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CHAPTER 04C: HEMICHORDATA TO AMPHIBIA


1.

HEMICHORDATA
Hemichordata was earlier considered as a sub-phylum of ____. But,
now it is placed as a separate phylum under ____. Animals of this
phylum are all ____.
chordata, non-chordata, fossorial

2.

Scientists like Bateson kept hemichordata as a ___ under phylum


chordata. However, on ground of general ____, modern scientists
like Van der Horst, Dawydoff and Marcus and Hyman considered
it a ____ under non-chordata.
sub-phylum, organisation, phylum

3.

Hemichordata mostly live in burrows and are exclusively ____


(freshwater/marine).
marine

4.

The body of Hemichordata is soft, worm-like and is divisible into


____, ____ and ____.
proboscis, collar, trunk

5.

The body wall of hemichordates consists of a single layered ____.


epidermis

6.

True notochord in hemichordates is ____ (absent/present). A


notochord like ____ (hollow/solid) structure arises from the buccal
cavity, which is called ____ ____ or ____. It is present in the ____.
absent, hollow, buccal diverticulum, stomochord, proboscis

7.

Coelom (Body cavity) of hemichordates: Hemichordates are ____.


The coelom is divided into ____, _____ and ____.
enterocoelus, Protocoel, Mesocoel, Metacoel

8.

The digestive tract is ____ (complete/incomplete) in hemichordates.


They are mostly ____ feeders.
complete, ciliary

9.

In hemichordates, if gill slits are present, they are one to ____ pairs.
Gill slits are ____ located.
several, dorsally

10.

In hemichordates, respiration takes place either through the ___


___ or the ___ portion of the pharynx bearing the gill slits. The
blood contains a respiratory pigment called ___.
body surface, branchial, vanadium

11.

In hemichordates, the circulatory system is of the ____


(closed/open) type. The blood is colourless with ____ corpuscles.
The heart is situated ___.
open, amoeboid, dorsally

12.

In hemichordates, the circulatory system consists of a contractile


heart vesicle and two ___ vessels, one ____ and one ____, which are
interconnected by lateral vessels and ____.
longitudinal, dorsal, ventral, sinuses

13.

In hemichordates, post-anal tail is ____ (absent/present).


absent

14.

In hemichordates, excretion is done by a single ____, which is


known as ____ ____. It is situated in the ____.
glomerulus, proboscis gland, proboscis

15.

The nervous system of hemichordates, just like non-chordates, is


primitive, consisting mainly of an ____ nerve plexus. The brain is
present in the form of a ____ ____. The sensory cells of the ____ act

as sense organs.
intra-epidermal, nerve ring, epidermis
16.

The hemichordate, Balanoglossus, has both ____ and ____ nerve


cord.
dorsal, ventral

17.

Reproduction in hemichordates is mostly ____ (asexual/sexual).


Sexes may be separate or united. Gonads are one or several pairs.
Fertilisation is ____ (internal/external).
sexual, external

18.

Development in hemichordates is mostly indirect through a free


swimming ____ larva, which is just like the ____ larva of
echinoderms. In some cases, development is also direct.
tornaria, bipinnaria

19.

The hemichordate, ____, is known as ancorn or the tongue worm.


Balanoglossus

20.

Hemichordata is divided into two classes. Name them.


Enteropneusta, Pterobranchia

21.

Balanoglossus, Saccoglossus, Protoglossus are examples of the subclass ____.


Enteropneusta

22.

Rhabdopleura, Cephalodiscus are examples of the sub-class ____.


Pterobranchia

23.

Hemichordata is the connecting link between ____ and ____.


non-chordata, chordata

24.

CLASSIFICATION OF CHORDATA PHYLUM


The word chordata is derived from the Greek words Chorda

meaning ___ ___ and ata meaning ____ ____.


thick string, to have
25.

Chordata are those animals that have a thick string, i.e., they are
animals that have a ____ at any stage of their life.
notochord

26.

The notochord supports the body of chordates. According to


taxonomists, ____ % of the animals are non-chordates while ____
% are chordates.
90-95, 3-5

27.

Amongst chordates, most animals lie in the ____ group whereas the
least are in the ____ group.
pisces, amphibian

28.

Look at the chart below to understand the general classification of


chordata.

29.

Look at the figure below to understand the fundamental difference


between chordates and non-chordates.

30.

In all chordates, there are some specific characters, in any stage of


their lifespan. These characters are referred to as ___ ___
characters.
fundamental chordate

31.

What are the four fundamental chordate characters?


(1) Presence of notochord/Chorda dorsalis.
(2) Presence of dorsal tubular nerve cord.
(3) Presence of pharyngeal gill-clefts.
(4) Tail

32.

(1) PRESENCE OF NOTOCHORD


In the ____ stage of chordate animals, there is a solid, stiff but
flexible, stick-like structure, just below the central nervous system
and above the alimentary canal called the ____.
embryonic, notochord

33.

The notochord extends from the ____ end to the ____ end of the
body on the dorsal side. It is ____ in origin. It forms a primary
____, which lends support to the ___ ___ ___ and ___.
anterior, posterior, mesodermal, endoskeleton, central nervous system,

muscles
34.

In protochordata, the notochord is present all through the ___.


However, in adult vertebrate, the notochord is modified into the
____ or the ____ ____ around the spinal cord and ____ around the
brain.
life, backbone, vertebral column, cranium

35.

(2) PRESENCE OF DORSAL TUBULAR NERVE CORD


In chordates, the nervous system is situated at the ___
(dorsal/ventral) side of the body.
dorsal

36.

In chordates, the nerve cord is a ____, ____ structure present just


beneath the dorsal body wall and just above the notochord.
hollow, tubular

37.

The nerve cord in chordates is ____ in origin, i.e. it is formed by the


____ of the embryo.
ectodermal, ectoderm

38.

In non-chordates, the nerve cord is ___ and ___. It is situated at the


____ side of the body (for example, annelids and arthropods).
solid, double, mid-ventral

39.

40.

Ganglia are ____ (absent/present) in the nerve cord of chordates.


absent
(3) PRESENCE OF PHARYNGEAL GILL-CLEFTS
In every chordate, there are a series of paired, lateral ___ ___ in the
walls of the pharynx at some stage of its life.
gill clefts

41.

In higher chordates, pharyngeal gill clefts are found only in ____

stages. They are absent in adults.


embryonic
42.

In ____ chordates and ____ chordates, pharyngeal gill clefts are


present throughout the lifespan of the animals. In terrestrial
chordates, gill-clefts are absent in adults since the main respiratory
organ for such adults is the ____.
aquatic, lower, lung

43.

(4) TAIL
The tail is the ____ part of the body, which is either ___ or ____
(absent/present) in many adult chordates.
post-anal, reduced, absent

44.

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF CHORDATA


The body of chordates is ____ symmetrical. The body wall is ____
(diploblastic/triploblastic) in which there are all the three germinal
layers: ____, ____ and ____.
bilaterally, triploblastic, ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

45.

Metamerism is found in the arrangement of muscles in ___ stages


of chordates. In adults, metamerism is found in the arrangement of
____ and ____.
embryonic, vertebrae, ribs

46.

Chordates have a true coelom, which is of the ____ type. Such


animals are called ____ animals.
enterocoelous, deuterostomous

47.

The alimentary canal of chordates is ____ (complete/incomplete),


digestive

___

are

present

(intracellular/extracellular).
complete, glands, extracellular

and

digestion

is

____

48.

In chordates, the heart is situated on the ____ (dorsal/ventral) side


of the body, just beneath the alimentary canal. The blood flows
from the ___ to the ____ side in ____ blood vessel
ventral, anterior, posterior, dorsal

49.

The blood vascular system of chordates is of the ____ (open/closed)


type. The respiratory pigment, ____, is present in the RBC.
closed, haemoglobin

50.

____ portal system is found in all chordates. The ____ portal


system is also present in all chordates except birds and animals.
Hepatic, renal

51.

The exoskeleton is ____ (poorly/highly) developed in most


vertebrates. In chordates, the endoskeleton is made up of ____ and
____.
highly, cartilage, bones

52.

The ____ stage of chordates has a muscular tail known as the post
anal tail. In some chordates, the post anal tail is reduced.
embryonic

53.

The excretory organs of chordates is the kidney, which can be of


three types: ____, ____ and ____ kidneys.
Proto, Meso, Metanephric

54.

In chordates, sexes are ____ (together/separate). Metamorphosis or


development of the embryo is ____ (direct/indirect).
direct

55.

Chordates may be cold-blooded (___) (For example, amphibians,


reptiles and fishes) or they may be warm-blooded (____) (For
example, birds and mammals.
poikilothermic, homeothermic

56.

Look at the table below to understand an outline classification of


phylum chordata.

57.

Phylum chordata is divided into two groups on the basis of ____,


___ ____ and ____ ____. These groups are: ____ and ____.
cranium, vertebral column, paired appendages, Acrania

or

Protochordata, Craniata or Euchordata

58.

ACRANIA (OR PROTOCHORDATA)


All protochordates are ___ (small/big)

and

are

____

(marine/freshwater) animals.
small, marine
59.

In protochordates, the notochord persists throughout the life.


However, ____, ____ and the ___ ____ are absent.
skull, brain, vertebral column

60.

_____ (skeleton related), head and ____ ____ are absent in


protochordates.
Exoskeleton, paired appendages

61.

TRUE OR FALSE? Protochordates are unisexual or bisexual


animals. Reproduction takes place by asexual as well as sexual

10

methods.
True
62.

The larval stage is _____ (absent/present) in protochordates.


present

63.

