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Automobile Vehicles Using CFD Code

R. Thundil Karuppa Raj

School of Mechanical

and Building Sciences,

VIT University, Vellore,

Tamil Nadu, India.

632014

thundil.rajagopal@vit.ac.in

T. Bageerathan

School of Mechanical

and Building Sciences,

VIT University, Vellore,

Tamil Nadu, India.

632014

bageerathan.t@gmail.com

acceleration and deceleration. The fuel in the tank flows

irregularly with a splashing sound. This phenomenon is called as

sloshing. Due to sloshing the vehicle may lose its stability.

Sloshing noise is also a factor in this regard. This bothers the

passengers as the fluid in the tank is gasoline or diesel. This work

mainly concentrates on suppressing the sloshing noise in the fuel

tank through baffles. The tank is made up of High Density

Polyethylene (HDPE) in which the full height baffles cannot be

constructed. This work mainly focuses on the simulation of slosh

experiments to analyze the baffle design. Solid works 2011 is

used to model the fuel tank, discretized using Ansys ICEM CFD

12.Ansys CFX 12 is used to solving the problem. The turbulent

kinetic energy, velocity of water and force are calculated and the

fuel tanks are analyzed. The baffles reduced the sloshing inside

the tank to a great extent.

Fluid Dynamics, Sloshing.

I. INTRODUCTION

The phenomenon of acceleration and braking generally

occurs in the automobiles. So, the vehicle is subjected to

inertia effects. Sloshing occurs due to this and unpleasant

noise is also generated. Gasoline or diesel is the fluid in the

fuel tank which bothers the occupants. Some measures has to

be taken to reduce the turbulent kinetic energy and other

relative parameters. The flow of the fluid has to be controlled

in order to have them reduced. In early days steel fuel tanks

were used where full height baffles are used to reduce

sloshing. In recent days High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

tanks are used as they are light in weight and durable. In

HDPE tanks, full height baffles are difficult to be constructed

as they are manufactured by blow molding process. So the

baffles are designed such that they can be constructed in the

HDPE tanks and as well as they reduce sloshing. The works

mainly focuses on the design of baffle in the fuel tank and

N. Kulasekharan

Saveetha Engineering College,

Saveetha Nagar, Thandalam,

Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

602105

sekarannk@gmail.com

simulations will be used to validate the design.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

M. Eswaran et al., [1] analyzed sloshing waves in baffled

and un-baffled tanks. They carried numerical simulations

based on the volume of fluid (VOF) technique with arbitraryLagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The response of the coupled

system is obtained using the ADINA software. They also

compared numerical data with experimental data which were

found to be agreeable. Hakan Akyldz et al., [2] investigated

liquid sloshing in a cylindrical tank with various fill levels and

ring baffles under roll motions. The main work of them is to

verify the relative effectiveness of baffle arrangements. They

have done experimental setup to study non-linear behavior

and the damping characteristics of the liquid sloshing. They

found that the ring baffles are found to be effective in

reducing the sloshing loads. Hakan Akyildz et al., [3] carried

out numerical and experimental work on pressure variations

and three-dimensional effects on liquid sloshing loads in a

partially filled rectangular tank. VOF technique is used to

study characteristics. Computational data were compared with

the experimental data to access the accuracy. They also

studied configured many baffled and no-baffle tanks are

studied.

P.K.Panigrahy et al., [4] carried out series of experiments

in a developed liquid slosh setup and estimated the pressure

development on tank walls and free surface displacement of

water from the mean static level. They also conducted the

experiments with and without baffles and the parametric

changes were observed. Mahesh Balthy et al., [5] carried out a

study to predict the dynamic behaviour of the fuel inside fuel

tank during the transient driving conditions using commercial

CFD code. They carried out an experimental study in actual

vehicle. The work is simulated and analyzed in CFD using the

inputs from actual testing and flow pressure distribution. Hoi

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International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Developments [ICRAMID - 2014]

turbulent kinetic energy from the experimental and simulated

works. The fuel tank with different baffle design is analyzed

with different water levels. Noise values were also recorded

during experimental work. These values were used to compare

the experimental and simulated work.

Korang Modaressi-Tehrani al., [7] formulated and

analyzed three-dimensional nonlinear model of a partially

filled circular tank with and without baffles and derived the

pressure distribution over wetted tank surface. They analyzed

with 40% and 60% fill volumes and different types of the

baffles using FLUENT software. The results were found

satisfactory. Masashi Kamei et al., [8] conformed the

correlation of the slosh noise performance and factors related

to mechanism of slosh noise. They established a method to

predict the slosh noise in the early design phase. Kouji

Kamiya et al., [9] combined experiments with simulation to

establish a sloshing analysis technique. The experimental and

simulation works were validated. The fuel tank can be

simulated using coupled analysis between fluid and structure.

