1625

+ l = 130
l = 137

12.5

l = t25
= 137
The 25th term is 137.

Write your answer.

b 1 To find the common difference, d, we can

S25 = 25 (7 + l )

S25 = 25
[14 + (25 1)d ]
2
= 1625
12.5 [14 + 24d ] = 1625
14 + 24d = 130
24d = 144
d = +6
or tn = a + (n 1)d
t25 = 137
137 = 7 + (25 1)d
144 = 24d
d = +6
The sequence is 7, 1, 5, 11, 17, . . .

The sum of a given number of terms


of an arithmetic sequence
exercise 5C

1 We 7 For each of the given series, find:


a the sum of the first 20 terms of the sequence 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, . . .
b the sum of the first 34 terms of the sequence 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, . . .
c the sum of the first 23 terms of the sequence 4, 1, 2, 5, 8, . . .
d the sum of the first 29 terms of the sequence 10, 7, 4, 1, 2, . . .

The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 5 and the second is 9. Find the sum of the first
40 terms of the sequence.

2 We8

3 The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 0.7 and the second is 1. Find the sum of the first 25 terms of

the sequence.
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

181

4 We9 For each of the following, evaluate the sum of a series, Sn.
a The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 19 and the 4th is 25. Find the sum of the first 15 terms

of the sequence.
b The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 3.6 and the 5th is 10.8. Find the sum of the first

23terms of the sequence.

c The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 0.5 and the 6th is 4. Find the sum of the first 26 terms

of the sequence.
d The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 0.75 and the 5th is 2.25. Find the sum of the first

27terms of the sequence.


5 We 10 The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 2 and the sum of the first 19 terms of the sequence

is 551. Find:
a the 19th term
b the first 3 terms of the sequence.
6 The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 4 and the sum of the first 30 terms of the sequence is 2490.
Find:
a the 30th term
b the first 3 terms of the sequence.
1
1
7 mC The sum of the first 21 terms of the sequence, 0, 3 , 7, 10 , 14, . . . is:
2
2
d 36.75
e 735
a 1470
B 735
C 700
8 mC The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 5.2 and the second is 6. The sum of the first 22 terms

of the sequence is:


a 598.4
B 299.2
C 242
d 70.4

9 What is the sum of the first 19 terms of the sequence 180, 80, 20, 120, 220, . . . ?
10 What is the sum of the first 28 terms of the sequence

1 1
, ,
2 2

e 70.4

112, 212, . . . ?

11 The 2nd term of an arithmetic sequence is 28.2 and the 6th is 84.6. Find the sum of the first 40 terms of

the sequence.
12 The 1st term of an arithmetic sequence is 5.5 and the sum of the first 18 terms of this sequence is 328.5.

Find:
a the 18th term
b the first 3 terms of the sequence.
13 The 1st term of an arithmetic sequence is 11 and the sum of the first 20 terms of this sequence is 350.
Find:
a t20
b the first 3 terms of the sequence.
14 Sam makes $100 profit in his first week of business. If his profit increases by $75 each week, what
would his total profit be by the end of week 15?
15 Georges salary is to start at $36 000 a year and increase by $1200 each year after that. How much will

George have earned in total after 10 years?


16 A staircase is designed so that the height of each step increases by 0.8cm for each step. If the height of

the first step is 15cm, what is the total height of the first 17 steps?
17 Paula collects stamps. She bought 250 in the first

month to start her collection and added


15 stamps to the collection each month
thereafter. How many stamps will she have
collected after 5 years?
18 Proceeds from the church fete were $3000 in
diGiTal doC
doc-9436
WorkSHEET 5.1

1981. In 1982 the proceeds were $3400 and in


1983 they were $3800. If they continued in this
pattern:
a what would be the proceeds from the year
2000 fete?
b how much in total would the proceeds from
church fetes from 1981 to 2000 have amounted to?
19 Fees for groups meeting at the community centre rise by $5 each year. If the fees started at $60 a year

in the first year:


a how much will the fees be in the 20th year?
b how much would a group which had met at the centre for all of those 20 years have paid in total?
182

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

5d

recognition of geometric sequences

A sequence in mathematics is an ordered set of numbers. A geometric sequence is one in which the
first term is multiplied by a number, known as the common ratio, to create the second term which
is multiplied by the common ratio to create the third term, and so on. The first term in a geometric
sequence is referred to as a and the common ratio is referred to as r.
Consider the geometric sequence where a = 1 and r = 3. The terms in the sequence are:
3
1

3
3

3
9

3
27

81...

To discover the common ratio, r, of a geometric sequence you need to calculate the ratio of any
t
t
t
two successive terms, for example, 2 . You could alternatively calculate 3 or 4 and so on.
t1
t2 t3
A geometric sequence is a sequence of numbers for which the ratio of successive terms is the same.
t2 t3 t4
= = = . . . = common ratio
t1 t2 t3

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with geometric
sequences.

The first term of a geometric sequence is referred to as a.


The common ratio between a term and its preceding term is referred to as r.
Worked example 11

Which of the following are geometric sequences? For those that are geometric, state the values
of a and r.
a 2, 10, 50, 250, 1250, . . .
b 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, . . .
3 3 3
c 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . .
d 6, 3, , , , . . .
2 4 8

Think

a 1 Write the sequence.

WriTe

a 2, 10, 50, 250, 1250, . . .

t
Calculate the ratio of 2 .
t1

t2 10
=
t1 2
=5

t
Calculate the ratio of 3 .
t2

t3 50
=
t2 10
=5

t
Calculate the ratio of 4 .
t3

t4 250
=
t3 50
=5

t
Calculate the ratio of 5 .
t4

t5 1250
=
t4 250
=5

Check that all ratios are the same.

There is a common ratio of 5.


This is a geometric sequence
where a = 2 and r = 5.

b 1 Write the sequence.

b 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, . . .

t
Calculate the ratio of 2 .
t1

t2 8
=
t1 4
= 2

t
Calculate the ratio of 3 .
t2

t3 16
=
t2 8
= 2
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

183

t
Calculate the ratio of 4 .
t3

t4 32
=
t3 16
= 2

t
Calculate the ratio of 5 .
t4

t5 64
=
t4 32
= 2

Check that all ratios are the same.

There is a common ratio of 2.


This is a geometric sequence where a = 4
and r = 2.

c 1 Write the sequence.

c 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . .

t
Calculate the ratio of 2 .
t1

t2 6
=
t1 2
= +3

t
Calculate the ratio of 3 .
t2

t3 18
=
t2 6
= 3

There is no need to do any further check as


the two ratios are not the same.

There is no common ratio.


This is not a geometric sequence.

d 1 Write the sequence.


2

t
Calculate 2 .
t1

t
Calculate 3 .
t2

t
Calculate 4 .
t3

t
Calculate 5 .
t3

Check that all ratios are the same.

3 3 3
2 4 8

d 6, 3, , , , . . .

t2 3
=
t1 6
1
=
2
t3 3
= 3
t2 6
3 1
=
2 3
1
=
2
t4 3 3
=
t3 4 2
3 2
=
4 3
2
=
4
1
=
2
t5 3 3
=
t4 8 4
3 4
=
8 3
1
=
2
There is a common ratio of 1.
2

This is a geometric sequence where a = 6


and r = 12.

184

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

recognition of geometric sequences

exercise 5d

1 We 11 State which of the following are geometric sequences.


a 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, . . .
b 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . .
c 1, 4, 16, 64, 256, . . .
d 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, . . .
e 1, 5, 25, 100, 125, . . .
f 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, . . .
g 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, . . .
h 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .
2 Look again at the geometric sequences found in question 1. Write the values of a and r.
3 State which of the following sequences are geometric sequences.
a 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, . . .
b 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, . . .

c 0, 3, 9, 27, 81, . . .
d 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . .

e 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, . . .


f 9, 3, 1, 3, 9, . . .

g 1, 5, 25, 125, 625, . . .


h 5, 20, 80, 320, 1280, . . .
4 For those geometric sequences found in question 3, write the value of a and r.
5 State which of the following sequences are geometric sequences.
a 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, . . .
b 1, 3, 9, 27, 81, . . .

c 4, 12, 36, 108, 324, . . .


d 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, . . .
e 3, 6, 18, 54, 112, . . .
f 2, 8, 12, 24, 48, . . .
6 For those geometric sequences found in question 5, write the value of a and r.
7 State which of the following sequences are geometric sequences.
a 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, . . .
b 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, . . .

c 3, 15, 75, 375, 1875, . . .


d 10, 1, 0, 1, 10, . . .

e 0, 4, 16, 64, 256, . . .


f 6, 60, 600, 6000, 60 000, . . .
8 For those geometric sequences found in question 7, write the value of a and r.
9 State which of the following sequences are geometric sequences.
a 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, . . .
b 2.3, 6.9, 13.8, 27.6, 55.2, . . .
c 2.25, 4.5, 9, 18, 36, . . .
d 7, 3.5, 1.75, 0.875, 0.4375, . . .
e 10, 12, 14.4, 17.28, 20.736, . . .
f 1.2, 3.6, 10.8, 21.6, 43.2, . . .
10 For those geometric sequences found in question 9, write the value of a and r.
11 State which of the following sequences are geometric sequences.
a

1 1 1 1 1
, , , , ,
2 4 8 16 32

1 2
, ,
3 3

...

113, 223, 513, . . .

1 1 1 1 1
, , , , ,
2 6 12 18 24

1 1 1 1 1
, , , , ,
5 10 15 20 25

...
...

c
f

1 1
, , 1, 1, 1 ,
4 20 100 500 2500

1 1
1
1, 3 , 9 , 121, 81 , . . .

...

12 For those geometric sequences found in question 11, write the value of a and r.
13 mC Which of the following is a geometric sequence?
a 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, . . .
C 9, 9, 3, 3, 1, . . .
e

1 1 1 1 1 1
, , , , , ,
8 7 6 6 5 4

B 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 20, 200, . . .


d 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, . . .

...

14 mC There is a geometric sequence for which a is positive and r = 2. It is true to say that:
a
B
C
d
e

only one term of the sequence is a positive number


the third term will be a negative number
the third term will be less than the second term
the 5th term would be greater than the 6th term
the 4th term would be greater than the third term

15 mC There is a geometric sequence for which every term is negative. It could be said with certainty that:
a a and r are both positive
C a is positive and r is negative
e a is greater than r

B a and r are both negative


d a is negative and r is positive

16 mC There is a geometric sequence for which every odd-numbered term is positive and every

even-numbered term is negative. It could be said with certainty that:


a a and r are both positive
B a and r are both negative
C a is positive and r is negative
d a is negative and r is positive
e a is greater than r
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

185

17 A savings account balance at the end of each of the past four years is given as follows: $100.00,

$110.00, $121.00, $133.10.


a Prove this is a geometric sequence.
b State the value of a and r.
18 On the first day Jenny hears a rumour. On the second day, she tells two friends. On the third day, each

of these two friends tell two of their own friends, and so on.
a Write the geometric sequence for the first five days of this real-life situation.
b Find the value of r.
c How many people are told of the rumour on the 12th day?

19 Decay of radioactive material is modelled as a geometric

sequence where r = 1. If there are 20 million radioactive atoms,


2
write the first 7 terms of the sequence.
20 Copy and complete the following.
a In a sequence that grows and where each term is
positive, the r value is
than 1.
b In a sequence that decays and where each term is
positive, the r value is between
and
.
c In a sequence like 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, . . . , the r value is
1.
d In a sequence like 2, 6, 18, 54, . . ., the r value is less
than
.
e In a sequence like 54, 18, 6, 2, 1, . . ., the r value is
between
and
.

Finding the terms of a


geometric sequence
5e

Consider the finite geometric sequence of seven terms for which a = 3 and r = 4.
4
3

Now, t1 = 3
t2 = 3 4
t3 = 3 4 4
t4 = 3 4 4 4
t5 = 3 4 4 4 4
186

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

4
12

4
48

t1 = a
t2 = a r
t3 = a r r
t4 = a r r r
t5 = a r r r r

4
192

384

t2 = a r1
t3 = a r 2
t4 = a r 3
t5 = a r 4

and os on. . .

We notice a pattern emerging. That pattern can be described by the equation:


tn = 3 4n 1.
For example, if n = 5,
t5 = 3 44.
We can generalise this rule for all geometric sequences.
where

tn is the nth term


a is the first term
r is the common ratio.

tn = ar n 1

This rule enables us to find any term of a geometric sequence provided we know the value of a and r.
Worked example 12

Find the 12th term of the geometric sequence:


2, 10, 50, 250, 1250, . . .
Think

WriTe

State the value of a.

a=2

It has been stated that it is a geometric


sequence, so find the value of r.

r = 10

Use the rule tn = a r n 1 to find the 12th term.

t12 = 2 512 1
= 97 656 250

Write the answer.

The value of the 12th term is 97 656 250.

=5

Worked example 13

The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 8 and the 5th is 512. Find the 10th term of this sequence.
Think

WriTe

We know that t2 = 8 and that tn = a r n 1.

t2 = a r1
=8

We know that t5 = 512 and that tn = a r n 1.

t5 = a r4
= 512

Solve the 2 equations simultaneously by


eliminating a, to find r.
Divide equation 2 by equation 1.

a r1 = 8
a r4 = 512
a r4 512
=
ar
8
3
r = 64
r=4

To find a, substitute the value of r.

Substitute r = 4 into equation [1].


a4=8
a=2

Write the rule.

To find the 10th term, let n = 10.

Write your answer.

[1]
[2]
[2] [1]

tn = 2 4n 1
t10 = 2 49
= 524 288
The 10th term in the sequence is 524 288.

ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

187

Worked example 14

The first three terms of a geometric sequence are 2, 6 and 18.


Which numbered term would be the first to exceed 1 000 000 in this sequence?
Think
1

WriTe

TUTorial
eles-1270
Worked example 14

a=2
t
r= 2
t1
= 62

To find the rule for the sequence, find a and


r and substitute them into tn = a r n 1.

=3
tn = 2 3n 1
2 3n 1 = 1 000 000
3n 1 = 500 000

Set up the equation to be solved.

Take logarithms to the base 10 of both sides


and solve for n.

log10 (3n 1) = log10 (500 000)


(n 1) log10 (3) = log10 (500 000)
log10(500 000)
(n 1) =
log10(3)
n 1 = 11.9445
n = 12.9445

The next whole number term is the 13th.

The 13th term would be the first to exceed


1 000 000.

Worked example 15

A real estate agent records the number of blocks


of land to be sold on a new estate each week.
If the number of blocks of land sold continue to
follow a geometric sequence:
a prove it is a geometric sequence and thus write
the value of the common ratio, r
b write a rule for the number of blocks of land,
tn, sold in week number n
c calculate the number of blocks of land sold in
week number 8.
Week number

Number of blocks of land sold

128

64

32

Think

a The first term, a, is 128. To find r, evaluate the

ratios.

188

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

WriTe

t2 64
t3 32
=
=
t1 128
t2 64
1
1
=
=
2
2
The ratios are the same, so the terms follow a
geometric sequence. The ratio, r = 12 .

n 1

b Use tn = ar n 1 to write the rule.

b tn = 128 1

c 1 Use the formula in part b to find the numbers

c t8 = 128 1 = 1

of blocks of land sold in week 8 (i.e. n = 8).

Write your answer.

2
7

The number of blocks of land sold in the


8th week will be 1.

Finding the terms of a


geometric sequence
exercise 5e

1 We 12 Find the value of the term specified for the given geometric sequences.
a Find the 10th term of the geometric sequence 2, 12, 72, 432, 2592, . . .
b Find the 11th term of the geometric sequence 5, 35, 245, 1715, 12 005, . . .
c Find the 18th term of the geometric sequence 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, . . .
d Find the 8th term of the geometric sequence 11, 22, 44, 88, 176, . . .
e Find the 11th term of the geometric sequence 5, 15, 45, 135, 405, . . .
f Find the 15th term of the geometric sequence 2, 8, 32, 128, 512, . . .
2 Find the value of the term specified for the given geometric sequences in decimal form.
a Find the 20th term of the geometric sequence 1.1, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 17.6, . . .
b Find the 10th term of the geometric sequence 2.3, 2.76, 3.312, 3.9744, . . .
c Find the 8th term of the geometric sequence 3.1, 8.06, 20.956, 54.4856, 141.662 56, . . .
3 Find the value of the term specified for the given geometric sequences in negative form.
a Find the 9th term of the geometric sequence 2, 8, 32, 128, 512, . . .
b Find the 12th term of the geometric sequence 6, 18, 54, 162, 486, . . .
4 We 13 Find the value of the term specified for the specified geometric sequences.
a The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 6 and the 5th term is 162. Find the 10th term.
b The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 6 and the 5th term is 48. Find the 12th term.
c The 4th term of a geometric sequence is 32 and the 7th term is 256. Find the 14th term.
5 We 14 Evaluate the following.
a The first three terms of a geometric sequence are 5, 12.5 and 31.25. Which term would be the first

to exceed 50 000?

diGiTal doC
doc-9437
SkillSHEET 5.3
Solving non-linear
simultaneous
equations

b The first three terms of a geometric sequence are 3.2, 9.6 and 28.8. Which term would be the first

to exceed 1 000 000?


c The first three terms of a geometric sequence are 5.1, 20.4 and 81.6. Which term would be the

first to exceed 100 000?


6 We 15 The number of cells of a micro-organism, after each process of cell division, can be
summarised as follows.
1, 2, 4, 8, 16
If the number of cells after each division continue to follow a geometric sequence, find:
a a rule for the number of cells after n divisions
b the number of cells after 12 divisions.

diGiTal doC
doc-9438
SkillSHEET 5.4
Solving indicial
equations

ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

189

7 A small town is renowned for spreading rumours. All of its citizens are aware in a short time of any

new rumours. The spread of the rumour can be summarised in the table below.
If the number of citizens who have been told the rumour each day continues to follow a geometric
sequence, find:
Day number

Number of citizens in the know

36

a a rule for the number of citizens on day n


b the number of citizens told of the rumour by day 5
c on which day all 4230 citizens will know of the rumour.
8 Find the 9th term of the geometric sequence 6, 9, 13.5, 20.25, 30.375, . . .
9 Find the 8th term of the geometric sequence 6.2, 9.3, 13.95, 20.925, 31.3875, . . .
1
4
1
,
3

1 1 1 1
, , , ...
8 16 32 64
2 1 2 1
, 1 , 2 , 5 , ...
3 3 3 3

10 Find the 10th term of the geometric sequence , ,


11 Find the 11th term of the geometric sequence

12 The 4th term of a geometric sequence is 81 and the 7th term is 2187. Find the 12th term.
13 The 4th term of a geometric sequence is 0.875 and the 7th term is 0.109 375. Find the

10th term.
14 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 1 and the 6th term is

8
.
27

Find the 9th term.

15 The takings at a new cinema each month are recorded. If the takings each month continue to follow a

geometric sequence, find:


a a rule for the takings in month n
b the takings in month 9.
Month number

Takings

$10 000

$ 8 500

$ 7 225

16 A tomato grower has recorded the average height of his tomato

bushes. If the height of the tomato bushes each year continues to


follow a geometric sequence, find:
a a rule for the height of the bushes in year n
b the height of the tomato bushes in year 5 (correct to
2 decimal places)
c the year in which the height of the tomato bushes will
exceed 2m.
Year

Height (m)

1.2

1.26

1.323

17 mC The 12th term of the geometric sequence 21, 63, 189, 567, . . . is:
a 6804
d 3 720 087

B 413 343
e 5 931 980 229

C 1 240 029

18 mC The 10th term of the geometric sequence 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, . . . is:
a 2560
d 5120

190

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

B 1280
e 3 906 250

C 1280

19 MC The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 75 and the 6th term is 9375. The 9th term is:
A 5859375
D 32805

b 1171875
E 234375

C 32805

20 MC The first three terms of a geometric sequence are 5.5, 7.7 and 10.78. The first term to exceed 100

would be the:
A 8th
D 11th

b 9th
E 12th

C 10th

The sum of a given number of terms


of a geometric sequence
5F

When the terms of a geometric sequence are added, a geometric series is formed. So 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, ...
is a geometric sequence, whereas 3 + 6 + 12 + 24 + 48 + ... is a geometric series.
The sum of n terms of a geometric sequence is given by Sn.
Consider the general geometric sequence a, ar, ar2, ar3, ... arn 1.
Now, Sn = a + ar + ar2 + ar3 + ... + arn 1
Also, multiplying each term by r, rSn = ar + ar2 + ar3 + ar4 + ... + arn
So, rSn Sn = a + arn since all the other terms cancel out.
So, Sn (r 1) = a(rn 1)
a(rn 1)

Sn =
r1
This formula is useful if r < 1 or r > 1, for example, if r is 2, 10, 3.3, 4, 1.2.
By calculating Sn rSn instead of rSn Sn, as we did earlier, we obtain an alternative form of the
formula. That is,
Sn rSn = a arn
Sn(1 r) = a(1 rn)
Sn =

a(1 rn)
1r

This formula is useful if r is in between 1 and 1 (shown as 1 < r < 1).


The sum of n terms, Sn, of a geometric sequence may be calculated using
Sn =
or
Sn =

a(rn 1)
if r < 1 or r > 1
r1
a(1 rn)
if 1 < r < 1.
1r

Worked Example 16

Find the sum of the first 9 terms of the sequence 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, ...
Think
1

Find the value of a.

Find the value of r by testing ratios of the


given terms.

Write

a = 0.25

t2 0.5
=

t1 0.25

t3 1
=
t2 0.5

= 2

=2

t4 2
=
t3 1
= 2
r=2

t5 4
=
t4 2
=2

Chapter 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences 191

Since r > 1, use Sn =

a(r n 1)
.
r1

S9 =

0.25(29 1)
1

= 127.75
4

Write the answer.

The sum of the first 9 terms is 127.75.

Worked example 17

The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 11.25 and the 6th term is 303.75.
Find the sum of the first 10 terms of the sequence correct to 1 decimal place.
Think

WriTe

TUTorial
eles-1271
Worked example 17

We need to find a and r. We know that


t3 = 11.25 and that tn = ar n 1.

t3 = ar 2
ar2 = 11.25

We know that t6 = 303.75 and that tn = ar n 1.

t6 = ar 5
ar5 = 303.75

Solve these equations simultaneously by


eliminating a to find r.

Equation [2] divided by equation [1]:


ar5 303.75
=
ar2 11.25
r3 = 27
r=3

Substitute r value into one of the equations


to find a, the first term.

Substituting r = 3 into equation [1]:


ar2 = 11.25
a 32 = 11.25
11.25
a=
9
= 1.25

Since r > 1, use Sn =

Write your answer.

1
2

a(r n 1)
.
r1

[1]
[2]

1.25(310 1)
2
= 36 905

S10 =

The sum of the first ten terms of the geometric


series is 36 905.

Worked example 18

How many terms of the geometric sequence 100, 95, 90.25, 85.7375, . . . are required for the sum
to be greater than 1000?
Think

192

WriTe

a = 100

Find a.

Find r.

Use Sn =

Investigate how many terms are required to


sum to 1000 or Sn = 1000.

r=
a(1 r n)
since r < 1.
1r

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Sn =

95
= 0.95
100
100(1 0.95n)
0.05

100(1 0.95n)
0.05
= 2000(1 0.95n)
0.5 = 1 0.95n
0.95n = 0.5
100 =

Express 0.95 and 0.5 in terms of logarithms


with a base of 10. Of course, other bases
could be used. 131 terms are required to
2
sum to 1000, so we require 14 to exceed 1000,
as the number of terms is discrete.

log10 (0.95n) = log10 (0.5)


n log10 (0.95) = log10 (0.5)
n=

log10(0.5)
log10(0.95)

= 13.513
So, we require that n = 14.

The sum of a given number of terms of


a geometric sequence
exercise 5F

1 a We 16 Find the sum of the first 12 terms of the geometric sequence 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . .
b Find the sum of the first 7 terms of the geometric sequence 5, 35, 245, 1715, 12 005, . . .
c Find the sum of the first 11 terms of the geometric sequence 3.1, 9.3, 27.9, 83.7, 251.1, . . .
d Find the sum of the first 12 terms of the geometric sequence 0.1, 0.4, 1.6, 6.4, 25.6, . . .
We 17 The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 10 and the 5th is 80. Find the sum of the first
12 terms of the sequence.
b The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 15 and the 5th is 405. Find the sum of the first 11 terms
of the sequence.
c The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 12 and the 5th is 768. Find the sum of the first 9 terms
of the sequence.
d The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 500 and the 6th is 500 000. Find the sum of the first
10 terms of the sequence.

2 a

We 18 How many terms of the geometric sequence 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, . . . are required for the sum to
be greater than 3000?
b How many terms of the geometric sequence 5, 20, 80, 320, 1280, . . . are required for the sum to
be greater than 100 000?
c How many terms of the geometric sequence 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, . . . are required for the sum to
be greater than 10 000?
d How many terms of the geometric sequence 120, 96, 76.8, 61.44, 49.152, . . . are required for the
sum to be greater than 540?

3 a

4 mC The sum of the first 10 terms of the geometric sequence 2.25, 4.5, 9, 18, 36, . . . is closest to:
a 1149.75
C 5318.81
e 8342.65

B 2301.75
d 6648.51

5 mC The 2nd term of a geometric sequence is 20 and the 5th is 1280. The sum of the first 12 terms

of the sequence is:


a 27 962 025
C 15 360
e 16 777 215

B 1 062 880
d 1 062 880

6 Find the sum of the first 13 terms of the geometric sequence 80, 72, 64.8, 58.32, 52.488, . . .
7 Find the sum of the first 8 terms of the geometric sequence 250, 150, 90, 54, 32.4,. . .
8 Find, correct to 1 decimal place, the sum of the first 12 terms of the geometric sequence
192,

48, 12, 3, 0.75,. . .

9 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 2 and the 6th is 0.016. Find, correct to 1 decimal place, the

sum of the first 13 terms of the sequence.


10 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 90 and the 6th is 0.09. Find, correct to 1 decimal place, the

sum of the first 14 terms of the sequence.

diGiTal doC
doc-9439
WorkSHEET 5.2

11 How many terms of the geometric sequence 600, 180, 54, 16.2, 4.86, . . . are required for the sum to be

greater than 855?

ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

193

5G

applications of geometric sequences

Growth and decay of discrete variables is constantly found in real-life situations. Some examples are
increasing or decreasing populations and increase or decrease in financial investments. Some of these
geometric models are presented here.
Worked example 19

A city produced 100 tonnes of rubbish in the year 2004. Forecasts suggest
that this may increase by 2% each year. If these forecasts are true:
TUTorial
a what will be the citys rubbish output in 2008?
eles-1332
Worked example 19
b in which year will the amount of rubbish reach 120 tonnes?
c what was the total amount of rubbish produced by the city in the years 2004, 2005 and 2006?
This is an example of a geometric sequence where a = 100 and r = 1.02. Note that r 0.02. If
this was the case, then multiplying 100 by 0.02 would result in a lesser amount of rubbish in
the second year and so on. We are told that the amount of rubbish increases by 2%. That is the
original amount plus an extra 2%, or:
original amount + 2% of original amount
= original amount (1 + 2%)
= original amount (1 + 0.02)
= 1.02 original amount.
Think

WriTe

a 1 Find the first term, a.

a a = 100

Determine the common ratio, r by expressing


the new percentage as a decimal.

Increase by 2%: 100% + 2%


= 102%
r = 1.02

Determine which term is represented by the


amount of rubbish for the year 2008.

Year 2004 is the first term, so n = 1.


Year 2005 is the second term, so n = 2.
Year 2008 is the fifth term, so n = 5.

Use tn = ar n 1 to find the amount of rubbish


collected in the fifth year.

t5 = 100 1.025 1
= 100 1.0824
= 108.24

Write your response.

The amount of rubbish produced in the


fifth year, or 2008, will be 108.24 tonnes.

b 1 Use tn = ar n 1 and tn = 120.


2

Express 1.02 and 1.2 in terms of logarithms


with base 10.

100(1.02)n 1 = 120
(1.02)n 1 = 1.2
log10 (1.02)n 1 = log10 (1.2)
(n 1) log10 (1.02) = log10 (1.2)
n1=

log10(1.2)
log10(1.02)

n 1 = 9.207
n = 10.207
3

Write your answer.

c 1 We need to find the sum of the first 3 terms.

Use Sn =
2

194

a(r n 1)
where n = 3.
r1

Write your answer.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

During the 11th year (that is, during 2014) the


amount of rubbish produced will have exceeded
120 tonnes.
100(1.023 1)
1.02 1
= 306.04

c S3 =

The total output of rubbish for the years 2004,


2005 and 2006 was 306.04 tonnes.

Worked example 20

A computer decreases in value each year by 15% of the previous years value. Find an
expression for the value of the computer, Vn, after n years. Its initial purchase price is given
as V1 = $12 000.
Think

WriTe

This is a geometric sequence since there is a


15% decrease on the previous years value.
Find a and r.

a = 12 000
Decrease by 15%: 100% 15%
= 85%
r = 0.85

We want an expression for the value after n


years. Use tn = ar n 1 which gives the value
of the nth term. (Replace tn with
Vn as required).

Vn = 12 000 (0.85)n 1

Write your answer.

The value of the computer is given by the


expression, Vn = 12 000(0.85)n 1.

Compound interest
Consider the case where a bank pays compound interest of 5% per annum on an amount of $20 000. The
amount is invested for 4 years and interest is calculated yearly.
Compound interest is named so because the interest which is earned is paid back into the account so
that the next time interest is calculated, it is calculated on an increased (i.e. compounded) amount. There
is a compounding effect on the money in the account.
If we calculated the amount in the account each year, we would have the following amounts.
Start
After 1 year
After 2 years
After 3 years
After 4 years

$20 000
$20 000 1.05 = $21 000
$20 000 1.05 1.05 = $22 050
$20 000 1.05 1.05 1.05 = $23 152.50
$20 000 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 = $24 310.13

The amounts 20 000, 21 000, 22 050, 23 152.50, 24 310.13, . . . form a geometric sequence where
a = 20 000 and r = 1.05.
We need to be a little careful, however, in using the formula tn = ar n 1 in calculating compound
interest. This is because the original amount in the account, that is, $20 000, in terms of the geometric
sequence would be referred to as t1 or a. In banking terms, t1 would represent the amount in the account
after the first lot of interest has been calculated and added in.
To be clear and to avoid errors, it is best to use the following formula for compound interest.
A = PR n
where

r
100
A = amount in the account, $
P = principal, $
r = interest rate per compounding period (e.g. per year, per quarter), %
n = the number of compounding periods during the investment.
R=1+

Note: Students who are studying Module 4: Business related mathematics will use this formula for
compound interest.
Worked example 21

Helen inherits $60 000 and invests it for 3 years in an account which pays compound interest of
8% per annum compounding each 6 months.
a What will be the amount in Helens account at the end of 3 years?
b How much will Helen receive in interest over the 3-year period?
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

195

Think

a 1 This is an example of compound interest.

r
.
100
Interest is calculated each 6 months, so over
3 years, there are 6 compounding periods:
n = 6.
Interest is 8% per year or 4% per 6 months.
So, r = 4%.

a P = 60 000

Use A = PRn, where R = 1 +

n = 6 half-years
r = 4% per half-year
4
So,
R=1+
100
= 1.04
A = PRn
= 60 000(1.04)6
= 75 919.14

Write your answer.

At the end of 3 years, Helen will have a


total amount of $75 919.14.

b 1 Interest equals the amount in the account at

the end of 3 years, less the amount in the


account at the start of the investment.
2

WriTe

Write your answer.

b Interest = Total amount Principal

= $75 919.14 $60 000


= $15 919.14

Amount of interest earned over 3 years is


$15 919.14.

Worked example 22

Jim invests $16 000 in a bank account which earns compound interest at the rate of 12% per
annum compounding every quarter.
At the end of the investment, there is $25 616.52 in the account.
For how many years did Jim have his money invested?
Think

WriTe

We know the value of A, P, r and R.


We need to find n using the compound interest
formula.
Note: There are 4 quarters per annum.

A = 25 616.52
P = 16 000
r = 12
4
= 3% per quarter
3
and so R = 1 + 100
= 1.03

Now substitute into A = PRn.

A = PRn
25 616.52 = 16 000(1.03)n
1.601 = 1.03n

Take logarithms with base 10 of both sides of


the equation and solve for n.

log10 (1.601) = log10 (1.03n)


So, log10 (1.601) = n log10 (1.03)
n=
=

196

Round up the number of periods to 16 to


ensure the amount is reached.

Write your answer.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

log10(1.601)
log10(1.03)
0.2044
0.0128

n = 15.92
16
It will take 16 compounding periods where a
period is 3 months. So, it will take 48 months
or 4 years.

exercise 5G

applications of geometric sequences

1 We 19 A farmer harvests 4 tonnes of lucerne in his first year of production. In his business plan, he has

estimated an annual increase of 6% on his lucerne harvest.


a According to this plan, how many tonnes of lucerne should he harvest in his 7th year of
production?
b In which year will his harvest reach 10 tonnes?
c How much will he expect to harvest in the first three years?
d How much in total will he harvest from the 7th year to the 10th year?
A taxi driver estimates that the cost of keeping her taxi on the
road increases by 4.5% each year. If the cost of keeping her taxi
on the road in her first year of owning a taxi was $1800:
a what was the cost in the 5th year?
b during which year did costs exceed $2500?
c what were the total costs of keeping her taxi on the road in
the first 3 years?
We20 The population of a town is decreasing by 10% each
year. Find an expression for the population of the town, which
will be referred to as Pn. The population in the first year, P1, was
10 000.
We21 $13 000 is invested in an account which earns compound
interest at 8% p.a. compounded quarterly (i.e. calculated four
times each year).
a After 5 years, how much is in the account?
b How much interest was earned in that period?
The population of the newly established town of Alansford in its first year was 6000. It is predicted that the
towns population will increase by 10% each year. If this were to be the case, find:
a the population of the town in its 10th year
b in which year the population of Alansford would reach 25 000.
The promoters of Fleago flea powder assert that continued application of the powder will reduce the
number of fleas on a dog by 15% each week. At the end of week 1, Fido the dog has 200 fleas left on
him and his owner continues to apply the powder.
a How many fleas would Fido be expected to have on him at the end of the 4th week?
b How many weeks would Fido have to wait before the number of fleas on him had dropped to less
than 50?
Young saplings should increase in height by 9% each year
under optimum conditions. If a batch of saplings which have
been planted out measure 2.2 metres in their first year:
a how high should they be in their 4th year?
b in which year should they exceed 5 metres in height?
mC A colony of ants is studied and the population of the
colony in week 1 of the study is 800. If the population of the
colony is expected to increase at the rate of 2% each week,
then the week in which the number of ants would exceed
1000 would be closest to:
a 6
B 10
C 13
d 26
e 32
A company exported $300 000 worth of manufactured goods
in its first year of production. According to the business
plan of the company, this amount should increase each year
by 7.5%.
a How much would the company be expected to export in its
5th year?
b In which year would exports exceed $500 000?
c What is the total amount exported by the company in its first
7 years of operation?

diGiTal doCS
doc-9440
SkillSHEET 5.5
relating the common
ratio of a geometric
sequence to percentage
increase or decrease
doc-9441
Spreadsheet
Sequences and series

ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

197

10 $10 000 is invested in an account which earns compound interest at 10% per annum. Find the amount

in the account after 5 years if the interest is compounded:


a yearly
b every 6 months
c quarterly

d monthly.

