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Data Analysis and Presentation
Prior to analysis
• Field and in house editing for consistency and completeness • Coding of free response questions • Behavioural and segmenting data (SPSS) • Method of entry into computer • Descriptive and cross tabulation data • Analysis by difference / Quadrant analysis / Perceptual mapping / Bakers box
Forms of Analysis
• Normally analysis is question driven – what information is required to answer a specific question • Two broad main types of analysis: • Analysis of difference • Analysis of relationships / causation
• The null and alternative hypothesis • Significance level is crucial. Could the difference observed be due to chance, or can we be at least 95% sure that it is due to the phenomenon being tested. • Sample size is also critical in assuring the level of confidence and error which might be anticipated.
Exercise: Are IIS students more satisfied than those at Ram?
• The hypothesis is that IIS students are more satisfied than students at RAM overall. • Average rating for students overall at Ram is 3.6 For IIS it is 3.9, based on a sample of 100, with an SD of 1.5 • Two tailed test (0.025% either end, Z = 1.96)
Chi Squared Test
• A test for significance in the analysis of frequency distributions • Based on the difference between observed and expected results if there was no difference • Can be used for both ordinal and nominal data sets • Easiest and most widely used test!
Exercise: Boys are better than girls!
• Out of the 99 students who took the MBA Interim examination in Business Research Methods, 14 of the 33 men present scored less than 30 marks, and overall 33 people scored below 30. • Is there a significant difference in performance between the men and women?
Other methods of testing between groups
• t-test, used to calculate differences between means • Z test for comparing proportions • Analysis of variance (ANOVA) • F test / F ratio (See Zikmund: Pages 521 – 534)
Measures of Association
• Association: Where one variable correlates with another • Co-variance: Where two variables are associated together, but both are associated with a third (undefined) variable • Coefficient of determination: A measure of the explanation of one variable by another. It is the square of the correlation coefficient and is the basis of factor analysis
Factor Analysis of the beverage market
HIGH F1 (Versatility)
Instant Coffee Packet Tea Fruit Juice Tea Bags
Note: F1 (versatility) and F2 (convenience) together account for 78% observed variance
• Linked to association, but regression seeks to create a formula to explain the association. • Two forms; straight line (y = mx + c) or non linear of several forms • Regression line plotted by “least squares” and is the line of “best fit” • Used extensively in sales forecasting, but ignores the “point of inflexion” problem seen also in extrapolation
Baker‟s Box: An example of “best fit” regression line High Quality
Line Of I Don‟t
Credibility IT Value Added
The Golden Triangle
Avis Country IT‟S A Rip Off
Cheap And Cheerful Cheap And Nasty
You Must Be Joking
Exercise: Expansion at Rotiboy!
• Rotiboy have established that the sales for an outlet of their business (y) can be defined by the number of people living within one mile of the outlet (x) by the line y = 20 + 0.55x, where both the constant is denominated in „000 baht, and x as „000 population. • On the basis of this data what is the likely weekly revenue (in baht „000) for an outlet established where there is a local population of 10,000
• Multivariate regression analysis ( The Fishbein model of attitude measurement) • Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) • Factor analysis: Reduction of complex variables into smaller number of factors • Cluster analysis • CHAID (Chi squared automatic interaction detection)
Tesco and the use of AID
• Based on customer data collected at POS • Analysed by AID to establish levels of product penetration and specific customer characteristics • Can isolate groups as small as 5,000 from a population of 26 million! • Visit www.dunnhumby.co.uk
• • • • • The communicator The message The medium The Audience Feedback
• Stand up, speak up, and shut up. There is a limit to people‟s concentration • Graphics need to be simple (not more than 12 figures on a slide). More than this highlight • Be aware of your personal body language • If you use technology, make sure it works! • Have clear objectives as to what to put over
Some tips on oral presentations
• Variety; in voice, tone, movement, body language, all elements of posture, etc. Suit your body language to the message • Be sure you can get away with humour. Be very careful if you use it with an international audience as it is very cultural! • Look at your audience, good eye contact • Do not distribute report beforehand if you want to be selective in how you take from it. • Leave time at the end for questions
Presenting statistical results
• Never assume the audience knows as much about statistics as you do! • Don‟t try and blind them with statistics • Remember “there are lies, dam lies, and statistics” Many are very cynical of them! • Use statistics to demonstrate data in terms of its use in making a decision. Applied statistics rather than statistics for their own sake! • Explain what they mean!
• Length and level of reading are inversely related • Always provide an annotated executive summary with guideposts to deeper explanations as required. • Make sure the report provides the information required in order to come to the decision required • Use tables, graphs and charts as appropriate to illustrate data and make points. • Remember a multicoloured pie chart loses a lot in black and white!
• CHAID (Chi Squared Automatic Interaction Detection) • ACORN / TGI Retail Location • Market Penetration Analysis • Sensitivity Analysis • Resource Allocation