The Acrania/Protochordata group is divided into two sub-phylums:


____ and ____.
Urochordata, Cephalochordata

64.

SUB-PHYLUM UROCHORDATA OR TUNICATA


All urochordates are ____ (freshwater/marine), free swimming or
attached to ____. ____ are usually fixed while the ____ is free
swimming.
marine, rocks, Adults, larva

65.

KNOWLEDGE: Test refers to the shell or integument of some


vertebrates or protozoans.
---

66.

All adult members of sub-phylum tunicata have a leathery test or


tunic all over their body made up of a ____, which is similar to
____. Animals of this sub-phylum derive their name from this
leathery test. The test is secreted by specific cells of the ____.
tunicin, cellulose, mesoderm

67.

The chemical formula for tunicin is ____.


C6H10O5

68.

____ segmentation and coelom is absent in tunicata.


Metameric

69.

The method of food intake in tunicata is ____. A ciliary glandular


slit, called ____ is present on the ventral surface of the pharynx. It

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absorbs ____ from marine waters.


ciliary, endostyle, iodine
70.

The endostyle is analogous to the ____ ____ of mammals.


thyroid gland

71.

The blood vascular system of tunicata is of the ____ (open/closed)


type. The heart is situated at the ____(dorsal/ventral) side of the
body. Normally, ____ aperatures and ____ aperatures are found.
open, ventral, atrial, branchial

72.

The blood of tunicata contains the respiratory pigment ____, which


is stored in purple blood corpuscles called _____.
Vanadium, Vanadocytes

73.

In tunicata, the notochord is found only in the tail of the ____


larva. The tail is lost during ____.
tadpole, metamorphosis

74.

Since chordate characters are found only in the tail region of the
tadpole larva, tunicata is called ____.
urochordata

75.

In tunicata, excretion takes place through the ____ ____ gland,


____ gland and _____.
supra neural, pyloric, nephrocytes

76.

The dorsal tubular nerve cord is found in the nervous system,


which is present only in the ____ stage. In adults, the nerve cord is
modified into a neural ____.
larval, ganglion

77.

Most animals of tunicata are ____ (unisexual/bisexual). Asexual


reproduction takes place by ____. Each gonad contains ____ and

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____ portion in it (____).


bisexual, budding, testis, ovary, ovo-testes
78.

Fertilisation in tunicata is ____ (internal/external) and on most


occasions it is ____ (self-fertilisation/cross-fertilisation).
external, cross-fertilisation

79.

In tunicata, a free swimming larval stage is found, similar to the


tadpole of the frog. It is called ____ larva.
tadpole

80.

All members of tunicata show _____ (progressive/retrogressive)


metamorphosis. During this metamorphosis, a well developed free
swimming larva is changed into an ____-developed, ____ adult.
retrogressive, ill, fixed

81.

TRUE OR FALSE? In tunicata, the larval stage is less developed.


False

82.

In tunicata, only one chordate character is found in adults. What is


that?
Pharyngeal gill-clefts

83.

Subphylum urochordata is divided into three classes on the basis of


test, ___ ___, gill aperature and conditions of ____.
atrial cavity, life

84.

Name the three classes of urochordata.


Larvacea, Ascidiacea, Thaliacea

85.

(1) LARVACEA
In larvacea, the larval stage is a ____ (temporary/permanent) stage.
permanent

86.

In larvacea, the larva does not metamorphose into adult but attains

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sexual maturity and reproduces like an adult. This condition is


called ____ or ____.
Neoteny, Paedogenesis
87.

An example of larvacea is ______. The animal shows ____. A ____


sheet envelops the animal. The sheet has an emergency backdoor
for escape.
Oikopleura, pseudomorphism, gelatinous

88.

Appendicularia is a _____ (class of urochordata).


Larvacea

89.

(2) ASCIDIACEA
The ascidiacea, ____, is known as the sea potato or sea squirts.
Herdmania

90.

Look at the figure of Herdmania below

91.

Give three other examples of ascidiacea.


Ciona, Molgula, Botryllus

92.

(3) THALIACEA
Bioluminescence is seen in the thaliacea, ____. It has the strongest
light amongst marine organisms.

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Pyrosoma
93.

The thaliacea, ____ and ____, are barrel shaped.


Doliolum, Salpa

94.

Look at the figure of Ascidia below.

95.

SUB-PHYLUM CEPHALOCHORDATA
Members of cephalochordate are found in ____ sea water. They
from burrow in sand and are ____ (Hint: day/night).
shallow, nocturnal

96.

The body of cephalochordates is ____ compressed like a fish and is


____ (segmented/unsegmented).
laterally, segmented

97.

In cephalochordates, the ____ is absent. The body is divided into


the ____ and the ____.
head, trunk, tail

98.

Paired appendages are ____ (absent/present) in cephalochordates.

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However, middle layer ___ are present.


absent, fins
99.

The

alimentary

canal

is

____

(complete/incomplete)

in

cephalochordates. The buccal opening is covered by an ____ ___


from all the four sides.
complete, oral hood
100.

Cephalochordata: Just below the buccal opening lies the ___ ___ or
___ ___ ___ ___. This organ helps in the ingestion of food by
producing ____ current in water.
Wheel Organ, Ciliated Organ of Muller, circular

101.

Cephalochordata: The ____ pit is found on the wall of the oral


hood. It secretes ____.
Hatschecks, mucus

102.

Cephalochordata are ____ feeders and feed on diatoms and


microbes. Oral ____ and ____ is present.
ciliary, cirri, velum

103.

Cephalochordata: The blood vascular system is of the ____


(open/closed)

type

(absent/present).

The

and

respiratory

hepatic

portal

pigment

is

____

system

is

____

(absent/present).
closed, absent, present
104.

Cephalochordata: Excretion takes place through _____, which are


present in the form of ____ ____ or ____. A single ____ ____ is
present, which helps in excretion.
protonephridia, flame cells, solenocytes, Hatschecks nephridium

105.

Cephalochordata: The nervous system is in the form of dorsal, ____

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and ____ nerve cord. The notochord and the nerve cord extend
from one end of the body to the other.
hollow, tubular
106.

Cephalochordata: The fundamental chordate characters remain


throughout the life. Both the larva and the adult show ____
characters.
chordate

107.

Cephalochordata

are

____

(unisexual/bisexual)

animals.

Fertilisation is ____ (internal/external). Development is ___


(direct/indirect).
unisexual, external, indirect
108.

____ are the first complete chordate animals.


Cephalochordates

109.

Cephalochordata has only one class - _____.


Leptocardii

110.

Two examples of cephalochordata are ____ and ____.


Branchiostoma lanceolatum (or amphioxus), Assymetron

111.

Branchiostoma is a ____ chordate. It is a lancelet.


typical

112.

Look at the figure of Branchiostoma below.

113.

Branchiostoma has both ends pointed like a lance. Hence, it is

17

commonly called ____.


lancelet
114.

KNOWLEDGE: Lancelets, also known as amphioxus, comprise


some twenty-two species of fish-like marine chordates. They are an
important object of study in zoology as they provide indications
about the origins of vertebrates.
---

115.

Subphyla Urochordata and Cephalochordata are often referred to


as protochordates or acrania, i.e. without ____ or brain box.
cranium

116.

CRANIATA OR EUCHORDATA
Animals belonging to Euchordata

are

known

as

____

(lower/higher) chordates due to the presence of highly developed


(or advanced) characters. These characters include ___, ___ ___,
___ and ____.
head, vertebral column, jaws, cranium
117.

118.

Euchordata has only one sub-phylum ____.


Vertebrata
SUB-PHYLUM VERTEBRATA
In vertebrates, the notochord is completely or partially replaced by
the ___ ___, which is made up of several ____.
vertebral column, vertebrae

119.

Vertebrata: The brain is covered by a protective covering called


____. It is made up of ____ and ____.
cranium, bones, cartilages

120.

Vertebrates have a prominent ____ and a well developed and


complicated ____. The nerve chord remains enclosed within the ___

18

____.
head, brain, vertebral column
121.

Vertebrates have different types of ____ scales, wings, feathers,


hair, etc.
exoskeletons

122.

Vertebrates are ____ (unisexual/bisexual).


unisexual

123.

Vertebrata is divided into two divisions. Name them.


Agnatha and Gnathostomata

124.

AGNATHA
____ are the lowest grade vertebrates. They do not have ____.
Agnatha, jaws

125.

TRUE OR FALSE? The notochord is persistent in Agnatha.


True

126.

Agnatha: The mouth is at the ____ end of the body. It is round, ___shaped and ____.
anterior, funnel, suctorial

127.

Agnatha: They do not have paired appendages. Paired fins are ____
(absent/present). Genital ducts are ____ (absent/present).
absent, absent

128.

Agnatha: The internal ear has one or two ____ canals. One median
___ eye is found along with two ____ eyes on the head. It has ___
(one/two) nostril(s).
semicircular, internal, pineal, lateral

129.

Agnatha: They are ____ (warm/cold) blooded animals.


cold

19

130.

Agnatha: The vertebral column is represented only by small


imperfect ____ ____ over the notochord.
neural archs

131.

132.

Agnatha has two classes: ____ and ____.


Ostracodermi, Cyclostomata
(1) OSTRACODERMI
All members of the class Ostracodermi are ____. They were ____
(freshwater/marine) fishes. Their body was covered by a protective
covering made up of ___ ___, which led to their name
Ostracoderms i.e. bony skin. They are also called ___ ___.
extinct, freshwater, hard scales, armoured fishes.

133.

____ were the first vertebrates.


Ostracodermi

134.

Give two examples of Ostracoderms.


Cephalaspis, Drepanaspis

135.