11 $20 000 is invested in an account earning compound interest of 10% per annum compounding quarterly.

What is the amount in the account after:


a 1 year?
b 3 years?

c 5 years?

d 10 years?

12 We22 In an account earning compound interest of 8% per annum compounding quarterly, an amount

of $6000 is invested. When the account is closed, there is $7609.45 in the account. For how many years
was the account open?
13 Sue earns 12% interest per annum compounding quarterly on her investment of $40 000. For how many
years would this investment need to operate for the amount to rise to $50 670.80?
14 An amount of $14 500 is invested in an account attracting compound interest of 6% per annum
compounding quarterly. After a certain time the interest earned in the account is $1834.14. Find out for
how long the amount had been invested.

Finding the sum of an infinite


geometric sequence
5h

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

If you are 2 metres away from a wall and you move 1 metre (or halfway) towards the wall and then
move 1 metre (or halfway again) towards the wall and continue to do this, will you reach the wall? When
2
will you reach the wall?

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

1
2

1m

2m

1
4

1
8

1m

Consider the following geometric sequence:


1 1 1 1
, , , , . . . This is an infinite geometric sequence since it continues on with an infinite number of terms.
2 4 8 16

1,
Each term in the sequence is half the size of the previous term, that is, r=0.5.
If we were to add n terms of this sequence together, we would have:
1 (1 0.5 n)
1 0.5
1 0.5 n
=
0.5
1 0.5 n
=

0.5 0.5
= 2 0.5n 1

Sn =

Consider 0.5n 1 in the equation above. As n becomes very large, the term 0.5n 1 becomes very small.
Try this with your calculator.
Let n = 5, 0.5n 1 = 0.54 = 0.0625; therefore, S5 = 2 0.0625 = 1.9375
Let n = 10, 0.5n 1 = 0.59 = 0.001 95; therefore, S10 = 2 0.001 95 = 1.998 05
Let n = 20, 0.5n 1 = 0.519 = 0.000 001 9; therefore, S20 = 2 0.000 001 9 = 1.999 998 1
We can see that as n becomes larger, 0.5n 1 becomes smaller. If n were to approach infinity (note that
you can never reach infinity, you can only approach it), then the value of 0.5n 1 would approach zero.
So, Sn = 2 0.5n 1 would become S = 2.
It is possible to generalise this in order to find the sum of an infinite geometric sequence. We use the
symbol S which is referred to as the sum to infinity of a geometric sequence.
The sum to infinity of a geometric sequence for which 1 < r < 1 is given by:
a
S =
.
1r
198

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Worked example 23

Find the sum to infinity of the geometric sequence 2, 0.4, 0.08, 0.016, 0.0032, . . .
Think

WriTe

a=2
t
r= 2
t1
0.4
=
2
= 0.2

Find a and r.

As r = 0.2 satisfies the condition a


1 < r < 1, use the formula S =
.

1r

a
1r
2
=
1 0.2
2
=

S =

0.8

= 2.5
3

Write your answer.

The sum to infinity of the given sequence is 2.5.

Worked example 24

The sum to infinity of a geometric sequence is 15 and the value of a is 10. Write the first 4 terms
of the sequence.
Think
1

WriTe

a
to find the value
1r
of r. Transpose the equation to make r the

Use the formula S =


subject.

a
1r
10
15 =
1r
S =

1 r = 10
15
r = 1 23
r = 13
2

a = 10 and r = 13. Use these to generate the


terms in the sequence.

The first 4 terms of the sequence are


, 10, 10 or 10, 313, 119, 10
.
10, 10
3 9 27
27

Worked example 25

The sum to infinity of the geometric sequence is 6.25 and the value of r is 0.2. Write the first
4 terms of the sequence.
Think

WriTe

a
to find the value of a.
1r

Use the formula S =

a = 5 and r = 0.2. Use these to generate the terms.

a
1r
a
625 =
1 0.2
6.25 0.8 = a
a=5
S =

The first 4 terms of the sequence are 5, 1, 0.2, 0.04.

ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

199

Converting recurring decimals to fractions


We can use the sum to infinity formula to convert recurring decimals to fractions.
Worked example 26

Express 1. 2 as a fraction.
Think

WriTe

We need to express 1.2 as the sum of a


geometric sequence.

1.2 = 1.222 222 222 222 2 . . .


= 1 + 0.2 + 0.02 + 0.002 + 0.0002 + . . .
= 1 + (0.2 + 0.02 + 0.002 + 0.0002 + . . .)

The terms in the bracket form an infinite


geometric sequence where a = 0.2 and r = 0.1.
Use the formula.
a
.
S =
1r

Multiply both the numerator and the


0.2
denominator of
by 10 to eliminate the
0.9
decimal.

a = 0.2
0.02
r=
0.2
= 0.1
a
S =
1r
.
0.2
0.2 =
1 0.1
0.2
=
0.9
2
=
9

State the final answer.

So, 1.2 = 1 + 29

= 12
9

Worked example 27

Express 0.645 . . . as a fraction.


Think
1

We need to express 0.645 as the sum of a


geometric sequence.

The terms in the bracket form an infinite


geometric sequence where a = 0.045 and
r = 0.01.

a
to express 0.045
Use the formula S =
1r
as a fraction first.

Multiply both the numerator and the


0.045
denominator of
by 1000 to eliminate
0.99
the decimal and simplify.
200

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

WriTe

0.645 = 0.645 454 5 . . .


= 0.6 + 0.045 + 0.000 45 + 0.000 004 5 + . . .
= 0.6 + (0.045 + 0.000 45 + 0.000 004 5 + . . .)

a = 0.045
0.000 45
r=
0.045
= 0.01
a
1r
0.045
0.045 =
1 0.01
0.045
=
0.99
S =

=
=

45
990
1
22

0.645 = 0.6 + 0.045.


Write both components as fractions and
simplify.

0.645 = 0.6 + 0.045


6
1
= +
=

10
66

110

22

5
110

71

So, 0.645 = 110

Write your answer.

Worked example 28

An injured rabbit attempts to crawl back to its burrow. It moves 30 metres in the first hour,
21 metres in the second hour and 14.7 metres in the third hour and so on. If the burrow is
200 metres away, will the rabbit make it back?
Think
1

WriTe

t1 = 30, t2 = 21 and t3 = 14.7


Now 21 = 0.7

Determine what sort of


sequence we have.

30

and 14.7 = 0.7


21
So, we have a geometric
sequence where a = 30, r = 0.7.
2

Find the value of S =

Write your answer.

30
1 0.7
= 100

a
.
1r

S =

The rabbit will cover a total of


100 metres. Since the rabbit hole
is 200 metres away, the rabbit
wont make it.

Finding the sum of an infinite


geometric sequence
exercise 5h

1 We23 Find the sum to infinity of the following geometric sequences.


a 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125, . . .
b 20, 16, 12.8, 10.24, 9.192, . . .
1 1 1 1
, , ...
3 9 27 81
0.6, 0.12, 0.024,

c 1, , ,
e 3,

1 1
, 1 , 1 , ...
5 25 125 625
50, 5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.05,

d 1, ,

0.0048, . . .

...

2 We24 Write the first 3 terms of the geometric sequence for which:
a r = 0.6 and S = 25
c r = 0.9 and S = 120

b r = 0.25 and S = 8

e r = 0.8 and S = 5

d r = 0.2 and S = 3

1
3

r = 0.2 and S = 7.5.

3 We25 Write the first 3 terms of the geometric sequence for which:
a a = 12.5 and S = 25

b a = 12.5 and S = 50

c a = 48 and S = 120

d a = 2 and S = 3 .

4
9

2
3

4 We26, 27 Express each of the following recurring decimals as fractions.


a 0.5
e 8.666 666 666 . . .

.
..

b 0.4

c 1.3

d 3.7

g 0.529

h 1.321.

0.14

5 We28 A defiant child walks 10 metres towards his mother in the first minute, 4 metres in the second

minute and 1.6 metres in the third minute. If the child continues to approach in this same pattern, and
if his mother is standing stationary, 20 metres from the childs initial position, will the child ever reach
the mother?
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

201

6 A failing machine produces 35 metres of spouting in the first hour, 21 metres in the second hour and

12.6 in the third hour. If this pattern continues and 280 metres of spouting is required, how far short of
the quota will the machine fall?
7 A nail penetrates 20 mm with the
first hit of a hammer, 12 mm with the
2nd hit and 7.2mm with the 3rd. If
this pattern continues, will the 50 mm
long nail ever be completely
hammeredin?
8 A woman establishes a committee to raise money for a hospital. It raises $40 000 in the first year,
$36 800 in the 2nd year and $33 856 in the third year. If the fundraising continues in this pattern, how
far short will they fall in raising $1 000 000?
9 A will of a recently deceased woman specifies how her money is to be donated to a charity. Her total
wealth of $12.5 million is to be donated for eternity with the first donation of $1 million in the first year.
a What fraction of this first donation should be donated for the second year and subsequent years?
b Write the value of the donations for each of the first 5 years.
c How much will be donated after 10 years?

Contrasting arithmetic and geometric


sequences through graphs
5i

inTeraCTiViTY
int-0186
Contrasting arithmetic
and geometric
sequences

When discrete variables are presented graphically some distinct features may be evident. This is
especially so for discrete variables that have an arithmetic or geometric pattern.

arithmetic patterns
Value of term tn

Value of term tn

Arithmetic patterns are distinguished by a straight line or a constant increase or decrease.

3 4
Term n

2 3 4
Term n

d is negative

d is positive
An increasing pattern or a positive common
difference gives an upward straight line.

A decreasing pattern or a negative common


difference gives a downward straight line.

Geometric patterns
Value of term tn

Value of term tn

Geometric patterns are distinguished by a curved line or a saw form.

2 3 4
Term n

An increasing pattern or a positive common ratio


greater than 1 (r > 1) gives an upward curved line.
202

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

2 3 4
Term n

A decreasing pattern or a positive fractional common


ratio (0 < r < 1) gives a downward curved line.

Value of term tn

Value of term tn

Term n

An increasing saw pattern occurs when the


common ratio is a negative value less than
1 (r < 1).

Term n

A decreasing saw pattern occurs when the


common ratio is a negative proper fraction
(1 < r < 0).

On the graph at right, the first 5 terms of a sequence


are plotted. State whether the sequence could be arithmetic
or geometric and give the value of a and the value of either
d or r.

Value of term

Worked example 29

50
40
30
20
10
0

Think

2 3 4
Term number

WriTe

Examine the difference between the


value of each of the terms. In each
case, they are the same, that is, 10.

There is a constant difference between each


successive term so the straight line graph shows
an arithmetic sequence.

Find a.

t1 = 40, so a = 40.

Find d.

t2 = 30 and t1 = 40.
d = t2 t1 = 10.

Worked example 30

Calculate the total amount in an account if $10 000 is invested for 5 years and earns:
a simple interest of 10% per annum
b compound interest of 10% per annum compounding yearly.
c For each of the above cases, graph, on the same set of axes, the amount in the account over the
five years. Use your graph or calculations to calculate the difference between the accounts after
4 years.
Think

a Calculate how much is in the account earning

simple interest at the end of each of the five years.

WriTe

a After 1 year, amount in account

= 10 000 + 10% of 10 000


= 10 000 + 1000
= $11 000
After 2 years, amount in account
= 10 000 + 2 10% of 10 000
= $12 000
After 3 years = $13 000
After 4 years = $14 000
After 5 years = $15 000
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

203

b Calculate the amount in the account earning

b After 1 year, amount in account

= 10 000 1.11
= $11 000
After 2 years, amount in account
= 10 000 1.12
= $12 100
After 3 years = $13 310
After 4 years = $14 641
After 5 years = $16 105

compound interest at the end of each of the


r
5 years using A = PRn where R = 1 +
100
10
(that is, 1 +
= 1.1).
100

c 1 Draw the graphs of the amount in the

Amount in account ($)

account earning simple interest (straight


line) and the amount in the account earning
compound interest (curved line) on the same
set of axes.

17 000
16 000
15 000
14 000
13 000
12 000
11 000
10 000

Compound interest

Simple interest

1 2 3 4 5
Number of years invested (n)

Use the values calculated for the end of the


fourth year.

Difference in amounts = 14 641 14 000


= $641

Write your answer.

After 4 years, the compound interest account


earns an extra $641 in interest.

Contrasting arithmetic and geometric


sequences through graphs
exercise 5i

1 We29 On the graph below, the first five terms of a sequence are plotted.
Value of term

5
4
3
2
1
0

2 3 4
Term number

State whether the sequence could be arithmetic or geometric and give the value of a and the value of
either d or r.

Value of term

2 On the graph below, the first five terms of a sequence are plotted.
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

2 3 4
Term number

State whether the sequence could be arithmetic or geometric and give the value of a and the value of
either d or r.
204

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Value of term

3 On the graph below, the first five terms of a sequence are plotted.
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

2 3 4
Term number

State whether the sequence could be arithmetic or geometric and give the value of a and the value of
either d or r.
State whether the sequence could be arithmetic or geometric
and give the value of a and the value of either d or r.

Value of term

4 On the graph at right, the first five terms of a sequence are plotted.
20
15
10
5
0

5 Draw a graph showing the first 8 terms of each of the following

sequences:

2 3 4
Term number

a arithmetic, a = 7, d = 2

b geometric, a = 5, r =

c arithmetic, a = 14, d = 3.5

d arithmetic, a = 32, d = 5

e geometric, a = 12, r =

10
.
3

6 mC On the graph at right, the first five terms of a sequence


Value of term

are plotted.
The sequence could be described by which one of the
following?
a Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 10
B Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 0.5
C Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 0.5
d Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 2
e Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 1.5

Value of term

sequence are plotted.


The sequence could be described by which one of
the following?
a Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 20
B Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 20
C Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 10
d Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 20
e Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 1

10
5
0
5
10

1
2

180
150
120
90
60
30
0

7 mC On the graph at right, the first five terms of a

2 3 4
Term number

5 Term number

8 We30 An amount of $5000 is invested for 3 years and earns:


a simple interest of 10% per annum
b compound interest of 10% per annum compounding yearly.

On the same set of axes, plot points showing the amount in each account at the end of each of the 3years.
9 An amount of $100 000 is invested for 3 years and earns:
a simple interest of 15% per annum
b compound interest of 15% per annum compounding yearly.

On the same set of axes, plot points showing the amount in each account at the end of each of the 3 years.
10 On the same set of axes, sketch the graphs of the sequences with the rule un = 10n and

vn = 10 1.5n 1. Use your graph to decide for how many of the first five terms un is greater than vn.

11 On the same set of axes, sketch the graphs of the sequences with the rule un = 120 20n and

vn = 100 0.8n 1. Use your graph to decide for how many of the first five terms un is greater than vn.
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

205

Summary
Recognition of
arithmetic sequences

An arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers for which the difference between successive terms is
the same.
Given an arithmetic sequence, identify:
the first term, a
and the common difference, d = t2 t1.
Given an unspecified sequence, establish whether it is arithmetic by testing all terms for a common
difference: d = t2 t1 = t3 t2 = t4 t3 = ...

Finding the terms


of an arithmetic
sequence

tn = a + (n 1) d where tn is the nth term.



a is the first term

d is the common difference.

The sum of a given


number of terms of an
arithmetic sequence

A series is the sum of terms in a sequence.


Sn is the sum of the first n terms in series, for example, S25 represents the sum of the first 25 terms.
Given a number of terms in a series, n, first term, a and the last term, l, use:
n
Sn = (a + l).
2
Given a number of terms in a series, n, first term, a and the common difference, d, use:
n
Sn = [2a + (n 1)d].
2

Recognition of
geometric sequences

A geometric sequence is a sequence of numbers for which the ratio of successive terms is the same.
Given a geometric sequence, identify:
the first term, a
t
and the common ratio, r = 2 .
t1
Given an unspecified sequence, establish whether it is geometric by testing all terms for a common
t t t
ratio, r = 2 = 3 = 4 = ...
t1 t2 t3

Finding the terms of a


geometric sequence

tn = arn 1
where tn is the nth term

a is the first term

r is the common ratio.

The sum of a given


number of terms of a
geometric sequence

2, 4, 8, 6, 32, 64 is a finite geometric sequence.


2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 is a finite geometric series.
The sum of n terms, Sn, of a geometric sequence may be calculated using:
a(rn 1)
3
Sn =
if r > 1 or r < 1 (for example, r = 2 or 2 or +2 or +4.5).
r1
or
a(1 rn)
if 1 < r < 1 (for example, r = 0.2 or 1 or 0.25).
Sn =
8
1r

Geometric growth

Growth or increase is expressed as a percentage increase.


% increase
Common ratio, r = 1 +
.
100
r values are greater than 1, for example, an 8% increase gives r = 1.08.

Geometric decay

Decay or decrease is expressed as a percentage decrease.


% decrease
Common ratio, r = 1
.
100
r values are less than 1, for example, an 8% decrease gives r = 0.92.

206 Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Compound interest

r
100
A = amount in the account, $
P = principal, $
r = interest rate per compounding period (e.g. per year, per quarter), %
n = the number of compounding periods during the investment.

A = PRn where R = 1 +
and

For decreasing or decaying geometric series, the sum of an infinite number of terms approaches a
finite sum.
The sum to infinity of a geometric sequence for which 1 < r < 1 is given by:
a
S =
.
1r

Contrasting arithmetic
and geometric
sequences through
graphs

Arithmetic patterns are distinguished by a straight line.


Value of term tn

Value of term tn

Finding the sum of


an infinite geometric
sequence

2 3 4
Term n

d is positive

2 3 4
Term n

d is negative

An increasing pattern or a positive common


difference gives an upward straight line.

A decreasing pattern or a negative common


difference gives a downward straight line.

Value of term tn

Value of term tn

Geometric patterns are distinguished by a curved line or a saw form.

2 3 4 5
Term n
An increasing pattern or a positive
common ratio greater than 1 (r > 1) gives
an upward curved line.

Term n

An increasing saw pattern occurs when


the common ratio is a negative value
less than 1 (r < 1).

Value of term tn

Value of term tn

A decreasing pattern or a positive fractional


common ratio (0 < r < 1) gives a downward
curved line.

2 3 4
Term n

Term n

A decreasing saw pattern occurs when the


common ratio is a negative proper fraction
(1 < r < 0).

ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

207

Chapter review
mUlT ip l e
Ch oiCe

1 Which of the following could be the first 5 terms of an arithmetic sequence?


a 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, . . .
d 5, 5, 10, 15, 20, . . .

B 3, 3, 6, 6, 9, . . .
e 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, . . .

C 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, . . .

2 For the sequence 3.6, 2.1, 0.6, 0.9, 2.4, . . ., it is true to say it is:
a
B
C
d
e

an infinite sequence with a = 3.6 and d = 0.15


an infinite sequence with a = 3.6 and d = 1.5
an infinite sequence with a = 0.15 and d = 3.6
a finite sequence with a = 0.15 and d = 3.6
a finite sequence with a = 3.6 and d = 0.15.

3 For the arithmetic sequence, 1, 1, 3, 5, 7, . . . the value of a, the value of d and the rule for the sequence

are given respectively by:

a a = 1, d = 2, tn = 3 + 2n
d a = 2, d = 1, tn = 3 n

B a = 1, d = 2, tn = 3 n
e a = 2, d = 1, tn = 3 n

C a = 1, d = 1, tn = 2 n

4 The 43rd term of the arithmetic sequence 7, 2, 11, 20, 29, . . . is:
a 327

B 243

C 371

5 The 3rd term of an arithmetic sequence is 3.1 and the 7th term is
a 153.7

B 27.7

C 28.9

d 380
1.3.

e 387

The value of the 31st term is:


e 157.9

d 38.3

6 The sum of the first 24 terms of the sequence 16, 12, 8, 4, 0, . . . is:
a 720

B 912

C 1344

d 1440

e 1488

7 The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 14 and the 3rd is 8. The sum of the first 30 terms of the

sequence is:
d 1725
e 2190
a 1770
B 1095
C 885
8 There is a geometric sequence for which a = 3 and r is a negative number. We can be certain that:
a r is a fraction less than 1
B the 3rd term will be a positive number
C the 3rd term will be greater than the 1st term
d only one number in the sequence is positive
e the 4th term will be greater than the 3rd term
9 Which of the following is a geometric sequence?
a 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, . . .
d 4,

4,

2,

2,

1 1 1 1
, , ,
3 9 27 81

B 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .

1, . . .

C 1, ,

e 100, 10, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, . . .

...

10 The 19th term of the geometric sequence 3.25, 6.5, 13, 26, 52, . . . is:
a 425 984

B 851 968

C 1 703 936

d 41 978 243

e 3 272 883 098

11 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 19.35 and the 6th is 522.45. The 12th term of the sequence is:
a 16 539.15

B 417 629.75

C 126 955.35

d 380 866.05

e 1 142 598.15

12 The first 3 terms of a geometric sequence are 2.25, 4.5, 9. The first term to exceed 1000 is:
a t9

B t10

C t11

d t12

13 The sum of the first 10 terms of the geometric sequence 8, 4, 2, 1,


a 15

B 16

C 17

1
,
2

e t13

. . . is closest to:

d 18

e 20

14 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 0.9 and the 6th is 7.2. The sum of the first 12 terms of the

sequence is closest to:


B 122
C 921
d 4122
e 8190
a 2
15 A tree increases in height each year by 5%. If it was 1.2 m high in its first year, in its 6th year its height
would be closest to:
a 1.53 m
B 1.61 m
C 5.5 m
d 9.11 m
e 3750 m
16 Profits in a company are projected to increase by 8% each year. If the profit in the first year was
$60 000, in which year could a profit in excess of $100 000 be expected?
a year 6
B year 7
C year 8
d year 9
e year 10
64 256
17 The sum to infinity of the geometric sequence 1, 45 , 16
,
.
.
.
is:
,
,
25 125 625
1
5
4
a
B
C 1
d 4
e 5
5
4
5
1
3

18 The first term of the geometric sequence for which r = 0.5 and S = 5 is:
a 1

208

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

1
B 2
3

C 2

2
3

d 8

e 10

2
3

19 The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the


Value of term

graph at right.
The sequence could be described by which of
the following?
a Arithmetic sequence with a = 50 and d = 25
B Arithmetic sequence with a = 50 and d = 0.5
C Geometric sequence with a = 50 and r = 0.5
d Geometric sequence with a = 50 and r = 1.5
e Geometric sequence with a = 50 and r = 2

300
250
200
150
100
50
0

20 The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the


Value of term

graph at right.
The sequence could be described by which of the
following?
a Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 5
B Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 0.5
C Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 5
d Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 5
e Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 0.5

15
10
5
0
5
10
15

2 3 4 5
Term number

5 Term number

1 For the sequences below, state whether or not they are an arithmetic sequence. If they are, give the

value of a and d.
a

123, 23,

77, 177, 277, . . .

5 1 , 2 1 , 3 ,
4
4 4

S ho rT
a n S W er

334, 634, . . .

2 If the second term of an arithmetic sequence is 5 and the fifth term is 16, which term in the sequence is

equal to 226?
3 Blood donations at a suburban location increase by 40 each year. If there are 520 donations in the first year:
a how many donations are made in the 15th year?
b what is the total number of donations made over those 15 years?
4 For each of the sequences below, state whether or not they are a geometric sequence. If they are, state

the value of a and r.


5 5 5 5
, ...
2 4 8 16
700, 70, 7, 7,

a 5, , , ,

70, . . .
5 The amount of garbage (in tonnes) collected in a particular area by the local council each year is
recorded over 3 successive years.
b

Year number Amount of garbage (tonnes)


1

7.2

8.28

9.522

If the amount collected each year were to continue to follow a geometric sequence:
a write a rule for the amount of garbage, tn, which would be collected in the area in year n
b how much garbage would be collected in the 8th year? (Answer correct to 2 decimal places.)
c in which year would the amount of garbage collected exceed 30 tonnes?
6 How many terms of the geometric sequence 164, 131.2, 104.96, 83.968, 67.1744, . . . are required for
the sum to exceed 800?
ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

209

7 Andrew invests $25 000 in an account earning compound interest of 10% per annum compounding

quarterly.
a Find the amount in the account after 3 years.
b Find how long it would take to have $40 965.41 in his account.
8 Express 3.7 as a fraction.
9 The batteries in a toy soldier are running down. The toy soldier marches 50 cm in the first minute,

30 cm in the second minute, 18 cm in the next and so on. By how much does the toy soldier fall short of
marching 1.5 m?
10 On the same set of axes, sketch the graph of the sequence with the rule:
b vn = 10 2n 1.

a un = 10n
e x Tended
r e S p onS e

Task 1
1 Consider the geometric sequence 1, 3, 9, . . . , whose common ratio is 3.
a Subtract successive terms to form the sequence 2, 6, . . . Is this a geometric sequence as well and,

if so, what is its common ratio?

b Add successive terms to form the sequence 4, 12, . . . Is this a geometric sequence as well and, if

so, what is its common ratio?


c Repeat parts a and b for multiplication and division.
d Prove your result of part a for any geometric sequence.
2 In this problem we are comparing simple and compound interest.

Consider a bank, which offers a simple interest rate of 5% per annum on an investment of $100.
a What is the value of the investment for each of the first 5 years?
b Consider another bank, which offers compound interest at the same rate of 5%. What is the value
of the investment for each of the first 5 years?
c When will the value of the investment in part b be twice as much as the investment in part a?

Task 2
1 A newly established quarry produces

crushed rock for the building of roads


and freeways. The amount of crushed
rock (in tonnes) it produces increases
1
by 3 2 tonnes each month and its
production for the first 3months of
operation is shown below.
Month

Crushed rock
produced (tonnes)

11.5

15

a Write the amount of crushed rock

produced in the 4th month.


b Write a rule for tn, the amount of crushed rock produced in month n, expressed in terms of n, the

nth month.

c Write the amount of crushed rock produced in the 60th month.


d During which month will the amount of crushed rock coming from the quarry exceed

100tonnes?
e The local council has ordered that after a total of 3050 tonnes of crushed rock has been extracted

from the quarry, an environmental impact survey must be completed. After how many months will
that happen?
210

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

2 The amount of crushed rock produced each month at a second quarry is shown below.

Month
1
2
3

Crushed rock produced (tonnes)


10
11
12.1

Given that production at this quarry increases geometrically, find:


a the common ratio, r
b a rule for the amount of crushed rock produced, tn, in tonnes, expressed in terms of the number of
months, n
c the amount of crushed rock produced in the 5th month
d in which month the amount of crushed rock produced exceeds 30 tonnes
e the total amount of crushed rock produced by the quarry in its first year of operation.
3 During its first month of production, the second quarry produces more crushed rock than the first
quarry. In the months after that, however, the first quarry produced more crushed rock than the second
quarry.
After how many months does the second quarry produce more than the first quarry again?

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

diGiTal doC
doc-9442
Test Yourself
Chapter 5

ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

211

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9435: Warm up with a quick quiz on
arithmetic and geometric sequences. (page 171)

5B

Finding the terms of an arithmetic sequence

TUTorial
We 5 eles-1268: Watch a worked example on finding the value of
a term in an arithmetic sequence given its value and the beginning
of an arithmetic sequence. (page 176)
inTeraCTiViTY
Number patterns int-0007: Recognise the relationship between two
variables by observing patterns. (page 175)

5C The sum of a given number of terms of an


arithmetic sequence
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 5.1 doc-9436: Recognise arithmetic sequences and
series. (page 182)
TUTorial
We 8 eles-1269: Watch a tutorial on finding the sum of an
arithmetic sequence using the formula. (page 180)

5e

Finding the terms of a geometric sequence

diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 5.3 doc-9437: Practise solving non-linear simultaneous
equations (page 189)
SkillSHEET 5.4 doc-9438: Practise solving indicial equations
(page 189)
TUTorial
We 14 eles-1270: Learn how to find the value of a term in
a geometric sequence using a CAS calculator and by using a
spreadsheet. (page 188)

212

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

5F The sum of a given number of terms of a


geometric sequence
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 5.2 doc-9439: Recognise geometric sequences and
series. (page 193)
TUTorial
We 17 eles-1271: Watch a tutorial on finding the value of the
sum of a geometric sequence given two non-consecutive terms.
(page 192)

5G

applications of geometric sequences

diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 5.5 doc-9440: Practise relating the common ratio of a
geometric sequence to percentage increase or decrease. (page 197)
Spreadsheet doc-9441: Investigate graphs of arithmetic sequences
and series. (page 197)
TUTorial
We 19 eles-1332: Watch a worked example on applying the
concepts involved in geometric sequences to real life. (page 194)

5i Contrasting arithmetic and geometric


sequences through graphs
inTeraCTiViTY
Contrasting arithmetic and geometric sequences int-0186:
Consolidate your understanding of arithmetic and geometric
sequences. (page 202)

Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc-9442: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 211)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Answers CHAPTER 5
ariThmeTiC and GeomeTriC
SeQUenCeS
exercise 5a

recognition of arithmetic

sequences
1 a, c, i
2 a a = 2, d = 5
c a = 2, d = 2
i a = 10, d = 10
3 a, c, d, e
4 a a = 123, d = 100
c a = 7, d = 6
d a = 67, d = 40
e a = 5, d = 7
5 a, c, f
6 a a = 0.7, d = 0.3
c a = 3.5, d = 1.5
f a = 5.2, d = 0.8
7 a, b, c, d
1
8 a a= ,d=1
2
1
5

c a= ,d=

2
5

b a= ,d=2
4
d a=

3
4

,d=4

9 a, d, e
10 a a = 2, d = 2
d a = not specified, d = 2
e a = 8, d = 8
11 a 7th
b 7th
c 8th
d 5th
12 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, 61, 68
13 212, 221, 230, 239, 248
14 B
15 D
exercise 5B Finding the terms of an
arithmetic sequence
b 38
c 2900
1 a 122
d 149
f 549.9
e 219
b 1777
2 a 103
c 60
d 217
b 28th
c 34th
d 279th
3 a 24th
4 tn = 13 + 10n
5 tn = 37 + 3n
b 10
6 a tn = 5 + 10n
7A
8B
9 D

10 26.8
13 24

1
2

11

1
12 5

14 31st

12 78.4
15 44th

16 E
17 10.9 metres 18 101
19 tn = 3 + 4n
20 a tn = 8.5 + 3.5n
b 358.5 metres
exercise 5C

The sum of a given number


of terms of an arithmetic sequence
b 5950
1 a 820
c 667
d 928
2 3320
3 107.5
b 634.8
4 a 735
c 396.5
d 182.25
b 2, 5, 8
5 a 56
6 a 170
b 4, 2, 8
7B
8B
9 13 680
10 364
11 11 562
b 5.5, 7, 8.5
12 a 31
b 11, 8, 5
13 a 46

14
15
16
17
18
19

16 a tn = 1.2 1.05n 1
b 1.46 m
c 12
17 D
18 A
19 B

$9375
$414 000
363.8 cm
1135
a $10 600
a $155

b $136 000
b $2150

exercise 5d recognition of geometric


sequences
1 a, b, c, f, g
2 a a = 1, r = 2
b a = 2, r = 3
c a = 1, r = 4
f a = 3, r = 2
g a = 5, r = 2
3 a, d, e, h
4 a a = 1, r = 2
d a = 2, r = 3

e a = 4, r = 2
h a = 5, r = 4
5 a, c, d
6 a a = 1, r = 2
c a = 4, r = 3
d a = 7, r = 1
7 a, c, f
8 a a = 2, r = 2
c a = 3, r = 5

f a = 6, r = 10
9 a, c, d, e
10 a a = 1.2, r = 2
c a = 2.25, r = 2
1
d a = 7, r =
e a = 10, r = 1.2
2
11 a, c, d, f
1
2

1
2

c a= ,r=

d a= ,r=2

f a = 1, r =

D
D

14 D
16 C
b a = $100, r = 1.1
b 2

12 a a = , r =
1
3

13
15
17
18

a Various answers
a 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
c 2048

1
4

1
5
1
3

19 20 million, 10 million, 5 million,


1

2 2 million, 1 4 million, 625 000, 312 500


20 a Greater than
b 0 and 1
c Equal to
d 1
e 1 and 0
exercise 5e Finding the terms of a
geometric sequence
1 a 20 155 392
b 1 412 376 245
c 1 048 576
d 1408
e 295 245
f 536 870 912
2 a 576 716.8
b 11.867 494 81
c 2489.861 155
3 a 131 072
b 1 062 882
4 a 39 366
b 6144
c 32 768
5 a 12th
b 13th
c 9th
6 a tn = 2n 1
b 2048
7 a tn = 6n 1
b 1296
c 6
8 153.773 437 5
9 105.932 812 5
1

The sum of a given number


of terms of a geometric sequence
1 a 531 440
b 686 285
c 274 576.3
d 559 240.5
2 a 20 475
b 442 865
c 262 143
d 4 545 454 546
3 a 10
b 8
c 14
d 11
4 B
5 A
6 596.65
7 153.6256
8 153.6
9 62.5
10 10 000.0
11 5
exercise 5G applications
sequences
1 a 5.67
b
c 12.7 tonnes
d
2 a $2146.53
b
c $5646.65
3 Pn = 10 000 0.9n 1
4 a $19 317.32
b
5 a 14 147
b
6 a 123
b
7 a 2.85 m
b
8 C
9 a $400 640.74
b
c $2 636 196.56
10 a $16 105.10
b
c $16 386.16
d
11 a $22 076.26
b
c $32 772.33
d
12 3 years
13 2 years
14 2 years

of geometric

17th year
24.82
Year 9
$6317.32
16th year
10 weeks
Year 11
Year 9
$16 288.95
$16 453.09
$26 897.78
$53 701.28

exercise 5h Finding the sum of an


infinite geometric sequence
3
1 a 100
b 100
c
2

5
4

5
f 45

e 2.5

11

10, 6, 3.6
b 6, 1.5, 0.375
12, 10.8, 9.72
d 4, 0.8, 0.16
9, 7.2, 5.76
f 6, 1.2, 0.24
12.5, 6.25, 3.125
12.5, 9.375, 7.031 25
48, 28.8, 17.28
4 22 22
d 2 , ,
9 27 81

2 a
c
e
3 a
b
c
4 a

5
9

b
7

d 39
g

262
495

4
9

c 1

e 8

2
3

h 1

321
999

1
3

14
99

1
3

5 No falls short by 3 metres

10 2048
1

6 192.5 m
8 $500 000

11 341 3
12 531 441

9 a

13 0.013 671 875


14

20 C

exercise 5F

23
25

b $1 000 000, $920 000, $846 400, $778 688,

64
729

15 a tn = 10 000 0.85n 1

7 Yes

b $2724.91

$716 392.96

c $7 070 144.32

ChapTer 5 Arithmetic and geometric sequences

213

5 a

8 10

4 104
2 104

tn
30

15

Amount ($)

10
5
0

8 n

b tn

7
9

80
70

6000

Legend
Simple interest
Compound interest

5500
5000
1

2
Year

60
50
40
30

Amount ($)

8 n

tn
15

0
5

130 000

0
2

10

2
Year

10 3 terms
11 0 terms

ChapTer reVieW

15
tn
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
5

Legend
Simple interest
Compound interest

120 000
110 000

mUlTiple ChoiCe

1
6
11
16

C
A
D
C

2
7
12
17

B
C
B
E

3
8
13
18

A
B
B
D

ShorT anSWer

1 a Yes, a = 123, d = 100


1

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Un = 10n
1

4
2
3
Term number (n)

exTended reSponSe

140 000

Vn = 10 2n 1

10

150 000

10

Legend

20

160 000

b 5 years

9 25 cm

214

b 19.2 tonnes

10

5 a tn = 7.2 1.15n 1
c Year 12
6 17
7 a $33 622.22

6500

6
5

b 12 000
b No

8 3

8 n

6 D
7 E
8

20

3 a 1080
1
4 a Yes, a = 5, r =

6 104

25

tn

Amount ($)

exercise 5i Contrasting arithmetic and


geometric sequences through graphs
1 Arithmetic sequence with a = 0 and d = 1
2 Arithmetic sequence with a = 10 and d = 2
3 Geometric sequence with a = 10 and r = 1.5
4 Geometric sequence with a = 20 and r = 0.5

1
4

b Yes, a = 5 , d = 3
2 Term number 35

4
9
14
19

C
A
C
D

5
10
15
20

B
B
A
A

Task 1
1 a Common ratio is 3.
b Common ratio is 3.
c Multiplication: common ratio is 9 (32);
division: common ratio is 1 (30).
d The ratio of the second term to the first
term, after the subtraction, is
ar 2 ar ar (r 1)
=
= r.
ar a
a(r 1)
2 a $105, $110, $115, $120, $125
b $105, $110.25, $115.76, $121.55,
$127.63
c 35 years
Task 2
1
1 a 18 tonnes
b tn = 4.5 + 3.5n
2
c 214.5 tonnes
d 28th month
e 40 months
2 a 1.1
b tn = 10 1.1n 1
c 14.641 tonnes
d 13th month
e 213.84 tonnes
3 24th month

ChapTer 6

Difference equations
ChapTer ConTenTS
6a
6b
6C
6d
6e
6F
6G

Generating the terms of a sequence defined by a first order difference equation


The relationship between arithmetic sequences and first order difference equations
The relationship between geometric sequences and first order difference equations
Setting up first order difference equations to represent practical situations
Graphical representation of a sequence defined by a first order difference equation
Interpretation of the graph of first order difference equations
Fibonacci sequences as second order difference equations

diGiTal doC
doc-9443
10 Quick Questions

introduction
In the previous chapter we examined arithmetic and geometric patterns, examining such patterns with
explicit functions like tn = a + (n 1) d. Another approach is to look at how two consecutive terms in a
sequence are related. This approach is more useful in practical applications in which the information is
provided as follows:
The population is increasing by 10% each year, less 200 deaths, with a current population of 9500.
In the above statement we are told about the relationship or change in population from one year to the
next and are given a starting term.