Won-Joo Roh, et al., [10] analyzed the flow of the fuel in the

tanks by Marker and Cell. They compared and verified by

experiments with transparent fuel tanks. The impact pressures

on the tank wall were analyzed to find noise source of the

wall. They also conducted a parametric study to decrease the

impact pressure by changing its dimension and shape.

Manuel J. Fabela-Gallegos [11] studied the dynamic

behavior of the heavy vehicle moving on roads. Baffles were

placed in the fuel tank to suppress sloshing. An experimental

study is also conducted on the fill level and number of baffles

in the fuel tank. Ben-Ren Tang [12] studied the phenomenon

of internal fuel and pressure distribution of the fuel using the

Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian methodology and improved the

fuel tank design. Three dimensional deformation modes of

fuel and tank were utilized to analyze the simulation results.

Nabih E. Bedewi and Tarek Omar [13] used Finite element

model utilizing the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)

algorithm in LS-DYNA to simulate the behavior of

automotive fuel tank in drop tests. The SPH algorithm is

applied to model a variety of fuel tanks as well as test

specimens. Fan Li et al., [14] used the combination of CFD

(Computational Fluid Dynamic), FE (Finite Element) and

Acoustic simulation methods, to evaluate the radiated fuel

tank slosh noise performance using CAE methods.

Pierre De

Man and Jules-Joseph Van Schaftingen, [18] presented an

experimental validation of the source path- receiver approach

to slosh noise from a fuel tank on a commercially available

passenger vehicle. They correlated between predicted and real

noise, confirming the validity of the approach. Eric Frank et

al., [19] identified the current capabilities and discussed

optimal parameters of testing component level fuel slosh

noise, and explored the merits of various NVH analysis

methods that can be used to quantify slosh noise. Veera

Venkata Sunil Vytla and Yuya Ando [20] compared the force

acting on the fuel tank and found that they have same trend as

the mechanism that triggers the sloshing. They also compared

the deformation of the node located on one of the two tank

chambers and found that the deformation of a node on the

tank did not change much for the given braking scenario with

the changing water levels. G. R. Yan et al., [21] used transient

slosh approach to examine the effectiveness of the baffle

designs. They developed a computational fluid dynamic fluid

slosh model using volume of fluid technique coupled with a

Navier-Stokes solver. They analyzed fluid slosh responses in

terms of slosh frequency, resulting forces and moments under

different fill volumes and liquid cargos. They found that

partial baffle designs was effective.

III. CFD SIMULATION

A. Fuel tank geometry

The fuel tank dimensions are from Hoi Sum IU et al., [6]. The

dimensions are as shown in Figure 1.

Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) and Abaqus' Coupled

Eulerian- Lagrange (CEL) methods for predicting the

structural performance of a fuel tank system and demonstrated

that a fuel tank systems and their components can be

numerically evaluated before the products release. Jong-Suh

Park et al., [16] verified the reliability of the FSI method and

suggested a new CAE analysis processes to predict fuel

sloshing noise. Mahesh Balthy et al., [17] evaluated the slosh

performance of plastic tanks, carried out a study to predict the

dynamic behaviour of the fuel inside a fuel tank during

transient driving conditions. The developed a new model

ISBN 978-1-4799-3158-3

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International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Developments [ICRAMID - 2014]

Fig. 4 Initialization of model w/o baffle in CFX-Pre

The tank is modelled in Solidworks 2011. The tank

model is discretized using Ansys ICEM CFD. The meshed

tank is shown in Figure 3. The tank model is initialized in

Ansys CFX Pre as shown in Figure 4 and 5. Ansys CFX is

used for simulation purposes. Water is used as the working

fluid. The entire model is discretized using hexahedral mesh

elements which are accurate and involve less computation

effort. Hexahedral mesh near the wall surface allows

capturing the boundary layer gradient accurately. Fine control

on the hexahedral mesh near the wall surface allows capturing

the boundary layer gradient accurately.

The grid independent study is carried out starting with

100000 nodes till 500000 nodes. The results is independent to

the number of grids after 400000 nodes. So 496000 nodes are

used to capture the boundary layer.

V. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

Fig. 3 Meshed Fuel Tank

simulate the 3D flow inside the fuel tank. Turbulence is taken

care by shear stress transport (SST) model.

ISBN 978-1-4799-3158-3

421

International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Developments [ICRAMID - 2014]

Conservation of mass( V ) 0 1

yx

p xx

zx 2

x

x

y

z

p xy yy zy

y momentum

g 3

y

x

y

z

p xz yx zz

z momentum

4

z

x

y

z

x momentum

The Hoi Sum IU et al., [6] has not mentioned the number

of grids and turbulence model they used. So the correlation

analysis is carried out between the simulation results of Hoi

Sum IU et al., [6] and this work. The results are taken at the

time steps of 2 sec, 2.5 sec and 3 seconds. The correlation

factor is 0.97. This makes it visible that there is a high

correlation between these simulation values.