____, an Ostracoderm, is a primitive vertebrate of the Ordovician


period (510 438 million years ago).
Cephalaspis

136.

(2) CYCLOSTOMATA
Most of the animals of cyclostomata are ____ (freshwater/marine)
but migrate for spawning to ____ (freshwater/marine). This class
included ____ (jaw?) fishes.
marine, freshwater, jawless

137.

Cyclostomata: After spawning, they ____ within a few days. Their


larvae, after metamorphosis, return to the ____.
die, ocean

20

138.

Cyclostomata: These fishes are ____ as well as ____. (Modes of


nutrition).
parasites, scavengers

139.

Cyclostomata: The body is long, thin and ____ (shape). The tail is
___ (shape). The skin is soft, smooth and ____ (scales?).
tubular, flat, without scales

140.

Cyclostomata: The mouth is rounded, ____-like and ____-____type.


sucker, biting-eating

141.

Cyclostomata: Three eyes are found on the head one median ___
eye and two ____ eyes. They have only one nostril, i.e., they are
____.
pineal, lateral, monorhynous

142.

Cyclostomata: The internal ear contains one/two ____ canals. The


internal ear functions only as ____, i.e. as an organ of balance.
semicircular, statoreceptor

143.

Cyclostomata: They have ____ pairs of gill clefts.


6-15

144.

Cyclostomata: The digestive system is without a ____. The intestine


has ____ typhlosole.
stomach, spiral

145.

KNOWLEDGE: A typhlosole is an internal fold of the intestine or


intestine inner wall.
---

146.

Cyclostomata: Both the notochord and the vertebral column are


present. The vertebral column is made up of ____. Bones are ____

21

(absent/present).
cartilage, absent
147.

Cyclostomata: The heart is two chambered consisting of one ___


and one ___. It is called ____ heart.
auricle, ventricle, venous

148.

Cyclostomata: Kidneys are ____ or ____ type.


protonephric, mesonephric

149.

KNOWLEDGE: The protonephric kidney is the most basic of the


three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates. It corresponds
to the first stage of kidney development. It is succeeded by the
mesonephric kidney, which in fish and amphibian remains as the
adult kidney. Once a more advanced kidney forms, the previous
version typically degenerates or becomes part of the male
reproductive system. The protonephric kidney only has a
temporary appearance in mammals. However, it is essential for the
development of the adult kidney.
---

150.

Cyclostomata: Paired fins are absent. However, _____, ____ and


____ fins are present.
dorsal, median, tail

151.

Cyclostomata: The tail is of ____ type. In this type of tail,


notochord extends till the last end of the tail. Besides, the tail fin is
divided into two equal ___ and ____ lobes.
protocercal, dorsal, ventral

152.

Cyclostomata:

The

animals

are

____

(unisexual/bisexual).

Fertilisation is ____ (internal/external). The larva stage is generally


____ (absent/present). However, in Petromyzon, larva named ____ is

22

present.
unisexual, external, absent, ammocoete
153.

Gives two examples of Cyclostomata.


Petromyzon (Lamprey), Myxine (Hagfish)

154.

Look at the picture of lamprey and its larva, ammocoete below.

155.

Look at the figure of hagfish below.

156.

Petromyzon or Lamprey is a living fossil. It is an _____


(sanguivorous) on true fishes. It has many ____ in its mouth. It
shows ____ migration.
ectoparasite, teeth, anadromous

157.

____ fishes are ones, which stay entirely in sea water and migrate
from the sea into freshwater to spawn. ____ fishes are those that
migrate from freshwater to marine water.
Anadromous, Catadromous

23

158.

The larva ammocoete is considered a connecting link between ____


and ____.
Cephalochordata, Cyclostomata

159.

Myxine or hag fish has ____ lips like an old woman. The lips remain
attached with the ____ of the host. It has an ____ kidney in young
ones, i.e. a kidney that can filter blood and coelomic fluid.
wrinkled, gills, archaeonephric

160.

GNATHOSTOMATA
Gnathostomata: The mouth is encircled by true ____. They are
developed vertebrates. It is not ____ (shape).
jaws, rounded

161.

Gnathostomata: The embryonic ____ is usually replaced by a


vertebral column. The vertebral column is ___ (ill/well) developed.
Movement is by paired ____ or ____.
notochord, well, fins, legs

162.

Gnathostomata: The gonads are ____ (paired/unpaired). Genital


ducts are ____ (absent/present).
paired, present

163.

Gnathostomata: ____ (number?) semicircular canals are found in


the internal ear. ____ eye is absent. Paired nostrils are ___
(absent/present).
Three, Pineal, present

164.

Gnathostomata: The animals are ____ (unisexual/bisexual).


unisexual

165.

Gnathostomata: Respiration takes place through ____ or ____.


gills, lungs

24

166.

167.

Gnathostomata is divided into two super classes: ____ and ____.


Pisces, Tetrapoda
SUPER CLASS PISCES
The ____ ____ is called the Golden Period of Fishes. It occurred
417-354 million years ago.
Devonian Period

168.

The study of fishes is called ____.


Icthyology

169.

The super class Pisces included ____ (true/false) fishes. All


animals of Pisces are aquatic. They are found both in marine or
freshwater.
true

170.

Pisces: The body is long, boat shaped and ____. It is divided into
the head, trunk and tail. The neck is ____ (absent/present). ____
glands are present on the skin and their secretion reduces friction
in water.
streamlined, absent, Slime

171.

The body of pisces is generally covered by ____ scales. However


Cat fish, ____ and ____ fish do not have scales. The colour in fishes
is produced by ____ present in the dermis.
dermal, Torpedo, Wallagonia, iridocytes

172.

Pisces: Paired fins are present for swimming. ____ and ____ fins
are paired. In addition, unpaired fins are also found on the body.
For example, the ___ ___ fin and ___ fin.
Pectoral, pelvic, mid dorsal, caudal

173.

Pisces have one pair of external ____ (nostrils). This condition is


known as ____ condition.

25

nares, dirhynous
174.

Pisces: The ___ and ___ ears are absent, i.e. there is no ___ or ___.
Only the ____ ear is present in which there are ____ (number?)
semicircular canal, which work as statoreceptor. The eyes do not
have ____.
external, middle, ossicle, tympanum, inner, three, lids

175.

Pisces: Respiration takes place through ____. There are ____ pairs
of gills. They are either ____ or covered by ____. The ____ ____
helps in respiration in lung fishes (Group: Dipnoi).
gills, 4-7, naked, operculum, Air Bladder

176.

Pisces: The teeth are _____.


acrodont

177.

Pisces have a ___-chambered heart. The heart is called a ____ heart


because it contains only ____ blood, which goes to the gills for
oxygenation. Oxygenated blood is then distributed to all parts of
the body directly from the ____. Thus, the circulation of blood is
____.
two, venous, deoxygenated, gills, unicircuit

178.

The RBC of fishes is ____ (nucleus?). The circulatory system has


sinus ____, renal and ____ portal systems.
nucleated, venosus, hepatic

179.

The endoskeleton of fishes is made up of ____ or ____.


cartilage, bones

180.

The vertebrae in fishes are ____, in which the centrum is ____


(concave/convex) at both the surfaces.
amphicoelous, concave

26

181.

The skull of fishes has only one ____ ____. Hence, their skull is said
to be of the ____ type.
occipital condyle, monocondylar

182.

Fishes have ___ pairs of cranial nerves. Fishes have the ___ ___ ___
system, which includes many receptor organs that can detect
vibrations (____) and ___ ___.
10, lateral line receptor, Rheoreceptor, electric field

183.

The kidneys of fishes are of the ____ type. ____ fish excrete urea.
Marine bony fishes excrete ____ ____ while ____ fishes excrete
ammonia. The urinary bladder is ____ (absent/present) in fishes.
mesonephric, Cartilaginous, trimethylamine oxide, freshwater, absent

184.

Fishes

are

____

(unisexual/bisexual).

Fertilisation

is

____

(internal/external). Eggs are of the ____ or ____ type.


unisexual, external, mesolecithal, megalecithal
185.

Extraembryonic membranes are ____ (absent/present) in fishes.


Hence, all fishes are placed under the group ____.
absent, anamniota

186.

Metamorphosis is ____ (direct/indirect) in fishes.


direct

187.

Fishes are generally ____-blooded, ____ animals. However, ___ fish


and ____ fish are exceptions.
cold, poikiolothermic, tuna, sword

188.

Small fishes (baby fishes) are called ____ or ____.


Fry, Hatchling

189.

TRUE OR FALSE? Some fishes show seasonal migration.


True

27

190.

Give three examples of fishes showing anadromous migration.


Salmon, Sturgeon, Hilsa

191.

Give an example of a fish showing catadromous migration.


Anguila

192.

Look at the diagram below to understand the different types of fish


tails.

193.

Look at another diagram below to understand the different types of


fish tails.

28

194.

195.

____ classified super class pisces into three classes. Name them.
Romer, Placodermi, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes
(1) PLACODERMI
Extinct fishes (Fossil fish), which used to live from the Devonian
period to the Permian Period, are included in the class ____.
Placodermi

196.

____ were the first freshwater true fishes.


Placodermi

197.

The body of Placodermi was covered by bony plates. Hence, they


were called ____ fishes.
armoured

198.

____ was the first jawed fish.


Climatius

199.

Dinichthyes belongs to the class ____.


Placodermi

29

200.

(2) CHONDRICHTHYES (OR ELASMOBRANCHI)


Chondrichthyes includes ____ fishes. Fishes of this class are
normally ____ (freshwater/marine).
cartilaginous, marine

201.

Chondrichthyes: The endoskeleton is made up of ____. The ____ is


persistent throughout the life.
cartilage, notochord

202.