Generating the terms of a sequence


defined by a first order difference
equation
6a

Consider the arithmetic sequence:


1, 5, 9, 13, 17, . . .
The common difference for this sequence is 4.
If tn represents the nth term of the sequence, then tn + 1 represents the next term; that is, the (n+ 1)th term.
We can define the arithmetic sequence 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, . . . with the following equation:
tn + 1 = tn +

t1 = 1.

The expression is read as the next term is the previous term plus 4, starting at 1.
Or, transposing the above equation, we get:
tn + 1 tn = 4

t1 = 1.

This is read as the difference between two consecutive terms is4, starting at 1.
This equation is called a first order difference equation. It has two main parts:
tn + 1 = tn + 4 describes the pattern in the sequence
t1 = 1 is the first or starting term in the sequence.
A first order difference equation defines a relationship between two successive terms of
a sequence, for example, between:
tn, the previous term

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with first order
difference
equations.

tn + 1, the next term.


ChapTer 6 Difference equations

215

Another notation that can be used is:


tn 1, the previous term

tn, the next term.

The first term can be represented by either t0 or t1.


Throughout this chapter we will use either notation format as short hand for next term, previous term
and first term.
Worked exaMple 1

The following equations each define a sequence. Which of them are first order difference equations
(defining a relationship between two consecutive terms)?
a tn = tn 1 + 2
t1 = 3
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
b tn = 4 + 2n
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
c fn + 1 = 3fn
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
Think

WriTe

a The equation contains the consecutive

a This is a first order difference equation. It has the pattern

tn = tn 1 + 2
and a starting or first term of t1 = 3.

terms tn and tn 1 to describe a pattern


with a known term.
b The equation contains only the tn term.

b This is not a first order difference equation because

c The equation contains the consecutive

c This is an incomplete first order difference equation.

There is no tn + 1 or tn 1 term.

it does not describe the relationship between two


consecutive terms.

terms fn and fn + 1 to describe a pattern


but has no known first or starting term.

It has no first or starting term, so a sequence cannot be


commenced.

Given a fully defined first order difference equation (pattern and a known term) we can generate the
other terms of the sequence.

Starting term
Earlier, it was stated that a starting term was required to fully define a sequence. As can be seen below,
the same pattern with a different starting point gives a different set of numbers.
tn + 1 = tn + 2
tn + 1 = tn + 2

t1 = 3
t1 = 2

gives 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, . . .
gives 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .

Worked exaMple 2

Write the first five terms of the sequence defined by the first order difference equation:
tn = 3tn 1 + 5
t0 = 2.
Think

216

WriTe

Since we know the t0 or starting term, we can


generate the next term, t1, using the pattern:
The next term is 3 the previous term + 5.

tn = 3tn 1 + 5
t1 = 3t0 + 5
=32+5
= 11

Now we can continue generating the next


term, t2, and so on.

t2 = 3t1 + 5
= 3 11 + 5
= 38
t3 = 3t2 + 5
= 3 38 + 5
= 119
t4 = 3t3 + 5
= 3 119 + 5
= 362

Write your answer.

The sequence is 2, 11, 38, 119, 362.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

t0 = 2

Worked exaMple 3

A sequence is defined by the first order difference equation:


tn + 1 = 2tn 3
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

If the fourth term of the sequence is 29, that is, t4 = 29, then what is the second term?
Think

WriTe

Transpose the equation to make the previous


term, tn, the subject.

tn =

Use t4 to find t3 by substituting into the


transposed equation.

t3 =

Use t3 to find t2.

Write your answer.

tn + 1 + 3
2

t4 + 3
2
29 + 3
=
2

= 13

t3 + 3
2
13 + 3
=
2
= 5
t2 =

The second term, t2, is 5.

Generating the terms of a sequence


defined by a first order difference equation
exercise 6a

1 We1
Which of the following equations are complete first order difference equations?
a tn = 2 + n
b tn = tn 1 1
t0 = 2
c tn = 1 3tn 1
t0 = 2
d tn 4tn 1 = 5
e tn = tn 1
f tn = n + 1
t1 = 2
g tn = 1 tn 1
t0 = 21
h tn = an 1
t2 = 2
i fn + 1 = 3fn 1
j pn = pn 1 + 7
t0 = 7
2 We2

a Write the first five terms of each of the following sequences.

i tn = tn 1 + 2
iii tn = 1 + tn 1

t0 = 6
t0 = 23

ii tn = tn 1 3
iv tn + 1 = tn 10

t0 = 5
t1 = 7

b From your knowledge of chapter 5, write whether the sequences you have found in partsiiv are

arithmetic or geometric sequences.


3

a Write the first five terms of each of the following sequences.

t0 = 1
ii tn = 5tn 1
t0 = 2
t0 = 1
iv tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 1
b From your knowledge of chapter 5, write whether the sequences you have found in parts iiv are
arithmetic or geometric sequences.
i tn = 3tn 1
iii tn = 4tn 1

4 Write the first five terms of each of the following sequences.


a tn = 2tn 1 + 1
t0 = 1
b tn = 3tn 1 2
t1 = 5
c tn = tn 1 + 1
t0 = 6
d tn + 1 = 5tn 1
t1 = 1
5 MC Which of the sequences below is generated by the following first order difference equation?

tn = 3tn 1 +
a 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, . . .
C 2, 10, 34, 106, 322, . . .
e 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, . . .

t0 = 2
b 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, . . .
d 2, 11, 47, 191, 767, . . .

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

217

6 MC Which of the sequences below is generated by the following first order difference equation?
a
b
C
d
e

3,

5, 9, 17, 33, . . .
3, 5, 9, 17, 33, . . .
3, 5, 3, 5, 3, . . .
3, 8, 14, 26, 54, . . .
3, 7, 15, 31, 63, . . .

tn + 1 = 2tn 1

t1 = 3

7 We3 A sequence is defined by the first order difference equation:

tn + 1 = 3tn + 1

n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

If the fourth term is 67 (that is, t4 = 67) what is the second term?
8 A sequence is defined by the first order difference equation:

tn + 1 = 4tn 5

n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

If the third term is 41 (that is, t3 = 41) what is the first term?
9 MC A sequence is defined by the first order difference equation:

tn + 1 = 5tn 10
If the third term is
a

14
6

d 2

10,

n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

the first term is:


5

C 0

b 6
e 4

10 Write the first order difference equations for the following descriptions of a sequence and generate the

first five terms of the sequence.


1
a The next term is 3 times the previous term, starting at .
4
b Next years attendance at a motor show is 2000 more than the previous years attendance, with a
first year attendance of 200 000.
c The next term is the previous term less 7, starting at 100.
d The next days total sum is double the previous days sum less 50, with a first day sum
of $200.

The relationship between arithmetic


sequences and first order difference
equations
6b

In the next few exercises, a link will be made between first order difference equations and arithmetic and
geometric sequences studied in chapter 5.
Note the variation in the pronumerals used. This is best summarised in a table.
Arithmetic and geometric
sequence convention

First order difference


equation convention

a or t1

t0 or t1

Common difference

Common ratio

Term
First term

This is an inconvenient interchange of pronumerals, but it is most important to appreciate the


translation from one convention to the other.
We know that a sequence may be defined by a difference equation. We can sometimes tell what type of
sequence we have by observing the first order difference equation.
Consider the arithmetic sequence 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, . . .
From chapter 5:
d = t2 t1 = t3 t2 = t4 t3 = . . .
d = 7 3 = 11 7 = 15 11 = +4
218

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

The common difference is +4.


This sequence may be defined by the first order difference equation:
tn + 1 tn = 4

t1 = 3.

tn + 1 = tn + 4

t1 = 3.

Rewriting this, we obtain:


An arithmetic sequence with a common difference of d may be defined by a first order
difference equation of the form:
tn + 1 = tn + b
where

(or tn + 1 tn = b)

b is the common difference and for


b > 0 it is an increasing sequence
b < 0 it is a decreasing sequence.

Worked exaMple 4

Which of the following first order difference equations defines an arithmetic sequence?
a tn + 1 = tn + 2 t1 = 3
b tn + 1 = 2tn t1 = 5
c tn + 1 = tn 6 t0 = 11
Think

a Check whether the difference equation is of the

form tn + 1 = tn + b.

b Check whether the difference equation is of the

form tn + 1 = tn + b.

c Check whether the difference equation is of the

form tn + 1 = tn + b.

WriTe

a The first order difference equation defines an

arithmetic sequence with a common difference


of +2, an increasing sequence.
b The first order difference equation does not define

an arithmetic sequence because the tn term has a


coefficient of 2.
c The first order difference equation defines an

arithmetic sequence with a common difference


of 6, a decreasing sequence.

Worked exaMple 5

Express each of the following arithmetic sequences as first order difference equations.
a 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, . . .
b 9, 3, 3, 9, 15, . . .
Think

a 1 Write the sequence.

WriTe

a 7, 12, 17, 22, 27, . . .

Check for a common difference.

b = t4 t3
= 22 17
=5

There is a common difference of 5 and the


first term is 7.

The first order difference equation is given by:


tn + 1 = tn + b
tn + 1 = tn + 5
t1 = 7

b 1 Write the sequence.

b = t3 t2
= 17 12
=5

b = t2 t1
= 12 7
=5

b 9, 3, 3, 9, 15, . . .

Check for a common difference.

b = t4 t3
= 9 3
= 6

b = t3 t2
= 3 3
= 6

b = t2 t1
=39
= 6

There is a common difference of 6 and the


first term is 9.

The first order difference equation is given by:


tn + 1 = tn 6
t1 = 9

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

219

Worked exaMple 6

Express the arithmetic sequence defined below as a first order difference equation.
tn = 3n 2
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .
Think

WriTe

tn = 3n 2
t1 = 3 1 2
= 3 2
= 5
n=2
t2 = 3 2 2
= 6 2
= 8
n=3
t3 = 3 3 2
= 9 2
= 11
n=4
t4 = 3 4 2
= 12 2
= 14
The sequence is 5, 8, 11, 14, . . .

Generate the sequence using the given rule.

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .
n=1

There is a common difference of 3 and the


first term is 5.
Write the first order difference equation.

The first order difference equation is:


tn + 1 = tn 3
t1 = 5

The relationship between arithmetic


sequences and first order dif ference equations
exercise 6b

1 We4 State which of the following first order difference equations define an arithmetic sequence.
a tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 6
b tn + 1 = tn + 3
t1 = 2
c tn + 1 = 3tn + 3
t1 = 3
d tn + 1 = tn 2
t0 = 5
e tn + 1 = 4tn
t0 = 10
f tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 3
g tn + 1 = tn 1
t1 = 0
h tn + 1 = tn
t0 = 1

i tn + 1 = 2tn 3
t1 = 2
j tn + 1 = tn + 100
t1 = 20
2 We5 Express each of the following arithmetic sequences as first order difference equations.
a 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, . . .
b 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, . . .
c 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, . . .
d 2, 2, 6, 10, 14, . . .
e 12, 5, 2, 9, 16, . . .
f 6, 1, 4, 9, 14, . . .
h 4, 10.5, 17, 23.5, 30, . . .
g 1, 0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, . . .
3 MC The arithmetic sequence 6, 3, 0, 3, 6, . . . can be defined by the first order difference equation:
a tn + 1 = tn 3
C tn + 1 = 3tn
e tn + 1 = 3tn

t0 = 6
t1 = 3
t1 = 3

b tn + 1 = tn + 3
d tn + 1 = 3tn 1

t1 = 6
t0 = 3

4 We6 Express each of the arithmetic sequences defined below as first order difference equations.
a tn = n + 3
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
b tn = n 2
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
c tn = n 10
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
d tn = n + 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
e tn = n 3
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
f tn = 2n + 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
g tn = 3n 4
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
h tn = 2n + 6
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
5 MC The sequence defined by tn = 2n + 3, n = 1, 2, 3, . . ., can be defined by the first order difference

equation:

a tn + 1 = tn 2
d tn + 1 = tn + 3

220

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

t1 = 1
t1 = 1

b tn + 1 = 2tn
e tn + 1 = 2tn + 3

t1 = 3
t1 = 1

C tn + 1 = 2tn

tn = 1

The relationship between geometric


sequences and first order difference
equations
6C

Consider the geometric sequence 1, 3, 9, 27, 81, . . . From chapter 5, the common ratio is given by:
t
t
t
r = a = 2 = 3 = 4 = ...
t1 t2 t3
For this sequence

3 9 27
= =
= ...
1 3 9
= +3

a=

The common ratio is +3.


This sequence may be defined by the first order difference equation:
tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 1
A geometric sequence with a common ratio of a may be defined by a first order difference
equation of the form:
tn + 1 = atn
where a is the common ratio
a > 1 is an increasing sequence
0 < a < 1 is a decreasing sequence
a < 0 is a sequence alternating between positive and negative values.
Worked exaMple 7

Which of the following first order difference equations defines a


geometric sequence?
a tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 3
b tn + 1 = tn + 2
t1 = 4
c tn + 1 = 3tn 1
t1 = 2
d tn + 1 = 5tn
t1 = 8
Think

a Check whether the difference

equation is of the form tn + 1 = atn.

b Check whether the difference

equation is of the form tn + 1 = atn.

c Check whether the difference

equation is of the form tn + 1 = atn.

d Check whether the difference

equation is of the form tn + 1 = atn.

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Worked example 7

WriTe

a The first order difference equation defines a geometric

sequence with a common ratio of 2, an increasing sequence.


b The first order difference equation does not define

a geometric sequence because there is a common


difference of 2.
c The first order difference equation does not define a

geometric sequence because of the subtraction of 1.


d The first order difference equation defines a geometric

sequence with a common ratio of 5. This sequence is


alternating between positive and negative terms.

Worked exaMple 8

Express each of the following geometric sequences as first order difference equations.
a 1, 5, 25, 125,
25, . .6
b 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 . . .
Think

a 1 There is a common ratio of 5 and the first term

WriTe

a a=

25
5
= 5
1
+5

125
25

=. . .

is 1.

=
t1 = 1

Write the first order difference equation.

The first order difference equation is given by:


tn + 1 = 5tn
t1 = 1
ChapTer 6 Difference equations

221

b 1 There is a common ratio of 2 and the first

term is 3.

b a=

6
3
2

12
6

24
12

=. . .

=
t1 = 3

Write the first order difference equation.

The first order difference equation is given by:


tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 3

Worked exaMple 9

Express each of the geometric sequences defined below as first order difference equations.
a tn = 2(7)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .
b tn = 3(2)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .
Think

WriTe

a 1 We know from our work with geometric

sequences that their general form is


tn = a(r)n 1, where a represents the first term
of the sequence; that is, a = t1, and r is the
common ratio.

a tn = a(r)n 1

tn = 2(7)n 1,

So, in this case t1 = 2 and r = 7, where the


common ratio, r, translates to a = 7.

tn + 1 = atn
a = 7, t1 = 2

Write the first order difference equation.

tn + 1 = 7tn

b In this case t1 = 3 and r = 2.

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .

t1 = 2

b The first order difference equation is:

tn + 1 = 2tn

t1 = 3

The relationship between geometric


sequences and first order difference equations
exercise 6C

1 We 7 State which of the following first order difference equations define a geometric sequence.
a tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 6
b tn + 1 = tn + 3
t1 = 2
c tn + 1 = 3tn + 3
t1 = 3
d tn + 1 = tn 2
t1 = 5
e tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 10
f tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 3
g tn + 1 = tn 1
t1 = 0
h tn + 1 = tn
t1 = 1
i tn + 1 = 2tn 3
t1 = 2
j tn + 1 = tn + 100
t1 = 20
2 We8 Express each of the following geometric sequences as first order difference equations.
a 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, . . .
b 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . .
c 1, 6, 36, 216, 1296, . . .
d 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, . . .

e 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, . . .
f 2, 8, 32, 128, 512, . . .

g 3, 12, 48, 192, 768, . . .


h 5, 15, 45, 135, 405, . . .
3 MC The geometric sequence 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, . . . can be defined by the first order difference

equation:
a tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 2
b tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 3

C tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 3
d tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 2
e tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 2
4 We9 Express each of the geometric sequences defined below as first order difference equations.
a tn = 2(3)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
b tn = 3(5)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

1
c tn = 3(4)
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
d tn = 5(2)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
e tn = 0.5(1)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
f tn = 0.1(3)n 1
n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
5 MC The sequence tn = 4(1)n 1 n = 1, 2, 3, . . . can be defined by the first order difference equation:
diGiTal doC
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WorkSHEET 6.1

222

a tn + 1 = tn
C tn + 1 = 4tn
e tn + 1 = 4tn

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

t1 = 4
t1 = 1
t1 = 1

b tn + 1 = tn 1
d tn + 1 = 4tn + 3

t1 = 4
t1 = 4

Setting up first order difference


equations to represent practical
situations
6d

inTeraCTiViTY
int-0187
Setting up first order
difference equations

In practical applications we will be presented with a description of the situation including the pattern and
a starting term. We need to translate that description to recognise:
1. the first term (t0 or t1)
2. the current or previous term (tn or tn 1)
3. how the next term (tn or tn + 1) is generated.
The choice of notation for the first term is defined by the type of situation.
Use t0 for sequences that are dependent on time, such as population growth and investment amounts.
For example, a population starts at 1500 (start = t0). After the first year (1st year = t1) it has grown to
1700, and after the second year (2nd year = t2) it has grown to 1900.
Use t1 for most other situations, such as prizes: first prize t1 = $1000, second prize t2=$500, third
prize t3 = $250.
As an example, let us look at a very simple situation.
Initial description:
The school population is increasing each year by 50 students and the initial population was 200.

Below is the description in terms of the population for two consecutive years:
Next years population

is

current/previous years population

plus 50,

starting with 200 students

Pn + 1

Pn

+ 50,

P0 = 200

The first order difference equation is:


Pn + 1 = Pn + 50

P0 = 200.

The above approach refers to the two terms as the relationship between the next (tn + 1) and previous
(tn) terms.
Note: A more appropriate pronumeral than t is usually chosen to represent the terms in a sequence, for
example, P for population.
The first order difference equation can be stated as:
Next term is the previous term plus some defined change, given the first term.
Three types of difference equations will be closely investigated: those describing an arithmetic sequence,
a geometric sequence and a combination of both.

Type 1 arithmetic sequence


The next term is the previous term plus a fixed amount or a fixed percentage of an initial value.
tn + 1 = tn + b
where b = the common difference = fixed amount or percentage of the first term, t0 or t1.
ChapTer 6 Difference equations

223

Worked exaMple 10

John is advised that the runs he scored in his first ten innings in cricket is a pattern. The first
innings score was 25, and each innings score increased by 7 runs after that.
Write a first order difference equation to describe this situation.
Think

WriTe

Define the terms to be used, for instance, R


for runs scored.

Let Rn = the runs scored in an innings by John,


where n is the innings number.

The first innings score of 25 is R1. (The


second innings is R2, the third innings is R3,
and so on.)

R1 = 25

Establish the relationship between the next


and previous terms.

Next innings score is the previous innings score


plus 7 runs.

This is an arithmetic sequence because the


runs scored in each innings increase by the
same amount or a common difference of
7 runs.

Rn + 1 = Rn + 7

Write the first order difference equation.


Remember there are two parts: the rule and
the first or starting term.

Rn + 1 = Rn + 7

R1 = 25

Worked exaMple 11

Erin earns 4% simple interest per annum on $15 000 that she has invested.
Recall that simple interest is always calculated on the original amount.
a Write a first order difference equation to describe this situation.
b Calculate the total value after the third year.
Think

a 1 Define the terms to be used.

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Worked example 11

WriTe

a Let An equal the amount Erins investment

would be worth after the nth year.

The initial investment was $15 000 at the start


of the first month, that is, A0.

A0 = $15 000

Establish the relationship between the next and


previous terms.

The next term is the previous term plus 4% of


the initial amount.

This is an arithmetic sequence because each


year the investment increases by the same
amount or a common difference.

An + 1 = An + 4% of $15 000
An + 1 = An + 600

Write the first order difference equation.


Remember there are two parts: the rule and the
first or starting term.

An + 1 = An + 600

b 1 Use the first order difference equation to

generate each of the three terms, A1, A2 and A3.

224

Write your answer.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

b An + 1 = An + 600

A1 = A0 + 600
= 15 000 + 600
= 15 600
A3 = A2 + 600
= 16 200 + 600
= 16 800

A0 = 15 000

A2 = A1 + 600
= 15 600 + 600
= 16 200

After 3 years the total value is $16 800.

Type 2 Geometric sequence


The next term is the previous term plus a percentage of the previous terms value.
tn + 1 = tn + % of tn
or
tn + 1 = a tn
where a is the common ratio.
Worked exaMple 12

A bird population increases by 5% each year.


If the initial population was 1200:
a write a first order difference equation to
describe this situation
b calculate the population (to the nearest
whole number) after 5 years.

Think

a 1 Define the terms to be used, for instance, P for

population.

TUTorial
eles-1334
Worked example 12

WriTe

a Let Pn = the population after the nth year.

The initial population was 1200, that is, P0.

P0 = 1200

Establish the relationship between the next and


the previous terms.

Next years population is previous years


population plus 5% of previous years
population:
Pn + 1 = Pn + 5% of Pn

This is a geometric sequence because each


year the value increases by 5%; that is,
a = 1.05.

Pn + 1 = Pn + 0.05Pn
= Pn(1 + 0.05)
= 1.05Pn

Write the first order difference equation.


Remember there are two parts: the rule and the
first or starting term.

Pn + 1 = 1.05Pn

b 1 Use the first order difference equation to

generate each of the six terms, P0 to P5.

Continue this process until P5 is calculated.

Write your answer, rounding to give a realistic


response; for example, a whole number of
birds.

b Pn + 1 = 1.05Pn

P1 = 1.05P0
= 1.05 1200
= 1260

P0 = 1200

P0 = 1200
P2 = 1.05P1
= 1.05 1260
= 1323

P4 = 1.05P3
P3 = 1.05P2
= 1.05 1323
= 1.05 1389.15
= 1389.15
= 1458.6075
P5 = 1.05P4
= 1.05 1458.6075
= 1531.537 875
After 5 years, the bird population is 1532,
correct to the nearest whole number.

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

225

Type 3 Combination of arithmetic and


geometric sequences
This is a new sequence being investigated in this module, where the rule giving the next term is a
combination of arithmetic and geometric sequences.
The next term is the previous term plus a percentage of the previous terms value plus a fixed amount
or a fixed percentage of an initial value.
tn + 1 = tn + % tn + b

that is

tn + 1 = a tn + b

where a = the common ratio and b = the common difference.

Worked exaMple 13

James is saving for a car. He saves $200 from his pay and deposits it at the start of each month into
an account earning 6% interest per annum, compounding monthly and calculated at the end of
the month. He opened the account on 1 May with a gift from his parents of $100.
a Write a first order difference equation to describe this situation.
b How much would James have on 1 August?
Think

a 1 Define the terms to be used.

WriTe

a Let An = the amount James investment would be

worth after the nth month.

The initial investment was $100 at the


start of the first month, that is, A0.

A0 = $100

The next term is a month by month


increase so convert 6% per annum to
an increase per month.

6% per annum =

Establish the relationship between the


next and previous terms.

Next month = previous month + 0.5% of the previous


month + $200.

Use the first order difference equation


notation and simplify.

An + 1 = An + 0.5% of An + $200
= An(1 + 0.005) + 200
= 1.005An + 200

Write the first order difference


equation. Remember there are
two parts; the rule and the first term.

An + 1 = 1.005An + 200

b 1 Use the difference equation to generate

the first four terms, A0 to A3, for the


months of May, June, July and August.

226

Write your answer to an appropriate


level of accuracy. In this situation, give
the answer to the nearest cent.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

6%
per month
12
= 0.5% per month

A0 = 100

b An + 1 = 1.005An + 200

A0 = 100
A0 = 100
A1 = 1.005A0 + 200
A2 = 1.005A1 + 200
= 1.005 100 + 200
= 1.005 300.50 + 200
= 100.50 + 200
= 302.0025 + 200
= 300.50
= 502.0025
A3 = 1.005A2 + 200
= 1.005 502.0025 + 200
= 504.512 512 5 + 200
= 704.512 512 5
The total sum James would have on 1 August would
be $704.51, correct to the nearest cent.

Set ting up first order difference equations


to represent practical situations
exercise 6d

1 We10, 11
For each of the situations below, write a first order difference equation to describe it.
a The first bar on a metal barricade is 50 centimetres long. Each successive bar is 2centimetres

longer than the previous bar.


b A machine is programmed to cut lengths of rope so that each successive piece is 10centimetres

longer, starting with a length of 8 centimetres.


c Paula places $10 from each pay into her top drawer. She had $50 from Christmas in the drawer

to start with.
d Water leaks from a tank at the rate of 2 litres per day. The tank initially held 5000 litres of water.

For each of the situations below, write a first order difference equation to describe it and find
the unknown term.
a A towns population increases by 3% each year. The towns original population was 2600. Find
the population after 3 years.
b Gary receives a yearly pay increment of 1.2%. His starting salary is $45 000. What is Garys
expected salary after 5 years?
c Topsoil at a coastal hillside park is estimated to be eroded at the rate of 4% per annum. If the
estimated amount of topsoil at the park is initially 70 000 cubic metres, how much topsoil will be
remaining after 2 years?
d A new hospital increases the number of patients it treats by 12% each year. It treated 3500 in its
first year. How many patients will be treated in the fourth year?

2 We12

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SkillSHEET 6.1
Changing a
percentage to a
decimal

3 We13 For each of the situations below, write a first order difference equation to describe it and find

the unknown term.


a Ants in an ant colony increased in number by 7% per week. At the end of each week 1000 ants

are added to the colony which initially had 15 000 ants. How many ants will there be in the colony
after 4 weeks?
b A grove of trees loses 1% of trees through environmental damage each year. Two hundred new
trees are planted each year to cover the losses. The grove began with 3000trees. How many trees
will there be after 3 years?
c Sophie opens an account and on the 15th day of each month deposits $150 into the account which
earns compound interest of 12% per annum, compounding monthly and calculated at the end of
the month. How much will there be in the account at the end of the third month?
4 MC Helen increases the size of her herb garden by

5% each year. Itinitially covered 4square metres.


The first order difference equation that would describe this is:
a An = 0.95An 1
A0 = 4
b An = 1.04An 1
A0 = 4
C An = 1.05An 1
A0 = 4
d An = 1.05An 1 + 4
A0 = 0
e An = 1.05An 1 + 4
A0 = 4
5 MC Gary runs a fruit-growing business. He aims to earn $40

per week more than in the previous week. In his first week, he
earns $160.
The first order difference equation that would describe this is:
a An = An 1 + 40
A0 = 160
b An = 160An 1
A0 = 40
C An = 1.04An 1
A0 = 160
d An = An 1 + 160
A0 = 40
e An = An 1 + 160 40
A0 = 0
6 MC The number of people attending a weight-loss club increases by 3% each year. Forty members

leave the club each year. The clubs initial membership was 1100 statewide.
The first order difference equation that reflects this is:
a Pn = 0.97Pn 1 40
P0 = 1100
b Pn = 0.97Pn 1 + 40
C Pn = 1.03Pn 1 40
P0 = 1100
d Pn = 1.03Pn 1 + 40
e Pn = 1.40Pn 1 1100
P0 = 40

P0 = 1100
P0 = 1100

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

227

7 MC The number of people in a country town is decreasing by 5% each year as the young adults move

to the city. A further 20 people die each year. The towns initial population was 2500.
The first order difference equation that reflects this is:
a Pn = 0.95Pn 1 20
P0 = 2500
b Pn = 0.95Pn 1 + 20
P0 = 2500
C Pn = 1.05Pn 1 20
P0 = 2500
d Pn = 1.05Pn 1 + 20
P0 = 2500
e Pn = 1.20Pn 1 2500
P0 = 20
8 MC The whale population in the
Southern Pacific Ocean is decreasing
by 150 per year. The current population
is 1500.
The first order difference equation
that describes the above is:
a Pn = 0.9Pn 1
P0 = 1500
b Pn = 1.1Pn 1 150
P0 = 1500
C Pn + 1 = Pn + 150
P0 = 1500
d Pn = Pn 1 1500
P0 = 150
e Pn = Pn 1 150
P0 = 1500
9 The number of paid-up members of a football club is increasing by 4% per week, but the club loses
10 members each week. The club began with 10 000 members.
a Give the first order difference equation for the above situation.
b Calculate the size of the membership for each of the first 8 weeks.
c In which week will the membership first exceed 11 000?
10 At the local brickworks there are piles of house bricks. The first pile has 4000 house bricks. Each pile
after the first has 20 fewer house bricks than the previous pile.
a State whether this is an arithmetic or geometric sequence.
b Give the first order difference equation for the above situation.
c Calculate the number of bricks for each of the first 7 piles.
In another yard, there are piles of paving bricks. The first pile has 4000 paving bricks; however,
the bricks reduce by a rate of 1% for each subsequent pile.
d State whether this is an arithmetic or geometric sequence.
e Give the first order difference equation for the above situation.
f Calculate the number of bricks in the seventh pile of paving bricks.

Graphical representation of a
sequence defined by a first order
difference equation
6e

Certain quantities in nature and business may


change in a uniform way (forming a pattern).
This change may be an increase, as in the
case of:
tn + 1 = tn + 2

t1 = 3,

or it may be a decrease, as in the case of:


tn + 1 = tn 2

t1 = 3.

These patterns can be modelled by graphs that,


in turn, can be used to recognise patterns in the
real world.
A graph of the equation could be drawn to
represent a situation, and by using the graph the
situation can be analysed to find, for example,
the next term in the pattern.
228

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

First order dif ference equations: tn + 1 = tn + b


(arithmeticpat terns)
tn
5
4
3
2
1
0

Value of term

Value of term

The sequences of a first order difference equation tn + 1 = tn + b are distinguished by a straight line or a
constant increase or decrease.

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

An increasing pattern or a positive common


difference gives an upward straight line.

tn
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

A decreasing pattern or a negative common difference


gives a downward straight line.

Worked exaMple 14

On a graph, show the first five terms of the sequence described by the first
order difference equation:
tn + 1 = tn 3
t1 = 5.
Think

TUTorial
eles-1274
Worked example 14

WriTe/draW

Generate the values of each of the five terms


of the sequence.

tn + 1 = tn 3
t2 = t1 3
= 5 3
= 8
t4 = t3 3
= 11 3
= 14

Graph these first five terms. The value of the


term is plotted on the y-axis, and the term
number is plotted on the x-axis.

tn

Value of term

0
4

t1 = 5
t 3 = t2 3
= 8 3
= 11
t 5 = t4 3
= 14 3
= 17

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

8
12
16
20

First order dif ference equations: tn + 1 = atn


tn
6
5
4
3
2
1

1 2 3 4 5 6 n
Term number
An increasing pattern or a positive common ratio
greater than 1 (a > 1) gives an upward curved line.
0

Value of term

Value of term

The sequences of a first order difference equation tn + 1 = atn are distinguished by a curved line or a saw form.
tn
6
5
4
3
2
1

1 2 3 4 5 6 n
Term number
A decreasing pattern or a positive fractional common
ratio (0 < a < 1) gives a downward curved line.
0

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

229

tn

6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10

6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10

Value of term

Value of term

tn

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Term number

An increasing saw pattern occurs when the common


ratio is a negative value less than 1 (a < 1).

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Term number

A decreasing saw pattern occurs when


the common ratio is a negative fraction
(1 < a < 0).

Worked exaMple 15

On a graph, show the first six terms of the sequence described by the first order difference
equation:
tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 0.5.

Generate the six terms of the sequence.

Graph these terms.


Note: The sixth term is not included in
this graph to more clearly illustrate the
relationship between the terms.

WriTe/draW

tn + 1 = 4tn
t2 = 4t1
= 4 0.5
=2
t3 = 4t2
=42
=8
t4 = 4t3
=48
= 32
t5 = 4t4
= 4 32
= 128
t6 = 4t5
= 4 128
= 512

t1 = 0.5

tn
160
Value of term

Think

120
80
40
0

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

Graphical representation of first order difference


equations of the form tn + 1 = atn + b

As the pattern of first order difference equations of the form tn + 1 = atn + b is a combination of both
arithmetic and geometric rules, they are primarily distinguished by a curved line but are more complex
in nature than those given by geometric sequences.
230

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Worked exaMple 16

On a graph, show the first five terms of the sequence described by the first order difference
equation:
tn + 1 = 3tn 1
t1 = 2.
Think

WriTe/draW

Generate the five terms of the sequence.

