You are on page 1of 16

# Proposed Syllabus for Electronics

## Proposed Syllabus Electronics I

Prescribed Book: Microelectronic Circuits. By Sedra and Smith
ISBN: 978 019 973 851 9
6TH Edition
Price : R 650.00

2 Sessions

= 10 Marks

5 Sessions

= 30 Marks

4 Sessions

= 20 Marks

## Proposed Syllabus for Electronics

CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE

[10]

In addition to knowing the Oscilloscope this topic also demonstrates how to represent an idea
in a block diagram format.
Cross-Sectional view and explanation of a CRT
Electron gun
How to move the beam horizontally
How to move the beam vertically
Block Diagram and explanation of an Oscilloscope
Applications of Oscilloscope
Practicals
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRONICS

[10]

1.1
Signal sources Two alternate representations
1.2
Frequency Spectrum of Signals
1.3 Analogue and Digital Signals
1.4
Amplifiers
1.4.1
Signal Amplification
1.4.2
Amplifier Circuit Symbol
1.4.3
Voltage Gain
1.4.4
Power Gain and Current Gain
1.4.5
Expressing Gain in Decibels
1.4.6
The Amplifier Power Supplies
1.4.7
Amplifier Saturation
1.4.8
Non-linear transfer characteristics and Biasing
1.4.9
Symbol Convention
1.5
Circuit Models for Amplifiers
1.5.1
Voltage Amplifiers
1.5.2
1.5.3
Other Amplifier Types
CHAPTER 2 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
2.1

[20]

2.1.1
2.1.2

## The Op-Amp terminals

The Function and Characteristics of the Ideal Op-Amp
2

2.1.3
2.2

2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4

2.3

## The Closed-Loop Gain

The effect of Finite Open-Loop Gain?
Input and Output Resistances?
An Important Application The Weighted Summer.

2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3

## The Closed-Loop Gain

Characteristics of the Non-Inverting Configuration
The Voltage Follower

CHAPTER 3 DIODES
3.1

3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3

3.2

3.3

[20]

## Current Voltage Characteristics

A Simple Application: Rectifier
Another Application: Diode Logic Gates

3.2.1

3.2.2

3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4

## The Exponential Model

Graphical Analysis Using the Exponential Model
Iterative Analysis Using the Exponential Model
The need for Rapid Analysis

3.3.5

## The Piecewise-Linear Model

3.3.6

The Constant-Voltage-Model

3.3.7

3.3.8

3

3.3.9
3.4

3.4.1
3.4.2

3.5

## Basic Semiconductor Concepts

The pn Junction Under Open-Circuit Conditions
The pn Junction Under Reverse-Bias Conditions
The pn Junction in the Breakdown Region?
The pn Junction Under Forward-Bias Conditions

## Special Diode Types

3.8.1
3.8.2
3.8.3
3.8.4

3.9

Limiter Circuits
The Clamped Capacitor DC Restorer
The Voltage Doubler

3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
3.7.5

3.8

## The Half-Wave Rectifier

The Full-Wave Rectifier
The Bridge Rectifier
The Rectifier with a Filter Capacitor Peak Rectifier
Precision Half-Wave Rectifier The Super Diode

3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3

3.7

## Specifying and Modeling the Zener Diode

Use of the Zener as a Shunt Regulator?

Rectifier Circuit
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5

3.6

## The Shottky-Barrier diode (SBD)

Varactors
Photodiodes
Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

## The SPICE Diode model and Simulation Examples?

3.9.1 The Diode Model
3.9.2 The Zener Diode Model
Practical
1. Plot diode characteristics in the forward and reverse bias for 1N4048 and 1N4007
for a voltage range of 5 V to 5V.
2. Diode Peak Detector using a filter capacitor.
3. Diode as clipper and clamper
4

## Proposed Syllabus for Electronics

4. Diode voltage doublers

5.1

5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5

5.2

## Simplified Structure and Modes of Operation

Operation of npn Transistor in the Active Mode
Structure of Actual Transistors
Operation in the Saturation Mode
The pnp Transistor

5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5

5.3

[20]

## Circuit Symbols and Conventions

Graphical Representation of Transistor Characteristics
Dependence of iC on Collector Voltage The Early Effect?
The Common-Emitter Characteristics
Transistor Breakdown?

5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4

## Large-Signal Operation The Transfer Characteristics

Amplifier Gain
Graphical Analysis
Operation as a Switch

5.4

BJT Circuits at DC

5.5

## Biasing in BJT Amplifier Circuits

5.5.1 The Classical Discreet-Circuit Bias Arrangement
5.5.2 The Two-Power-Supply Version of the Classical Bias Arrangement
5.5.3 Biasing Using a Collector-to-Base Feedback Resistor
5.5.4 Biasing Using a Constant-Current Source?
Practical
1. Design and construct a voltage divider bias using 2N2222 transistor to generate 10
mA collector current. Use 9 V power supply.
i) Include an LDR in the bias circuit so that the circuit designed will switch on
when the ambient light falls.
5

## Proposed Syllabus for Electronics

ii)

Include a 9 V relay in the collector circuit so that this circuit could be used as

an emergency lamp that will switch on a 9 V lamp when night falls and will switch
off at day break.