The fluid domains are defined in Ansys CFX Preprocessor. Here Shear stress Transport model is used as the

turbulence model. The initial conditions are as in Table I.

TABLE II

CORRELATION ANALYSIS RESULT OF TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGIES WITH

6.5 CM WATER LEVEL

TABLE I

INITIAL CONDITIONS AND VALUES

Initial conditions

Time

(Sec)

Corresponding values

2.0

2.5

3.0

Number of fluid

Present

region.

Gravity

0.0005 sec.

Duration of the

simulation

4 seconds

Fluid Temperature

293.0 K

Compressibility of

the fluid

Incompressible, Water is

considered to be an in

compressible fluid

pressure

Displacement

-15.5[cm]*sin((pi*t)/(1[s])) cm

Turbulence model

(SST)

Height of water

6.5 cm

Present

work

(cm2/s2)

895.261

762.382

646.666

VIII.

Hoi Sum

IU et al.,

(cm2/s2)

39.6

13.1

3.4

Correlation

Factor

0.975469

design are carried out using simulation results. The simulation

results of No-Baffle configuration is validated with the results

from the experiments conducted by Hoi Sum IU et al., [6] by

correlation analysis. The correlation factor is 0.975469 which

conforms the validity of the present model to the model of Hoi

Sum IU et al., [6]. The average values of turbulent kinetic

energy, velocity of water and force of the baffled model are

reduced when compared with the No-baffle configuration. The

figure 5, 6, 7 and 8 shows that the pressure is very high when

they are at the ends. The readings are taken from 1.25 to 1.55

seconds because the fuel moves from one end to other end. In

order to reduce the turbulent kinetic energy, baffles are used.

These baffles also reduces the force of water which is about to

hit the wall. The baffles are placed near the deep and shallow

end of the tank. So it decreases the average values of turbulent

kinetic energy, velocity and force at the time when the fuel

travels from one end and hits the other end of the tank. The

table III and table IV shows the values of the baffled model

and No-model configuration. The effect of baffle is

satisfactory when the fuel height is lesser than the baffles. The

efficiency of the baffle is null when the fluid level is higher

than the baffles height. Bottom mounted baffles reduce the

sloshing and other parameters to a great extent. Top mounted

baffles are not considered in this study as they are not

efficient. The air bubbles behind them try to escape and

generate sloshing noise [6]. Side mounted baffles are used in

this work. These side mounted baffles reduce the velocity.

The values of the baffled model is lesser when compared to

the no-baffle model.

The model is simulated in a computer with CORE 2DUO

2.2GHz processor 4GB RAM. The system took

approximately 120 hours to simulate the No-baffle model and

ISBN 978-1-4799-3158-3

422

baffles height is 5cm. The width of the baffle doesnt

influence the sloshing [6]. Bottom mounted baffles separates

the fuel into sections and they are not continuous. The

turbulence created is only within the separated fuel section. So

the flow from one end to other end is supressed. Baffles have

openings in their portions that wont allow the fluid to stay

behind them which will be useful in reading the present fuel

level.

TABLE IV

PARAMETERS AND VALUES OF THE BAFFLED CONFIGURATION

Time

(sec)

Average

Turbulent

kinetic

energy

(cm/s2)

Average

Velocity

of water

(m/s)

Average

force (N)

0.5

75.431

0.576815

0.00269705

1.0

164.592

0.656029

0.00232842

1.5

291.159

0.609976

0.00192577

2.0

825.445

1.070730

0.00330000

2.5

597.987

0.516010

0.00134000

3.0

444.881

0.679411

0.00282506

TABLE III

PARAMETERS AND VALUES OF THE NO-BAFFLE CONFIGURATION

Fig. 7 Turbulent kinetic energy vs. time

Time

(sec)

Average

Turbulent

kinetic

energy

(cm/s2)

Average

Velocity of

water

(m/s)

Average

force (N)

0.5

4939.00

1.4324

0.0029957

1.0

1617.15

0.8806

0.0025992

1.5

1000.68

0.5467

0.0034853

2.0

2.5

3.0

895.26

762.38

646.66

0.9009

0.6348

0.7602

0.0033333

0.0072200

0.0062500

ISBN 978-1-4799-3158-3

423

NOMENCLATURE

V

Velocity vector [-]

x, y, z position co-ordinates, [-]

g

gravitational force [ms-2]

p

pressure [pa]

Greek symbols

density, [kgm-3]

REFERENCES

[1]

filled cubic tank: Numerical simulation and experimental validation,

Elsevier : Computers and Structures 87,pp.198205, December 2008.