Graph these first five terms.

tn + 1 = 3tn 1
t2 = 3t1 1
=321
=5
t4 = 3t3 1
= 3 14 1
= 41

Value of term

t1 = 2
t3 = 3t2 1
=351
= 14
t5 = 3t4 1
= 3 41 1
= 122

tn
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

Graphical representation of a sequence


defined by a first order dif ference equation
exercise 6e

1 We14 For each of the following, plot the first five terms of the sequence defined by the first order

difference equation.
tn + 1 = tn + 3
tn + 1 = tn + 7
tn + 1 = tn 3
tn + 1 = tn + 5
tn + 1 = tn + 17
tn + 1 = tn 16

a
b
c
d
e
f

t1 = 1
t1 = 5
t1 = 17
t1 = 9
t1 = 11
t1 = 90

2 We15 For each of the following, plot the first five terms of the sequence defined by the first order

difference equation.
a tn + 1 = 3tn
b tn + 1 = 2tn
c tn + 1 = 4tn
d tn + 1 = 2tn
e tn = 0.5tn 1
f tn + 1 = 2.5tn

t1 = 1
t1 = 1
t1 = 0.25
t1 = 0.5
t1 = 16
t1 = 2

3 We16 For each of the following, plot the first four terms of the sequence defined by the first order

difference equation.
a tn + 1 = 3tn 1
c tn + 1 = 2tn + 1
e tn + 1 = 1 + 3tn

t1 = 1
t1 = 5
1
t1 = 3

b tn + 1 = 3tn 4
d tn = 2tn 1 + 0.5
f

tn = 2 + 5tn 1

t1 = 3
t1 = 2
t1 = 0.2

4 For each of the following, plot the first four terms of the sequence defined by the first order difference

equation.
a tn + 1 = 100 3tn
c tn + 1 = tn 50
e tn = 0.1tn 1

t1 = 20
t1 = 100
t1 = 10

b tn + 1 = tn + 50
d tn + 1 = 10tn
f tn = 0.5tn 1 5

t1 = 100
t1 = 0.1
t1 = 30

diGiTal doC
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WorkSHEET 6.2

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

231

interpretation of the graph of first


order difference equations
6F

From the previous exercise, you would have noticed that particular families of graphs were generated.

Straight or linear
A straight line or linear pattern is given by first order difference equations of the form tn + 1 = tn + b, and
(from the previous chapter) if each pair of terms has a common difference, it is an arithmetic sequence.
Value of term

60
30
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number

non-linear (exponential)
A non-linear pattern is generated by first order difference equations of the form tn + 1 = atn, and (from the
previous chapter) if each pair of terms has a common ratio, it is a geometric sequence.

Value of term

120
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number

One other non-linear pattern is produced by first order difference equations of the form tn + 1 = atn + b:
a combination of a geometric and an arithmetic sequence.
y

Value of term

240
180
120
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number

Starting term
Earlier, the need for a starting term to be given to fully define a sequence was stated. As can be seen
below, the same pattern but a different starting point gives a different set of numbers.
tn + 1 = tn + 2
tn + 1 = tn + 2
232

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

t1 = 3
t1 = 2

gives 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, . . .
gives 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .

Worked exaMple 17

The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on


the graph at right. Write the first order difference
equation that defines this sequence.

tn
20
18
Value of term

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

Think

WriTe

Read from the graph the first five terms of


the sequence.

The sequence from the graph is:


18, 15, 12, 9, 6, . . .

Notice that the graph is linear and there is a


common difference of 3 between each term.

tn + 1 = tn + b
Common difference, b = 3
tn + 1 = tn 3
(or tn + 1 tn = 3)

Write your answer including the value of one


of the terms (usually the first), as well as
the rule defining the first order difference
equation.

tn + 1 = tn 3

t1 = 18

Worked exaMple 18

tn
20
Value of term

The first four terms of a sequence are plotted on


the graph at right. Write the first order
difference equation that defines this sequence.

16
12
8
4
0

Think

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

WriTe

Read the terms of the sequence from the


graph.

The sequence is 2, 4, 8, 16, . . .

The graph is non-linear and there is a


common ratio of 2, that is, for the next term,
multiply the previous term by 2.

tn + 1 = a tn
Common ratio, a = 2
tn + 1 = 2tn

Define the first term.

t0 = 2

Write your answer.

tn + 1 = 2tn

t0 = 2

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

233

Worked exaMple 19

Value of term

MC The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph below.
Which of the following first order difference equations could describe
tn
the sequence?
10
a tn + 1 = tn + 1
with t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = tn + 2
with t1 = 1
8
C tn + 1 = 2tn
with t1 = 1
6
d tn + 1 = tn + 1
with t1 = 2
4
e tn + 1 = tn + 2
with t1 = 2

TUTorial
eles-1275
Worked example 19

0
Think

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
WriTe

Eliminate the options systematically.


Examine the first term given by the graph to
decide if it is t1 = 1 or t1 = 2.

The coordinates of the first point on the graph are


(1, 1).
The first term is t1 = 1.
Eliminate options d and e.

Observe any pattern between each successive


point on the graph.

There is a constant difference of +2 or tn + 1 = tn + 2.

Option b gives both the correct pattern and


first term.

The answer is b.

interpretation of the graph of first order


dif ference equations
exercise 6F

1 We17 For each of the following graphs, write a first order difference equation that defines the

sequence plotted on the graph.


tn
20
16
12
8
4
0

Value of term
234

Value of term

tn
20
16
12
8
4
0

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8

tn
20
16
12
8
4

tn

100
80
60
40
20

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

0
f

0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

Value of term

Value of term

Value of term

Value of term

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn
8
4
0

4
8

0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number

2 We 18 For each of the following graphs, write a first order difference equation that defines the

sequence plotted on the graph.


tn
20
16
12
8
4

b
Value of term

Value of term

tn
50
40
30
20
10

0 1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number
tn
8

Value of term

Value of term

4
0

4
8

tn
100
80
60
40
20
0

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

tn
8
4
0

4
8

0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number

Value of term

Value of term

0 1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number

tn
8
4
0

4
8

0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number

MC The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the


graph at right.
Which of the following first order difference equations could
describe the sequence?
a tn + 1 = tn + 1
t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 1
C tn + 1 = tn + 1
t1 = 2
d tn + 1 = 2tn 1
t1 = 2
e tn + 1 = 2tn + 1
t1 = 2

Value of term

3 We 19

12
8
4

Value of term
Value of term

2 3 4 5 n
Term number

2 3 4 5 n
Term number

2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn
50
40
30
20
10
0

5 MC The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph

at right.
Which of the following first order difference equations could
describe the sequence?
a tn + 1 = 0.5tn
t1 = 0.5
b tn + 1 = 0.5tn
t1 = 0.5
C tn + 1 = tn 25
t1 = 50
d tn + 1 = 0.5tn
t1 = 50
e tn + 1 = 0.5tn
t1 = 50

16

4 MC The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph

at right.
Which of the following first order difference equations could
describe the sequence?
a tn + 1 = tn 8
t1 = 8
b tn + 1 = tn + 8
t1 = 8
C tn + 1 = tn 8
t1 = 45
d tn + 1 = tn + 8
t1 = 45
e tn + 1 = 8tn
t1 = 45

tn
20

tn
50
40
30
20
10
0

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

235

tn

at right.
Which of the following first order difference equations could
describe the sequence?
a tn = 0.5tn 1
t1 = 0.5
b tn = tn 1 12
t1 = 8
C tn = 8tn 1
t1 = 0.5
d tn = 0.5tn 1
t1 = 8
e tn = 0.5tn 1
t1 = 8

Value of term

6 MC The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph

n
0

2 3 4 5
Term number

tn
5
Value of term

7 MC The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph

at right.
Which of the following first order difference equations could
describe the sequence?
a tn + 1 = 5tn
t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = tn + 5
t1 = 1
C tn + 1 = 5
t1 = 5
d tn + 1 = 3tn 10
t1 = 5
e tn + 1 = 5tn + 5
t1 = 5

8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6

4
3
2
1
0

2 3 4 5
Term number

8 Graphs of the first five terms of first order difference equations are shown below together with the

first order difference equations. Match the graph with the first order difference equation by writing the
letter corresponding to the graph together with the number corresponding to the first order difference
equation.

Value of term

0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number
d

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

i tn + 1 = tn +
ii
iii
iv
v
vi
236

1
2

tn + 1 = tn 2
tn + 1 = 2tn
tn + 1 = 2tn 3
tn + 1 = 2tn 1
tn + 1 = 2tn 5

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

t1 = 8
t1 = 1
t1 = 1
t1 = 4
t1 = 1
t1 = 6

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn
20
16
12
8
4
0

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

tn
5
4
3
2
1
0

tn
25
20
15
10
5
0

Value of term

tn
18
16
12
8
4
0

Value of term

Value of term

tn
2
0
2
4
6
8

Value of term

Value of term

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

tn
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Fibonacci sequences as second order


difference equations
6G

Fibonacci numbers

Most of us have never taken the time to observe very carefully the number or arrangements of petals and
seeds in flowers. If we were to do so, some very interesting conclusions could be made. For each of the
following images, count the number of petals or spirals.

Euphorbia has 2 petals.

Trillium has 3 petals.

Lilies have 5 petals.

A cauliflower has 8 spirals.

Do you see a pattern in the numbers


so far? If you study the spirals in the photos
of the cauliflower and the pine cone, you will
see that the spiral pattern exists in the
opposite direction also. What do you notice
about the number of spirals in the opposite
direction in both of these photos?
The numbers form part of a sequence of
numbers known as the Fibonacci numbers.
The sequence of Fibonacci numbers is 1, 1,
2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, . . . Each new
term in this sequence is formed by adding
the two previous terms; the starting numbers
are 1 and 1. Any sequence in which each new
term is the result of adding the previous two
terms is known as a Fibonacci sequence.
For example, 5, 7, 12, 19, 31, 50, . . . is a
Fibonacci sequence as each new
term is the sum of the previous two terms.

Pine cones have 13 spirals.


ChapTer 6 Difference equations

237

diGiTal doC
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Investigation
Fibonacci patterns

Leonardo di Pisano, also known as Fibonacci (which translates as son of Bonacci), first noticed the
sequence of Fibonacci numbers in 1202, when he was asked by his king to investigate a problem about
how fast rabbits can breed.
The sequence of Fibonacci numbers can be defined as a second order difference equation as follows:
Fn + 2 = Fn + Fn + 1

F1 = 1 and F2 = 1.

As with first order difference equations, this equation consists of two parts:
Fn + 2 = Fn + Fn + 1 describes the pattern in the sequence
(each new term is formed by adding the two previous terms)
F1 = 1 and F2 = 1 are the first two terms of the sequence.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
Fibonacci
sequences.

lucas numbers
Another useful Fibonacci sequence is one called the Lucas numbers, named after nineteenth-century
mathematician Edouard Lucas. The sequence of Lucas numbers starts with the numbers 2 and 1. The
first 10 numbers of this sequence are 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, 47 and 76.
Ln + 1
Continue this sequence and investigate the ratio of the terms
. Compare this with the ratio of the
Ln
Fn + 1
terms
from the sequence of Fibonacci numbers. What do you notice?
Fn
The sequence of Lucas numbers can be also defined as a second order difference equation.
Ln + 2 = Ln + Ln + 1

L1 = 2 and L2 = 1

As stated earlier, any sequence in which each new term is the result of adding the previous two terms,
given any two starting values, is known as a Fibonacci sequence.
The second order difference equation for a Fibonacci sequence is set out in the same way as defined
earlier for the sequence of Fibonacci numbers and Lucas numbers. The notation can be either of the
following:
fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1 given f1 and f2
or
tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1 given t1 and t2.
Worked exaMple 20

For the Fibonacci sequence given by the second order difference equation:
fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1

f1 = 2 and f2 = 5,

state the first six terms of the sequence.


Think

WriTe

The first two terms are already defined.

f1 = 2 and f2 = 5

Use the second order difference equation to


generate the remaining required terms.

fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1
f3 = f1 + f2
=2+5
=7
f5 = f3 + f4
= 7 + 12
= 19

State the six terms.

The first six terms of the sequence are 2, 5, 7, 12, 19


and 31.

f4 = f2 + f3
=5+7
= 12
f6 = f4 + f5
= 12 + 19
= 31

As was the case with first order difference equations, we can use the second order difference equation
for a Fibonacci sequence to find the value of previous terms in a sequence, given that we have later
numbers of the sequence.
238

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Worked exaMple 21
MC For part of a Fibonacci sequence given as . . ., 9, 14, 23, 37, 60, 97, the first two terms could be
given as:
a t1 = 4, t2 = 1
b t1 = 1, t2 = 4
C t1 = 1, t2 = 3
d t1 = 1, t2 = 1
e t1 = 2, t2 = 1

Think

WriTe

Write the difference equation for the Fibonacci


sequence.

tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1

As we know the later terms and wish to find


the preceding terms, rearrange the difference
equation.

tn = tn + 2 tn + 1

Substitute the known values into the equation.


This will produce the number that precedes 9.

tn = 14 9
=5

Substitute 9 and 5 into the equation to find the


number that precedes 5. Continue with this
process until the first two numbers match the
two terms given in the question.

tn = 9 5
=4
tn = 5 4
=1

The last two numbers calculated appear as


options; that is, t1 = 1 and t2 = 4.

The first two terms could be t1 = 1 and t2 = 4.


Therefore, the answer is b.

An alternative method to solving the question in Worked example 21 could be a trial-and-error approach.
Simply produce a sequence given the starting points for each option and then see which one results in
the given sequence.
Worked exaMple 22

Given t1 = 3, t4 = 11 and t5 = 18 as three terms of a particular Fibonacci


sequence, find the value of t2.
Think

WriTe

Given the value of t4 and t5, work backwards by


rearranging the difference equation to find t3.

t5 = t3 + t4
t3 = t5 t4
= 18 11
=7

Use the values of t4 and t3 to find t2.

t2 = t4 t3
= 11 7
=4

State the answer.

The value of t2 is 4.

TUTorial
eles-1276
Worked example 22

Fibonacci sequences as second order


difference equations
exercise 6G

1 We20 For Fibonacci sequences given by the second order difference equation fn+2=fn + fn+1, give

the first 10 terms when the first two terms are defined as follows:
a f1 = 0 and f2 = 1
b f1 = 2 and f2 = 1
c f1 = 5 and f2 = 3
d f1 = 34 and f2 = 21.

diGiTal doC
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Fibonacci sequences

2 State which of the above sequences contain the Fibonacci numbers.


ChapTer 6 Difference equations

239

3 For Fibonacci sequences given by the second order difference equation fn+2=fn + fn+1, list the first

10 terms when the first two terms are defined as follows:

a f1 = 1 and f2 = 4
c f1 = 2 and f2 = 1

b f1 = 2 and f2 = 0
d f1 = 4 and f2 = 5.

4 For the following Fibonacci sequences, use a CAS calculator to:


i graphically display the first 6 terms
ii find the 21st term of the sequence; that is, f21.
a fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1
f1 = 2, f2 = 4
b fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1
f1 = 1, f2 = 3
c fn = fn 2 + fn 1
f1 = 3, f2 = 1
5 Use an appropriate method to graph the first eight terms of the Fibonacci sequences with the following

starting terms:
a f1 = 6 and f2 = 1
c f1 = 1 and f2 = 2
Comment on the shape of the graphs produced.

b f1 = 12 and f2 = 8
d f1 = 3 and f2 = 2.

6 Write the first seven terms of the Fibonacci sequence in which:


a the first two terms are 2 and 6
b the first two terms are 6 and 2.

Explain why the sequences are different even though the same two values are used at the start.
7 MC For the difference equation tn = tn 2 + tn 1, where t1 = 4 and t2 = 3, the first five terms of the

sequence are:

a 3, 4, 7, 11, 18
C 4, 3, 7, 10, 17
e 1, 7, 8, 15, 23

b 4, 3, 4, 3, 4
d 4, 3, 12, 36, 432

8 MC For the Fibonacci sequence with a difference equation fn = fn 2 + fn 1, where f1 = 1 and f2 = 7, the

value of f7 is:

a 61
C 38
e 113

b 51
d 43

9 MC For the sequences shown below, which one is a Fibonacci sequence?


a 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, . . .
C 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, . . .
e 1, 2, 2, 5, 9, 18, . . .

b 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, . . .
d 3, 3, 6, 9, 15, 24, . . .

For part of a Fibonacci sequence given as . . ., 9, 14, 23, 37, 60, 97, the first
two terms could be given as:
a t1 = 1, t2 = 4
b t1 = 3, t2 = 1

C t1 = 1, t2 = 3
d t1 = 1, t2 = 1
e t1 = 2, t2 = 1

10 We21

MC

11 MC For the sequence of Fibonacci numbers shown in the graph, the second order difference

equation is:
a tn = tn 2 + tn 1, where t1 = 3 and t2 = 1
b tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1, where t1 = 1 and t2 = 3
C tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1, where t1 = 3 and t2 = 1
d tn 2 = tn + tn + 1, where t1 = 1 and t2 = 3
e tn = tn 1 2, where t1 = 1 and t2 = 3

tn
0
2

Value of term

4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18

240

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Term number
2 4 6
n

12 Using a microscope to study the spread of a certain bacteria in an agar dish, a medical scientist

observes the following number of colonies at the end of each minute.


After
1 minute
6

After
2 minutes
9

After
3 minutes
15

After
4 minutes
24

After
5 minutes
39

Assuming the number counted continues to follow this Fibonacci sequence, state the number of
bacteria (to the nearest million) expected after 30 minutes.
13 For each of the following Fibonacci sequences, determine the two starting terms, given that they both
must be the smallest possible non-negative numbers.
a . . ., 13, 22, 35, 57, 92
b . . ., 14, 23, 37, 60, 97
c . . ., 8, 15, 23, 38, 61
d . . ., 16, 25, 41, 66, 107
14 We22 Given the following values as three terms of a particular Fibonacci sequence, find the value of
the required term.
a t1 = 4, t4 = 16 and t5 = 26; t2 = ?
b t2 = 1, t4 = 9 and t5 = 17; t1 = ?
c t2 = 3, t5 = 7 and t6 = 12; t1 = ?
d t4 = 22, t6 = 57 and t7 = 92; t2 = ?
15 Generate a sequence of eight numbers using the following second order difference equations:
a tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1
t1 = 3, t2 = 4
b tn + 2 = 2tn + tn + 1
t1 = 1, t2 = 1
c tn + 2 = 2tn + 2tn + 1 t1 = 1, t2 = 2
d tn = 3tn 2 + tn 1
t1 = 2, t2 = 2.

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

241

Summary
Generating the terms
of a sequence defined
by a first order
difference equation

A first order difference equation defines a relationship between two successive terms of a sequence,
for example, between:
tn, the previous term, and tn + 1, the next term,
or
tn 1, the previous term, and tn, the next term.
A first order difference equation has two main parts:
tn + 1 = tn + b (where b is a constant) describes the pattern in the sequence
t1 = 1 is the first or a starting term in the sequence.
First order difference equations can be expressed as follows:
tn + 1 = 2tn + 3
t0 = 1.
It is read as the next term is twice the previous term plus 3, starting at 1 or
tn + 1 tn = 4
t1 = 1
It is read as the difference between two consecutive terms is 4, starting at 1.

Starting term

A starting term is needed to fully define a sequence. The same pattern but different starting points
gives different sets of numbers.
gives 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, . . .
tn + 1 = tn + 2, t1 = 3
tn + 1 = tn + 2, t1 = 2
gives 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, . . .
t0 is used as the first term for situations that are dependent on time.
t1 is used as the first term for situations that are ordinal, such as placings (first place, t1, second
place, t2, third place, t3, . . .) or prizes (first prize, second prize, . . .).

The relationship
between arithmetic
sequences and first
order difference
equations

Pronumeral conventions
Term
First term
Common difference
Common ratio

Arithmetic and geometric


sequence convention
a or t1
d
r

First order difference


equation convention
t0 or t1
b
a

The common difference, b = t2 t1 = t3 t2 = t4 t3 = . . .


An arithmetic sequence with a common difference of b may be defined by a first order difference
equation of the form:
t n + 1 = tn + b
(or tn + 1 tn = b)
where b is the common difference and for
b > 0 it is an increasing sequence
b < 0 it is a decreasing sequence.
The relationship
between geometric
sequences and first
order difference
equations

The geometric common ratio, r, is the pronumeral a in first order difference equations.
t
t
t
The common ratio, r = a = 2 = 3 = 4 = . . .
t1 t2 t3
A geometric sequence with a common ratio of a may be defined by a first order difference equation
of the form:
tn + 1 = atn
where a is the common ratio
a > 1 is an increasing sequence
0 < a < 1 is a decreasing sequence
a < 0 is a sequence alternating between positive and negative values.

Setting up first order


difference equations:
Type 1 arithmetic
sequence

The next term is the previous term plus a fixed amount or a fixed percentage of an initial value.

242

tn + 1 = tn + b
where b = the common difference = fixed amount or % of the first term, t0 or t1.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Setting up first order


difference equations:
Type 3 Combination
of arithmetic and
geometric sequence
interpretation of the
graph of first order
difference equations

The next term is the previous term plus a percentage of the previous terms value.
tn + 1 = tn + % of tn
tn + 1 = a tn
where a is the common ratio.
The next term is the previous term plus a percentage of the previous terms value plus a fixed
amount or a fixed percentage of an initial value.
tn + 1 = tn + % tn + b
tn + 1 = a tn + b
where a = the common ratio and b = the common difference.
A straight line or linear pattern is an arithmetic sequence given
by first order difference equations of the form tn + 1 = tn + b.

Value of term

Setting up first order


difference equations:
Type 2 Geometric
sequence

60
30
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number

A non-linear (exponential) pattern is generated by either


of the following:
(a) a first order difference equation of the form:
tn + 1 = a tn
(a geometric progression)

Value of term

120
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number
y

(a combination of a geometric and


an arithmetic sequence).

240
Value of term

or
(b) tn + 1 = a tn + b

180
120
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 x
Term number

Fibonacci sequences
as second order
difference equations

The Fibonacci numbers are a unique sequence of numbers (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, . . .).
Each new term is formed by adding the two previous terms.
Any sequence in which each new term is the result of adding the previous two terms, given any
two starting values, is known as a Fibonacci sequence.
The Lucas numbers are a special group of numbers that follow a Fibonacci sequence and have
starting values of 2 and 1.
The second order difference equation for a Fibonacci sequence is set out using the following
notation:
fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1 given f1 and f2
or
tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1 given t1 and t2.

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

243

Chapter review
M U lT ip l e
C h oiCe

1 Which one of the following equations is not a first order difference equation?
a tn = 1tn 1
d tn + 1 = 1 n

b fn + 1 = fn 2
e fn = 10fn 1

C pn = pn 1

2 Which of the sequences below is generated by the first order difference equation tn + 1 = tn 4, t1 = 6?
a 4, 10, 16, 22, 28, . . .
d 6, 2, 2, 6, 10, . . .

b 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 28, . . .


e 6, 2, 10, 4, 14, . . .

C 6, 2, 6, 2, 6, . . .

3 A sequence is defined by the first order difference equation:

tn + 1 = 3tn 2
The third term, (that is, t3) of the sequence is
The first term of the sequence is:
a 161

1
b 8 3

n = 1, 2, 3, . . .

7.

C 5

d 1

e 5

The first order difference equation that defines an arithmetic sequence is:
t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 1
C tn + 1 = tn 2
t1 = 1
e tn + 1 = tn + 3
t1 = 1

a tn + 1 = 2tn
d tn + 1 = 2tn + 2

t1 = 1

5 The sequence 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, . . . can be defined by the first order difference equation:


a tn + 1 = 2tn
d tn + 1 = 2tn + 2

t1 = 4
t1 = 4

b tn + 1 = 2tn
e tn + 1 = 4tn + 2

t1 = 4
t1 = 4

6 The first order difference equation that defines a geometric sequence is:
a tn + 1 = tn + 2
d tn + 1 = tn + 2

t1 = 1
t1 = 1

b tn + 1 = tn 2
e tn + 1 = 2tn 2

t1 = 1
t1 = 1

C tn + 1 = tn 2

t1 = 4

C tn + 1 = 2tn

t1 = 1

7 The sequence 3, 12, 48, 192, 768, . . . can be defined by the first order difference equation:
a tn + 1 = 4tn
d tn + 1 = 3tn

t1 = 3
b tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 3
C tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 4
t1 = 4
e tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 3
8 A library adds 300 new books to its collection each year. The collection began with 4000 books and it
is claimed that no book has ever been removed.
A first order difference equation that reflects this situation is:
a Bn = Bn + 1 + 300
B0 = 300
b Bn = Bn + 1 + 300
B0 = 4000
C Bn = 1.03Bn + 1 + 100
B0 = 300
d Bn = 1.03Bn + 1 + 4120
B0 = 4000
e Bn = 1.04Bn + 1 + 300
B0 = 300
9 George deposits $80 during the second week of each month into an account that earns compound

The first order difference equation that could describe the


sequence is:
a tn + 1 = tn 40
t1 = 7
b tn + 1 = tn + 40
t1 = 7
C tn + 1 = tn 40
t1 = 40
d tn + 1 = tn 7
t1 = 40
e tn + 1 = tn + 7
t1 = 40
11 The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph at right.

The first order difference equation that could describe the


sequence is:
a tn + 1 = tn + 4
t1 = 3
b tn + 1 = 2tn + 1
t1 = 3
C tn + 1 = tn 3
t1 = 4
d tn + 1 = tn + 3
t1 = 4
e tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 4
244

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

tn
80
60
40
20

0 1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

Value of term

10 The first five terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph at right.

Value of term

interest of 6% per annum compounding monthly and calculated at the end of the month.
The first order difference equation that would describe this situation is:
a An = 1.005An 1 + 80.4
A0 = 0
b An = 1.005An 1 + 80.4
A1 = 0
C An = 1.06An 1 + 84.8
A0 = 0
d An = 1.06An 1 + 84.8
A1 = 0
e An = 1.08An 1 + 64.8
A0 = 0

tn
40
30
20
10
0

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

12 For the Fibonacci sequence with a second order difference equation given as fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1, where

f1 = 3 and f2 = 6, the value of f8 is:

a 165
d 21

b 102
e 13

C 63

13 For the sequences shown below, which one is a Fibonacci sequence?


a 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, . . .
d 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, . . .

b 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, . . .
e 1, 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, . . .

C 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, . . .

14 For part of a Fibonacci sequence given as . . ., 14, 23, 37, 60, 97, the first two terms could be given as:
a t1 = 2, t2 = 6
d t1 = 1, t2 = 4

b t1 = 1, t2 = 7
e t1 = 0, t2 = 4

C t1 = 2, t2 = 3

Write the first five terms of each of the sequences defined below.
t1 = 1
t1 = 0

S ho rT
a n S W er

a tn = 4tn 1 3
b tn + 1 = 3 + 5tn

Express the sequence defined by tn = 2 n, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . as a difference equation.

3 Express the sequence defined by tn = 8 1.5n 1, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . as a difference equation.


4 Show there is a common ratio for the difference equation tn + 1 = 3tn, where t1 = 5.
5 A club loses 4% of its membership each year but adds 20 new members each year. The initial

membership of the club was 300. Write a difference equation to describe this situation, stating clearly
the terms you use.
6

On a graph, plot the first five terms of the sequence described by the difference equation:
tn + 1 = 2tn 1
t1 = 2

7 The cost in dollars, Cn, to complete a house-painting job on the nth day is given by the difference

equation Cn + 1 = 0.5Cn + 100 where C2 = 300.


a How much will it cost on day 4?
b Show that it is neither an arithmetic nor geometric sequence.
c How much will it cost on day 1?
Write the difference equation that defines this sequence.

9 Write the first five terms for each of the sequences defined below:
a tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1
t1 = 2, t2 = 3
b fn + 2 = fn + fn + 1
f1 = 0, f2 = 4
c fn = fn 2 + fn 1
f1 = 2, f2 = 6

Value of term

8 The first four terms of a sequence are plotted on the graph at right.

tn
40
30
20
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

ex Ten d ed
r eS p o n S e

Task 1
1 A band has been advised that, to tour successfully, the number of gigs played in the nth month for the

first five months would need to fit the difference equation tn = 2n + 8, n = 1, 2, 3 . . .


a Express this as a difference equation.
b Plot the 5 terms of the sequence.

2 The occurrence of cymbal crashes in the bands most popular rock ballad follows the geometric

sequence tn + 1 = 2tn, t1 = 3, where tn is the bar number of the nth crash.


The occurrence of timpani rolls in the same song follows another sequence, tn + 1 = tn + 10, t1 = 4.
At what bar number does a timpani roll and cymbal crash coincide for the first time?

3 As a future side-project, the lead guitarist of the band wants to open her own record store. To fund the

project, she sets up a savings account that earns 9% interest p.a., compounded monthly and calculated
at the end of the month. She opens the account with $500 and deposits $100 at the start of each month.
Represent this information with a difference equation.
ChapTer 6 Difference equations

245

4 The band uses an exotic flower as the cover art for their new record. The flower has a multi-tiered bud,

where the number of seeds per tier is given by the Fibonacci numbers 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 . . .
a Represent this information as a difference equation.
b Find the number of seeds in the 10th tier.
c Which tier has 987 seeds?
5 The bands manager notices that the sales of their new record follow a Fibonacci sequence expressed by
the difference equation fn = fn 1 + fn 2, where f1 = 2 and f2 = 4. Each term of the sequence is measured
in thousands of units shifted per month.
a List the first 8 terms of the sequence.
b Determine the value of f 10.

Task 2
1 Two brothers set up a small workshop to produce surfboards.

The number of surfboards they produce each month follows


an arithmetic sequence and is given below.
Month number
Number of surfboards
produced

11

14

17

a Write the common difference of the arithmetic sequence.


b Write a difference equation that defines this sequence,

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

diGiTal doC
doc-9449
Test Yourself
Chapter 6

246

where Bn represents the number of surfboards produced in


the nth month.
2 The brothers had been advised that to be successful, the
number of surfboards produced in the nth month would need
to be reflected by Bn = 4n 1.
a Express this as a difference equation.
b Plot the first five terms of the sequence.
c In which month would the number of surfboards produced
in a month according to this advice first exceed the
number produced in a month as described in question 1?
3 In order to expand the business later, the brothers set up a savings account that earns 6% interest per
annum compounded monthly and calculated at the end of the month. The brothers open the account
with $1000 and deposit $500 during each month.
a Write a difference equation to represent this information, where An is the amount in the account at
the end of the nth month.
b Find the amount in the account after 5 years.

Task 3
Pythagorean triads are three integers that satisfy Pythagoras theorem. These triads, such as 3, 4 and 5 or
5, 12 and 13, can be formed from a Fibonacci sequence as shown below.
Take any four consecutive terms of a Fibonacci sequence. To obtain the first number of the
Pythagorean triad, multiply the two middle terms and double this answer. To obtain the second number
of the triad, multiply the two outer terms (from the four consecutive terms). To obtain the third number
of the triad, sum the squares of the two middle terms (from the four consecutive terms).
1 Consider the small Fibonacci sequence 1, 2, 3 and 5. State the values of t1 and t2 and represent the
sequence as a second order difference equation.
2 Calculate the Pythagorean triad formed by the sequence 1, 2, 3 and 5.
3 The terms t4 = 7 and t5 = 11 form part of a Fibonacci sequence. Find the value of t1, t2 and t3.
4 Use t1, t2, t3 and t4 from question 3 to find the Pythagorean triad formed by the sequence of these four terms.
5 Calculate the Pythagorean triad formed by the sequence 2, 1, 3 and 4.
6 What makes the sequence from question 6 a Fibonacci sequence?