## Proposed Syllabus Electronics II

CHAPTER 2
Revision (2.1 2.3)
2.4

2.6

2.4.1

2.4.2

2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4

2.7

DC Imperfections
2.7.1
2.7.2

2.8

## Output Voltage Saturation

Output Current Limits
Slew Rate
Full-Power Bandwidth

Offset Voltage
Input Bias and Offset Currents

2.8.1
2.8.2
2.8.3

## The Inverting Configuration with General Impedances

The Inverting Integrator
The Op Amp Differentiator
6

## Proposed Syllabus for Electronics

CHAPTER 4 MOS FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS (MOSFET)
4.1

## Device Structure and Physical Operation

4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.1.8
4.1.9

4.2

Device Structure
Operation with No Gate Voltage
Creating a Channel for Current Flow
Applying a small vDS
Operation as vDS is Increased
Derivation of iD vDS relationship
The p-Channel MOSFET
Complementary MOS of CMOS
Operating the MOS in the Subthreshold Region?

## Current Voltage Characteristics

4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5

Circuit Symbol
The iD vDS Characteristics
Finite Output Resistance in Saturation
Characteristics of the p-Channel MOSFET
The Role of the Substrate The Body effect?

4.3

MOSFET Circuits at DC

4.4

4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5

4.5

## Large-Signal Operation The Transfer Characteristics

Graphical Derivation of the Transfer Characteristics
Operation as a Switch
Operation as a Linear Amplifier
Analytical Expressions for the Transfer Characteristics

4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4

4.6

[20]

## Biasing by Fixing VGS

Biasing by Fixing VG and Connecting a Resistance in the Source
Biasing Using a Drain-Gate Feedback Resistor
Biasing Using a Constant-Current Source?

4.6.1

4.6.2

7

4.7

4.12

4.6.3

4.6.4

4.6.5

## The Small-Signal Equivalent-Circuit Models

4.6.6

The Transconductance gm

4.6.7

4.6.8

4.7.1

## The Basic Structure

4.7.2

Characterizing Amplifiers

4.7.3

4.7.4

4.7.5

4.7.6

## The SPICE MOSFET Model and Simulation Example

4.12.1 MOSFET Models
4.12.2 MOSFET Model Parameters

## Proposed Syllabus for Electronics

CHAPTER 5
Revision (5.1 5.5)
5.6

5.6.1

5.6.2

5.6.3

5.6.4

Voltage Gain

5.6.5

5.6.6

5.6.7

The T Model

5.6.8

5.6.9

5.7

5.7.1

5.7.2

5.7.3

5.7.4

5.7.5

5.7.6

5.7.7

9

5.11

## The SPICE BJT Model and Simulation Examples

5.11.3 The SPICE BJT Model Parameters
5.11.4 The BJT Model Parameters

Voltage Regulators
Zener Diode Regulator
Series Voltage Regulator Using one BJT
Series Voltage Regulator Using two or more BJT
Series Voltage Regulator with Short-Circuit Protection
Three-Terminal IC Voltage Regulators

## Proposed Syllabus Electronics III

1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.3
1.6.4
1.6.5
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3

1.6
Frequency Response of Amplifiers
Measuring the Amplifier Frequency Response
Amplifier Bandwidth
Evaluating the Frequency Response of the Amplifiers
Single-Time-Constant Networks
Classification of Amplifiers Based on Frequency Response
4.8 The MOSFET Internal Capacitance and the High-Frequency Models
The Gate Capacitive Effect
The Junction Capacitances
The High-Frequency MOSFET Model
The MOSFET Unity Gain Frequency (fT)
4.9 Frequency Response of the CS Amplifier
The Three Frequency Bands
The High-Frequency Response
The Low-Frequency Response
10

5.8.1
5.8.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.8.5
5.9.1
5.9.2
5.9.3

## 5.8 The BJT Internal Capacitance and the High-Frequency Model

The Base Charging or the Diffusion Capacitance Cde
The Base Emitter Junction Capacitance Cje
The Collector Base Junction Capacitance C
The High-Frequency- Model
The Cutoff Frequency
5.9 Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier
The Three Frequency Bands
The High-Frequency Response
The Low-Frequency Response