Chondrichthyes: The exoskeleton over the skin is made up of ____


scales. These scales are like ____ and originate from the ____ of the
skin.
placoid, denticle, dermis

203.

Chondrichthyes: The teeth are modified ____ scales. They are ____
(backwardly/forward) directed.
placoid, backwardly

204.

Chondrichthyes: These fishes have ____ pairs of gills, which open


outside the body through ___ ___. ____ is normally absent in these
fishes.
5-7, gill slits, Operculum

205.

Chondrichthyes: The mouth is present on the ____ (dorsal/ventral)


surface of the head. Jaws and teeth are present. Suspensorium of
jaws is of the ____ type. The jaws are very ____ (powerful/weak).
These animals are ____ (hint: food habit).
ventral, Hyalostylic, powerful, predaceous

206.

Chondrichthyes: Air bladder or lungs are ____ (absent/present).


They have to ____ continuously to avoid sinking.
absent, swim

30

207.

Chondrichthyes: Spiracles are ____ (absent/present).


present

208.

KNOWLEDGE: Spiracles are openings on the surface of some


animals that usually lead to respiratory systems.
---

209.

Chondrichthyes: A ____ valve or ____ valve is found in the


intestine. This increases the ____ ____. Cloacal aperature is ____
(absent/present).
spiral, scroll, surface area, present

210.

Chondrichthyes: These fishes have a special structure, called ____


___ ____ on the dorsal surface of the head. It functions as _____.
Ampulla of Lorenzini, thermoreceptor

211.

Chondrichthyes: The liver of these fishes is ____ (number?) lobed.


bi

212.

Chondrichthyes: The tail of these fishes is of the ____ type.


heterocercal

213.

Chondrichthyes: Genital ducts of these fishes open in the ____


____. Fertilization is ____ (internal/external). The male fishes have
_____ as copulatory organs. These are developed by the inner
edges

of

____

fins.

Many

of

these

fishes

are

(oviparous/viviparous).
cloacal aperature, internal, Claspers, pelvic, viviparous
214.

Chondrichthyes: Match the following:


Animal
1.
2.
3.
4.

Scoliodon
Carcharodon
Pristis
Trygon

A.
B.
C.
D.

Information
Saw Fish
Electric Ray (Fish)
Sting Ray
Dog fish/Indian Shark

____

31

5.

Torpedo

E. Great white shark

1-D, 2-E, 3-A, 4-C, 5-B


215.

Chondrichthyes: Match the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Animal
Sphyrna/Zygaena
Stegostoma
Rhinobatus
Rhineodon

Information
Tiger fish/Zebra shark
Guitar Fish
Hammer-headed shark
Rat Fish/Ghost Fish/King

A.
B.
C.
D.

Chimaera

of Herrings
E. Whale Shark

1-C, 2-A, 3-B, 4-E, 5-D


216.

The dog fish has the sense of smell of a dog. It is ____


(oviparous/viviparous).
viviparous

217.

The ___ (ventral/dorsal) fin of sting ray has poisonous spines.


dorsal

218.

The electric ray (fish) has an electric organ that is actually a


modified ____. It can give an electric shock of about ____ volts. It
does not have an ____ (endoskeleton/exoskeleton).
muscle, 100, exoskeleton

219.

The ____ ____ is the largest true fish. It is ____ long.


whale shark, 13-14 m

220.

The Chondrichthyes, ____, is the connecting link between bony and


cartilaginous fish. Opeculum is ____ (absent/present).
Chimaera, present

32

221.

222.

Cartilaginous fish with operculum is placed under the ____ group.


holocephali
(3) OSTEICHTHYES OR TELEOSTOMI
Osteichthyes includes ____ fishes. They are found both in
freshwater and marine water. The endoskeleton of these fishes is
made up of ____. Hence, they are called ____ fishes.
bony, bones, bony

223.

Osteichthyes: The exoskeleton of these fishes is made up of scales,


which may be ____ or ____ or ____ type. ____ scales are absent.
cycloid, ctenoid, ganoid, Placoid

224.

Osteichthyes: For respiration, these fishes have ____ (number)


pairs of gills. These gills are covered by ____ at each side of the
body.
4, operculum

225.

Osteichthyes: The mouth of these fishes is either ____ or ____ (hint:


position). The mouth has teeth in the ____. Suspensorium of the
jaw is of the ____ type.
terminal, sub-terminal, jaw, autostylic

226.

Osteichthyes: ___ ___ that help in respiration are present. Lung


fishes respire through ____ ____. In other fishes, these are ____, i.e.
they provide buoyancy and help in maintaining the balance of the
body.
Air Bladders, air bladders, hydrostatic

227.

Osteichthyes: Spiracles are ____ (absent/present).


absent

228.

Osteichthyes: ____ valve in the intestine is absent. Cloaca is ____

33

(absent/present). In place of the cloacal aperature, ____ is present.


Scroll, absent, anus
229.

Osteichthyes: The Ampulla of Lorenzini is ____ (absent/present).


absent

230.

Osteichthyes: The liver is ____-lobed. The tail is normally ____


type. However, sometimes the tail can also be of the ____ type.
tri, homocercal, diphycercal

231.

Osteichthyes: Genital ducts open ____ (inside/outside) the body


through

separate

aperatures.

Fertilization

is

____

(internal/external). Claspers are ____ (absent/present) in male


fishes.
outside, external, absent
232.

Osteichthyes: Fishes are generally ____ (oviparous/viviparous).


However, they may even be ____ or _____.
oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous

233.

Osteichthyes: Match the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Animal
Hippocampus
Exocoetus
Labeo
Clarias
Catla
Solea
Fistularia

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

Information
Flying Fish
Cat Fish/Magur
Sea horse/Pregnant male
Katla
Rohu/Indian Carp
Flute Fish
Flat Fish

1-C, 2-A, 3-E, 4-B, 5-D, 6-G, 7-F


234.

The sea horse swims in sea water in a ____ position. A pouch-like


structure is present at the abdomen of male fishes. It is known as

34

___ - pouch. The male collects eggs in this pouch. Secondary ____
and parental care is found in this animal.
vertical, Brood, vivipary
235.

The ____ (dorsal/lateral) fin of the flying fish is long. It can glide
over 400 metres in sea water with the help of this fin.
Exocoetus, dorsal

236.

Rohu is a ____ (freshwater/marine) fish.


freshwater

237.

The cat fish is a ____ (freshwater/marine) fish.


freshwater

238.

Katla is a ____ (freshwater/marine) fish.


freshwater

239.

Osteichthyes: Match the following:


Animal
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Betta
Pterophyllum
Wallagonia
Channa
Heteropneustis
Harpodon
Amia

Information
A. Lachi
B. Fighting
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

Fish

(Aquarium

Fish)
Angel Fish (Aquarium Fish)
Lata Fish
Bow Fish
Bombay Duck
Singhi

1-B, 2-C, 3-A, 4-D, 5-G, 6-F, 7-E


240.

The Lachi fish _____ (has/does not have) scales.


does not have

241.

Osteichthyes: Match the following:


Animal

Information

35

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Lophius
Anabas
Sardinella
Acipensor
Anguila
Echeneis (Remora)
Mystus

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

Salmon
Sturgeon
Sanghara
Climbing Perch
Suckerfish
Angler Fish
Eel

1-F, 2-D, 3-A, 4-B, 5-G, 6-E, 7-C


242.

The endoskeleton of Sturgeon is ___.


cartilaginous

243.

The eel is snake-like and migrates to the sea for spawning. The
young eel is called ____ and it migrates back to freshwater.
Elver

244.

Osteichthyes: Match the following:


Animal
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Mystus
Sirrhina
Latimeria or Coelacanth
Chenocephalus
Opsanus
Synanceja horrida
Gambusia

Information
A. Oldest living fossil known
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

till now.
Sanghara
Mrigal
Stone Fish
Toad Fish
Ice Fish
Top minnow

1-B, 2-C, 3-A, 4-F, 5-E, 6-D, 7-G


245.

The suckerfish shows commensalism with ____ and ____. The ____
fin is modified into sucker.
whale, shark, dorsal

246.

The ice fish is the only vertebrate without ____.

36

haemoglobin
247.

The ____ ____ is the most poisonous fish.


stone fish

248.

____ ____ is a larvivorous fish.


Top minnow

249.

DIPNOI GROUP
Fishes of the dipnoi group are called lung fishes or ___ ___ ___
because their air bladder helps in respiration. They are ____
(freshwater/marine) fishes.
Uncle of amphibia, freshwater

250.

Fishes of dipnoi group: They have a ____-chambered heart. Both


external and internal nares are ____ (absent/present).
three, present

251.

Fishes of dipnoi group: Their tail is ____ type. The scale is of ___
type.
heterocercal, placoid

252.

Osteichthyes: Match the following:


1.
2.
3.

Animal
Protopterus
Neoceratodus
Lepidosiren

Information
A. Australian Lung Fish
B. South American Lung Fish
C. African Lung Fish

1-C, 2-A, 3-B


253.

____ is the dried skin of cartilaginous fish.


Shagreen

254.

___ ___ oil is rich in Vitamin D. ____ ____ oil is rich in Vitamin A.
Cod liver, Shark liver

37

255.

____ ____ is found in the vertebra of shark for supporting the


vertebra.
Maltase cross

256.

____ ____ refers to the egg capsule of shark.


Mermaids purse

257.

____ is a gelatinous product obtained from the dried air bladder of


certain fish. It is used for making cement, jelly and for clarification
of ___ and ___.
Isinglass, wine, beer

258.