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9443: Warm up with a quick quiz on
difference equations. (page 215)

6C The relationship between geometric sequences


and first order difference equations
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 6.1 doc-9444: Write arithmetic and geometric sequences
in the form of difference equations. (page 222)
TUTorial
We7 eles-1273: Watch a tutorial on recognising the difference
between geometric and arithmetic sequences given a difference
equation. (page 221)

6d Setting up first order difference equations to


represent practical situations
diGiTal doC
SkillSHEET 6.1 doc-9445: Changing a percentage to a decimal
(page 227)
TUTorialS
We11 eles-1333: Learn how to use a difference equation to
model a simple interest application. (page 224)
We12 eles-1334: Learn how to use a difference equation to
model a bird population each year. (page 225)

TUTorial
We14 eles-1274: Watch a tutorial on using a CAS calculator to
represent a sequence graphically. (page 229)

6F interpretation of the graph of first order


difference equations
TUTorial
We19 eles-1275: Watch a tutorial on finding a first order
difference equation using a graph. (page 234)

6G Fibonacci sequences as second order


difference equations
diGiTal doCS
Investigation doc-9447: Fibonacci patterns (page 238)
doc-9448: Investigate terms in a Fibonacci sequence. (page239)
TUTorial
We22 eles-1276: Watch a tutorial on finding the value of a specific
term given the difference equation. (page 239)

Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc-9449: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 246)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

inTeraCTiViTY
Setting up first order difference equations int-0187: Consolidate your
understanding of difference equations. (page 223)

6e Graphical representation of a sequence


defined by a first order difference equation
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 6.2 doc-9446: Recognise graphical representation
of sequences, solve worded problems and find terms given a
difference equation. (page 231)

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

247

The relationship between


geometric sequences and first order
difference equations
1 a, e, f, h
2 a tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 5
b tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 2
c tn + 1 = 6tn
t1 = 1
d tn + 1 = tn
t1 = 5
e tn + 1 = tn
t1 = 3
f tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 2
g tn + 1 = 4tn
t1 = 3
h tn + 1 = 3tn
t1 = 5
3 D

248

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Value of term

Value of term

tn
80
60
40
20

Value of term

2 a

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn
100
80
60
40
20

tn
100
80
60
40
20

Value of term

tn
40
30
20
10

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn
40
30
20
10
0

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn
80
60
40
20
0

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

tn
10
5
0
5
10

n
0 1 2 3 4 5
Term number

tn
20
15
10
5
0

tn
20
15
10
5
0

Value of term

1 a

tn
18
16
12
8
4

tn
20
15
10
5

exercise 6e

Graphical representation
of a sequence defined by a first order
difference equation

exercise 6C

Value of term

The relationship between


arithmetic sequences and first order
difference equations
1 b, d, g, j
t1 = 1
2 a tn + 1 = tn + 2
b tn + 1 = tn + 4
t1 = 2
c tn + 1 = tn + 7
t1 = 3
d tn + 1 = tn + 4
t1 = 2
e tn + 1 = tn 7
t1 = 12
f tn + 1 = tn 5
t1 = 6
g tn + 1 = tn 0.5
t1 = 1
h tn + 1 = tn + 6.5
t1 = 4
3 B
4 a tn + 1 = tn + 1
t1 = 4
b tn + 1 = tn + 1
t1 = 1
c tn + 1 = tn + 1
t1 = 9
d tn + 1 = tn 1
t1 = 0
e tn + 1 = tn 1
t1 = 4
f tn + 1 = tn + 2
t1 = 3
g tn + 1 = tn + 3
t1 = 1
h tn + 1 = tn 2
t1 = 4
5 A

Value of term

exercise 6b

Value of term

200 000, 202 000, 204 000, 206 000,


208 000
c tn + 1 = tn 7, t0 = 100; 100, 93, 86,
79, 72
d tn + 1 = 2tn 50, t0 = $200; $200, $350,
$650, $1250, $2450

Setting up first order


difference equations to represent
practical situations
1 a Ln = Ln 1 + 2,
L1 = 50
b Ln = Ln 1 + 10,
L1 = 8
c An = An 1 + 10,
A0 = 50
d Vn = Vn 1 2,
V0 = 5000
2 a Pn = 1.03Pn 1, P0 = 2600, P3 = 2841
b An = 1.012An 1, A0 = 45 000,
A5 = $4 7 766
c An = 0.96An 1, A0 = 70 000, A2 = 64 512
d Pn = 1.12Pn 1, P1 = 3500, P4 = 4917
3 a Pn + 1 = 1.07Pn + 1000, P0 = 15 000,
P4 = 24 102
b Pn + 1 = 0.99Pn + 200, P0 = 3000,
P3 = 3505
c An + 1 = 1.01An + 150, A0 = 0,
A3 = $454.52
4 C
5 A
6 C
7 A
8 E
9 a Pn + 1 = 1.04Pn 10, P0 = 10 000
b 10 390, 10 796, 11 217, 11 656, 12 112,
12 587, 13 080, 13 594
c The third week
10 a Arithmetic
b An + 1 = An 20, A1 = 4000
c 4000, 3980, 3960, 3940, 3920,
3900, 3880
d Geometric
e An + 1 = 0.99An, A1 = 4000
f 3766

Value of term

b tn + 1 = tn + 2000, t0 = 200 000;

exercise 6d

Value of term

exercise 6a Generating the terms of


a sequence defined by a first order
difference equation
1 b, c, g, j
2 a i 6, 8, 10, 12, 14
ii 5, 2, 1, 4, 7
iii 23, 24, 25, 26, 27
iv 7, 3, 13, 23, 33
b Arithmetic sequences
3 a i 1, 3, 9, 27, 81
ii 2, 10, 50, 250, 1250
iii 1, 4, 16, 64, 256
iv 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
b Geometric sequences
4 a 1, 3, 7, 15, 31
b 5, 13, 37, 109, 325
c 6, 5, 6, 5, 6
d 1, 4, 19, 94, 469
5 C
6E
7 7
8 1
9 D
1
1
3
1
1 3
10 a tn + 1 = 3tn, t0 = ;
, , 2 4 , 6 4 , 20 4
4
4 4

t1 = 2
t1 = 3
t1 = 3
t1 = 5
t1 = 0.5
t1 = 0.1

Value of term

4 a tn + 1 = 3tn
b tn + 1 = 5tn
c tn + 1 = 4tn
d tn + 1 = 2tn
e tn + 1 = tn
f tn + 1 = 3tn
5 A

diFFerenCe eQUaTionS

Value of term

Answers CHAPTER 6

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn
100
80
60
40
20
0

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

Value of term
Value of term
Value of term

Value of term

4 a

tn
50
40
30
20
10

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn
500
400
300
200
100
0
tn
160
120
100
80
40
0
40
tn
250
200
150
100
50

1 2 3 4 5n
Term number

tn + 1 = 100 3tn

2 3 4 5
Term number

Value of term

100

tn + 1 = tn + 50

10
0

Value of term

10
0

5 a

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

10

exercise 6F interpretation of the graph


of first order difference equations
1 a tn + 1 = tn + 4
t1 = 3
b tn + 1 = tn + 3
t1 = 2
c tn + 1 = tn 2
t1 = 14
d tn + 1 = tn 20
t1 = 90
e tn + 1 = tn + 2
t1 = 6
f tn + 1 = tn 4
t1 = 8
2 a tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 1
b tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 5
c tn + 1 = 2tn
t1 = 1
d tn + 1 = tn
t1 = 6
e tn + 1 = 0.5tn
t1 = 100
f tn + 1 = 0.5tn
t1 = 8
3 D
4 C
5 E
6 E
7 D

8 a ii
d iv

b v
e vi

12

3 4
Term

12
6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n
Term number

tn
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n

tn
3
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
n

Term number

tn + 1 = 10 tn
1 2 3 4 5
Term number

After alternating from negative to


positive, then reaching zero, the value of
the terms increase as the term number
increases.
c

3 4
Term

Term number

18

As the term number increases, the value


of the terms increases.

exercise 6G Fibonacci sequences as


second order difference equations
1 a 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34
b 2, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8
c 5, 3, 2, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3
d 34, 21, 13, 8, 5, 3, 2, 1, 1, 0
2 All of them
3 a 1, 4, 5, 9, 14, 23, 37, 60, 97, 157
b 2, 0, 2, 2, 4, 6, 10, 16, 26, 42
c 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, 47, 76
d 4, 5, 9, 14, 23, 37, 60, 97, 157, 254
4 a i 2, 4, 6, 10, 16, 26
ii f 21 = 35 422
24

tn
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

c iii
f i

18

tn
100
50

b i 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18
ii f 21 = 24 476

Term number

20

tn = 0.5 tn 1 5

tn + 1 = tn 50

12

tn
30

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

1 2 3 4 5

30

50
0

Term value

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

tn

50

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn
80
60
40
20

1 2 3 4 5
Term number

15

Value of term

Term number

tn
100
80
60
40
20

Value of term

tn 0 1 2 3 4 5
0
n
100
200
300
400
500

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

tn = 0.1 tn 1

1
0

Term value

Value of term

Value of term

Value of term

ii f21 = 19 308

c i 3, 1, 4, 5, 9, 14

tn
10

Value of term

Value of term

Value of term

tn
50
40
30
20
10

Term value

Value of term

3 a

3 4
Term

As the term number increases, the value


of the terms increases in magnitude but
remains negative.

ChapTer 6 Difference equations

249

7 A
10 D
13 C

7
8
9
10
11
12
13

14

15

2 24th bar
3 An + 1 = 1.0075An + 100.75, A1 = 500,

9 A
12 B

n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
fn = fn 1 + fn 2 where f1 = 1, f2 = 1
55 seeds
c 16th tier
2, 4, 6, 10, 16, 26, 42, 68
178
Task 2
1 a d=3
b Bn + 1 = Bn + 3
B1 = 5
2 a Bn + 1 = Bn + 4
B1 = 3
4 a
b
5 a
b

1 a 1, 7, 31, 127, 511


b 0, 3, 18, 93, 468
2 tn + 1 = tn 1
t1 = 1
3 tn + 1 = 1.5tn
t1 = 8

Term number

After alternating from positive to


negative, then reaching zero, the value
of the terms decreases as the term
number increases.
a 2, 6, 8, 14, 22, 36, 58
b 6, 2, 8, 10, 18, 28, 46
The third term in these sequences
will be the same, but the fourth and
following terms are different because
the second terms are different.
C
A
D
B
B
7 000 000
a t1 = 5 and t2 = 4
b t1 = 3 and t2 = 1
c t1 = 6 and t2 = 1
d t1 = 5 and t2 = 2
a t2 = 6
b t1 = 7
c t1 = 1
d t2 = 9
a 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, 47, 76
b 1, 1, 3, 5, 11, 21, 43, 85
c 1, 2, 6, 16, 44, 120, 328, 896
d 2, 2, 8, 14, 38, 80, 194, 434

8 B
11 B
14 D

ShorT anSWer

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n

15
5

45
= 3 and 15
=3
5 Pn = 0.96Pn 1 + 20

Value of term

Value of term

3
2
1
0
1
2
3

P0 = 300

tn
20
15
10
5
0

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

t
t
b 4 3 and t4 t3 t3 t2

exTended reSponSe

Task 1
1 a tn + 1 = tn + 2, t1 = 10

250

3 D
6 C

tn
20

10

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

A0 = 1000

Task 3
1 tn + 2 = tn + tn + 1 t1 = 1, t2 = 2
2 5, 12 and 13
3 t1 = 1, t2 = 3 and t3 = 4
4 7, 24 and 25
5 6, 8 and 10
6 Given two starting terms, the third and
fourth terms are the sum of their previous
two terms.

MUlTiple ChoiCe

2B
5C

1 2 3 4 5 n
Term number

c The 4th month


3 a An + 1 = 1.005An + 500
b $36 233.87

t3 t 2
c $400
8 tn + 1 = tn + 10
t1 = 5
9 a 2, 3, 5, 8, 13
b 0, 4, 4, 8, 12
c 2, 6, 8, 14, 22

ChapTer reVieW
1 D
4 C

18
15
12
9
6
3
0

7 a $225

tn
Value of term

tn

Exam practice 2 CHAPTERS 16


Core and Module 1 number patterns

M U lTip l e
C ho iC e
15 minutes

1 The revenue from sales each quarter for the first year in a 5-year period is shown below.

Quarter
Revenue ($)

1
12 500

2
34 600

3
24 200

each question is worth


one mark.

4
15 500

Using these values to determine the seasonal index for each month, the seasonal index for quarter 4
will be closest to:
a 0.18
b 0.64
C 0.71
d 0.78
e 1.40
The sixth term in the arithmetic sequence 19, 23, 27, . . . is:
a 27
b 35
C 36
d 39
e 40
The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 3 and the sum of the first 12 terms is 294. The sum of the
first 5 terms is:
a 124
b 84
C 35
d 12.5
e 106
The difference equation tn + 1 = 5tn + b where t1 = 2 generates the sequence 2, 7, 32, 157, . . .
The value of b is:
C 2
a 3
b 2
d 3
e 5
The number of people enrolling in a language school has increased every term by 3% since the
beginning of 2009. There were 26 people enrolled in term 1 of 2009. Pn is the number of people
enrolled at the start of the nth term. Let P1 = 26.
The rule for the difference equation that could be used to model this is:
a Pn + 1 = 3Pn
b Pn + 1 = 1.03Pn
C Pn + 1 = 0.97Pn
d Pn + 1 = Pn + 26
e Pn + 1 = 1.03Pn + 26

6 Ellie has a habit of consuming 30 lollies a day. She decides to eliminate this habit by reducing the

number of lollies she eats each day by two, until she gets to zero. On the first day of this plan, she
consumes 30 lollies. The number of lollies she will consume while on this plan is:
a 30
b 120
C 240
d 300
e 450
7 The 3rd term of a geometric sequence is 36 and the 7th term is 182.25. The sum of the first 10terms
is closest to:
a 1813.28
b 922.64
C 615.09

d 604.43
e 218.25
8 Three consecutive terms in a geometric sequence are . . ., 16, m, 25, . . .
If the terms in the sequence can be described by the rule tn = ar n 1 then a possible value for r is:
a 1.25
b 1.56
C 16
d 20
e 20.5
9 For an infinite geometric series, t2 = 4.8 and t7 = 0.049 152. The sum of the series is:
a 5
b 12
C 20
Total marks = 9
d 26
e 30
1 The values listed below show the percentage scores for an assignment attained by 20 students in a

Maths class.
52, 67, 48, 99, 32, 50, 88, 76, 84, 49, 60, 72, 65, 59, 84, 77, 95, 67, 74, 91
a Calculate the mean and standard deviation of the scores, correct to 1 decimal place.
b Amelia scored 76% for the assignment. Calculate her standardised score (z-score), correct

to 1 decimal place.

ex Ten d ed
r eS p o n S e
35 minutes

[2 marks]
[1 mark]

c The results for students in other classes for the same assignment were collected and were

found to be normally distributed. If a student gets a standardised score of 1, approximately


what percentage of students scored lower than she did?

[1 mark]

Exam practice 2

251

2 The population of deer in a small Victorian state park is increasing each year. The table below shows

the number of deer in the park at the beginning of each year.


Beginning of year
Number of deer

2006
100

2007
110

2008
121

a Show that the common ratio, r, for this sequence is 1.1.


b If the pattern continues, determine the expected number of deer present at the beginning

of 2010.

[1 mark]
[1 mark]

c Write an expression that gives the number of deer, Dn, present in the park at the beginning

of the nth year.

[1 mark]

d By how much will the deer population increase during 2011?


e At this rate of increase, during what year will the deer population first exceed 200 deer?

[1 mark]
[1 mark]

3 Wildlife authorities decide that, to preserve the native wildlife, it is necessary to undertake a relocation

diGiTal doC
doc-10192
Solutions
exam practice 2

of the deer. At the beginning of 2008 they decide they will relocate 20 deer at the end of each year.
The number of deer present in the park from 2008 onward can be found using the difference
equation:
Dn + 1 = rDn + d where D1 = 121 deer.
a Find r and d.
[2 marks]
b How many deer will there be in the park at the beginning of 2010?
[1 mark]
c In what year will the deer population first drop below 90?
[1 mark]
4 Wildlife officers are also concerned about the populations of some native animals within the park.
They have carefully monitored the populations of koalas and wombats over the last 3 years and have
found the koala population is decreasing by 2% each year while the wombat population is increasing
by 30 wombats per year. At the beginning of 2008, the koala and wombat populations were 820 and
580 respectively.
a An expression for the number of koalas, Kn, present in the park at the beginning of year
n is Kn = 820 r n 1. Determine the value of r.
[1 mark]
b Write a simplified expression for the number of wombats, Wn, present in the park at the
beginning of year n.
[1 mark]
c During which year will the wombat population first be greater than the koala population? [2 marks]
5 The park officers are concerned about the persistent presence of a local pest in the state park. They
have recorded the number of these pests over the last 4 years and have determined their growth
can be described as a Fibonacci sequence. In the first 2 years of monitoring the pests, the numbers
recorded were 50 and 62.
a How many pests were recorded in the 4th year?
[1 mark]
b What were the pest numbers likely to be in the year before they were first recorded?
[1 mark]
6 The park is becoming increasingly popular with hikers so the rangers decide, to make the park safer,
they will mark out some of the more popular walking tracks. In the first week they mark out 2 km of
tracks. In each week after that they mark 150 m less track than they had marked the previous week.
a What length of track do they mark out during the 4th week?
[1 mark]
b At the end of the 5th week they realise that they will need to order more track-marking materials
for the next 5 weeks, including signs and bright arrows. What is the total length of track they will
be marking out over the next 5 weeks?
[2 marks]
Total marks = 22

252

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

ChapTer 7

Geometry: similarity
and mensuration
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions
doc-9450

ChapTer ConTenTS
7a
7b
7C
7d
7e
7F
7G

Properties of angles, triangles and polygons


Area and perimeter
Total surface area
Volume of prisms, pyramids and spheres
Similar figures
Similar triangles
Area and volume scale factors

Geometry
Geometry is an important area of study. Many professions and
tasks require and use geometrical concepts and techniques.
Besides architects, surveyors and navigators, all of us use it in
our daily lives for example, to describe shapes of objects,
directions on a car trip and space or position of a house. Much
of this area of study is assumed knowledge gained from previous
years of study.

UPPER
LEVEL
Bed 1

Bed 2

Bed 4

Bed 3

Stairways

properties of angles,
triangles and polygons
7a

In this module, we will often encounter problems in which some of


the information we need is not clearly given. To solve the problems,
some missing information will need to be deduced using the many
common rules, definitions and laws of geometry. Some of the more
important rules are presented in this chapter.

inTeraCTiViTY
int-0259
The sum of external
angles of a polygon

interior angles of polygons


For a regular polygon (all sides and angles are equal) of n sides,
360
. For example, for a
the interior angle is given by 180
n
square the interior angle is:
180

Exterior angle

360
= 180 90
4
= 90.

The exterior angle is given by

360
.
n

Interior angle

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

253

Worked example 1

Calculate the interior and exterior angle of the regular polygon shown.

Think

WriTe

360
5
= 180 72
= 108

This shape is a regular pentagon, a 5-sided


figure.
Substitute n = 5 into the interior angle formula.

Interior angle = 180

Substitute n = 5 into the exterior angle formula.

Exterior angle =

Write your answer.

A regular pentagon has an interior angle of 108


and an exterior angle of 72.

360
5
= 72

Geometry rules, definitions and notation rules


Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

The following geometry rules and notation will be most valuable in establishing unknown values in the
topics covered and revised in this module.

definitions of common terms


A

Between 90
and 180

ABC
Less than 90
B

Acute angle C

90

180

Right angle

Obtuse angle

Straight angle

Between 180
and 360

A
A

Line

AB

AB
A
B
AB
Line segment
Ray

Reflex angle

Parallel lines

Perpendicular lines

Some common notations and rules


a + b + c = 180
No equal sides
b
a

254

c
Scalene triangle

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

All equal
60 sides and
angles

Two equal
sides and
angles

60
Isosceles triangle

60

Equilateral triangle

45

45
Right-angled
isosceles triangle

C
a + b = 90

a=b
a + b = 180

Complementary angles

Vertically opposite
angles

Supplementary angles

a=b
c=d

a=b
c=d
a c
d b

b
d
Corresponding angles

Alternate angles

Co-interior angles

B a+b=d
b
d

Right angle at the


circumference in
a semicircle

c d
A
C D
BCD is an exterior angle.

a + b + c + d = 360

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

b
a

D
CD is a perpendicular
bisector of AB

a + d = 180
b + c = 180
a c
d b

Do more
Interact
with parallel lines.

Worked example 2

Calculate the values of the pronumerals in the polygon shown.


b
c
a

cm

6 cm
Think

WriTe

360
6
= 60

This shape is a regular hexagon. The angles at the


centre are all equal.

a=

The other two angles in the triangle are equal.

a + b + c = 180
b=c
So:
60 + 2b = 180
b = 60
c = 60

60

The 6 triangles are equilateral triangles; therefore,


all sides are equal.

d cm = 6 cm

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

255

Worked example 3

Calculate the missing pronumerals in the diagram of railings for a set of stairs shown below.

c
a b

35

Think
1

WriTe/draW

Recognise that the top and bottom of the stair rails


are parallel lines.

c
a b
35
35

To find the unknown angle a, use the alternate


angle law and the given angle.

Using the corresponding angle law and the given


right angle, recognise that the unknown angle c is
a right angle.

Given angle 35.


a = 35
c

c = 90
4

Use the straight angle rule to find the unknown


angle b.

a + b + c = 180
35 + b + 90 = 180
b = 180 125
= 55

properties of angles, triangles


and polygons
exercise 7a

1 We 1 Calculate the interior and exterior angles for each of the following regular polygons.
a
c
e
f
g

256

Equilateral triangle
Hexagon
Heptagon
Nonagon

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

b Regular quadrilateral
d

Calculate the value of the pronumerals in the following figures.

2 We2
a

b
27

130
y

x
52

63

a
e

c a
15 b

b
c

8 cm
32

50

Calculate the value of the pronumerals in the following figures.

3 We3
a

b
x

35

30
0

62

70

t
e

27

b c

81

n
140

a
4 Name the regular polygon that has the given angle(s).
a Interior angle of 108, exterior angle of 72
b Interior angle of 150, exterior angle of 30
c Interior angle of 135, exterior angle of 45
d Interior angle of 120
e Exterior angle of 120

Calculate the unknown pronumerals.

5
a

110
y z

35

3.6 cm

4.2 cm
c

d
a

86

40
a

6 mC In the figure at right, the value of a is closest to:


a 30
d 120

b 75
e 150

C 90

150

7 mC An isosceles triangle has a known angle of 50.

The largest possible angle for this triangle is:


a 80
b 130
C 90

d 65

e 50

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

257

7b

Much of our world is described by area (the amount of space enclosed by a closed figure) and perimeter
(the distance around a closed figure).

Topic:

17

Concept:

Lot 603

Corner block with expansive


23.55 m frontage

645 m2
37.92

36.56

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Corner block
with wide
17 m frontage

4.0
5

14.07

$251 000

13.05

Lot 658

761m2

5
32.7

AOS:

32.18

Units: 3 & 4

area and perimeter

$147 000

5.8

23.55

Some examples are the area of a house block, the fencing of a block of land, the size of a bedroom
and the amount of paint required to cover an object. In this section we will review the more common
shapes.

perimeter
Perimeter is the distance around a closed figure.
Some common rules are:
2. For rectangles, the
1. For squares, the perimeter = 4l
perimeter = 2(l + w)
l

3. Circumference (C ) is the
perimeter of a circle.
C = 2 radius = 2 r

Square

Rectangle
l
w

Circumfere

l
w

nc

f a circl
e
e o

Worked example 4

Think

WriTe
1

The shape is composed of a semicircle and


three sides of a rectangle.

Perimeter = 300 + 2 600 + 2 circumference where

Add together the three components of the


perimeter.

Perimeter = 300 + 2 600 + 471.24


= 1971.24

Write your answer.

The perimeter of the closed figure is 1971 mm,


correct to the nearest millimetre.

258

600 mm
300 mm

Calculate the perimeter of the closed figure given at right


(to the nearest mm).

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

1
2

of circumference = 2 2 r
= 150
= 471.24

area of common shapes


The areas of shapes commonly encountered are:
1. Area of a square:
A = length2 = l2

Square
l
l

2. Area of a rectangle:

A = length width = l w

Rectangle
w

3. Area of a parallelogram:

A = base height = b h

Parallelogram
h
b

4. Area of a trapezium:

A = 2 (a + b) h

Trapezium
a
h
b

5. Area of a circle:

A=

radius2

r2

Circle
r

6. Area of a triangle:

A=2bh
(see the next chapter)

Triangle
h

Area is measured in mm2, cm2, m2, km2 and hectares.


1 hectare = 100 m 100 m = 10 000 m2

Worked example 5

Calculate the area of the garden bed given in the diagram (to the nearest square metre).
2.4 m

5.7 m

7.5 m
Think
1

The shape of the garden is a trapezium.


Use the formula for area of a trapezium. Remember that
the lengths of the two parallel sides are a and b, and h is
the perpendicular distance between the two parallel sides.

Substitute and evaluate.

WriTe
1

Area of a trapezium = 2 (a + b) h
a = 7.5
b = 5.7
h = 2.4

A = 2 (7.5 + 5.7) 2.4


1

= 2 13.2 2.4
= 15.84 m2
3

Write your answer.

The area of the garden bed is


approximately 16square metres.

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

259

Composite areas
Often a closed figure can be identified as comprising two or more different common figures. Such
figures are called composite figures. The area of a composite figure is the sum of the areas of the
individual common figures.
Area of a composite figure = sum of the areas of the individual common figures
Acomposite = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + . . .
Worked example 6

Calculate the area of the hotel foyer from the plans given at right
(to the nearest square metre).

25 m
20 m
8m

The shape is composite and needs to be


separated into two or more common shapes:
in this case, a rectangle, a triangle and half
of a circle.

25 m
A1

A2

8m

WriTe/draW

16 m
16 m

Think

A3

20 m

Area of foyer = A1 + A2 + A3
2

Find the area of each shape. (The width of


the rectangle and the base of the triangle is
twice the radius of the circle, that is,
16 metres.)

A1 = area of triangle
1

=2bh
1

= 2 16 20
= 160 m2
A2 = Area of rectangle
=lw
= 25 16
= 400 m2
A3 = Area of half of a circle
1
= 2 r2
1

= 2 82
= 100.53 m2
3

Add together all three areas for the


composite shape.

Area of foyer = A1 + A2 + A3
= 160 + 400 + 100.53
= 660.53 m2

Write your answer.

The area of the hotel foyer is approximately


661 m2.

Conversion of units of area


Often the units of area need to be converted, for example, from cm2 to m2 and vice versa.
1. To convert to smaller units, for example, m2 to cm2, multiply ().
2. To convert to larger units, for example, mm2 to cm2, divide ().
Some examples are:
102
1002 10002
(a) 1 cm2 = 10 mm 10 mm = 1 00 mm2
mm2
cm2
m2
km2
(b) 1 m2 = 100 cm 100 cm = 1 0 000 cm2
2
2
(c) 1 km = 1000 m 1000 m = 1 000 000 m
102
1002 10002
(d) 1 hectare = 10 000 m2
260

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Worked example 7

Convert 1.12 m2 to square centimetres (cm2).


Think
1
2

WriTe

To convert from m2 to cm2, multiply by 1002 or 10 000. 1.12 m2 = 1.12 10 000 cm2 = 11 200 cm2
Write your answer.
1.12 m2 is equal to 11 200 square
centimetres (cm2).

Worked example 8

Convert 156 000 metres2 to:

a kilometres2

b hectares.

Think

WriTe

a 1 To convert from metres2 to kilometres2 divide by

10002 or 1

= 0.156 km2

000 000.

156 000 m2 = 0.156 square kilometres (km2)

Write the answer in correct units.

b 156 000 m2 =

b 1 10 000 m2 equals 1 hectare. To convert from m2

to hectares, divide by 10 000.

156 000 m2 = 15.6 hectares

Write the answer.

exercise 7b

area and perimeter

Calculate the perimeters of the following figures (to the nearest whole units).
b

5m

7m

23.7 cm

cm

12 m

.9

1 We4
a

hectares = 15.6 hectares

4m

15

156000
10 000

15.4 cm

a 156 000 m 2 = 156 000 1 000 000 km2

27.5 cm
e

diGiTal doC
doc-9451
SkillSHEET 7.1
Substitution into a
formula

70 m

83

210 m

120 m

13.5 mm

.2

2 We5 Calculate the areas of the closed figures in question 1.

25 m

2m

20 m
24 mm
125 mm

90 mm

16 cm

9
.2

11

cm

cm

10 cm

45.2 mm

12 m
8 cm

17 m

3.5 m

3 We6 Calculate the areas of the following figures (to 1 decimal place).
a
10 m
b
13 m
12 m

21 cm

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

261

4 Calculate the perimeters of the closed figures in question 3.

Convert the following areas to the units given in brackets.


b 320 000 cm2 (m2)
c 0.035 m2 (cm2)
2
2
e 2 500 000 m (km )
f 357 000 m2 (hectares)
2
2
h 0.000 06 km (m )
6 Find the area of the regular hexagon as shown in the diagram at right
0m
1.2
(to 2 decimal places, in m2).
5 We 7, 8

diGiTal doC
doc-9452
SkillSHEET 7.2
Conversion of units of
length and area

a 20 000 mm2 (cm2)


d 0.035 m2 (mm2)
g 2 750 000 000 mm2 (m2)

2.08 m
7 A cutting blade for a craft knife has the dimensions shown in the diagram.

8 mC The perimeter of the figure shown, in centimetres, is:


a
b
C
d
e

34
24 + 5
24 + 2.5
29 + 5
29 + 5

30 mm
20 mm

What is the area of steel in the blade (to the nearest mm2)?

5 mm
40 mm

7 cm
2 cm
3 cm
12 cm

9 mC The perimeter of the enclosed figure shown is 156.6 metres.

The unknown length, x, is closest to:


20.5 m
35.2 m
40.2 m
80.4 m
90.6 m

20.5 m
35.2 m

a
b
C
d
e

10 A 3-ring dartboard has dimensions as shown below left. (Give all answers

to 1 decimal place.)
40 cm
20 cm
6 cm

diGiTal doC
doc-9453
SkillSHEET 7.3
expressing one
number as a
percentage of another

1
2
3
2
1

What is the total area of the dartboard?


What is the area of the bullseye (inner circle)?
What is the area of the 2-point middle ring?
Express each area of the three rings as a percentage of the total area
(to 2 decimal places).
11 On the set of a western movie, a horse is tied to a railing outside a saloon bar. The railing is 2metres
long; the reins are also 2 metres long once tied at one of the ends of the railing.
a Draw a diagram of this situation.
b To how much area does the horse now have access (to 1 decimal place)?
The reins are now tied to the centre of the railing.
c Draw a diagram of this situation.
d To how much area does the horse have access (to 1 decimal place)?
a
b
c
d

262

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Total surface area

7C

The total surface area (TSA) of a solid object is the sum of the areas of the surfaces.
In some cases we can use established formulas of very common everyday objects. In other situations
we will need to derive a formula by using the net of an object.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Total surface area formulas of common objects

Topic:

Concept:

Cube

Cuboid

Cylinder
r

l
h

l
w

Cubes:
TSA = 6l2

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
h

Cuboids:
TSA = 2(lw + lh + wh)

See more
Watch a
video about surface
area and volume.

Cylinders:
TSA = 2r (r + h)
Sphere

Cone
Slant
s height

Cones:
TSA = r (r + s), where
s is the slant height

Spheres:
TSA = 4r2

WORKED EXAMPLE 9

Calculate the total surface area of a poster


tube with a length of 1.13 metres and a
radius of 5 cm. Give your answer to the
nearest 100 cm2.

TUTORIAL
eles-1277
Worked example 9

3m

5 cm

1.1

THINK

WRITE

A poster tube is a cylinder.


Express all dimensions in centimetres.
Remember 1 metre equals 100 centimetres.

TSA of a cylinder = 2r(r + h)


Radius, r = 5 cm
Height, h = 1.13 m
= 113 cm

Substitute and evaluate.


Remember BODMAS.

TSA = 2 5(5 + 113)


= 2 5 118
= 3707.08

Write your answer.

The total surface area of a poster tube is


approximately 3700 cm2.

CHAPTER 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

5_61_17866_MQ12_FM_4E_07.indd 263

263

8/05/13 1:35 PM

Worked example 10

Calculate the total surface area of a size 7 basketball with a diameter


of 25 cm. Give your answer to the nearest 10 cm2.
Think

WriTe

25 cm

Use the formula for the total surface area


of a sphere. Use the diameter to find the
radius of the basketball and substitute
into the formula.

TSA of sphere = 4r2


Diameter = 25 cm
Radius = 12.5 cm
TSA = 4 12.52
= 1963.495

Write your answer.

Total surface area of the ball is approximately 1960 cm2.

Worked example 11

A die used in a board game has a total surface area of 1350 mm2. Calculate the linear dimensions
of the die (to the nearest millimetre).
Think

WriTe

A die is a cube. We can substitute


into the total surface area of a cube to
determine the dimension of the cube.
Divide both sides by6.

TSA = 6 l2
= 1350 mm2
1350 = 6 l2
1350
l2 = 6 = 225

Take the square root of both sides to


find l.

Write your answer.

l = 225
= 15 mm
The dimensions of the die are 15 mm 15 mm 15 mm.

Total surface area using a net


If the object is not a common object or a variation of one, such as an open cylinder, then it is easier to
generate the formula from first principles by constructing a net of the object.
A net of an object is a plane figure that represents the surface of a 3-dimensional object.
Square pyramid
Slant
height

Net

Trapezoidal prism
Net

Cylinder

Net

264

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Worked example 12

Calculate the total surface area of the triangular prism shown in the diagram.

10 cm
8 cm

10

10 cm

8 cm
A1
10 cm

Identify the different-sized common figures


and set up a sum of the surface areas. The two
triangles are the same.

cm
A4 6 cm

A2

6 cm
A3

20 cm

Form a net of the triangular prism, transferring


all the dimensions to each of the sides of the
surfaces.
20 cm

WriTe/draW

20 cm

Think

20 cm

20

cm

6 cm

TUTorial
eles-1278
Worked example 12

8 cm 6 cm
10 A4 6 cm
cm

TSA = A1 + A2 + A3 + 2 A4
A1 = l1 w1
= 20 10
= 200 cm2
A2 = l2 w2
= 20 8
= 160 cm2
A3 = l3 w3
= 20 6
= 120 cm2
1

A4 = 2 b h
1

=286
= 24 cm2
3

Sum the areas.

TSA = A1 + A2 + A3 + 2 A4
= 200 + 160 + 120 + 2 24
= 528 cm2

Write your answer.

The total surface area of the triangular prism is


528 cm2.

Worked example 13

12 cm

Calculate the surface area of an open cylindrical can that is 12 cm high and 8 cm in diameter
(to 1 decimal place).

8 cm

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

265

WriTe/draW

2 r, r = 4 cm

Form a net of the open cylinder, transferring


all the dimensions to each of the surfaces.

12 cm

Think

A1

A2
4 cm
2

Identify the different-sized common figures


and set up a sum of the surface areas. The
length of the rectangle is the circumference
of the circle.

Sum the areas.

Write your answer.

exercise 7C

TSA = A1 + A2
A1 = 2r h
= 2 4 12
= 301.59 cm2
A2 = r2
= 42
= 50.27 cm2
TSA = A1 + A2
= 301.59 + 50.27
= 351.86 cm2
The total surface area of the open cylindrical can is
351.9 cm2, correct to 1 decimal place.

Total surface area

1 We9 Calculate the total surface area for each of the solids a to f from the following information. Give

answers to 1 decimal place.


a A cube with side lengths of 110 cm
b A cuboid with dimensions of 12 m 5 m 8 m (l w h)
c A sphere with a radius of 0.8 metres
d A closed cylinder with a radius of 1.2 cm and a height of 6 cm
e A closed cone with a radius of 7 cm and a slant height of 11 cm
f An opened cylinder with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 30 mm
2 We 10 Calculate the total surface area of the objects given in the diagrams. Give answers correct

to1decimal place.
b

Length = 1.5 m

14 cm

410 mm
7 cm

4 cm

Diameter = 43 cm

3 We 11 Calculate the unknown dimensions, given the total surface area of the objects. Give answers

correct to 1decimal place.


a Length of a cube with a total surface area of 24 m2
b The radius of a sphere with a total surface area of 633.5 cm2
c Length of a cuboid with width of 12 mm, height of 6 cm and a total surface area of 468 cm2
d Diameter of a playing ball with a total surface area of 157 630 cm2
266

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

4 We 12 Calculate the total surface areas for the objects given in the diagrams. Give answers correct

to 1decimal place.

b
6.06 cm

5c

4 cm

15 c

10 cm

30

cm

7 cm
Area = 22

15

12 mm

8 cm

cm2

13 cm

m
m

25 m

9 mm

5 We 13 Calculate the total surface area of each of the objects in the diagrams below. Give answers

correct to 1 decimal place.


13.5 cm

12

10.5 cm

.3

3 cm

c
10

2 cm

Rubbish bin
250 mm

cm

7 cm

4.5 cm

20 cm

250 mm
6 A concrete swimming pool is a cuboid with the following dimensions:

2.5

1.0 m

length of 6 metres, width of 4metres and depth of 1.3 metres.


What surface area of tiles is needed to line the inside of the pool?
(Give your answer in m2 and cm2 correct to 1decimal place.)

1.5 m

7 What is the total area of canvas needed for the tent (including the

base) shown in the diagram at right? Give the answer correct


to 2 decimal places.