[2]

investigation of the effects of the ring baffles on liquid sloshing in a

rigid cylindrical tank, Elsevier: Ocean engineering 59, pp. 190-197,

January 2013.

[3]

rectangular tank: Numerical simulation and experimental validation,

Elsevier: Ocean engineering 33, pp. 2135-2149, March 2006.

[4]

behavior due to horizontal movement of liquids in baffled tanks,

Elsevier: Ocean engineering 36, pp. 213-222, November 2008.

[5]

Katti, Development of a Quantification Methodology for Slosh Noise

Associated with Dynamic Fuel Flow Behavior in Passenger Car

Tank, SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 2011-28-0089, 2011.

[6]

Fuel Tank Baffles to reduce the Noise Generated From Fuel Sloshing,

SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 2004-01-0403, 2004.

[7]

Transverse Baffle Designs on Transient Three-Dimensional Liquid

Slosh in a Partly-Filled Circular Tank, SAE TECHNICAL PAPER

SERIES, 2005-01-3594, 2005.

[8]

Makino, Establishment of a Method for Predicting and Confirming

Fuel Tank Sloshing Noise, SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES,

2007-01-1538, 2007.

[9]

Sloshing in a Fuel Tank, SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES,

2002-01-0574, 2002.

[10]

Decreasing Impact Pressure, SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES,

2005-01-1913, 2005.

[11]

Favela-Gallegos, David Vazquez-Vega and Miguel Martinez-Madrid,

Experimental Assessment of Baffles and Their Effect on the

Longitudinal Sloshing Force in a Scaled Elliptical Tank, SAE

TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 2005-01-3577, 2005.

[12]

Ben-Ren Tang, Sarba Guha, Tau Tyan, Jiamaw Doong, Len Shaner,

Dilip Bhalsod, Simulation of Sloshing and Ballooning in Fuel Tanks

for High Speed Impacts, SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 200601-0314, 2006.

[13]

Tanks Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, SAE

TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 2007-01-0682, 2007.

shows that the value at 2 seconds is approximately similar.

This is because at that particular time the water flows from the

shallow end to the deep end. The baffle is placed at the deep

end region. So the flow is not restricted when it flows from

the shallow end region. So the baffle should be placed at the

two ends so that the flow is restricted when it flows from

either ends. The average velocity of water of the baffled

model at 2 seconds is more because the flow from the shallow

end to deep end, makes the fluid to flow above the height of

the baffle. The height of the baffle is 5 cm and the water

height is 6.5 cm. So the baffle height should be more than the

height of the water level to suppress sloshing.

The work arrives to the following conclusions:

1. The turbulent kinetic energy is high in the no-baffled

tank model.

2. The average turbulent kinetic energy is reduced up to

80.20% in the baffled model.

3. The average force is reduced up to 33.51% in the

baffled model.

4. The average velocity of water is reduced up to

55.23% in the baffled model.

5. The baffle height should be more than the height of

the water level to suppress sloshing.

So the implementation of the baffles reduces the

turbulent kinetic energy as similar to the case of full height

baffles in the steel fuel tank. Also the velocity and average

force of water is reduced to a great extent. So baffles of

height more than the height of water should be used to get

better efficiency.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We wish to acknowledge the expertise of Mr. Balaji

Ranganathan from FL Smidth, CFD Division, and Chennai for

his valuable suggestion in carrying out this work.

ISBN 978-1-4799-3158-3

424

[14]

Radiated Fuel Tank Slosh Noise Simulation, SAE TECHNICAL

PAPER SERIES, 2011-01-0495, 2011.

[15]

System Simulation, SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 2011-010792, 2011.

[16]

of Fuel Sloshing Noise Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis,

SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 2011-01-1695, 2011.

[17] Mahesh Balthy, Chetan Prakash Jain, Mohan Makana and Raghavendra

Katti , Development of a Quantification Methodology for Slosh Noise

Associated with Dynamic Fuel Flow Behavior in Passenger Car

Tank, SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 2011-28-0089, 2011.

[18]

Vehicle Fuel Tank Slosh Noise from Component-Level Test Data,

SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 2012-01-0215, 2012.

[19]

Optimization of Test Parameters and Analysis Methods for Fuel

Tank Slosh Noise, SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES, 2013-011961, 2013.

[20]

[21]

Interaction Simulation of Fuel Tank Sloshing, SAE TECHNICAL

PAPER SERIES, 2013-01-0641, 2013.

G. R. Yan, S. Rakheja and K. Siddiqui, Baffle Design Analysis for a

Road Tanker: Transient Fluid Slosh Approach, SAE TECHNICAL

PAPER SERIES, 2008-01-2670.

ISBN 978-1-4799-3158-3

425

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