The smallest fish is, ____ ____, the Goby Fish. It is about ____ mm
in length.
Mystichthyes luzonensis, 8-10

259.

The fish, ____ ____, or the Dwarf pygmy goby is a tropical


freshwater fish about 1.1 to 1.5 cm in length.
Pandaka pygmaea

260.

SUPERCLASS TETRAPODA
Tetrapodes are found both on land and water. Locomotion takes
place by two pairs of ____ limbs.
pentadactylous

261.

Tetrapoda: Gills are present only in ____ stages. The main


respiratory organ in adults is the ____.
embryonic, lung

262.

Tetrapoda: The exoskeleton is made up of scales, feather or ____.


The endoskeleton is made of ____.
hair, bones

263.

Tetrapoda: Heart may be ___ or ___ chambered. ____ circulation is

38

seen.
three, four, Double
264.

Tetrapoda: The kidneys are of the ____ or ____ type.


mesonephric, metanephric

265.

Tetrapoda: ____ ear is present. Birds and mammals have ____ ears
also.
Middle, external

266.

Tetrapoda is divided into four classes. Name them.


Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia

267.

CLASS AMPHIBIA
Amphibians belong are of ____ origin and are of the ____ age.
Devonian, Carboniferous

268.

Class amphibia includes amphibious animals, which can live on


both places at ease, i.e. under water and on the land. However,
there are no ____ amphibians.
marine

269.

Amphibians were the first chordate animals, which came out of


water. However, they are not able to live on land permanently and
depend on water for ____.
reproduction

270.

The eggs of amphibians do not have a ____ ____ to check


evaporation.
protective cover

271.

The body of amphibians is divided into the ____ and ____. Some
amphibians have a tail.
head, trunk

39

272.

The skin of amphibians is smooth and without scales. Whenever


scales are present, they are embedded in the ____. For example as
in _____.
skin, Ichhthyophis

273.

Amphibia: Numerous ____ are found in the skin, which help is


keeping the skin moist. These animals respire through the ___ __.
glands, moist skin

274.

Some amphibians, like ____, have poisonous glands.


Bufo

275.

Amphibia: Pigment cells are also found as _____ for colouration.


Few amphibians have the ability to change colour by ___ and ___
of pigment cells. This phenomenon is known as ____.
chromatophore, expansion, contraction, Metachrosis

276.

Amphibia: Two pairs of limbs help in swimming in water and


moving on land. The forelimbs have ____ (number) fingers while
the hind-limbs have ____ (number) fingers. The digits ____
(have/do not have) nails and claws.
four, five, do not have

277.

Amphibia: The mouth is big in size. Both the jaws have ____
(similar/different) teeth. The teeth are ____, ____ and ___ type. In
frogs the teeth are of ____ type. The suspensorium of jaws in
amphibians is ____.
similar, pleurodont, homodont, polyphyodont, autostylic, Acrodont

278.

Amphibia: A well developed and ____ alimentary canal, along with


digestive ____, is present in the digestive system. ____ glands are
absent in frogs.
complete, glands, Salivary

40

279.

Amphibia: The alimentary canal, urinary bladder and genital ducts


open into the ____.
cloaca

280.

Amphibia: Respiration takes place by gills, lungs or ____ cavity.


They have two nostrils. This condition is called ____.
buccopharyngeal, dirhynous

281.

Amphibia: The heart has ____ chambers - ____ auricles and ____
ventricle. ____ ____ and ____ ____ is well developed.
three, two, one, Sinus venosus, Truncus arteriosus

282.

Amphibia: RBCs are ____ (shape), oval and _____ (nucleus).


biconvex, nucleated

283.

Amphibia: The renal portal system and hepatic portal system are
____ (absent/present).
present

284.

Amphibia: The endoskeleton is made up of ____ but the cranium is


_____.
bones, cartilaginous

285.

Amphibia: The skull has two ____ ____. With the help of these, the
skull is connected by the first ____ of the ____ ____. This type of
skull is called ____ skull.
occipital condyles, vertebra, vertebral column, dicondylic

286.

Amphibia: The first vertebra of the vertebral column is called ___.


atlas

287.

Amphibia: Ribs are generally absent. Though they are present in


some animals. The ribs are not attached with the ____.
sternum

41

288.

Amphibia: Vertebrae are of the ____ type in which the centrum is


____

(concave/convex)

from

the

anterior

side

and

____

(concave/convex) from the posterior side.


procoelus, concave, convex
289.

Amphibia: The middle ear has only one ear ossicle called the ____
(stapes). The ____ represents the ear. Eyes have ____.
columella, tympanum, eyelids

290.

Amphibia: They have ___ pairs of cranial nerves. The ___ ___
sensory system is necessarily found in some state of development.
In frogs it is found only in the ____ stage.
10, lateral line, larval

291.

Amphibia: The excretory organs consist of one pair of kidneys.


These kidneys are ____ or ____ type.
mesonephric, opisthonephric

292.

Amphibians are ____ (excretory material based). However, tailed


animals and larvae are ____.
ureotelic, ammoniotelic

293.

Amphibians are _____ (cold blooded) animals. They go into


hibernation or ____ to prevent themselves from extreme cold and
heat and to overcome favourable conditions.
poikiolothermic, aestivation

294.

Amphibians

are

____

(unisexual/bisexual)

animals.

Males,

sometimes, have ____ organs. These animals return to water from


land for reproduction.
unisexual, copulatory
295.

Amphibia: Fertilization is ____ (internal/external) and inside ____.

42

However, some animals do show internal fertilisation.


external, water
296.

Amphibians are ____ (oviparous/viviparous). The eggs are laid in


water and are of the ____ and ____ type. Extraembryonic
membranes are absent. Hence, they are place in the anamniota
group.
oviparous, mesolecithal, telolecithal

297.

Amphibia: The cleavage in eggs is ____ and ____. Development is


____ (direct/indirect). In frogs there is the ____ larva. In
salamanders there is the ____ larva.
holoblastic, unequal, indirect, tadpole, axolotl

298.

299.

Amphibia is divided into three orders. Name them.


Gymnophiona or Apoda, Caudata or Urodela and Anura or Salientia
(1) ORDER GYMNOPHIONA OR APODA
The body of gymnophiona is ____-like. They are ____ amphibians
and of ____ nature. They do not have ____.
worm, primitive, burrowing, limbs

300.

_____ is a limbless, blind worm without ____. They have ____ on


their body.
Ichthyophis (Caecilian), tongue, scales

301.

(2) ORDER CAUDATA OR URODELA


The body of caudate is distinctly divided into the head, trunk and
tail. The tail may have ____ fin.
caudal

302.

Caudata: Match the following:


1.

ANIMAL
Salamandra

a.

INFORMATION
It is called water dog or mud

43

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Proteus
Ambystoma
Triton
Necturus
Amphiuma
Siren
Cryptobranches

b.
c.

puppy.
Congo-eel
It has the longest gestation

d.
e.
f.

period.
Mud eel
Hell Bender
It is the cave salamander. It is

g.
h.

blind.
Newt
It is the tiger salamander.

1-c, 2-f, 3-h, 4-g, 5-a, 6-b, 7-d, 8-e


303.

Salamandra is ____ (oviparous/viviparous). Its larva is called ____


larva. It sometimes shows _____.
viviparous, axolotl, neoteny

304.

KNOWLEDGE:

In

neoteny, the

physiological

or

somatic

development of an animal is slowed or delayed. As a result, adults


retain traits previously seen only in juveniles.
--305.

The tiger salamander has a ____ larva.


axolotl

306.

Necturus shows permanent _____. ____ are present in adults.


neoteny, Gills

307.

The largest RBC is present in the caudata _____.


Amphiuma

308.

The largest amphibian is _____. It is fully aquatic.


Cryptobranches
ORDER ANURA OR SALIENTIA

44

309.

Anura are specific animals where the ____ is absent in adults.


tail

310.

All frogs and toads are included in the Order ____.


Anura

311.

Anura: The vertebral column is small and has ___ vertebra. The
last vertebra is stick-like can called ____.
5-9, urostyle

312.

Anura: The eye has ____. ____ glands are present in the eye. The
lower lid is ____ (movable/immovable) while the upper lid is ____
(movable/immovable).
lids, Tear, movable, immovable

313.

Anura: ___ teeth are present in the upper jaw. It is absent in ____.
Maxillary, toads

314.

Anura: The middle ear is ____ (absent/present). The tympanic


membrane is _____ (present/absent). They have well-developed
vocal _____.
present, present, sacs

315.

Anura: Fertilization is ____ (internal/external). Development is ___


(direct/indirect). ____ larva is found in them. Egg laying,
fertilisation and development is always in ____.
external, indirect, Tadpole, water

316.

Anura: Metamorphosis is _____ (complete/incomplete).


complete

317.

Anura: Match the following:


Animal
1.
2.

Bufo
Hyla

Information
A. Indian bull frog.
B. Midwife toad

45

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Rana tigrina
Rhacophorus

C. Largest frog
D. Fire bellied

Alytes
Pipa Americana

called
E. Common toad
F. Smallest frog. Found in

Rana goliath
Phyllobates
Discoglossus
Xenopus

Cuba.
G. Tree frog
H. African toad
I. Surinam toad
J. Flying frog

toad.

Also

1-E, 2-G, 3-A, 4-J, 5-B, 6-I, 7-C, 8-F, 9-D, 10-H
318.

In the common toad, the poison glands are modification of the ____
gland.
parotid

319.

In the Indian bull frog, the ____ bone is found (tip of the lower
jaw).
mentomechanical

320.

Midwife toad show well developed parental care. Male toads


carry eggs in their ____.
limbs

321.