4.5 m

6.5 m

8 mC The total surface area of a 48 mm diameter ball used in

a game of pool is closest to:


a 1810 mm2
b 2300 mm2
C 7240 mm2
d 28 950 mm2
e 115 800 mm2
9 mC The total surface of a golf ball of radius 21 mm is closest to:
a 550 mm2
d 0.055 m2

b 55 cm2
e 5.5 cm2

C 55 000 mm2

10 mC The formula for the total surface area for the object shown is:
a
d

1
abh
2
1
bh +
2

1
2

b 2 bh + ab + 2 ah

3ab

1
2

C 3( bh + ab)

e bh + 3ab

b
11 mC The total surface area of a poster tube that is 115 cm long and 8 cm in diameter is closestto:
a 3000 cm2

b 2900 cm2

C 1500 mm2

d 6200 m2

e 23 000 cm2

12 A baker is investigating the best shape for a loaf of bread. The shape with the smallest surface area

stays freshest. The baker has come up with two shapes: a rectangular prism with a 12 cm square base
and a cylinder with a round end that has a 14 cm diameter.
a Which shape stays fresher if they have the same overall length of 32 cm?
b What is the difference between the total surface areas of the two loaves of bread?

diGiTal doC
doc-9454
WorkSHEET 7.1

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

267

Volume of prisms, pyramids


and spheres
7d

The most common volumes considered in the real world are the volumes of prisms, pyramids, spheres
and objects that are a combination of these. For example, people who rely on tank water need to know
the capacity (volume) of water that the tank is holding.
Volume is the amount of space occupied by a 3-dimensional object.
The units of volume are mm3 (cubic millimetres), cm3 (cubic centimetres or cc) and m3 (cubic metres).
1000 mm3 = 1 cm3
1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3
Another measure of volume is the litre, which is used primarily for quantities of liquids but also for
capacity, such as the capacity of a refrigerator or the size of motor car engines.
1 litre = 1000 cm3
1000 litres = 1 m3
103

Conversion of units of volume

cm3

mm3

Often the units of volume need to be converted, for example, from cm3
to m3 and vice versa.

1003

103

m3
1003

Worked example 14

Convert 1.12 cm3 to mm3.


Think

WriTe

To convert from cm3 to mm3 multiply by 103 or


1000. (That is, 1 cm3 equals 1000 mm3.)

1.12 cm3 = 1.12 1000 mm3


= 1120 mm3

Write the answer in the correct units.

1.12 cm3 is equal to 1120 mm3.

Worked example 15

Convert 156 000 cm3 to:

a m3

b litres.

Think

WriTe

a 1 To convert from cm3 to m3 divide by 1003 or

1 000 000. (That is, 1 000 000 cm3 equals 1 m3.)

b 1 1000 cm3 is equivalent to 1 litre; therefore, to

convert from
2

= 0.156 m3

156 000 cm3 = 0.156 cubic metres (m3)

Write the answer in correct units.


cm3

a 156 000 cm3 = 156 000 1 000 000 m3

to litres, divide by 1000.

b 156 000 cm3 =

156000
1000

litres = 156 litres

156 000 cm3 = 156 litres

Write the answer.

Uniform
cross-section

Volume of prisms
A prism is a polyhedron with a uniform cross-section.

Height

It is named in accordance with its uniform cross-sectional area.

Rectangular
prism

Triangular prism

268

Trapezoidal prism

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Hexagonal prism

To find the volume of a prism we need to determine the area of the uniform cross-section (or base)
and multiply by the height. This is the same for all prisms.
Volume of a prism, Vprism, can be generalised by the formula:
Vprism = area of uniform cross-section height
V = A H.
For example:
Vrect. prism = Arect. H
Vtriangular prism = Atriangle H
Note: Although cylinders are not prisms, they have a uniform cross-section (which is
a circle) therefore, the same formula can be applied to find volume of a cylinder.

Cylinder

That is, Vcylinder = Acircle H.


In fact, the formula V = A H can be applied to any solid with a uniform cross-section of area A.

Calculate the volume of the object shown. Give your answer correct to
the nearest cm3.
15 cm
Think

20 cm

Worked example 16

WriTe

The object has a circle as a uniform


cross-section. It is a cylinder. The area
of the base is: area of a circle = r2.
Volume is cross-sectional area times
height.

Vcylinder = A H, where Acircle = r2


= r2 H
= 152 20
= 4500
= 14 137.1669 cm3

Write your answer.

The volume of the cylinder is approximately 14 137 cm3.

Worked example 17

Calculate (to the nearest mm3) the volume of the slice of bread with a uniform cross-sectional
area of 250 mm2 and a thickness of 17 mm.

Area = 250 mm2

17 mm

Think

WriTe

The slice of bread has a uniform crosssection. The cross-section is not a


common figure but its area has been
given.

V=AH
where A = 250 mm2
V = 250 mm2 17 mm
= 4250 mm3

Write your answer.

The volume of the slice of bread is 4250 mm3.

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

269

Given the volume of an object, we can use the volume formula to find an unknown dimension of the
object by transposing the formula.

Worked example 18

Calculate the height of the triangle (to 1 decimal


place) from the information provided in the
diagram at right.

Volume of prism = 6.6 m3


TUTorial
eles-1279
Worked example 18

2m
Think
1

1.1

WriTe

The volume of the object is given, along with


the width of the triangular cross-section and
the height of the prism.

V = 6.6 m3, H = 1.1 m, b = 2 m


V = A H,
where A = 12 b h
V = 12 b h H

Substitute the values into the formula and


solve for h.

6.6 =

Write your answer.

2 h 1.1

= 1.1 h
h=

1
2

6.6
1.1

=6

The height of the triangle in the given prism is


6.0 metres.

Volume of pyramids
A pyramid is a polyhedron, where the base is any polygon and all other faces are triangles meeting at the
vertex.
The name of the pyramid is related to the shape of the polygon at the base.
Vertex

Triangular pyramid

Square-based pyramid

Hexagonal pyramid

The shape of the cross-section of the pyramid remains unchanged, but its size reduces as it approaches
the vertex.
Similarly, for cones, the shape of the cross-section is always the same (a circle), but its size reduces as
we move from base towards the vertex.
Vertex

Cone

270

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

The volume of a pyramid is always one-third of the volume of a prism with the same base and same
height,H. This holds for all pyramids.
Volume of a pyramid, Vpyramid, can be found by using the formula:
1

Vpyramid = 3 area of the base height


V = 1 A H.

The height of a pyramid, H, is sometimes called the altitude.


Worked example 19

Calculate the volume of the pyramid below (to the nearest m3).
Height of pyramid = 40 m

30 m
Think
1

30 m
WriTe

The pyramid has a square base. The area of


the base is: Area of a square = l2.

Vpyramid = 3 A H, where Asquare = l2


= 13 l2 H

= 13 302 40
= 12 000 m3
2

The volume of the pyramid is 12 000 m3.

Write your answer.

Volume of spheres and composite objects


Volume of a sphere
Spheres are unique (but common) objects that deserve special attention.
The formula for the volume of a sphere is:

Vsphere = 43 r 3
where r is the radius of the sphere.

Volume of composite objects


Often the object can be identified as comprising two or more different common prisms, pyramids or
spheres. Such figures are called composite objects. The volume of a composite object is found by adding
the volumes of the individual common figures or deducting volumes. For example, each of the structures
below can be roughly modelled as the sum of a cylinder and a cone.

Volume of a composite object= the sum of the volumes of the individual (on the difference) components.
Vcomposite = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . . (or Vcomposite = V1 V2)
ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

271

Worked example 20

Calculate the capacity of the container shown at right.


(Give your answer correct to the nearest litre.)

12 cm

25 cm

20 cm

TUTorial
eles-1280
Worked example 20

18 cm

The object consists of a cylinder and a


square-based prism.

18

cm

18 cm

The volume of the composite object is


the sum of volumes of the cylinder and
the prism.

Vcomposite = volume of cylinder + volume of


square-based prism
= Acircle Hcylinder + Asquare Hprism
= (r2 Hc) + (l2 Hp)
= ( 62 20) + (182 25)
= 2261.946 711 + 8100
= 10 361.946 711 cm3

Convert to litres using the conversion of


1000 cm3 equals 1 litre.

10 362 cm3 = 10.362 litres

Write your answer.

The capacity of the container is 10 litres,


calculated to the nearest litre.

Volume of prisms, pyramids and spheres

exercise 7d

Convert the volumes to the units specified.

0.35 cm3

a
to mm3
d 15 litres to cm3
g 0.000 57 m3 to cm3

b 4800 cm3 to m3
e 1.6 m3 to litres
h 140 000 mm3 to litres

c 56 000 cm3 to litres


f 0.0023 cm3 to mm3
i 250 000 mm3 to cm3

2 We 16 Calculate the volume of the following solids to the nearest whole unit.
b
a
c

mm

75

7 cm

104.8 cm

4000 mm

4 cm

23
c

1 We 14, 15

51.2 cm

diGiTal doC
doc-9455
SkillSHEET 7.4
Conversion of
units of volume
and capacity

r = 6 cm
25 cm

WriTe/draW

H = 20 cm

Think

15 cm
e

6.4 m

20 mm

4.8

34 mm

272

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

14 mm

2.1 m

0
m3m

22 mm

57 m

3 We 17 Calculate the volume of the following objects (to 2 decimal places).


Area = 4.2 m2

Area = 120 mm2


14.5 mm

2.9 m

Area = 15 cm2

Area = 32 cm2

8.5

cm

4 We 18 Calculate the measurement of the unknown dimension (to 1 decimal place).


b Volume of triangular prism = 1316.1 cm3
a Volume of cube = 1.728 m3
15
.0
cm
x
x
4 cm
21.

Volume of cylinder = 150 796.4 mm3


x

Volume of prism = 10 18 litres

120 mm

3x
x

5 We 19 Calculate the volume of these objects (to the nearest whole unit).
a

c VO = 17 m V

b
35 cm

V
VO = 10 cm

11 cm
8m

12 m

O
d

11 cm
e

12 mm

VO = 15 cm
Altitude of square-based
pyramid = 18 mm

O
Base of
pyramid

6 cm
6 cm

12 cm

10 cm

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

273

10 cm

5m

6 We 20 Calculate the volume of these objects (to the nearest whole unit).
b
c
a
4 cm
3m
m
7
cm
c
8
8 cm
r=

42 m

10 cm

19 m

1m

2.1 m
15 cm

4m

20 cm

6m
2.5 m

10 cm

60 m
42 m

Calculate the volume of a cube with sides 4.5 cm long.


Calculate the volume of a room, 3.5 m by 3 m by 2.1 m high.
Calculate the radius of a baseball that has a volume of 125 cm3.
Calculate the height of a cylinder that is 20 cm in diameter with a volume of 2.5 litres
(to the nearest unit).
e Calculate the height of a triangular prism with a base area of 128 mm2 and volume
of 1024 mm3.
f Calculate the depth of water in a swimming pool that has a capacity of 56 000 litres. The pool
has rectangular dimensions of 8 metres by 5.25 metres.

7a
b
c
d

8 The medicine cup below has the shape of a cone with a diameter of 4 cm and a height of 5 cm

(not including the cups base). Calculate the volume of the cone to the nearest millilitre, where
1 cm3 = 1 mL.

5 cm

4 cm

9 Tennis balls have a diameter of 6.5 cm and are packaged in a cylinder that can

hold four tennis balls. Assuming the balls just fit inside a cylinder, calculate:
a the height of the cylindrical can
b the volume of the can (to 1 decimal place)
c the volume of the four tennis balls (to 1 decimal place)
d the volume of the can occupied by air
e the fraction of the cans volume occupied by the balls.
10 mC The volume 200 000 mm3 is equivalent to:
a 2 litres
d 200 cm3

b 2 cm3
e 2000 cm3

C 20 cm3

11 mC The ratio of the volume of a sphere to that of a cylinder of

similar dimensions, as shown in the diagram, is best expressed as:


a
C
e

274

4
3
4
r
3

h
3
2

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

2
3

3
4

12 mC If the volume of the square-based pyramid shown is 6000 m3, then the perimeter of the base is

closest to:
a 900 m
b 20 m
C 30 m
d 80 m
e 120 m

V
VO = 20 m

13 mC A tin of fruit is 13 cm high and 10 cm in diameter. Its volume, to 1 decimal place, is:
a 1021.0 cm3

7e

b 510.5 cm3

C 1021.4 cm3

d 1020.1 cm3

e 4084.1 cm3

Similar figures

Objects that have the same shape but different size are said to be similar.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
similarity.

For two figures to be similar, they must have


the following properties:
1. The ratios of the corresponding sides must
be equal.
A B BC C D A D
= common ratio
=
=
=
AB
BC
CD
AD

B 1

4
A'

C'

B'

6
2

2
A 1

D'
C'
B'
60
125

2. The corresponding angles must be equal.


A = A B = B C = C D = D

A'

Scale factor, k

3
D

C
B
125 60

85

A 85

D'

A measure of the relative size of the two similar figures is the scale factor. The scale factor is the
common ratio of the corresponding sides and quantifies the amount of enlargement or reduction one
figure undergoes to transform into the other figure. The starting shape is commonly referred to as the
original and the transformed shape as the image.
B'
1. Scale factor, k, is the amount of enlargement or reduction and is
expressed as integers, fraction or scale ratios.
1
For example, k = 2, k = 12 or 1 : 10 000.
length of image
A B BC C A
=
=
2. Scale factor, k = length of original =
AB
BC
CA
where for enlargements k is greater than 1 and for reductions k
is between 0 and 1.
3. For k = 1, the figures are exactly the same shape and size and
are referred to as congruent.

B
3

A1 C

A' 3 C'

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

275

Enlargements and reductions are important in many aspects of photography, map making and
modelling. Often, photographs are increased in size (enlarged) to examine fine detail without distortion,
while house plans are an example of a reduction to a scale; for example, 1 : 25.

Worked example 21

20

Think

a 1 As it is a reduction, the larger shape is the

Original
cm
45 cm

For the similar shapes shown at right:


a find the scale factor for the reduction of the shape
b find the unknown length in the smaller shape.

Image
cm
10

WriTe

original and the smaller shape is the image.


2

The two shapes have been stated as being


similar, so set up the scale
factor, k.

Scale factor, k =
=

length of image
length of original
A B

AB
10 cm
=
20 cm
= 12

b 1 Use the scale factor to determine the unknown

length as all corresponding lengths are in the


same ratio.

b Scale factor, k =

1
2

length of image
k = length of original
1
2

x
45 cm
1

x = 2 45 cm
= 22.5 cm
2

276

Write your answers.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

The scale factor of reduction is 2 and the


unknown length on the smaller shape is
22.5cm.

Worked example 22

The figures given at right are similar.


Find the lengths of the two unknown sides s and t.

40
s
100 m

20
t 30

70

50 m

20

30

40

30

Think

First, redraw the figures so that they are


oriented the same way. (This will help to
identify corresponding sides and angles.)
Label the vertices of the 1st figure A, B, C
and D and corresponding vertices of the 2nd
figure A, B, C and D respectively.

B
40
s
100 m

D
A 30 t

70

20

Image
2

Since it is known that the figures are similar,


that ratios of the corresponding side lengths
must be equal. Both length, BC and BC are
known. These can be used to find the value
of s, as the ratio of BA to BA must be the
same.

Now find the value of t. (The ratio of DC to


DC must be the same as the ratio of BC to
BC.)

40
50 m

30

30

WriTe

20 C
Original

BA
BC
=
B C BA
100 s
=
50 30
100 30
s=
50
s = 60 m
DC
BC
=
B C DC
100 70
=
50
t
50 70
t=
100
t = 35 m

Similar figures

exercise 7e

1 We21 For each of these pairs of similar shapes, calculate:


i the scale factor

ii the value of x and y.

8c
m

8 cm

y cm
x cm

x cm

4 cm

1m
4m

20 cm

y cm

70 cm

25 m

x cm
50 cm

y cm

200 cm

2c

50 cm

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

277

2 We22 For each of the following pairs of similar figures, calculate the value of a.
a

mm

40 mm

17

mm

62 mm

17

1 m
82

Photo

Height of person = 186 cm

3 A photo has the dimensions 10 cm by 12 cm. The photo is enlarged by a factor of 2.5. Calculate the new

dimensions of the photo.

10 cm

12 cm
4 A set of model cars is made using the scale ratio 1 : 12. Calculate:
a the length of a real car if the model is 20 cm long (in metres to 1 decimal place)
b the height of a real car if the model is 3 cm high (to the nearest centimetre)
c the length of a model if the real car is 3 metres long.
5 The dimensions of a students room are 4300 mm by 3560 mm. A scale diagram of the room is to be

drawn on an A4 sheet, using the scale ratio 1 : 20. Calculate the dimensions of the scale drawing of the
room and state whether the drawing should be landscape or portrait on the A4 sheet.
6 mC The scale used to draw the diagram at right is 1: 25. The perimeter of the

real object is:


a 464 cm
C 357 cm
e 150 cm

4 cm
b 514 cm
d 14.28 cm

2 cm

7 mC A 1 : 27 scale model of a truck is made from clay. What is the length of the tray on the original

truck, if length of the tray on the model is 27 cm?


b 100 cm
e 729 cm

a 1 cm
d 540 cm

278

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

C 270 cm

8 mC A scale factor of 0.2 is:

a a reduction with a scale of 1 cm = 2 cm


C an enlargement with a scale of 1 cm = 5 cm
e a reduction with a scale of 1 cm = 20 cm

7F

b an enlargement with a scale of 1 cm = 0.2 cm


d a reduction with a scale of 1 cm = 5 cm

Similar triangles

Similar triangles can be used in a variety of situations. For example, with the aid of similar triangles,
we could find the heights of trees and buildings or the width of rivers and mountains. Two triangles
are similar if one of the following is true:
1. All three corresponding angles are
equal (AAA).

2. All three corresponding pairs


of sides are in the same ratio
(linear scale factor) (SSS).

3. Two corresponding pairs of


sides are in the same ratio and
the included angles are equal
(SAS).

Scale factor = 2 = 4 = 6 = 0.5 = k

inTeraCTiViTY
int-0188
Scale factors

Scale factor = 63 = 42 = 2 = k

3
4

As in the previous section, we use the known values of a pair of corresponding sides to determine the
scale factor (sf ) for the similar triangles.
Scale factor, k =

lengthof side of image


O A
=
lengthof corresponding side of original
OA

Worked example 23

For the triangles shown at right:


a State the rule that proves that the triangles are
similar and determine the scale factor.
b Find the value of the pronumeral, x.
A
Think

a 1 Two corresponding angles are

equal. The third angle is not given


but can be easily found using the
rule that all angles in a triangle add
to 180. State the rule that proves
similarity.
2

Always select the triangle with


the unknown length, x, as the
image. Evaluate the scale factor by
selecting a pair of corresponding
sides with both lengths known.

B'
B
4 100
30
6

100

6
C A'

30

C'

WriTe/draW

a A = A = 30

B = B = 100
C = C = 180 (30 + 100)
= 50
ABC is similar to ABC because all three
corresponding angles are equal (AAA).
B'

B
A

4 100 Original
30
50
C
6

6
A'

30

100
x

Image
50

C'

length of side of image


Scale factor, k = length of corresponding side of original
A B
=
AB
=

6
4

= 1.5
ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

279

b Scale factor, k = 1.5

b 1 Use the scale factor to find the

unknown length, x.

A C
AC
x
1.5 =
6
x = 1.5 6
=9
1.5 =

Write the answer.

The value of the pronumeral, x, is 9.

Worked example 24

For the given triangles, find the value of the pronumeral, x.


TUTorial
eles-1281
Worked example 24

3.5
B
4.0
A

Think
1

For clear analysis, separate the


two triangles. Note: The lengths
of the sides AE and AD are the
sum of the given values.
Establish that the two triangles
are similar using an appropriate
rule.

7
All measurements in metres
WriTe/draW

B
0

4.

7.

7m

AD = 4.0 + 3.5
= 7.5 m
AE = (7 + x) m

E
(7 + x) m

A = A (common)
B = D (corresponding angles are equal)
C = E (corresponding angles are equal)
ABC is similar to ADE (AAA).
AD
AB
AC
7 + x 7.5
=
7
4
AE

Since the triangles are similar,


the ratios of the corresponding
sides are equal.

Cross-multiply and solve for x.

4(7 + x) = 7 7.5
28 + 4x = 52.5
4x = 24.5
x = 6.125

Write the answer including units.

The value of x is 6.125 metres.

There are many practical applications of similar triangles in the real world. It is particularly useful for
determining the lengths of inaccessible features, such as the height of tall trees or the width of rivers.
This problem is overcome by setting up a triangle similar to the feature to be examined, as shown in the
next example.
280

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Worked example 25

Find the height of the tree shown in the diagram at right.


Give the answer correct to 1 decimal place.

ay

r
ns

Su
Shadow
(140 cm)

Girl
(168 cm)

14 metres
Think
1

WriTe/draW

For clear analysis, separate the two triangles.


Establish that the two triangles are similar.
(Assuming both the tree and the girl are
perpendicular to the ground, they form
parallel lines.)

168 cm
A

140 cm

C
xm

14 m

A = A (common angles)
B = B (corresponding)
C = C (corresponding)
ABC is similar to ABC (AAA).
14
x
=
1.4 1.68

Since the triangles are similar, their


corresponding sides must be in the same
ratio.
Note: Convert all measurements to metres, as it
is the most appropriate unit for the height of a
tree. So 140 cm = 1.4 m and 168 cm = 1.68 m.

Solve for x.

10 =

Write the answer including units.

The height of the tree is 16.8 metres.

exercise 7F

x
1.68
x = 10 1.68
= 16.8 m

Similar triangles

1 We23a State the rule (SSS or AAA or SAS) that proves that the triangles in each pair are similar and

determine the scale factor (expressed as an enlargement k > 1).


b
25

5.6

4.6

320 mm

4.4

0
64

5
4.5

8.8

240 mm
25
m
m
0
8
4

9.2

10

.2

11

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

281

f
10.5

0.5

10.5

1
7.0

14

3.5
4

2 We23b For the given pairs of similar triangles, find the value of the pronumeral a.
45 cm

am
m

am

m
20
m

71

16

a
14

67

14.4 m

cm

56

56

12 m

38

3.2

59 cm

75

38

cm

15

15 mm
62 62

12

25

22.5 mm
62
62

6
13

12

9.6

7.8

3 We24 For the given pairs of triangles, find the value of the pronumeral a.
b

7.5

a
2
a

10

3
12

8
e

15.

17 m

80
142 mm

43

8m

10

68 m

m
4m

17.2

32

am

a
80

18

4.5

.5

12

4 We25 Find the height (to the nearest centimetre) of the flagpole shown in the diagram below.

Guy wire
0.9 m
1m

282

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

9m

5 Find the length (to 1 decimal place) of the bridge, AB, needed to span the river, using similar triangles

as shown.
B
(Not to scale)

2.5 m
A 12.5 m

4.3 m

6 The shadow of a tree is 4 metres and at the same time the shadow of a 1-metre stick is 25cm. Assuming

both the tree and stick are perpendicular to the horizontal ground, what is the height of the tree?
7 Find the width of the lake (to the nearest metre) using the surveyors notes below.
Lake

A
25 m
2m
1.2 m
b 22
e 9.6

C 16

16

a 24
d 15

12

8 mC In the given diagram, the length of side b is closest to:

Not to scale

0.9 m
5m

1.1 m

20

Questions 9 and 10 refer to the following information.


A young tennis players serve is shown in the diagram below.

10 m

Assume the ball travels in a straight line.


9 mC The height of the ball x, just as it is hit, is closest to:
a 3.6 m
d 1.8 m

b 2.7 m
e 1.6 m

C 2.5 m

10 mC The height of the player, y, as shown is closest to:


a 190 cm
d 160 cm

7G

b 180 cm
e 150 cm

C 170 cm

diGiTal doC
doc-9456
WorkSHEET 7.2

area and volume scale factors

An unknown area or volume of a figure can be found without the need to use known formulas such as
in exercises 7B and 7D. We have seen that two figures that are similar have all corresponding lengths in
the same ratio or (linear) scale factor, k. The same can be shown for the area and volume of two similar
figures.

area of similar figures


If the lengths of similar figures are in the ratio a : b or k, then the areas of the similar shapes are in the
ratio a2 : b2 or k2. Following are investigations to support this relationship.
ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

283

different length ratios (or scale factors) of a square


Length of blue square 2 cm
=2=k
=
Length of red square 1 cm

Area = 1 cm2

1 cm
1 cm

Area of blue square 4 cm2


= 4 = 22 = k2
=
Area of red square
1 cm2
2 cm Area = 4 cm2

Length of green square 3 cm


= 1 cm = 3 = k
Length of red square

2 cm

Area of green square 9 cm2


= 1 cm2 = 9 = 32 = k2
Area of red square

3 cm

Area = 9 cm2

3 cm

different length ratios (or scale factors) of a circle


Radius length of blue circle 2 cm
=2=k
=
Radius length of red circle 1 cm
1 cm

Area = r2 = 1 cm2

Area of blue circle 4 cm2


= 4 = 22 = k2
=
Area of red circle
1 cm2
2 cm

Area = r2 = 4 cm2

Radius length of green circle 3 cm


= 1 cm = 3 = k
Radius length of red circle
3 cm

Area = r2 = 9 cm2

Area of green circle 9 cm2


= 9 = 32 = k2
=
Area of red circle
1 cm2
From the above, as long as two figures are similar, then the area ratio or scale factor is the square
of the linear scale factor, k. The same applies for the total surface area.
area of image
Area scale ratio or factor (asf ) =
area of original
= square of linear scale factor (lsf )
= (lsf )2
= k2
The steps required to solve for length, area or volume (investigated later) using similarity are:
1. Clearly identify the known corresponding measurements (length, area or volume) of the similar
shape.
2. Establish a scale factor (linear, area or volume) using known measurements.
3. Convert to an appropriate scale factor to determine the unknown measurement.
4. Use the scale factor and ratio to evaluate the unknown.
284

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Worked example 26

For the two similar triangles shown, find the


area, x cm2, of the small triangle.
Area = 100 cm2

Area = x

4.8 cm

2.4 cm
Think
1

Determine a scale factor, in this


instance the linear scale factor,
from the two corresponding lengths
given. It is preferred that the
unknown triangle is the image.
Determine the area scale factor.

WriTe

length of small triangle (image)


Linear scale factor = length of large triangle (original)
k=
=

2.4 cm
4.8 cm
1
2

Area scale factor = k2

= 1 = 14
2

Use the area scale factor to find the


unknown area.

area of small triangle (image)


Area scale factor = area of large triangle (original)
1
4

Transpose the equation to get the


unknown by itself.

Write your answer.

x cm 2
100 cm 2
1

x = 4 100 = 25
The area of the small triangle is 25 cm2.

Worked example 27

For the two similar shapes shown,


find the unknown length, x cm.

x
2 cm
A = 250 cm2

A = 10 cm2
Think
1

Determine a scale factor, in this instance


the area scale factor, as both areas are
known. It is preferred that the triangle
with the unknown dimention is stated as
the image.
Determine the linear scale factor.

WriTe

area of image (large trapezium)


Area scale factor = area of original (small trapezium)
k2 =

250 cm 2
= 25
10 cm 2

Linear scale factor = k 2


k = 25 = 5

Use the linear scale factor to find the


unknown length.

length of image (large trapezium)


Linear scale factor = length of original (small trapezium)
5=

Transpose the equation to get the


unknown by itself.

Write your answer.

x cm
2 cm

x=52
= 10
The length, x, is 10 cm.

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

285

Volume of similar figures


If the lengths of similar figures are in the ratio a : b or k, then the volume of the similar shapes are in the
ratio a3 : b3 or k3. The following is an investigation of two different objects, cubes and rectangular prisms.

a cube

Volume = 1 1 1
= 1 cm 3

Length of large (blue) cube 2 cm


=
=2=k
Length of small (red) cube 1 cm

1 cm
1 cm

1 cm

Volume of large cube 8 cm2


= 8 = 23 = k3
=
Volume of small cube 1 cm2

Volume
=222
= 8 cm3

2 cm
2 cm
2 cm

a rectangular prism

Volume
=1 1 3
= 3 cm3

ength of small prism 3 cm 1


engt
Length
=
= =k
Length
ngth of large prism 6 cm 2
ngt

1 cm

Volume of small prism


3 cm 3
1 1 2
=
=
= = k3
Volume of large prism 24 cm 3 8 2

3 cm
1 cm

From above, as long as two figures are similar, then the


volume ratio or scale factor is the cube of the linear scale
factor, k.
volume of image
Volume scale factor (vsf ) =
volume of original
= cube of linear scale factor (lsf )
= (ls f )3 = k3

Volume
=226
= 24 cm3
2 cm

6 cm
2 cm

Worked example 28

For the two similar figures shown, find the


volume of the smaller cone.

Think
1

Volume of
large cone
= 540 cm3

6 cm 9 cm

TUTorial
eles-1282
Worked example 28

WriTe/draW

Volume
= 540 cm3

Draw the two figures separately.


6 cm

9 cm

Volume
= x cm3
2

286

Determine a scale factor, in this instance


the linear scale factor, from the two
corresponding lengths given. It is preferred
that the triangle with the unknown volume
is the image.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Linear scale factor =


k=

length of small triangle (image)


length of large triangle (original)
6 cm
9 cm

= 23

Determine the volume scale factor.

Volume scale factor = k3


= 2

3
8

= 27
4

Use the volume scale factor to find the


unknown length.

Transpose the equation to get the


unknown by itself.

volume of small cone (image)


volume of large cone (original)
x cm 3
8
=
27 540 cm 3

Volume scale factor =

x = 27 540
= 160

The volume of the smaller cone is 160 cm3.

Write your answer.

We can use the relationship between linear, area and volume scale factors to find any unknown in any
pair of similar figures as long as a scale factor can be established.
Given
Linear scale factor (lsf )
Example (k = 2)

=k
=2

Area scale factor (asf )


Example

= k2 Linear scale factor


=4

= k2

Volume scale factor (vsf ) = k3 Linear scale factor


Example
=8

3
= k3
= 38
=2

Area scale factor

Then
Volume scale factor
=k
= 22
=4
2

= k3
= 23
=8

Volume scale factor

= k3
= 23
=8

Area scale factor

= k2
= 22
=4

= 4
=2

Worked example 29

For two similar triangular prisms with volumes of 64 m3 and 8 m3, find the total surface area of the
larger triangular prism, if the smaller prism has a total surface area of 2.5 m2.
Think

WriTe

volume of larger prism (image)


volume of smaller prism (original)

Determine a scale factor, in this instance


the volume scale factor, from the two
known volumes. It is preferred that
the larger unknown triangular prism is
stated as the image.

Volume scale factor =

Determine the area scale factor. For


easeof calculation, change volume
scalefactor to linear scale factor first
and then to area scale factor.

3 3
Linear scale factor = k = k
k= 38 =2
Area scale factor = k2
= 22
=4

Use the area scale factor to find the


totalsurface area.

Area scale factor =

Transpose the equation to get the


unknown by itself.

Write your answer.

64 m 3
8 m3
=8

k3 =

area of larger prism (image)


area of smaller prism (original)
x m2
4=
2.5 m 2
x = 4 2.5
= 10

The total surface area of the larger triangular prism is 10 m2.

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

287

exercise 7G

area and volume scale factors

1 Complete the following table of values.

Linear scale factors


k

Area scale factors


k2

Volume scale factors


k3

8
16

3
125
100
64
0.027
36
0.1
100
0.16
400

2 We26 Find the unknown area for each of the following pairs of similar figures.
a
b
c
12 cm2

8c

540 mm2

48
22.5 mm

15 mm
3a

We27

21 mm

cm

x mm2

x cm2

Surface area
= x mm2

Surface area
= 100 mm2

Find the unknown length for each of the following pairs of similar figures.

ii
xm

14 mm

Area =
6.25 m2

1.7 m Area =2

25 cm

Area =
750 cm2

1.0 m

Area = 3000 cm2

x
b Two similar trapezium-shaped strips of land have an area of 0.5 hectares and 2hectares. The

larger block has a distance of 50 metres between the parallel sides. Find the same length in the
smaller block.
c Two photographs have areas of 48 cm2 and 80 cm2. The smaller photo has a width of 6 cm. Find
the width of the larger photo.
4 We28 Find the unknown volume in the following pairs of similar objects.
a

b
x

cm3

Volume of small pyramid


= 40 cm3

7 cm

2400 cm3
14 cm

288

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

12 cm

2 cm

45 cm

Volume
= 1200 cm3
30 cm

Volume of large sphere


= 8 litres

For the two similar triangular pyramids with volumes of 27 m3 and 3 m3, calculate the total
surface area of the larger triangular prism if the smaller prism has a total surface area of 1.5 m2.
b For a baseball with diameter of 10 cm and a basketball with a diameter of 25cm, calculate the
total surface area of the baseball if the basketball has a total surface area of 1963.5 cm2.
c For a 14-inch car tyre and 20-inch truck tyre that are similar, calculate the volume (to the nearest
litre) of the truck tyre if the car tyre has a volume of 70 litres.
d For two similar kitchen mixing bowls with total surface areas of 1500 cm2 and 3375 cm2, calculate
the capacity of the larger bowl if the smaller bowl has a capacity of 1.25litres (to the nearest
quarter of a litre).

5a

We29

6 a Calculate the volume of the small cone.


Area = 45 cm2

Area
= 5 cm2
Volume of
large cone
= 270 cm3

b Calculate the volume of the larger

triangular pyramid.

TSA of small pyramid


= 200 cm2
Volume of small pyramid
= 1000 cm3
TSA of large pyramid
= 288 cm2

c Calculate the total surface area of the small prism. d Calculate the diameter of the small cylinder.
Area = 12 cm2

12 cm
TSA
= 78 cm2

Area
= 6 cm2
TSA
= x cm2

x cm

Volume
= 1280 cm3

Volume
= 20 cm3

7 What is the area ratio of:


a two similar squares with side lengths of 3 cm and 12 cm?
b two similar circles with diameters of 9 m and 12 m?
c two similar regular pentagons with sides of 16 cm and 20 cm?
d two similar right-angled triangles with bases of 7.2 mm and 4.8 mm?
8 Calculate the volume ratios from the similar shapes given in question 7.
9 A 1 : 12 scale model of a car is created from plaster and painted.
a If the actual car has a volume of 3.5 m3, calculate the amount of plaster needed for the model to

the nearest litre.


b The model needed 25 millilitres of paint. How much paint would be needed for the actual car

(in litres to 1 decimal place)?


ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

289

10 Find the ratios of the volume of 2 cubes whose sides are in the ratio of 3 : 4.
11 An island in the Pacific Ocean has an area of 500 km2. What is the area of its representation on a map

drawn to scale of 1 cm 5 km?

0 km

50
ea =

Ar

12 Two statues of a famous person used 500 cm3 and 1.5 litres of clay. The smaller statue stood 15 cm tall.
13

14
15

3h

16

What is the height of the other statue (to the nearest centimetre)?
The ratio of the volume of two cubes is 27 : 8. What is the ratio of:
a the lengths of their edges?
b the total surface area?
A cone is filled to half its height with ice-cream. What is the ratio of ice-cream to empty space?
mC A 1 : 27 scale model of a truck is made from clay. The ratio of volume of the model to the volume
of the real truck is:
a 1:3
b 3:1
C 1:9
d 1 : 729
e 1 : 19 683
mC The ratio of the volume of the blue portion to the volume of the
red portion is:
a 1:3
b 1:8
C 1:9
d 1 : 26
e 1 : 27

17 mC A 1 : 100 scale model of a building is a cube with sides of 100 cm. The volume of the building is:
a 10 000 000 m3
d 10 000 m3

290

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

b 1 000 000 m3
e 1000 m3

C 100 000 m3

Summary
properties of angles,
triangles and polygons

When solving geometry problems:


draw diagrams carefully
carefully interpret geometric notation; for example, the triangle
at right has two sides equal in length.
carefully consider geometric rules; for example, isosceles triangles
have two equal sides and angles.

area and perimeter

Perimeter is the distance around a closed figure.