The

Surinam

toad

carries

eggs

and

shows

_____

(primary/secondary) vivipary. The tongue is ____ (absent/present)


in them.
secondary, absent
322.

Amphibia were the first land vertebrates. They involved from lobefinned ____ fishes.
bony

46

323.

Look at the picture of Ichthyophis below.

324.

Look at the pictures of frogs/toads below and understand the


different body parts.

325.

Look at the figure below for different types of centrum of


vertebrae.

QUESTIONS FROM DINESH


PROTOCHORDATA: VOL. I: PAGE 429

47

326.

3. Which one of the following is a protochordate?


A. Amphioxus
B. Lamprey
C. Labeo
D. Exocoetus
A

327.

6. A free swimming urochordate is


A. Herdmania
B. Botryllus
C. Salpa
D. Ciona
C

328.

7. A member of cephalochordata is
A. Herdmania
B. Ciona
C. Amphioxus
D. Balanoglossus
C

329.

9. A current of water is produced in Branchiostoma by


A. Cilia
B. Cirri
C. Wheel organ
D. Rostrum
B

330.

11. The anterior part of Amphioxus is


A. Oral hood
B. Rostrum

48

C. Mouth
D. Both A and B
B
331.

12. Cephalochordate Branchiostoma possesses


A. Laterally compressed spindle-shaped body
B. Caudal fin
C. Dorsal and ventral fins
D. All the above
D

332.

13. Hepatic portal system has evolved in protochordates


A. Hemichordates
B. Urochordates
C. Cephalochordates
D. All the above
C

333.

14. In Amphioxus, circulatory system is


A. Closed
B. Without heart
C. Without respiratory pigment
D. All the above
D

334.

15. Branchiostoma is
A. Filter feeder
B. Carnivorous
C. Omnivorous
D. Herbivorous
A

49

335.

16. In urochordates, the chordate characters are


A. Well developed
B. Present only in larva
C. Present in adult
D. Present both in adult and larva
B

336.

17. The larva of urochordates contains notochord


A. Throughout
B. Head region
C. Tail region
D. Trunk region
C

337.

18. An ascidian is
A. Balanoglossus
B. Herdmania
C. Branchiostoma
D. None of the above
B

338.

21. Retrogressive metamorphosis is peculiar to


A. Urochordates
B. Hemichordates
C. Cephalochordates
D. All the above
A

339.

22. Mouth of Herdmania is


A. Atrial aperture
B. Excurrent aperture

50

C. Branchial aperture
D. Both A and B
C
340.

23. Atrial and branchial apertures of Herdmania are surrounded


by
A. Two lips
B. Three lips
C. Four lips
D. Five lips
C

341.

24. Water current is maintained in Herdmania by


A. Rhythmic contractions of tunic
B. Opening and closing of atrial and branchial apertures
C. Contraction of incurrent siphon
D. Cilia bordering gill slits
D

342.

25. Lancelet is
A. Hermania
B. Salpa
C. Branchiostoma
D. Doliolum
C

343.

27. Part to Herdmania embedded in sand is


A. Test
B. Foot
C. Tunic
D. Both A and C
B

51

344.

28. Herdmania is
A. Sea purse
B. Sea squirt
C. Sea potato
D. Both B and C
D

345.

29. Which one emits jet of water when disturbed?


A. Balanoglossus
B. Herdmania
C. Salpa
D. Branchiostoma
B

346.

30. In adult urochordate, the dorsal nerve cord of larva is changed


into
A. Ganglion
B. Brain and spinal cord
C. Brain and nerve cord
D. Remains as such
A

347.

31. In cephalochordates, the coelom is


A. Reduced
B. Absent
C. Schizocoel
D. Lined by ectoderm
A

348.

32. Coelom of urochordate is


A. Schizocoel

52

B. Absent
C. Enterocoel
D. Segmented
B
349.

35. Which one swallows mud?


A. Amphioxus
B. Sea squirt
C. Tongue worm
D. Asymmetron
C

350.

36. In hemichordates, the dorsal nerve cord is


A. Absent
B. Present throughout
C. Restricted to tongue region
D. Restricted to collar region
D

351.

37. Coelom of hemichordates is


A. Schizocoel
B. Enterocoel
C. Enterocoel with differentiation of three regions
D. Absent
A

352.

41. Notochord like structure of hemichordates is


A. Protochord
B. Stomochord
C. Pallium
D. Glomerulus
B

53

353.

42. Pharyngeal gill slits are dorsal in


A. Cephalochordates
B. Urochordates
C. Hemichordates
D. Euchordates
C

354.

43. Protochordate are


A. Marine
B. Freshwater
C. Terrestrial
D. All the above
A

355.

45. Chorda dorsalis is


A. Dorsal solid nerve cord
B. Dorsal hollow nerve cord
C. Notochord
D. Stomochord
C

356.

46. Amongst chordates, the paired appendages are absent in


A. Hemichordata
B. Urochordata
C. Cephalochordates
D. All the above
D

357.

48. Notochord is used in


A. Attachment of muscles
B. Development of dorsal nerve cord

54

C. Formation of gill slits


D. Development of kidneys
A
358.

49. Notochord is
A. Flat plate
B. Rod-like
C. Made of turgid vacuolated cells
D. Both B and C
D

359.

50. Epidermis of chordates is


A. Single layered
B. Transitional
C. Stratified
D. Absent
C

360.

51. Gill slits of chordates are


A. Paired
B. Lateral perforations
C. Pharyngeal
D. All the above
D

361.

57. Larva of Balanoglossus is


A. Mullers larva
B. Tadpole
C. Tornaria
D. Kentrogen larva
C

55

362.

60. In which group, the notochord is limited to only anterior part or


proboscis?
A. Hemichordata
B. Urochordata
C. Cephalochordata
D. Mammalia
A

363.

64. Notochord occurs only in the larva of


A. Balanoglossus
B. Amphioxus
C. Herdmania
D. Cephalodiscus
C

364.

65. Phosphorescence occurs in


A. Salpa
B. Pyrosoma
C. Petromyzon
D. Rana
B

365.

66. Group where adults are degenerated while larva are well
developed is
A. Tunicata
B. Agnatha
C. Amphibia
D. Cephalochordata
A

366.

70. Tunicates are

56

A. Mixotrophic
B. Parasitic
C. Macrophagous
D. Ciliary feeders
D
367.

73. Notochord occurs in the embryonic stage in


A. Some chordates
B. All chordates
C. All vertebrates
D. Some vertebrates
B

368.

75. Acorn worms are included in


A. Cestoda
B. Trematoda
C. Hemichordata
D. Echinodermata
C

369.

78. Retrogressive metamorphosis is found in


A. Cephalochordata
B. Urochordata
C. Fishes
D. Amphibia
B

370.

79. Which of the following statements is/are not true?


a) In urochordata, notochord is present only in larval tail
b) In cephalochordate, notochord extends from head to tail
c) Branchiostoma belongs to hemichordate

57

d) Only one class of living members, class cyclostoma, represents


the super class agnatha.
A. a, b and d only
B. c, d and a only
C. c only
D. a and d only
E. c and d only
C
371.

84. Stomochord is found in


A. Hemichordata
B. Cephalochordata
C. Urochordata
D. Both B and C
A

372.

85. Proboscis gland in Balanoglossus is associated with


A. Digestion
B. Respiration
C. Excretion
D. Reproduction
E. Circulation
C

373.

CHECK YOUR GRASP: PROTOCHORDATA: PAGE 437


CYG 1: Hemichordata constitute a connecting link between
A. Protochordates and chordates
B. Echinoderms and chordates
C. Molluscs and echinoderms

58

D. Molluscs and chordates


B
374.

CYG 2: Valveless single-chambered heart is found in


A. Herdmania
B. Scoliodon
C. Catla
D. Amphioxus
A

375.

CYG 3: Vanadocytes occur in


A. Cephalochordates
B. Urochordates
C. Hemichordates
D. All the above
B

376.

CYG 5: Nutrition of Balanoglossus is


A. Phagotrophic
B. Parasitic
C. Saprozoic
D. All the above
C

377.

CYG 6: Stomochord is not similar to notochord because it is


A. Hollow
B. Outgrowth of gut
C. Outgrowth of nerve cord
D. Ingrowth of body wall
A

378.

CYG 7: Notochord occurs between

59

A. Body wall and dorsal nerve cord


B. Dorsal nerve cord and alimentary canal
C. Ventral nerve cord and alimentary canal
D. Ventral nerve cord and body wall
B
379.

CYG 9: In urochordates, excretion is


A. Nephridium
B. Glandular
C. Protonephridial
D. Renal
B

380.

CYG 10: Starvation leads to decrease in size of


A. Balanoglossus
B. Saccoglossus
C. Herdmania
D. Branchiostoma
C

381.

CYG 11: On disturbance, Herdmania emits jet of water from its


A. Foot
B. Atrial aperture
C. Branchial aperture
D. Both B and C
D

382.

AGNATHA AND PISCES: VOL. I: PAGE 438


1. Flying fish is
A. Torpedo
B. Scoliodon
C. Anguilla

60

D. Exocoetus
D
383.

4. Non-tetrapod vertebrates contain


A. Osteichythes and chondrichthyes
B. Agnatha, osteichthyes and chondrichthyes
C. Agnatha and chondrichthyes
D. Agnatha
B

384.

5. Cartilaginous fishes do not contain


A. Fins
B. Gill cover/operculum
C. Scales
D. Mouth
B

385.

6. Which is a connecting link between fishes and amphibians?


A. Catfish
B. Gambusia
C. Protopterus
D. Clupea
C

386.