Circumference is the perimeter of a circle.
C = 2 radius
= 2r
Area is measured in mm2, cm2, m2, km2 and hectares.
1 cm2 = 10 mm 10 mm = 100 mm2
1 m2 = 100 cm 100 cm = 10 000 cm2
1 km2 = 1000 m 1000 m = 1 000 000 m2
1 hectare = 10 000 m2
Area of shapes commonly encountered are:
1. Area of a square: A = l2
2. Area of a rectangle: A = l w
3. Area of a parallelogram: A = b h
4. Area of a trapezium: A = 12 (a + b) h
5. Area of a circle: A = r2
6. Area of a triangle: A = 1 b h
2
Area of composite figure = sum of the areas of the individual common figures
Acomposite = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + . . .

Total surface area


(TSa)

Total surface area (TSA) is measured in mm2, cm2, m2 and km2.


The TSAs of some common objects are as follows:
1. Cubes: TSA = 6l2
2. Cuboids: TSA = 2(lw + lh + wh)
3. Cylinders: TSA = 2r(r + h)
4. Cones: TSA = r(r + s), where s is the slant height
5. Spheres: TSA = 4r 2
For all other objects, form their nets and establish the total surface area formulas.

Volume of prisms,
pyramids and spheres

Volume is the amount of space occupied by a 3-dimensional object.


The units of volume are mm3, cm3 (or cc) and m3.
1. 1000 mm3 = 1 cm3
2. 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 m3
3. 1 litre = 1000 cm3
4. 1000 litres = 1 m3
Volume of a prism, Vprism = area of uniform cross-section height
V=AH
1
Volume of a pyramid, Vpyramid = 3 area of cross-section at the base height

Equal sides

V=3AH
The height of a pyramid, H, is sometimes called the altitude.
4
Volume of a sphere is Vsphere = 3 r3.
Volume of a composite object = sum of the volumes of the individual common prisms, pyramids or
spheres.
Vcomposite = V1 + V2 + V3 + . . .
or
Vcomposite = V1 V2 . . .

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

291

Similar figures

Two objects that have the same shape but different size are
said to be similar.
For two figures to be similar, the following must hold:
(a) The ratios of the corresponding sides must be equal.
A B B C C D A D
=
=
=
= common ratio
CD
AD
BC
AB
(b) All corresponding angles must be equal.
A = A

B'

A'

A 1

D'

C'
B'
60
125

B = B C = C D = D

length of image
= A B = B C = CA
length of original
CA
AB
BC
where for enlargements, k is greater than 1 and for reductions,
k is between 0 and 1.
For k = 1, the figures are exactly the same shape and size and are
referred to as congruent.

6
2

B 1

A'

Scale factor, k

C'

C
125 60

A 85

85

D'
B'

Scale factor, k =

3 3
A 1 C A' 3 C'

Similar triangles

Two triangles are similar if one of the following conditions is identified:


1. All 3 corresponding angles are equal (AAA).
2. All 3 corresponding pairs of sides are in the same ratio (linear scale factor) (SSS).
3. Two corresponding pairs of sides are in the same ratio and the included angles are equal (SAS).

area and volume


scale factors

The steps required to solve for length, area or volume using similarity are:
1. Clearly identify the known corresponding measurements (length, area or volume) of the similar
shapes.
2. Establish a scale factor (linear, area or volume) using known pairs of measurements.
3. Convert to an appropriate scale factor to determine the unknown measurement.
4. Use the scale factor and ratio to evaluate the unknown.
area of image
Area scale ratio or factor (asf ) =
area of original
= square of linear scale factor (lsf )
= k2
volume of image
Volume scale ratio or factor (vsf ) =
volume of original
= cube of linear scale factor (lsf )
= k3

292

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Chapter review
1 For the triangle shown in a semicircle, x is:
a
b
C
d
e

m U lTip l e
C ho iC e

32
58
68
90
none of the above

32

2 A triangle ABC has the following values: AB= 10 cm, AC = 12 cm where AB and AC are

perpendicular. The area of the triangle is:


a 120 cm2
b 30 cm2
d 121 cm2
e 60 cm2
3 The area of the kitchen bench shown in the plan
is closest to:
a 1250 + 19 600 cm2
b 1250 + 37 600 cm2
C 1250 + 29 600 cm2
d 2500 + 29 600 cm2
e 30 100 cm2

C 240 cm2

220
80
200

All
measurements
in cm
50

4 The total surface area of a closed cylinder with a radius of 40 cm and a height of 20 cm is given by:
a 2 20 (40)
C 2 40 (100)
e 2 20 (60)

b 2 40 (40)
d 2 40 (60)

5 The net of an object is shown in the diagram. Anappropriate

name for the object is:


a rectangular prism
b rectangular pyramid
C triangular prism
d triangular pyramid
e trapezoidal prism
6 The volume of a sphere with a diameter of 15 cm is closest to:
a 560 cm3
d 4500 cm3

b 900 cm3
e 36 000 cm3

7 The volume of the composite object, given that VO = 10 cm,

is closest to:
a 1000 cm3
b 1300 cm3
C 1500 cm3
d 2000 cm3
e 10 000 cm3
8 In the triangle shown, the value of c is:
3
a 3
b 6
2.6
c
C 9
d 12
e 4
7.8
9 The circumference of the larger cone is closest to:
a 113 mm
b 151 mm
C 226 mm
d 302 mm
e 459 mm

C 3600 cm3

24 mm
189 mm
63 mm

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

293

10 The diagonal distance on the plasma screen is used to specify the different sizes available. If the

h cm

height on a 51 cm plasma is 45 cm, then a similar 34 cm television has a height, h, which is


closest to:
a 67 cm
34 cm
b 45 cm
C 34 cm
d 30 cm
e 26 cm
45 cm

51 cm

11 The diagram at right shows the path of a pool ball into

6x

the middle pocket of a 12 by 6 rectangular billiard table.


To achieve this, the expression for the value of x is:
4 6 x
6 6 x
a
b
=
=
6
x
4
x
12 6 x
6 x6
d
C
=
=
6
x
4
x
6 2+ x
=
e
4
x

x
4

12

12 Jennifer is standing 2 metres directly in front of her bedroom window,

which is 1 metre wide. The width (w) of her view of a mountain range
1 kilometre from her window is (to the nearest metre):
a 1002 metres
b 1000 metres
C 499 metres
d 501 metres
e 500 metres

2m

1m

13 The large cone is filled to one-third of its height with water as shown.

The ratio of the volume of water to air is:


a 1 : 27
b 1 : 26
C 27 : 1
d 1:9
e 1:3
S h orT
a n S Wer

1 For each of the figures, calculate the values of the pronumerals.


a
b
a
b
40

294

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

1000 m

2 Calculate the outer perimeter (shown in red) and shaded area of the flower.

r = 11 mm

r = 22 mm

3 For the triangular prism:


a Sketch an appropriate net for the given solid prism.
b Transfer the units appropriately to the net from part a.
c Calculate the total surface area of the object.

4m

3m
5m

6m

4 a What is the volume contained by the solid and framed sections (to 1 decimal place)?
b What is the volume of the solid part only?
c What is the total surface area of the solid part only (to 1 decimal place)?

6m

10 m
5 The dimensions of a rectangular prism tub are 30 cm by 20 cm by 15 cm. The tub is filled completely

with water and then transferred into a cylinder tank that is 10 cm in radius and 40cm tall. How high is
the water level in the cylinder?
6 Two ladders are placed against the wall at the same angle. The ladders are 2 metres and 3metres long. If the
taller ladder reaches 2.1 metres up the wall, how far up will the second ladder reach (to 1 decimal place)?
7 A yacht is an unknown distance from the shore. A family on the beach make the measurements as
shown in the diagram below. How far is it to the yacht (to the nearest metre)?

10 m

1m
6m

8 A plan is drawn to scale of 1 : 50 000. Find:


a the length in centimetres on the plan that represents 1 km
b the area in hectares of a region represented by 4 cm2 on the plan
c the area on the plan of a region of 25 hectares.

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

295

e x Tended
r e S ponS e

diGiTal doC
doc-9457
Test Yourself
Chapter 7

Task 1
A rectangular block of modelling clay has dimensions of 30 cm by 20 cm by 10 cm.
1 a What is the volume of the block of clay?
b Express, in litres, your answer from question 1 a.
c What is the total surface area of the clay?
2 The entire block of clay is remoulded to the shape of a cylinder with a height of 30 cm.
a Find the diameter of the cylindrical block of clay (to 2 decimal places).
b Find the new total surface area of the clay when moulded as a cylinder (to the nearest cm2).
c What fraction of the volume needs to be removed to turn the cylindrical block into a cone with the
same diameter and height?
3 Clay is moulded to the shape at right to represent a 1 : 100 scale model of a grain silo.
a Find the volume of clay needed to make a scale model grain silo
6.6 cm
(to 1 decimal place).
b Find the actual volume of the grain silo. Express your answer to the
nearest cubic metre.
6 cm
c What is the ratio of the volume of the model to the volume of the actual
grain silo?
d If the scale model has a total surface area of 143.14 cm2, find the total
surface area of the actual silo.
6 cm

5 cm

4 Another silo, half the size of the silo in question 3, is to be built. What fraction will this smaller silo be

in volume compared to the larger silo?


Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

296

Task 2
The rectangular rear window of a car has an area of 1.28 m2.
a Find the height of the rear window if its length is 160 centimetres (to the nearest centimetre).
b A wiper blade is 50 centimetres long and just reaches the top of the window as it makes a semicircular
sweep. The base of the wiper is situated at the bottom centre of the rear window.
i Draw a diagram of the situation.
ii Find the area of the window swept by the wiper (to the nearest cm2).
iii Find the percentage of the windows area not swept by the wiper.
c The manufacturer decides to increase the wiper length by 10 centimetres
i Find the new area of the window that is swept by the wiper (to the nearest cm2).
ii Find the percentage of the windows area that is not swept by the wiper.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9450: Warm up with a quick quiz on
similarity and mensuration. (page 253)

7a

properties of angles, triangles and polygons

inTeraCTiViTY
The sum of external angles of a polygon int-0259: Use the
interactivity to investigate external angles of polygons. (page 253)

7b

area and perimeter

diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 7.1 doc-9451: Practise substitution into a formula.
(page 261)
SkillSHEET 7.2 doc-9452: Practise conversion of units of length.
(page 262)
SkillSHEET 7.3 doc-9453: Practise expressing one number as a
percentage of another. (page 262)

7C

Total surface area

diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 7.1 doc-9454: Convert units, calculate perimeter, area,
total surface area and volume (page 267)
TUTorialS
We9 eles-1277: Watch a tutorial on how to calculate the total
surface area of a poster tube. (page 263)
We 12 eles-1278: Watch a tutorial on how to calculate the total
surface area of a triangular prism. (page 265)

7d

Volume of prisms, pyramids and spheres

TUTorialS
We 18 eles-1279: Watch a worked example on how to calculate
the volume of a prism. (page 270)
We20 eles-1280: Watch a worked example on how to calculate
the volume of a composite 3-dimensional object. (page 272)

7F

Similar triangles

diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 7.2 doc-9456: Interior and exterior angles, perimeter,
area, total surface area and volume, convert units and calculate
unknown quantities in similar triangles (page 283)
TUTorial
We24 eles-1281: Watch a worked example on how to use similar
figures to calculate unknown dimensions. (page 280)
inTeraCTiViTY
Scale factors int-0188: Use the interactivity to consolidate your
understanding of 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional scale factors. (page 279)

7G

area and volume scale factors

TUTorial
We28 eles-1282: Watch a worked example on how to use scale
factors to calculate volume. (page 286)

Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc-9457: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 296)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

diGiTal doC
SkillSHEET 7.4 doc-9455: Practise conversion to units of volume and
capacity. (page 272)

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

297

Answers CHAPTER 7
GeomeTrY: SimilariTY and
menSUraTion
exercise 7a properties of angles,
triangles and polygons
1 a 60, 120
b 90, 90
c 120, 60
d 135, 45
3
4
f 140, 40
e 128 7 , 51 7
g 144, 36
2 a 79
b x = 130, y = 50
c 27
d a = 15, b = 165, c = 165
e b = 8 cm, c = 50
f 148
3 a x = 35, y = 145
b 30
c 28
d a = 70, b = 110, c = 70, d = 110
e m = 117, n = 63
f 59
4 a Pentagon (5-sided)
b Dodecagon (12-sided)
c Octagon
d Hexagon
e Equilateral triangle
5 a r = 2.1 cm, h = 7.2 cm
b x = 35, y = 35, z = 110
c a = 86, b = 94, c = d = 43
d a = 40, b = 50
6 D
7A
exercise 7b

1 a
c
e
2 a
c
e
3 a
c
e
4 a
c
e
5 a
c
e
g

area and perimeter


28 m
b 34 m
82.5 cm
d 42.4 mm
496.4 m
49 m2
b 48 m2
2
394 cm
d 143 mm2
11 550 m2
680 m2
b 8.6 m2
204 m2
d 7635.9 mm2
2
313 cm
106 m
b 12.1 m
71.7 m
d 331.5 mm
76.2 cm
200 cm2
b 32 m2
350 cm2
d 35 000 mm2
2
2.5 km
f 35.7 hectares
2750 m2
h 60 m2

6 3.74 m2
7 661 mm2
8 E
9C
10 a 1256.6 cm2
b 28.3 cm2
c 285.9 cm2
d 75.0%, 22.75%, 2.25%

exercise 7C

exercise 7d

Volume of prisms, pyramids


and spheres
1 a 350 mm3
b 0.0048 m3
c 56 litres
d 15 000 cm3
e 1600 litres
f 2.3 mm3
g 570 cm3
h 0.14 litres
i 250 cm3
2 a 70 685 835 mm3 or 71 litres
b 562 332 cm3 or 562 litres
c 1012 cm3
d 32 m3
3
e 10 200 mm
f 17 556 mm3 or 17.6 cm3
3 a 12.18 m3
b 1740 mm3
c 399.5 cm3
4 a 1.2 m
b 8.2 cm
c 40 mm
d 15 cm
5 a 440 cm3
b 4435 cm3
c 272 m3
d 864 mm3
3
e 240 cm
6 a 2145 cm3
b 2960 cm3
3
c 179 m
d 2089 cm3
e 39 m3
f 88 828 m3
3
7 a 91.125 cm
b 22.05 m3
c 3.1 cm
d 8 cm
e 8 mm

8 21 mL
9 a 26 cm
c 575.2 cm3
e
10
11
12
13

b 12.6 m2

11 a
m

r=1m

d 9.4 m2

r=2m

r=1m

298

2
3

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

1
3

f 1 m
b 862.8 cm3
d 287.6 cm3

D
B
E
A

exercise 7e

1 a i k=4
b i k=

Railing
2m

Total surface area

1 a 72 600 cm2
b 392 m2
c 8.0 m2
d 54.3 cm2
e 395.8 cm2
f 17 278.8 mm2
2 a 4.9 m2
b 364 cm2
c 5808.8 mm2 or 58.0 cm2
3 a 2m
b 7.1 cm
c 31.5 cm
d 224.0 cm
4 a 530 cm2
b 672.4 cm2
c 564 cm2
d 1008 mm2
5 a 245 436.9 mm2
b 914.8 cm2
c 123 cm2
6 50 m2, 50 0 000 cm2
7 99.25 m2
8 C
9 B
10 E
11 A
12 a Cylinder loaf
b 108.7 cm2

1
20

exercise 7F

b SSS, k = 2
c AAA or SAS, k = 2
d AAA, k = 1.5
e SSS, k = 3.5
f AAA, k = 3
2 a 30
c 15
e 7.2
3 a 8
b 4
d 38
e 72
4 810 cm
6 16 m
8 D
9 B
exercise 7G

factors
1

c i k = 0.8
ii x = 3.2 cm, y = 6.4 cm
2 a Corresponding angle law, 25.5 mm
b Photographic image, 1.2 m
3 25 cm by 30 cm
4 a 2.4 m
b 36 cm
c 25 cm
5 215 mm by 178 mm, landscape
6 C
7 E
8 D

b 18
d 42
f 10

c 10.8
f 426

5 21.5 metres
7 15 m
10 D

area and volume scale

Linear
scale
factors
k

Area scale
factors
k2

Volume
scale
factors
k3

16

64

27

25

125

10

100

1000

64

512

0.3

0.09

0.027

36

216

0.1

0.01

0.001

100

10 000

1 000 000

0.4

0.16

0.064

20

400
2

8000
2

240 mm
225 mm2
i 4.25 m
25 m
300 cm3
1 litre
6.5 m2
204 litres
10 cm3
39 cm2
16

b 432 cm
ii
c
b
d
b
d
b
d
b

12.5 cm
7.75 cm
8640 cm3
4050 cm3
314.2 cm2
4.25 litres
1728 cm3
3 cm

25
16

4
9

8 a 64

64
27

125
64

8
27

2 a
c
3 a
b
4 a
c
5 a
c
6 a
c
7 a

Similar figures
ii x = 280, y = 200
ii x = 125, y = 5

Similar triangles
.
4
or 1.3
3

1 a SAS, k =

9 a 2 litres
10

27
64

12
13
14
16

22 cm
a 3:2
1:7
D

16
9

b 3.6 litres
11 20 cm2
b 9:4
15 E
17 B

ChapTer reVieW
mUlTiple ChoiCe

1
4
7
10
13

B
D
B
D
B

E
E
B
A

2
5
8
11

3
6
9
12

C
A
C
E

ShorT anSWer

1 a a = 40, b = 50, c = 40
b a = 45, b = 45, c = 135
2 Area = 4942 mm2, perimeter = 311 mm
3 a, b
c 84 m2
5
4
6

6
4

b 339.3 m3

8 a 2 cm
c 1 cm2

b 100 hectares

33

6 1.4 m

b i

cm

80 cm

160 cm

b 6 litres
b 1904 cm2

ii 8639 cm2
iii 32.5%
c i 9425 cm2

ii 26.4%

2
3

3 a 121.9 cm3
c 1:1 000 000
4

Task 2
a 80 cm

50

exTended reSponSe

Task 1
1 a 6000 cm3
c 2200 cm2
2 a 15.96 cm

33

4 a 367.6 m3
c 273.3 m2
5 28.6 cm
7 60 m

b 122 m3
d 143.14 m2

1
8

ChapTer 7 Geometry: similarity and mensuration

299

Chapter 8

Trigonometry
DIGItaL DOC
10 Quick Questions
doc-9458

Chapter CONteNtS
8a
8B
8C
8D
8e
8F
8G
8h
8I

Pythagoras theorem
Pythagorean triads
Three-dimensional Pythagoras theorem
Trigonometric ratios
The sine rule
Ambiguous case of the sine rule
The cosine rule
Special triangles
Area of triangles

trigonometry
Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that is used to solve
problems involving the relationships between the angles and
sides of triangles.
Often the problem is a descriptive one and, to solve it
confidently, you need to visualise the situation and draw an
appropriate diagram or sketch.

Labelling conventions
When we use trigonometry to solve problems involving
triangles, there are several labelling conventions that help
us remain clear about the relationships between the vertices,
angles and lines being used. These will be explained as they
arise; however, the basic convention used in this book is
shown in the figure below right. Note the use of italics.
The angle A is at vertex A, which is opposite line a.
B
The angle B is at vertex B, which is opposite line b.
B
a
The angle C is at vertex C, which is opposite line c.
c
To avoid cluttered diagrams, only the vertices
C
C
(A, B, C) are usually shown; the associated angles
A
b
A
(A, B, C ) are assumed.
Note: Naturally, we do not need such labels in all diagrams, and sometimes we wish to label vertices,
angles and lines in other ways, but these will always be clear from the diagram and its context.

8a

pythagoras theorem

Before investigating the relationships between the angles and sides of a triangle, we should consider a
problem-solving technique that involves only the sides of triangles: Pythagoras theorem.
Pythagoras theorem is attributed to the Greek mathematician and philosopher, Pythagoras, around
500 BC. (However, the principle was known much earlier, and it seems that even the pyramid builders of
ancient Egypt used the theorem in constructing the pyramids.)

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

301

The theorem describes the relationship between the lengths of the sides of all right-angled triangles.
Pythagoras theorem states that the square of the hypotenuse
is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides, or

c (hypotenuse)

c2 = a2 + b2

and, therefore, to find c,


c=

a 2 + b2

where c is the longest side or hypotenuse and a and b are the two shorter sides.
Note: Because the equation c2 = a2 + b2 has become a standard way of expressing Pythagoras theorem, we
often adjust the labelling convention to use c for the hypotenuse no matter how the opposite (right) angle
and vertex is labelled. However, this will always be clear from the diagram.
The longest side is always opposite the largest angle (90 for right-angled triangles) and similarly, the
shortest side is opposite the smallest angle.
To find one of the shorter sides (for example, side a), the formula transposes to:
a2 = c2 b2
and so

a = c2 b2 .

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 1

Find the length of the unknown side (to 1 decimal place) in the
right-angled triangle shown.
thINK
1

2
3

Note that the triangle is right-angled and we


need to find the unknown length, given the
other two lengths.
Label the sides of the triangle, using the
convention that c is the hypotenuse.
Substitute the values into the appropriate
formula.

4 cm

WrIte/DraW

7 cm
c=x

a=4

b=7

c2 = a2 + b2
x2

42

Alternatively,
2
2
c = a +b

72

2
2
x = 4 +7
= 16 + 49

= 16 + 49

Write the answer using the correct units and to


the appropriate degree of accuracy.

= 65
x = 65
= 65
= 8.0622
The unknown sides length is 8.1 cm, correct to
1 decimal place.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 2

Find the maximum horizontal distance (to the nearest metre) a ship could drift from its original
anchored point, if the anchor line is 250 metres long and it is 24 metres to the bottom of the sea
from the end of the anchor line on top of the ships deck.
thINK

302

Sketch a suitable diagram of the problem


given. Note that the triangle is right-angled and
we need to find the unknown length, given the
other two lengths.

Simplify the triangle, adding known lengths,


and label the sides using the convention that
c is the hypotenuse.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

WrIte/DraW

es

0 metr

c = 25

a=?

b = 24 metres

c2 = a2 + b2

Substitute the values into the appropriate


formula.

Alternatively,
2
2
a = c b

2502 = a2 + 242

2
2
= 250 24

62 500 = a2 + 576

= 62 500 576

a2 = 62 500 576
= 61 924
a=

61 924

61 924

= 248.845
4

Write the answer using the correct units and to


the required accuracy.

The ship can drift 249 metres, correct to the


nearest metre.

pythagoras theorem

exercise 8a

1 We1 Find the length of the unknown side (to 1 decimal place) in each of the following right-angled

triangles.
a

b
x

8
x

DIGItaL DOC
doc-9459
Spreadsheet
pythagoras theorem

12

2.4

9
5
0.7
d

11.6

1 2
x

17.5

2 An aircraft is flying at an altitude of 5000 metres. If its horizontal distance from the airport is

3kilometres, what is the distance (to the nearest metre) from the airport directly to the aircraft?
3 What is the length (to the nearest millimetre) of a diagonal brace on a rectangular gate that is 2600 mm

wide and 1800 mm high?


4 We2 Find the length of the unknown side (to 1 decimal place) in each of the following right-angled

triangles.
a
8

17

20

10

15

x
9

d
7

25
x

7.4

10.6

15

x
x

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

303

5 Calculate the lengths of the sloping sides in the following. (Remember to construct a suitable

right-angled triangle.)
a
15

8 mm

10 mm

10.8

30 mm

10

4.6

12

6.2
f

6m

x
305 cm

14 m
3m
8m

12 m

460 cm

6 Calculate the value of the pronumerals.


a

b
6.2

215 cm

17

3.1
10.6

10

15
d

2.3

6.3 mm

4.

4.6

1.7
d

5.3 mm
7 One of the smaller sides of a right-angled triangle is 16 metres long. The hypotenuse is 8metres longer

than the other unknown side.


a Draw a suitable triangle to represent this situation.
b Write an expression to show the relationship between the three sides.
c State the lengths of all three sides.
8 MC The length of side AF in the diagram below is:
a

C 2

F
E
A

1m
B

9 MC To the nearest metre, the length of cable that would connect the roofs of two buildings that are

40 metres and 80 metres high respectively and are 30 metres apart (as shown below) is:
a 40 metres
B 45 metres
C 50 metres
D 55 metres
e none of these

304

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

8B

pythagorean triads

A Pythagorean triad is a set of 3 numbers which satisfies Pythagoras theorem. An example is the set of
numbers 3, 4, 5 where c2 = a2 + b2
So,
52 = 32 + 42
25 = 9 + 16
The diagram below illustrates this relationship.

35

Another Pythagorean triad is the multiple (scale factor of 2) of the above


set: 6, 8, 10.
Others are 5, 12, 13 and 0.5, 1.2, 1.3.
Prove these for yourself.

10

6
3

5
4
8

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 3

Is the set of numbers 4, 6, 7 a Pythagorean triad?


thINK

WrIte

42 + 62 = 16 + 36
= 52

Find the sum of the squares of the two smaller


numbers.

Find the square of the largest number.

72 = 49

Compare the two results. The numbers form a


Pythagorean triad if the results are the same.

72 42 + 62

Write your answer.

The set of numbers 4, 6, 7 is not a Pythagorean


triad.

Another way to generate Pythagorean triads is by using the following rule:


Step 1. Square an odd number (52 = 25).
Step 2. Find the two consecutive numbers that add up to the squared value (12 + 13 = 25).
Step 3. The triad is the odd number you started with together with the two consecutive numbers (5, 12, 13).
Try to find a triad for the odd number 9.
A triangle whose sides form a Pythagorean triad
contains a right angle, which is opposite the longest
side. This result can be illustrated approximately
with a rope of any length, by tying 11 equally
spaced knots and forming a triangle with sides equal
to 3, 4 and 5 spaces, as shown below. In doing this,
a right angle is formed opposite the 5-space side.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 4

A triangle has sides of length 8 cm, 15 cm and 17 cm. Is the triangle right-angled?
If so, where is the right angle?
thINK
1

The triangle is right-angled if its side lengths


form a Pythagorean triad. Find the sum of the
squares of the two smaller sides.

WrIte

82 + 152 = 64 + 225
= 289

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

305

Find the square of the longest side and compare


to the first result.

172 = 289
172 = 82 + 152
The triangle is right-angled.

The right angle is opposite the longest side.

The right angle is opposite the 17 cm side.

pythagorean triads

exercise 8B

DIGItaL DOC
doc-9460
Spreadsheet
pythagorean triads

1 We3
Are the following sets of numbers Pythagorean triads?
a 9, 12, 15
b 4, 5, 6
d 3, 6, 9
e 0.6, 0.8, 1.0
g 6, 13, 14
h 14, 20, 30
j 10, 24, 26
k 12, 16, 20

c
f
i
l

30, 40, 50
7, 24, 25
11, 60, 61
2, 3, 4

2 Complete the following Pythagorean triads. Each set is written from smallest to largest.
a 9, __, 15
b __, 24, 25
c 1.5, 2.0, __
d 3, __, 5
e 11, 60, __
f 10, __, 26
g __, 40, 41
h 0.7, 2.4, __
3 For each of the sets which were Pythagorean triads in question 1, state which side the right angle is

opposite.
4 We4 A triangle has sides of length 16 cm, 30 cm and 34 cm. Is the triangle right-angled? If so, where

is the right angle?


5 A triangle has sides of length 12 cm, 13 cm and 18 cm. Is the triangle right-angled? If so, where is the

right angle?
6 Find the unknown length in each case below.
b Radius = 3.5 cm
a
20
13
12

30

24 cm

c
c
9
41

1.1

6.1

e
1.3
0.4

26 km

0.3

E
10 km

7 An athlete runs 700 m north and then 2.4 km west. How far away is the athlete from the starting point?
MATHS
QUEST
m
0c
20

180 cm

300 cm

8 Find the perimeter of the flag as shown below.

9 MC Which of the following is a Pythagorean triad?


a 7, 14, 21
D 12, 13, 25

B 1.2, 1.5, 3.6


e 15, 20, 25

10 MC Which of the following is not a Pythagorean triad?


a 5, 4, 3
D 0.9, 4.0, 4.1

306

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

B 6, 9, 11
e 5, 12, 13

C 3, 6, 9

C 13, 84, 85

three-dimensional pythagoras
theorem
8C

Many practical situations involve three-dimensional objects with perpendicular planes and therefore the
application of Pythagoras theorem. To solve three-dimensional problems, a carefully drawn and labelled
diagram will help. It is also of benefit to identify right angles to see where Pythagoras theorem can be
applied. This enables you to progress from the known information to the unknown value(s).

INteraCtIVItY
int-0189
three-dimensional
pythagoras theorem

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 5

To the nearest centimetre, what is the longest possible thin rod that could fit
in the boot of a car? The boot can be modelled as a simple rectangular prism
with the dimensions of 1.5 metres wide, 1 metre deep and 0.5 metres high.
Draw a diagram of the rectangular prism.

Identify the orientation of the longest


object from one corner to the furthest
diagonally opposite corner. In this case, it
is AG.

Calculate the length of diagonal AC.

Calculate the length of diagonal AG,


using the calculated length for AC.
Note: To avoid rounding error, use the most
accurate form, which is the surd 3.25 .

Write the answer using the correct units


and level of accuracy.

E
0.5 m
A

Identify the two right-angled triangles


necessary to solve for the two unknown
lengths.
Draw the triangles separately, identifying
the lengths appropriately.

1.0 m

1.5 m
C
y

1.5 m

G
x

0.5 m

WrIte/DraW

1.0 m

thINK

tUtOrIaL
eles-1283
Worked example 5

c2 = a2 + b2
y2 = 1.52 + 1.02
= 2.25 + 1
= 3.25
y = 3.25
= 1.803 (to 3 decimal places)
The length of AC is 1.8 metres (to 1 decimal place).
2
2
c = a + b (alternative form)
2
x = 0.5 + ( 3.25)

= 0.25 + 3.25
= 3.5
= 1.8708 (m)
The longest rod that could fit in the car boot is
187 centimetres, calculated to the nearest centimetre.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 6

To find the height of a 100-metre square-based pyramid, with


a slant height of 200 metres as shown, calculate the:
a length of AC (in surd form)
b length of AO (in surd form)
c height of the pyramid VO (to the nearest metre).

V
200 m
D
A

O
B

C
100 m

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

307

thINK

WrIte

a Calculate the length of diagonal AC in the

right-angled triangle, ABC. Write surds in their


simplest form.

2
2
c = a + b (alternative form)
2
2
AC = 100 + 100

= 20 000
= 10 000 2
= 100 2
= 100 2

100 m

100 m

The length of AC is 100 2 metres.


b AO is half the length of AC.

b Length of AO is

c 1 Calculate the height of the pyramid, VO, in

the right-angled triangle, VOA.

100 2
or 50 2 metres.
2

2
2
a = c b (alternative form)

200 2 (50 2)

VO =

200 m

= 40 000 5000
= 35000
= 187.0829
2

Write the answer using the correct units


and level of accuracy.

50 2 m

The height of the pyramid, VO, is 187 metres,


calculated to the nearest metre.

three-dimensional pythagoras theorem

exercise 8C

1 We5 To the nearest centimetre, what is the longest thin rod that could fit inside a cube with side

length 2 m?
2 To the nearest centimetre, what is the longest drumstick that could fit in a rectangular toy box whose
dimensions are 80 cm long by 80 cm wide by 60 cm high?
3 For each of the prisms shown, calculate:
i the length of AC
a

G
H

ii the length of AG.


b

E
E

120 cm
C
D

40 cm

B
25 cm

G
I
C

F
5m

40 m

D 6m
14 m
E

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

400 mm

308

A
D
300 mm

H
1200 mm

4 We6 For each of the pyramids shown, calculate:


i the length of AC
ii the perpendicular height.
a
G

G
600 m

40 m
D
A

C
20 m
B

15 m

D
A

km

C
km

5 A 3.5-metre long ramp rises to a height of 1.2 metres. How long (correct to 1 decimal place) is the base

of the ramp?
6 MC Two guide wires are used to support a flagpole as shown.

The height of the flagpole would be closest to:


a 3m
B 8m
C 12 m
D 21 m
e 62 m

Wire

Wire

8.5 m

2m
4m

7 Find the values of the pronumerals (to 1 decimal place) in the

pyramid at right.
c

6.1
a

3.0

4.9

8 Find the lengths of AB and DH (to 2 decimal places),

where AC = 7.00 m and CH = 15.00 m.

C
E

9 A man moves through a two-level maze by following the solid

black line, as shown in the diagram. What is the direct distance


from his starting point, A, to his end point, F (to the nearest
metre)?

40 m
C

30 m
B

F
D

30 m

A 10 m

H
Not to
scale

10 In each of the following typical building structures find the length of the unknown cross-brace

shown in red.
a

b
3m
5m

2.6 m

b
11 m

3m

11 For the coffee table design at right, find the length of the legs (to the nearest millimetre) if the coffee

table is to be:
a 500 mm off the ground
b 700 mm off the ground
and the legs are offset from the vertical by a distance of:
i 100 mm
ii 150 mm.

Offset distance
Table
height

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

309

12 Find the length of the brace, BG (to the nearest centimetre), that is needed to reinforce the wedge-

shaped structure shown.

E
G
D

F
1.0 m
C

4.0 m
DIGItaL DOC
doc-9461
WorkSHEET 8.1

A 2.0 m B

8D
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

trigonometric ratios

Trigonometric ratios include the sine ratio, the cosine ratio and the tangent ratio; three ratios of the
lengths of sides of a right-angled triangle dependent on a given acute angle.

Labelling convention
For the trigonometric ratios the following labelling convention should be applied:
1. The hypotenuse is opposite the right angle (90).
2. The opposite side is directly opposite the given angle, .
3. The adjacent side is next to the given angle, .
Consider the three triangles drawn below. We know from the previous chapter on similarity that
ABC, ADE and AFG are similar because the corresponding angles are the same. Therefore, the
corresponding sides are in the same ratio (scale factor).
B

30

30

30

ratio of lengths of sides


Copy and complete the table below by identifying and measuring the lengths of the three sides for each
of the three triangles above. Evaluate the ratios of the sides.
Length of side
Triangle

Opposite

ABC
ADE
AFG

310

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

Adjacent

Hypotenuse

Ratio of lengths of sides


Opposite
Hypotenuse

Adjacent
Hypotenuse

Opposite
Adjacent

opposite
, the value is the same for all three triangles.
hypotenuse
This is the same for all right-angled triangles with the same acute angle.
Notice that for each of the ratios, for example

Trigonometric ratios are used in right-angled triangles:


1. to find an unknown length, given an angle and a side
2. to find an unknown angle, given two lengths.