7. Potamodromous fishes migrate from


A. Fresh to fresh water
B. Fresh to marine water
C. Marine to fresh water
D. Marine to marine water
A

387.

8. Oceanodromous fishes migrate from

61

A. Fresh to fresh water


B. Fresh to marine water
C. Marine to fresh water
D. Marine to marine water
D
388.

13. A scale-less fish is


A. Scoliodon
B. Remora
C. Catfish
D. Labeo
C

389.

15. Chondrichthyes can be differentiated from osteichthyes


externally by
A. Naked gills
B. Heterocercal tail
C. Ventral mouth
D. All the above
D

390.

16. Fish characteristic is


A. Dermal scales
B. Epidermal scales
C. Lateral line organs
D. Both A and C
D

391.

19. Sharks are


A. Ovoviviparous
B. Viviparous

62

C. Oviparous
D. None of the above
A
392.

21. Lateral line organs occur in


A. Fishes
B. Fishes and amphibian larvae
C. Cartilaginous fishes and amphibian larvae
D. Fishes and larvae of other vertebrates
B

393.

22. The tympanum is absent in


A. Dog fish
B. Cat fish
C. Bony fishes
D. All the fishes
D

394.

23. A homocercal tail is found in


A. Teleosts
B. Sharks
C. Rays
D. Lung fishes
A

395.

25. Paired fins of fishes are


A. Caudal and ventral
B. Dorsal and ventral
C. Pectoral and pelvic
D. Caudal and pectoral
C

63

396.

27. The sucker of Remora is modification of


A. Dorsal fin
B. Pectoral fin
C. Mouth
D. Operculum
A

397.

29. Internal naris is present in


A. Agnatha
B. Chondrichthyes
C. Osteichthyes
D. Choanichthyes
E. None of the above
C

398.

30. Latimeria is
A. Coelacanth
B. Has two dorsal fins
C. Possesses two pairs of external nares
D. All the above
D

399.

31. In Latimeria, the fins are


A. All lobed
B. Non-lobed
C. Lobed except dorsal fins
D. Lobed except pelvic fins
C

400.

32. Latimeria swims by means of


A. Flapping movement of its pectoral and pelvic fins

64

B. Rotational movement of its pectoral fins


C. Flapping movement of pectoral fins and rotational movement
of pelvic fins
D. Rotational movement of tail fin
B
401.

33. Lung fish of Africa is


A. Protopterus
B. Lepidosiren
C. Neoceratodus
D. Muraena
A

402.

34. Lung fish found in Australia


A. Lepidosiren
B. Neoceratodus
C. Muraena
D. Cyprinus
B

403.

35. Lepidosiren
A. Mackerel
B. Sardine
C. American lung fish
D. Pilot fish
C

404.

36. Salmon is
A. Wallogonia
B. Sardinella
C. Dussumieria

65

D. Scomber
B
405.

38. Lung fishes


A. Uncovered well developed gills
B. Covered well developed gills
C. Reduced but covered gills
D. Air bladder
D

406.

39. Lung fishes


A. Seldom swim
B. Swim like eels
C. Creep over paired fins
D. Both B and C
D

407.

40. Dorsal and ventral fins are continuous with caudal fin in
A. Lung fishes
B. Eel
C. Both A and B
D. Sea horse
C

408.

42. Hippocampus has


A. Head at right angles to body
B. Prehensile tail
C. Only dorsal fin and reduced pectoral fins
D. All the above
D

409.

43. A tubular snout with terminal mouth occurs in

66

A. Solea
B. Hippocampus
C. Echeneis
D. Anguilla
B
410.

44. Exocoetus is able to leap into air by means of


A. Large strong pectoral fins
B. Powerful tail
C. Pelvic fins
D. Suddenly flashing of dorsal and ventral fins
B

411.

45. Climbing perch is able to creep over land by means of


A. Pectoral fins
B. Opercular spines
C. Both A and B
D. Lobed fins
C

412.

46. Dorsal and ventral fins of Anabas have


A. Stiff rays
B. Soft rays
C. Stiff rays in anterior region and soft rays in posterior region
D. Soft rays in anterior region and stiff rays in posterior region
C

413.

47. A herbivorous fish is


A. Labeo
B. Rita
C. Anabas

67

D. All the above


A
414.

48. As compared to cartilaginous fishes, bony fishes have dorsal fin


A. Single instead of two
B. Two instead of one
C. Single in both
D. Two in both
A

415.

49. Pelvic fins of bony fishes are


A. Near tail
B. Near ventral fins
C. In middle
D. Anterior below pectoral fins
D

416.

50. Unpaired external naris occur in


A. Petromyzon
B. Torpedo
C. Anabas
D. Solea
A

417.

51. Scroll valve is present in


A. Respiratory system of cartilaginous fishes
B. Intestine of cartilaginous fishes
C. Intestine of bony fishes
D. Respiratory system of bony fishes
B

418.

52. In Torpedo or Electric Ray, the electric organs are modified

68

A. Nerve nets
B. Cartilage complexes
C. Branchial muscles
D. Respiratory centres
C
419.

53. In sting ray, the stinger is modified


A. Dorsal fin
B. Ventral fin
C. Anal fin
D. Caudal fin
A

420.

55. Claspers of male Scoliodon develop in relation to


A. Pectoral fins
B. Pelvic fins
C. Anal or ventral fin
D. Dorsal fins
B

421.

57. Caudal fin is heterocercal in bony fish


A. Solea
B. Anabas
C. Anguilla
D. Exocoetus
D

422.

58. Cartilaginous fishes are


A. Ureotelic
B. Ammonotelic
C. Uricotelic

69

D. Aminotelic
A
423.

60. Lophius occurs in


A. Freshwater ponds
B. Streams
C. Sea bottom
D. Sea shores
C

424.

61. Lophius is popularly called


A. Angler fish
B. Devil fish
C. Frog fish
D. All the above
D

425.

62. Angler fish attracts its prey through


A. Bait present over the tip of first ray
B. Leaf like skin flaps
C. Phosphorescence
D. All the above
D

426.

63. Lates occurs in


A. Sea
B. Estuary
C. Freshwater ponds
D. Muddy waters
B

427.

64. Lata fish is

70

A. Channa
B. Lates
C. Heteropneustes
D. Catla
A
428.

65. A fish capable of hibernating during drought is


A. Heteropneustes
B. Channa
C. Catla
D. Lates
B

429.

66. A fish of muddy waters is


A. Catla
B. Labeo
C. Heteropneustes
D. Diodon
C

430.

67. A freshwater fish, which can inflict injury to its prey and other
animals is
A. Clarius
B. Heteropneustes
C. Solea
D. Gambusia
B

431.

74. Living fossil is


A. Dog fish
B. Flying fish

71

C. Dodo
D. Coelacanth/Latimeria
D
432.

82. Endoskeleton is cartilaginous in


A. Elasmobranchs
B. Dipnoi
C. Mollusca
D. Osteichthyes
A

433.

84. Isinglass (gelatine-like transparent substance) in obtained from


A. Air bladder of fishes
B. Scales of fishes
C. Liver of frog
D. Cartilage of shark
A

434.

85. Which one is a migratory fish?


A. Shark
B. Ribbon fish
C. Salmon
D. Carp
C

435.

86. Shagreen is skin of


A. Cod fish
B. Sole fish
C. Shark
D. Whale
C

72

436.

87. Teleost fish is differentiated externally from elasmobranch fish


by
A. Endoskeleton
B. Exoskeleton
C. Operculum
D. Stream-lined body
C

437.

90. Fish vertebrates originated during


A. Devonian
B. Silurian
C. Carboniferous
D. Ordovician
D

438.

99. In fast swimming fishes, propulsion is mainly due to


A. Pelvic fins
B. Caudal fins
C. Dorsal fin
D. Pectoral fins
B

439.

100. Elasmobranchs lack


A. Gill slits
B. Operculum
C. Notochord
D. Placoid scales
B

440.

102. Herbivorous carps are


A. Labeo and Hilsa

73

B. Catla and Magur


C. Shark and Singla
D. All the above
A
441.

103. First vertebrates are


A. Ostractodermi
B. Placodermi
C. Cyclostomates
D. Choanochthyes
A

442.

106. An indigenous fish used in biological control is


A. Catla
B. Labestes
C. Gambusia
D. Aplocheilus
B

443.

107. Fishes with swim bladder without direct communication with


exterior and where there is little separation of secretory and
absorbent parts are
A. Physostomes
B. Physoclists
C. Euphysoclists
D. Paraphysoclists
D

444.

108. Stenohaline fishes are


A. Marine fishes only
B. Those which tolerate narrow range of salinity

74

C. Those which tolerate wide range of salinity


D. Freshwater fishes only
B
445.

109. Salmon fishes are also known as


A. Trout
B. Cod
C. Cartilaginous fishes
D. Bony fishes
A

446.

116. Assertion: Lateral line system is found in fishes and aquatic


larval amphibians.
Reason: Lateral line system has receptors, which are the clusters of
sensory cells derived fro ectoderm.
Assertion is correct but the Reason is wrong.

447.

117. Fishes have poor sense organs for


A. Sound perception
B. Vibrations
C. Odours
D. Light perception
A

448.

119. Tooth-shaped scales are


A. Cycloid
B. Ctenoid
C. Ganoid
D. Placoid
D

449.

121. Growing more than one species of fish in the same water body

75

is
A. Moriculture
B. Aquaculture
C. Monoculture
D. Polyculture
D
450.

123. In cartilaginous fishes, restiform (rope-like) bodies occur in


A. Heart
B. Brain
C. Eyes
D. Intestine
B

451.

125. Air bladder occurs in


A. Torpedo
B. Scoliodon
C. Anabas
D. Elasmobrach
C

452.