Sine ratio
The sine ratio is defined as follows:
length of opposite side
lengt
.
The sine of an angle =
length
ength of hypotenuse side
engt
In short,

sin ( ) =

opposite
hypotenuse

sin ( ) =

O
H

Hypotenuse
Opposite

[SOH]

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 7

Find the length (to 1 decimal place) of the line joining the vertices A and B in the triangle
below.
A

15 cm

50

thINK
1

Identify the shape as a right-angled triangle


with a given length and angle. Label the sides
as per the convention for trigonometric ratios.

B
WrIte/DraW

A
15 cm
Hypotenuse
C

Identify the appropriate trigonometric


ratio, namely the sine ratio, from the given
information.

= 50

x cm
Opposite
B

Angle = 50
Opposite side = x cm
Hypotenuse = 15 cm

[SOH]

Substitute into the formula.

Isolate x and evaluate.

15 sin (50) =

Write the answer using the correct units and


level of accuracy.

The length of the line joining vertices A and B is


11.5 centimetres, correct to 1 decimal place.

length of opposite side


length of hypotenuse side
O
sin ( ) =
H
x
sin (50) =
15
sin ( ) =

x
15
15
x = 15 sin (50)
= 15 0.766
= 11.491

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

311

Cosine ratio
The cosine ratio is defined as follows:
The cosine of an angle =
In short,

length of adjacent side


lengt
.
lengt of hypotenuse side
length

cos () =

Hypotenuse

adjacent
hypotenuse

A
cos () =
H

Adjacent

[CAH]

In Worked example 7 the sine ratio was used to find the unknown length. The cosine ratio can be used
in the same way, if it is required.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 8

Find the length of the guy wire (to the nearest centimetre) supporting a flagpole, if
the angle of the guy wire to the ground is 70 and it is anchored 2 metres from the base
of the flagpole.
thINK
1

WrIte/DraW

Draw a diagram to represent the situation and


identify an appropriate triangle.
Guy
wire
70
2m

Label the diagram with the given angle and the


given side to find an unknown side in a rightangled triangle.

xm
Hypotenuse
70
2m
Adjacent

Choose the appropriate trigonometric ratio,


namely the cosine ratio.

Angle = 70
Adjacent side = 2 m
Hypotenuse = x m

Substitute into the formula.

A
H
2
cos (70 ) =
x

Isolate x and evaluate.

x
1
=
cos (70) 2

[CAH]

cos () =

x=

2
cos (70)

= 5.8476
6

312

Write the answer using the correct units and level


of accuracy.

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

The length of the guy wire is 5.85 metres


or 585 centimetres, correct to the nearest
centimetre.

tangent ratio
The tangent ratio is defined as follows:

In short,

length of opposite side


.
length of adjacent side
opposite
adjacent

tan ( ) =
tan ( ) =

Opposite

The tangent of an angle =

O
A

Adjacent

[TOA]

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 9

Find the length of the shadow (to 1 decimal place) cast by a 3-metre tall pole when the angle of
the sun to the horizontal is 70.
thINK
1

WrIte/DraW

Draw a diagram to represent the situation and


identify an appropriate triangle.

3m
70

Label the diagram with the given angle and the


given side in order to find an unknown side in a
right-angled triangle.
Opposite
3m

70
xm
Adjacent
3

Identify the appropriate trigonometric ratio,


namely the tangent ratio.

Substitute into the formula.

Isolate x and evaluate.

Angle = 70
Opposite side = 3 m
Adjacent side = x m

[TOA]

O
A
3
tan (70) =
x
x
1
=
tan(70) 3
tan () =

3
tan(70)
= 1.0919

x=

Write the answer using the correct units and


level of accuracy.

The length of the shadow is approximately


1.1 metres, correct to 1 decimal place.

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

313

Finding an unknown angle


If the lengths of the sides of a triangle are known, unknown angles within the triangle can be found.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 10

Find the smallest angle (to the nearest degree) in a 3, 4, 5 Pythagorean triangle.
thINK
1

WrIte/DraW

The smallest angle is opposite the smallest


side. Label the sides as given by convention for
trigonometric ratios.

5 Hypotenuse

Opposite 3

x
4
2

All side lengths are known, therefore, any one


of the 3 ratios can be used. Choose one ratio,
for example, sine ratio.

Substitute into the formula.

Convert the ratio to a decimal.

Evaluate x.

Write the answer using the correct units and


level of accuracy.

[SOH]

O
H
3
sin( x) =
5
= 0.6

sin () =

x = sin 1 (0.6).
= 36.87

exercise 8D
DIGItaL DOCS
doc-9462
SkillSHEET 8.1
Identifying sides of a
right-angled triangle
with respect to the
given angle
doc-9463
SkillSHEET 8.2
Finding trigonometric
values
and angles

Angle = x
Opposite side = 3
Hypotenuse = 5

The smallest angle is 37, correct to the nearest


degree.

trigonometric ratios

1 We 7 Find the length of the unknown side (to 1 decimal place) in each of the following triangles.
a

b
12 km

20
430 mm

2.5 m
50

43
d

61

52
2000 mm

15 cm

y
92 mm

49

2 We8 A boat is moored in calm waters with its depth sounder registering 14.5 m. If the anchor line

makes an angle of 72 with the vertical, what is the length of line (to the nearest metre) that is out
of the boat?
3 We9 A person is hoping to swim directly across a straight river from point A to point B, a distance of

215 m. The river carries the swimmer downstream so that she actually reaches the other side at pointC.
If the line of her swim, AC, makes an angle of 67 with the river bank, find how far (to the nearest
metre) downstream from point B she finished.
314

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

4 Find the value of the missing side (to 1 decimal place) of the following triangles.
c
a
b
x
45
2m

12

20

65
x

67.4
x

5 Find the value of the unknown sides (to 1 decimal place) of the following shapes.
a
b
c
6.5 cm
15 cm
110
27 m
20 cm
x
35
65
x

6 We10 Find the size of the unknown angle (to the nearest degree) in each of the following triangles.
a

b
10

2m

6
c

2m
d

500 mm

400 mm
7 Find the values of the unknown angle, a (to the nearest degree).
b
a
a
2m

11 m
10 m

a
1.2 m

4m
a
1m

8 Find the sizes of the two acute angles in a 6, 8, 10 Pythagorean triangle.


9 MC If b m is the height reached by the ladder in the diagram at right,

then b is equal to:


a 5.49
D 0.94

2m
B 1.37

C 0.68

e 1.88

70

10 MC The correct expression for the angle of elevation, , of the ramp is:
4
a sin 1
5

B cos 1 4

D tan 1 4
3

e cos 1 3
5

C tan 1 4
5

3
4

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

315

11 MC The correct expression for the value of c in the figure at right is:

tan (37)
4
4
D
tan (37)
a

cos (37)
4
4
e
sin (37)
B

5
tan (37)

5m
37
c

3m

12 MC A flagpole 2 metres tall casts a 0.6-metre long shadow. The angle of the sun to the ground is:
a 17
D 72

B 70
e 73

C 71

13 In the diagram at right find (to the nearest degree), x metres and y metres

(both to 1 decimal place).


14 A 1.9 m javelin is thrown so that 15 cm of its pointy end sticks into

the ground. The sun is directly overhead, casting a shadow of 90 cm


in length. Determine the angle (to the nearest degree) that the javelin
makes with the ground.

4m

20

60

15 A hot air balloon is hovering in

strong winds, 10 m vertically


above the ground. It is being held
in place by a taut 12 m length of
rope from the balloon to the
ground. Find the angle (to the
nearest degree) that the rope makes
with the ground.
16 A ramp joins two points, A and B.

The horizontal distance between


A and B is 1.2 m, and A is 25 cm
vertically above the level of B.
a Find the length of the ramp
(in metres to 2 decimal places).
b Find the angle that the ramp
makes with the horizontal.
17 A cable car follows a direct line

from a mountain peak (altitude


1250 m) to a ridge (altitude 840 m).
If the horizontal distance between
the peak and the ridge is 430 m, find
the angle of descent (to the nearest
degree) from one to the other.

Introduction sine and cosine rules


Often the triangle that is apparent or identified in a given problem is non-right-angled. Thus, Pythagoras
theorem or the trigonometric ratios are not as easily applied. The two rules that can be used to solve such
problems are:
1. the sine rule
2. the cosine rule.
For the sine and cosine rules the following labelling convention
should be used.
Angle A is opposite side a (at vertex A)
Angle B is opposite side b (at vertex B)
Angle C is opposite side c (at vertex C)

B
B

c
A

C
b

Note: To avoid cluttered diagrams, only the vertices (A, B and C) are usually shown and are used to
represent the angles A, B and C.
316

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

8e

the sine rule

All triangles can be divided into two right-angled triangles.


Units: 3 & 4

C
b
A

a
B

Earlier, we saw that the new side, h, can be evaluated in two ways.
b

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

AOS:

h
h
sin (B) =
a
b
h = b sin (A)
h = a sin (B)
If we equate the two expressions for h:
b sin (A) = a sin (B).
and rearranging the equation, we obtain:
a
b
=
.
sin ( A) sin ( B)
Using a similar approach it can be shown that:
b
a
c
1.
=
=
sin ( A) sin ( B) sin ( C )
2. Similarly, if the triangle is labelled using other letters, for example STU, then:
s
u
t
=
=
sin ( S ) sin (T ) sin (U )
This can be generalised as follows: in any triangle, the ratio of side length to the sine of the opposite
angle is constant.
The sine rule is used if you are given:
1. two angles and one opposite side
or
2. an angle and its opposite side length (a complete ratio) and one
C
other side. For example, in triangle ABC at right, a= 7 cm, A = 50
a = 7 cm
and c = 9 cm. Angle C could then be found using the sine rule.
50
A
sin (A) =

Do more
Interact
with the sine rule.

c = 9 cm

B
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 11

Find the unknown length, x cm, in the triangle at


right (to 1 decimal place).

130
30

thINK
1

Label the triangle appropriately for the sine


rule.

We have the angle opposite to the unknown


side
side and a known
ratio, therefore, the
angle
sine rule can be used.

tUtOrIaL
eles-1284
Worked example 11

WrIte/DraW

B
130
C

7 cm

30

c = 7 cm
A

b=x

b
c
=
sin ( B) sin (C )
b=x
c = 7 cm

B = 130
C = 30
Chapter 8 Trigonometry

317

Substitute known values into the two ratios.

Isolate x and evaluate.

Write the answer.

x
7
=
sin (130) sin (30)
7 sin (130)

sin (30)
= 10.7246
= 10.7

x=

The unknown length is 10.7 cm, correct


to 1 decimal place.

Sometimes it is necessary to find the third angle in a triangle in order to apply the sine rule.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 12

Find the unknown length, x cm (to 2 decimal places).


x

100

65
7 cm
thINK
1

WrIte/DraW

Label the triangle appropriately for the sine


rule.

c=x
A

Calculate the third angle because it is opposite


the unknown side.

Write the sine rule and identify the values of


the pronumerals.

Substitute the known values into the rule.

Isolate x and evaluate.

B
100

65
b=7

C = 180 (65 + 100)


= 15
b
c
=
sin ( B) sin (C )
c=x
C = 15
b=7
B = 100
x
7
=
sin (15) sin (100)
x=

7 sin (15)
sin (100)

= 1.8397
6

Write the answer.

The unknown length is 1.84 cm, correct


to 2 decimal places.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 13

For a triangle PQR, find the unknown angle (to the nearest degree), P,
given p = 5 cm, r = 7 cm and R = 48.
thINK
1

Draw the triangle and assume it is


non-right-angled.

Q
7 cm
P

318

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

tUtOrIaL
eles-1285
Worked example 13

WrIte/DraW

5 cm
48

Label the triangle appropriately for the sine


rule (it is just as easy to use the given labels).

Q
r=7

p=5
48

P
3

Confirm that it is the sine rule that can be used


as you have the angle opposite to the unknown
side
ratio.
angle and a known
angle

Substitute known values into the two ratios.

Isolate sin (P).

Evaluate the angle (inverse sine) and include


units with the answer.

p
r
=
sin( P) sin( R)
p=5 P=?
r = 7 R = 48
5
7
=
sin ( P) sin (48)
sin ( P) sin (48)
=
5
7
5 sin (48)
sin ( P) =
7
5 sin (48)
P = sin 1

= 32.06
= 32
The unknown angle is 32, correct to
the nearest degree.

Sometimes the angle required for the sine rule is not given. In such cases simply subtract the two known
angles from 180, as was done in step 3 of Worked example 12.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 14

A pair of compasses (often called a compass) used for drawing circles has two equal legs
joined at the top. The legs are 8 centimetres long. If it is opened to an included angle
of 36degrees between the two legs, find the radius of the circle that would be drawn
(to 1 decimal place).
thINK
1

WrIte/DraW

Draw the situation and identify that the triangle


is non-right-angled.
36

Draw the triangle separately from the situation


and label it appropriately.
The sine rule cannot be used straight away as
we do not have both a known angle and known
length opposite to the known angle. Therefore,
we need to find either A or C first.
This is an isosceles triangle since a = c;
therefore A = C. Using the fact that the
angle sum of a triangle is 180, find A and
C.

8 cm

B
c = 8 cm
A

36

a = 8 cm
C

180 = A + B + C
= x + 36 + x
2x = 180 36
= 144
x = 72 and, therefore,
A = C = 72
Chapter 8 Trigonometry

319

b
c
=
sin( B) sin(C )

Write the formula for the sine rule and identify


the values of the pronumerals.

b = y B = 36
c = 8 C = 72
y
8
=
sin(36) sin (72)

Substitute the known values into the formula.

Transpose the equation to get the unknown by


itself.

y=

Evaluate y to 1 decimal place and include units.

y 4.9
The radius of the circle is 4.9 cm, correct
to 1 decimal place.

exercise 8e

8 sin (36)
sin (72)

the sine rule

1 We11 Find the unknown length, x, in each of the following.


a
b
9 cm
110
x
15 m
40
x

18

142

55 cm

250 km

town are shown at the vertices of the triangle at right.


Find the straight-line distance between the school and the post
office (to 1 decimal place).

7 mm

Church

3 km
32

Post Office

each case below.


b

School

86

3 We12 Find the unknown length, x (to 1 decimal place) in

14

15 m

85 7 mm

74

58
c

85

x
105

25

2 The relative positions of the school, church and post office in a small

x
14

74

58
d

x
x
18

142
55 cm

d
18 cm

119

22
x

4 A sailing expedition followed a triangular course as shown at right. Find the total

distance covered in the round trip.


5 We13 For the following questions give answers to the nearest degree.
a In ABC, find the unknown angle, B, given b = 6, c = 6 and C = 52.
b In LMN, find the unknown angle,M, given m = 14.1, n = 27.2 and N = 128.
c In STU, find the unknown angle, S, given s = 12.7, t = 16.3 and T = 45.
d In PQR, find the unknown angle, P, given p = 2, r = 3.5 and R = 128.
e In ABC, find the unknown angle, A, given b = 10, c = 8 and B = 80.
f In PQR, find the unknown angle, R, given p = 48, q = 21 and P = 110.
320

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

10.5 km
30

78

6 Construct a suitable triangle from the following instructions and find all unknown sides and angles.

One of the sides is 23 cm; the smallest side is 15 cm. The smallest angle is 28.
7 We14 Steel trusses are used to support the roof of a commercial building. The struts in the truss

shown are each made from 0.8 m steel lengths and are welded at the contact points with the upper and
lower sections of the truss.
0.8 m
130

130

130

a On the lower section of the truss, what is the distance (to the nearest centimetre) between each

pair of consecutive welds?


b What is the height (to the nearest centimetre) of the truss?
8 MC The length of side m is nearest to:
a 3.2
D 5.8

B 3.1
e 3.0

C 3.6

70
m
35
C

5.2

9 MC The correct expression for the value of t in the given triangle is:
a

7 sin(100)

sin(30)

5.5 sin (100)

D
sin (50)

5.5 sin (100)

sin (30)

5.5 sin (30)

sin (100)

10 MC The value of x (to 1 decimal place) in the given figure is:


B 4.6

D 3.3

e 3.6

C 5.4

5.5 m
50

30

7 sin (50)
e
sin (100)

a 4.3

100

7m

t
x

60

4
70
3

11 MC In the triangle given, the largest angle (to the nearest degree) is:
a 80

B 82

D 67

e 60

C 84

7 cm

8 cm
60
6 cm

12 MC A yacht sails the three-leg course shown. The largest angle

between any two legs within the course, to the nearest degree, is:
a 34

B 55

D 78

e 90

15 km

C 45

45
18 km

13 km
13 MC The correct expression for angle S in the given triangle is:

a sin 1

40 sin(41)

30


B cos 1


C sin 1

30 sin (41)

40


D sin 1

40 cos(41)

30

41
40

S
30

41 sin (41)

30


e sin 1

30

40

si
n
(
41

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

321

14 Find the perimeter of the beehive cell shown.


10 mm

15 A logo is in the shape of an isosceles triangle with the equal sides

being 6.5 cm long and the equal angles 68. Use the sine rule to
find the length (to 1 decimal place) of the unknown side.
16 A rope is pegged at one end into the ground, pulled tightly up over
a branch and pegged into the ground at the other end. It is known
that one peg-to-branch length of rope is 8 m and it makes an angle
of 39 with the ground. The other end of the rope makes an angle
of 48 with the ground. Find (correct to 1decimal place):
a the length of the rope
b the distance between the two pegs.
17 A playground swing, which is 2.3 m long, makes an angle of 74, at its swing point, in one complete
swing. Determine the horizontal distance (in metres to 1 decimal place) between the extreme positions
of the swing seat.
18 A scenic flight leaves Geelong and flies west of north for the 80 km direct journey to Ballarat. At
Ballarat the plane turns 92 to the right to fly east of north to Kyneton. From here the plane again turns
to the right and flies the 103 km straight back to Geelong.
a Determine the angle (in degrees to 1 decimal place) through which the plane turned at Kyneton.
b Find the distance (to the nearest km) of the direct flight from Ballarat to Kyneton.

8F
eLeSSON
eles-0051
ambiguous case of
the sine rule

ambiguous case of the sine rule

On your calculator, investigate the values for each of these pairs of sine ratios:
sin (30) and sin (150)
sin (110) and sin (70).
You should obtain the same number for each value in a pair.
Obtuse
Acute
Similarly, sin (60) and sin (120) give an identical value of 0.8660.
Now try to find the inverse sine of these values; for example,

sin 1(0.8660) is 60. The obtuse (greater than 90) angle is not given by
the calculator. When using the inverse sine function on your calculator, the
A rope attached to a
calculator will give only the acute angle.
pole can be anchored
The situation is illustrated practically in the diagram at right where the
in two possible positions.
sine of the acute angle equals the sine of the obtuse angle.
Therefore always check your diagram to see if the unknown angle is the acute or obtuse angle or perhaps
either. This situation is illustrated in the two diagrams below. The triangles have two corresponding sides
equal, a and b, as well as angle B. The sine of 110 also equals the sine of 70; however, the side c is quite
different. It is worth noting that this ambiguity occurs when the smaller known side is opposite the known
acute angle. That is, an ambiguous case occurs if B < 90 and asinB b < a:
a

110
c

b
70

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 15

To the nearest degree, find the angle, U, in a triangle, given t = 7, u = 12


and angle T is 25.
thINK
1

322

Draw a suitable sketch of the triangle given. As


the length of s is not given, side t can be drawn
two different ways. Therefore angle U could be
either an acute or an obtuse angle. Label the
triangles appropriately for the sine rule. (It is
just as easy to use the given labels.)

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

tUtOrIaL
eles-1286
Worked example 15

WrIte/DraW

S
u = 12
T

25
s

t=7

u = 12

t=7
T

25

Identify that it is the sine rule that can be used


as you have the side opposite to the unknown
side
angle and a known
ratio.
angle

Substitute the known values into the two ratios.

Transpose the equation to get the unknown by


itself.

Evaluate the angle (inverse sine). Note that the


value is an acute angle but it may also be an
obtuse angle.

Calculate the obtuse angle.

Write the answer, giving both the acute and


obtuse angles, as not enough information was
given (the information was ambiguous) to
precisely position side t.

t
u
=
sin (T ) sin (U )
t=7
T = 25
u = 12 U = ?
7
12
=
sin (25) sin (U )
sin (U ) sin (25)
=
12
7
12 sin (25)

sin (U ) =
7
sin (U ) = 0.724 488
U = 46.43
U = 180 46.43
= 133.57
The angle U is either 46 or 134, correct
to the nearest degree.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 16

In the obtuse-angled triangle PQR at right, find the unknown angle


(to the nearest degree), P.
thINK
1

WrIte/DraW

Label the triangle appropriately for the sine


rule. (It is just as easy to use the given labels.)

40
R

Identify that the sine rule is used as you have


the side opposite to the unknown angle and a
side
known
ratio.
angle

30 cm

Q
p = 30

40

20 cm
P

r = 20
P

p
r
=
sin ( P) sin ( R)
p = 30
r = 20

P=?
R = 40

30
20
=
sin ( P) sin (40)

Substitute the known values into the two ratios.

Transpose the equation to get the unknown by


itself.

Evaluate the angle (inverse sine). Note that the


value is an acute angle while in the diagram
given it is an obtuse angle.

sin (P) = 0.964 18


P = 74.62

Calculate the obtuse angle.

P = 180 74.62
= 105.38
The angle P is 105, correct to the nearest degree.

sin ( P) sin (40)


=
30
20
30 sin (40)

sin (P) =
20

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

323

exercise 8F

ambiguous case of the sine rule

1 We15 Find both the acute and obtuse angles in each case below. Express all answers in degrees to

1decimal place.
In ABC, find the unknown angle, B, given b = 10.8, c = 6 and C = 26.
In STU, find the unknown angle, S, given t = 12.7, s = 16.3 and T = 45.
In PQR, find the unknown angle, P, given p = 3.5, r = 2 and R = 12.
In LMN, find the unknown angle, M, given n = 0.22 km, m=0.5 km a nd N=18.

a
b
c
d

2 We16 Find the unknown angle (to the nearest degree) in each of the following obtuse-angled triangles.
a
b
c
d
3m

60 km
B

110 km

4m

30.5
5.8 m

7m

7 4 m

25

30

20

11 m

3 MC In the triangle given, angle C is (to the nearest degree):


a
B
C
D
e

38
39
78
141
142

C
4.15 cm
19
A

8 cm

4 Find the two unknown angles shown in the diagram below (correct to 1 decimal place).
10 cm
27 x

9 cm

9 cm
y

5 Look at the swinging pendulum shown at right.


a Draw the two possible positions of the bob at the level

of the horizontal line.


b Find the value of the angle, W, at these two extreme
positions.
c Find the smallest and largest distances between
vertex V and the bob.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with the cosine
rule.

324

8G

8 cm
5 cm
15
V

the cosine rule

The cosine rule is derived from a nonright-angled triangle divided


into two right-angled triangles in a similar way to the derivation of the sine
rule. The difference is that, in this case, Pythagoras theorem and the cosine
ratio are used to develop it.
The triangle ABC in the figure at right has been divided into two rightangled triangles with base sides equal to x and (c x).
=
In ACD,
and in BCD,
h2 = a2 (c x)2 (Pythagoras theorem)
Equating expressions for h2,
b2 x2 = a2 (c x)2
a2 = b2 x2 + (c x)2
= b2 x2 + c2 2cx + x2
2 = b2 + c2 2cx
[1]
a
x
Now, from ACD, cos (A) =
b
x = b cos (A)
h2

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

b2

x2

C
b

h
x

a
cx
B

Substitute this value of x into [1] above.


a2 = b2 + c2 2c[b cos (A)]
So, the cosine rule can be written as:
a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos (A).
A
b
c
C
a
B

In a similar way to that above, it can be shown that:


b2 = a2 + c2 2ac cos (B)
c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos (C ).
Also, if the triangle is labelled using other letters, for example STU, then:
s2 = t2 + u2 2tu cos (S ).
The cosine rule is used to find:
1. an unknown length when you have the lengths of two sides and the angle in between
2. an unknown angle when you have the lengths of all three sides.
The formula may be transposed in order to find an unknown angle.
cos (A) =
or alternatively, cos (B) =

b2 + c2 a2
2bc

a2 + c2 b2
a2 + b2 c2
and cos (C ) =
.
2ac
2ab

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 17

Find the unknown length (to 2 decimal places), x, in the


triangle at right.

7 cm

80
6 cm
thINK
1

Identify the triangle as non-right-angled.

Label the triangle appropriately for the sine


rule or cosine rule.

tUtOrIaL
eles-1287
Worked example 17

WrIte/DraW

B
a=x

c=7
A

80
b=6

Identify that it is the cosine rule that is required


as you have the two sides and the angle in
between.

b=6
c=7

A = 80
a=x

Substitute the known values into the cosine rule


formula and evaluate the right-hand side.

a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos (A)


x2 = 62 + 72 2 6 7 cos (80)
= 36 + 49 84 cos (80)
= 70.4136

Remember to get the square root value, x.

Write the answer, rounding off to the required


number of decimal places and include units.

x = 70.4136
= 8.391
x = 8.39
The unknown length is 8.39 cm, correct to
2 decimal places.

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

325

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 18

Find the size of angle x in the triangle below, to the nearest degree.
6

x
4
thINK

WrIte/DraW

Identify the triangle as non-right-angled.

Label the triangle appropriately for the sine


rule or cosine rule.

A
c=6

b=6

x
a=4

a2 + c2 b2
2ac
a = 4, b = 6, c = 6, B = x

As all three sides are given, the cosine rule


should be used. Write the rule and identify the
values of the pronumerals.

cos (B) =

Substitute the known values into the formula


and simplify.

cos (x) =

4 2 + 62 62
246

16
48
cos (x) = 0.3333
cos (x) =

Evaluate x [x = cos 1 (0.3333)].

x = 70.53
x 71

Round to the nearest degree and state your


answer.

The angle x is 71, correct to the nearest degree.

the cosine rule

exercise 8G

1 We 17 Find the unknown length in each of the following (to 2 decimal places).
a

b
x
10 m

2.3 km

12

23

120

f
x

x
100
100 km

326

55

1.5 km

60
5m
d

z
5 3

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

30
200 km

33
4000 mm

47
2000 mm

2 During a sailing race, the boats

followed a triangular course as


shown below. Find the length, x,
of its third leg (correct to
1 decimal place).
10 km

7 km

107
x

3 Two circles, with radii 5 cm and 8 cm, overlap as shown at right. If the

angle between the two radii that meet at the point of intersection of the
circumferences is 105, find the distance between the centres of the circles
(to 1 decimal place).

5 cm

8 cm
105

4 We18 Find the size of the unknown angle in each of the following (to the nearest degree).
a

b
5m

8m
x

6m

12 mm y
20 mm

c
13 mm

d
20.5 cm

19.1 cm
x
28.6 cm

85 km
p

101 km

68 km

5 Consider the sailing expedition course in question 2. Find the two unknown angles (to the nearest
6
7
8

9
10

11

degree) in the triangular course.


Consider the overlapping circles in question 3. Find the two angles formed between the line joining the
centres of the circles and each of the radii drawn (to the nearest degree).
For the triangle shown at right, find all three unknown angles (to the nearest degree).
9
11
For the following questions, find answers to 1 decimal place.
a For ABC, find the unknown side, b, given a = 10 km, c = 8 km
and B = 30.
13
b For ABC, find the unknown angle, B, given a = b = 10 and c = 6.
c For ABC, find the unknown side, c, given a = 7 m, b = 3 m and C = 80.
d For STU, find the unknown angle, S, given t = 12.7, s = 16.3 and u = 24.5.
e For PQR, find the unknown angle, P, given p = 2, q = 3.5 and r = 2.5.
f For ABC, find the unknown side, a, given b = 260, c = 120 and A = 115.
Construct a suitable triangle from the following instructions and find all unknown sides and angles.
Two sides are 23 cm and 15 cm and the angle in between is 28.
MC The value of x (to 1 decimal place) in the diagram at right is:
a 43.5
30 mm 60
50 mm
B 43.6
C 82.4
D 82.5
x
e none of the above
MC The length of side m at right is nearest to:
m
20
a 20
B 26.4
60
C 26.5
30
D 43.6
e 50

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

327

12 MC In the triangle given, the largest angle is:


a
B
C
D
e

39
45
56
85
141

24 cm

15 cm
(Not to
scale)

20 cm

13 MC The correct expression for angle s is:


2
2
2
6 + 4 5
a cos 1

2
2
2
4 +5 6
cos 1

245

2
2
2
4 6 +5
C cos 1

2
2
2
4 +6 5
cos 1

245

264

246

5 cm
4 cm

6 cm

2
2
2
5 + 6 4
e cos 1

256

14 MC The correct expression for the value of t is:


a

180 + 144 cos(120)

180 120

180 144 0.5

180 72

180 + 72

120

12

15 MC The 4 surface angles at the vertex of a regular square-based

pyramid are all the same. The magnitude of these angles for the
pyramid shown at right (to the nearest degree) is:
a 1
B 34
C 38
D 39
e 71

Regular
square-based
pyramid

15 cm

10 m

16 Find the unknown values.


a

4 cm

4m
100

12 cm
3m

6 cm

DIGItaL DOC
doc-9464
WorkSHEET 8.2

2m

8 cm

8h

Special triangles

Often, the triangles encountered in problem solving are either equilateral or right-angled isosceles
triangles. They exhibit some unique features that, when recognised, can be very useful in solving
problems.
Equilateral triangles have three equal sides and three equal angles. Therefore, when given the length
of one side, all sides are known. The three angles are always equal to 60.
B

B
60

3
A

C
a=b=c=3
A = B = C = 60

328

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

B
60

45

60
a = b = c = 45
C = 60

14
b = a = c = 14
B = A = C = 60

Right-angled isosceles triangles have one right angle (90) opposite the longest side (hypotenuse) and
two equal sides and angles. The two other angles are always 45.
A

13
B

10
a = c = 13
b = 13 2
A = C = 45
B = 90

A
10 2
45
a = c = 10
b = 10 2
A = C = 45
B = 90

5 2

a=c=5
b=5 2
A = C = 45
B = 90

Also, the hypotenuse is always 2 times the length of the smaller sides.
Check for yourself using Pythagoras theorem.

A
20
45

b = 20
a = c = 20
2
A = C = 45
B = 90
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 19

Find the values of r and angle in the hexagon at right.


thINK
1

Triangles in a regular hexagon are all identical.


The six angles at the centre are equal. The
magnitude of each is one revolution divided
by 6.

WrIte/DraW

6 cm

Regular hexagon
6 cm
r cm

60

= 360 6
= 60
2

Furthermore, the two sides that form the


triangle are equal. Thus the two equal angles
on the shapes perimeter are also 60. All three
angles are the same; therefore, all three sides
are equal. Therefore, the triangles in a regular
hexagon are all equilateral triangles.

r = 6 cm

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 20

Find the value of the pronumeral (correct to 1 decimal place) in the figure.
45
thINK
1

WrIte/DraW

The triangle is a right-angled isosceles triangle.


Two angles are 45 and the third angle is 90.

45
12 cm

12 cm

x
45
12 cm

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

329

Two sides are equal and the longer side


opposite the right angle is 2 times longer than
these equal sides.

c=a 2
x = 12 2
= 16.970 56

Write your answer using the required accuracy


and include units.

The value of x is 17.0 cm, correct


to 1decimal place.

Special triangles

exercise 8h

1 We19 Find the unknown(s) in each of the following.


a
b
100 cm
60
45
a

c
a

60
60
15.2 cm

2 We20 Find the unknowns in each of the following.


a

b
45

158 cm

7.2 m

10 mm
3 Answer the following.
a In ABC, find the unknown angle, B, given b = 10, c = 10 2 and C = 90.
b In STU, find the unknown side, s, given t = 12.7, S = 45 and T = 45.
c In PQR, find the unknown angle, P, given p = 3.5, r = 3.5 and R = 60.
d In LMN, find the unknown side, m, given n = 0.22, L = 60 and N = 60.
4 A pair of compasses used for drawing circles has legs that are 6 cm long. If it is opened as shown in the

diagram, what is the radius of the circle that could be drawn?

60

5 What is the height of a tree if its shadow, on horizontal ground, is 12 metres long when the suns rays

striking the tree are at 45 to the ground?


6 MC In the triangle given, the length of side AB (in metres) is:
A
10 2 m

C
a 20 2

B 10

C 20

B
D

20

40

7 A 40 cm square serviette is prepared for presentation by completing three folds firstly, by taking a

corner and placing it on top of the opposite corner; secondly, by taking one of the two corners on the
crease that has been made and placing it on the other one; and finally, by placing the two corners at the
ends of the longest side on top of each other.
a Find the length of the crease made after the i first fold ii second fold iii third fold.
b With the final serviette lying flat, what angles are produced at the corners?
330

Maths Quest 12 Further Mathematics

area of triangles

8I

Three possible methods can be used to find the area of a triangle:


Method 1. When the two known lengths are perpendicular to each other we would use:
Area triangle = 12 Base Height

Units: 3 & 4

A = 12bh

3 cm
Height

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Height
4 cm
Base

AOS:

Base

Method 2. When we are given two lengths and the angle in between we would use:
Area triangle = 12 a b sin (C )
A = 12 ab sin (C )
A

A
b

b = 10 m
C

32

a = 15 m

Height = b sin (C )

a = Base
Area = 12 Base Height
=

1
2

a b sin (C )

Method 3. When all three sides are known we would use:


Area triangle =

s(s a) (s b) (s c) where the semi-perimeter, s =

( a + b + c)
.
2

This formula is known as Herons formula. It was developed by Heron (or Hero) of Alexandria, a
Greek mathematician and engineer who lived around ad 62.
Let us find the area of the triangle at right to demonstrate that all three formulas provide the same
result.
For the 3, 4, 5 triangle, the most appropriate method is method 1 because
it is a right-angled triangle.
5
Area triangle = 12 Base Height
A = 12 3 4

=6
The other two methods may also be used.
Area triangle = 12 a b sin (C )

A = 12 3 4 sin (90)
=61
=6
Area triangle = s(s a) (s b) (s c)
A = 6(66 3)(6 4)(66 5)

( a + b + c)
2
(3 + 4 + 5)
=
2

s=

= 6 3 2 1

= 12

= 36
=6

=6

Chapter 8 Trigonometry

331

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 21

Find the area of the triangle at right.


8 mm
thINK

WrIte

The two given lengths are perpendicular. Write


the most appropriate formula for finding the area.

Substitute the known values into the formula.

12 mm

Area triangle = 1 Base Height


2

= 1 12 8
2

= 48
3

Write the answer using correct units.

The area of the triangle is 48 mm2.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 22

Find the area of the triangle below (correct to 2 decimal places).


tUtOrIaL
eles-1288
Worked example 22

9m
37 6 m
thINK
1

Identify the shape as a triangle with two known


sides and the angle in between.

WrIte/DraW

A
b=9

B
37 a = 6
C

Identify and write down the values of the


two sides, a and b, and the angle in between
them,C.

a=6
b=9
C = 37

Identify the appropriate formula and substitute


the known values into it.

Area triangle = 1 ab sin (C )

Write the answer using correct units.

The area of the triangle is 16.25 m2, correct


to 2decimal places.

= 12 6 9 sin (37)
= 16.249