127. In elasmobrachs, oviducts are called


A. Wolffian ducts
B. Fallopian tubes
C. Mullerian ducts
D. Mullerian bodies
C

453.

128. Assertion: Fish meal is rich source of protein for cattle and
poultry.
Reason: Fish meal is produced by non-edible parts of fishes like

76

fins, tails, etc.


Assertion is correct but Reason is wrong.
454.

129. Which one is a Cat Fish?


A. Labeo rohita
B. Catla catla
C. Cirrhina mrigala
D. Wallago attu
D

455.

130. Placoid scales are found in


A. Cartilaginous fishes/sharks/chondrichthyes
B. Bony fishes/osteichthyes
C. Lung fishes
D. All the above
A

456.

131. Pancreas is absent in


A. Amphibia
B. Osteichthyes
C. Chondrichthyes
D. Cyclostomata
D

457.

133. Hippocampus belongs to class


A. Agnatha
B. Chondrichthyes
C. Osteichthyes
D. Mammals
C

458.

136. Illicium is modified

77

A. Dorsal fin
B. First dorsal spine
C. Scales
D. Caudal fin
B
459.

138. Which is correctly paired?


A. Pristis Saw fish
B. Trygon Monitor
C. Ichthyophis Crow
D. Varanus Sting ray
E. Corvus Limbless amphibian
A

460.

142. Number of gills found in osteichthyes is


A. Two pairs
B. Four pairs
C. Five pairs
D. 6 15 pairs
E. 12 pairs
B

461.

143. Which is not a major carp?


A. Cirrhinus mrigala
B. Labeo rohita
C. Puntius tieto
D. Ctenopharyngodon idella
C

462.

144. Group anamniota includes


A. Fishes and amphibians

78

B. Reptiles and birds


C. Birds and mammals
D. Reptiles and mammals
A
463.

145. Glomerular kidney occurs in fish


A. Tulipia
B. Cirrhinus
C. Sphyrna
D. Exocoetus
D

464.

146. What is true of Neaceratodus?


a. It is a crosspterygian fish
b. It is found in river chuturnnac
c. It does not exhibit aestivation
d. It is a ureotelic animal
A. a and b
B. b and d
C. a and c
D. a and d
C

465.

147. Pectoral fish are enlarged in


A. Hippocampus
B. Exocoetus
C. Coccosteus
D. Scoliodon
B

466.

149. Isinglass is employed in

79

A. Preparation of wines
B. Distillation of wines
C. Preservation of wines
D. Clearing of wines
D
467.

155. The most primitive vertebrates are


A. Ostracoderms
B. Cephalochordates
C. Placoderms
D. Cyclostomates
A

468.

156. Vertebrates constitute approximately ___% of the total


animals
A. 5
B. 10
C. 15
D. 20
A

469.

159. Air bladder is present in


A. Star fishes
B. Chondrichthyes
C. Actinopterygii
D. Flying fishes
C

470.

160. Fish glue is obtained from


A. Air bladder and skin
B. Liver and skin

80

C. Bones and skin


D. Scales and skin
C
471.

161. An exotic carp is


A. Cirrhinus mrigala
B. Cyprinus carpio
C. Labeo bata
D. Barbus stigma
B

472.

162. Scientific name of rohu is


A. Catla catla
B. Anabus testudineus
C. Naja naja
D. Labeo rohita
D

473.

164. Saw fish is


A. Betta
B. Pristis
C. Exocoetus
D. Trygon
B

474.

165. Match the following:


a
b
c
d
e

Column I
Cyclostomates
Aves
Tunicates
Balanoglossus
Osteichthyes
A. a-p, b-q, c-r, d-s, e-t

p
q
r
s
t

Column II
Hemichordata
Urochordata
Agnatha
Pisces
Tetrapod

81

B. a-q, b-r, c-s, d-p, e-t


C. q-r, b-p, c-t, d-q, e-s
D. a-r, b-t, c-q, d-p, e-s
E. a-t, b-r, c-q, d-p, e-s
D
475.

169. Jaw of sharks contains


A. Thecodont teeth
B. Pleurodont teeth
C. Acrodont teeth
D. None of the above
C

476.

170. In chondrichthyes, claspers are seen on


A. Pelvic fins of male
B. Pelvic fins of female
C. Operculum of both sexes
D. Around jaws
A

477.

CHECK YOUR GRASP: PAGE 452


CYG 2: Large pectoral fins inserted dorsally and powerful tail
occur in
A. Remora
B. Anabas
C. Trygon
D. Exocoetus
A

82

478.

CYG 6: Large movable spines occur in fish


A. Diodon
B. Exocoetus
C. Anabas
D. Echeneis
A

479.

CYG 8: A shark, which often ascends Hoogly is


A. Scoliodon
B. Rhinodon
C. Carcharhinus
D. Saw fish
C

480.

AMPHIBIA: VOL. I: PAGE 453


6. Tympanum or ear drum occurs in
A. Bony fishes
B. Cartilaginous fishes
C. Necturus
D. None of the above
D

481.

7. A limbless amphibian is
A. Amphiuma
B. Necturus
C. Uraeotyphlus
D. Cryptobranches
C

482.

59. A frog has

83

A. Five fingers and four toes


B. Four fingers and five toes
C. Five fingers and five toes
D. Four fingers and four toes
D
483.

68. Frog/toad belong to order


A. Apoda
B. Anura
C. Urodela
D. Caudata
B

484.

69. The functional kidney of frog tadpole is


A. Archinephros
B. Pronephros
C. Mesonephros
D. Metanephros
B

485.

71. Neoteny is characteristic of


A. Bufo
B. Ichthyophis
C. Ambystoma
D. Rana
C

486.

72. Except mammals, lungs occur in


A. Pleural cavity
B. Pleuro-peritoneal cavity
C. Thoracic cavity

84

D. Pericardial cavity
B
487.

74. Croaking of frog is


A. Hunger call
B. Sex call for female
C. Danger call
D. Musical note
B

488.

78. Reproduction in larval stage is known as


A. Paedogenesis
B. Parthenogenesis
C. Neoteny
D. None of the above
A

489.

80. Ancestral amphibians or early tetrapods evolved during


A. Devonian
B. Carboniferous
C. Cretaceous
D. Jurassic
A

490.

81. Aquatic amphibians are ammonotelic in


A. Adult stage
B. Larval stage
C. Immature stage
D. Both A and B
D

491.

83. In frog, jelly around eggs is deposited

85

A. In water after fertilization


B. In water during fertilization
C. In the oviduct
D. In the ovary
C
492.

84. Opening of rectum in frog is called


A. Coccyx
B. Cloaca
C. Anus
D. None of the above
B

493.

86. Surinam toad is


A. Pipa
B. Alytes
C. Bufo
D. Bombinator
A

494.

87. Toad contains


A. Salivary glands, mucus glands and parotid glands
B. Slippery skin, yellow pigment and abundant mucus glands
C. Parotid glands, warty skin and semicircular canals
D. Bifid tongue, slippery skin and mucus glands
C

495.

89. Structure present in man but absent in frog is


A. Salivary glands
B. Pancreas
C. Adrenal glands

86

D. Thyroid gland
A
496.

91. Kidney of frog is


A. Archinephros
B. Pronephros
C. Mesonephros
D. Metanephros
C

497.

93. Midwife toad is


A. Bufo
B. Rana
C. Pipa
D. Alytes
D

498.

99. In frog, the oviduct is formed by


A. Wolffian duct
B. Bidders canal
C. Metanephric duct
D. Mullerian duct
D

499.

101. Which one is useful in metamorphosis of tadpole into frog?


A. Aldosterone
B. Thyroxine
C. Pituitary hormone
D. Oxytocin
B

500.

104. Which is not common between Newt and Hemidactylus?

87

A. Body is divisible into head, neck, trunk and tail


B. Head has a pair of eyes and tympanic membranes
C. Trunk has two pairs of limbs
D. Heart is three chambered
A
501.

107. Limbless amphibians belong to the order


A. Anura
B. Urodela
C. Gymnophiona
D. Lissamphibia
C

502.

110. The largest RBCs are seen in


A. Amphibia
B. Man
C. Elephant
D. Whale
A

503.

112. Which one of the following traits is not a characteristic feature


of amphibians?
A. Requirement of water for reproduction
B. Amniotic eggs
C. Thin skin without scales
D. Cutaneous respiration
B

504.

CHECK YOUR GRASP: PAGE 461


CYG 1: An amphibian bearing larval traits is
A. Ichthyophis
B. Bombinator

88

C. Necturus
D. Pipa
C
505.

CYG 2: Proteus is
A. Marine
B. Freshwater aquatic
C. Cave dweller
D. Desert amphibian
C

506.

CYG 3: Amphibians do not occur in


A. Land
B. Freshwater
C. Lungs
D. All the above
D

507.

CYG 6: In frogs, teeth occur on


A. Lower jaw only
B. Upper jaw only
C. Both A and B
D. None of the above
B

508.

CYG 7: Amphibian larvae possess


A. Gills
B. Gills and unpaired fins
C. Both paired and unpaired fins
D. Both A and C
B

89

509.

CYG 8: Head contains sensory tentacles in


A. Ichthyophis
B. Necturus
C. Salamandra
D. Alytes
A

510.

CYG 9: During breeding season, lateral lines develop in amphibian


A. Salamandra
B. Ambystoma
C. Triturus
D. Hyla
C

511.

CYG 11: Gymnophiona is


A. Vermiform without limbs
B. Tailless with long legs
C. Extinct and had massive endoskeleton
D. Scaleless with well developed tail
A