CHAPTER 8 FEEDBACK
8.1 The General Feedback Structure
8.2 Some Properties of Negative Feedback
8.2.1 Gain De-sensitivity
8.2.2 Bandwidth Extension
8.2.3 Noise Reduction
8.2.4 Reduction in Nonlinear Distortion
8.3 The Four Basic Feedback Topologies
8.3.1 Voltage Amplifiers
8.3.2 Current Amplifiers
8.3.3 Transconductance Amplifiers
8.3.4 Transresistance Amplifiers
8.4 The Series Shunt Feedback Amplifier
8.4.1 The Ideal Situation
8.4.2 The Practical Situation
8.4.3 Summary
8.5 The Series Series Feedback Amplifier
8.5.1 The Ideal Case
8.5.2 The Practical Case
8.5.3 Summary
8.6 The Shunt Shunt and Shunt Series Feedback Amplifiers
8.6.1 The Shunt Shunt Configurations
8.6.2 An Important Note
8.6.3 The Shunt Series Configuration
8.6.4 Summary of Results
8.7 Determining the Loop Gain
8.7.1 An Alternative Approach for Finding A?
8.7.2 Equivalence of Circuits from a Feedback-Loop Point of View
8.8 The Stability Problem?
11

## Proposed Syllabus for Electronics

8.8.1 Transfer Function of the Feedback Amplifier
8.8.2 The Nyquist Plot
8.9 The Effect of Feedback on the Amplifier Poles?
8.9.1 Stability and Pole Locations
8.9.2 Poles of the Feedback Amplifier
8.9.3 Amplifier with Single-Pole Response
8.9.4 Amplifier with Two-Pole Response
8.9.5 Amplifiers with Three or More Poles
8.10
Stability Study Using Bode Plots?
8.10.1 Gain and Phase Margins
8.10.2 Effect of Phase Margin on Closed-Loop Response
8.10.3 An Alternative Approach for Investigating Stability
8.11
Frequency Compensation?
8.11.1 Theory
8.11.2 Implementation
8.11.3 Miller Compensation and Pole Splitting
8.12
SPICE Simulation Example
CHAPTER 13 SIGNAL GENERATORS AND WAVEFORM SHAPING CIRCUITS

13.2

13.3

## 13.1Basic Principles of Sinusoidal Oscillators

13.1.1 The Oscillator Feedback Loop
13.1.2 The Oscillation Criterion
13.1.3 Nonlinear Amplitude Control
13.1.4 A Popular Limiter for Amplitude Control
Op Amp RC-Oscillator Circuits
13.2.1 The Wien-Bridge Oscillator
13.2.2 The Phase Shift Oscillator
13.2.4 The Active-Filter Tuned Oscillator?
LC and Crystal Oscillators
13.3.1 LC Tuned Oscillators
13.3.2 Crystal Oscillators

CHAPTER 14

14.2

14.3

## 14.1Classification of Output Stages

Class A Output Stage
14.2.1 Transfer Characteristics
14.2.2 Signal Waveform
14.2.3 Power Dissipation
14.2.4 Power-Conversion Efficiency
Class B Output Stage
14.3.1 Circuit Operation
12

14.4

## 14.3.2 Transfer Characteristics

14.3.3 Power-Conversion Efficiency
14.3.4 Power Dissipation
14.3.5 Reducing Crossover Distortion
14.3.6 Single-Supply Operation
Class AB Output Stage
14.4.1 Circuit Operation
14.4.2 Output Resistance
Biasing the Class AB Circuit
14.5.1 Biasing Using Diodes
14.5.2 Biasing Using VBE Multiplier?
Power BJTs
14.6.1 Junction Temperature
14.6.2 Thermal Resistance
14.6.3 Power Dissipation Versus Temperature
14.6.4 Transistor Case and Heat Sink
14.6.5 The BJT Safe Operating Area
14.6.6 Parameter Values of Power Transistors

14.5
14.6

## Proposed Syllabus Electronics IV

Revision 4.1 4.12, 5.1 5.11
CHAPTER 6 SINGLE-STAGE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT AMPLIFIERS
6.1 IC Design Philosophy
6.2 Comparison of MOSFET and the BJT
6.2.1 Typical Values of MOSFET Parameters
6.2.2 Typical Values of BJT Parameters
6.2.3 Comparison of Important Characteristics
6.2.4 Combining MOS and Bipolar Transistors BiCMOS Circuits
6.2.5 Validity of MOS Square Law Model
6.3 IC Biasing Current Sources, Current Mirrors and Current-Steering Circuits
6.3.1 The Basic MOSFET Current Source
6.3.2 MOS Current Steering Circuits
6.3.3 BJT Circuits
6.4 High-Frequency Response General Considerations
6.4.1 The High-Frequency Gain Function
6.4.2 Determining the 3 dB frequency fH
6.4.3 Using Open-Circuit Time Constants for the Approximate Determination
6.4.4 Millers Theorem

of fH
13

## Proposed Syllabus for Electronics

6.5 The Common-Source and Common-Emitter Amplifier with Active Loads
6.5.1 The Common-Source Circuits
6.5.2 CMOS Implementation of the Common-Source Amplifier
6.5.3 The Common-Emitter Circuit
6.6 High-Frequency Response of CS and CE Amplifiers
6.6.1 Analysis Using Millers Theorem
6.6.2 Analysis Using Open-Circuit Time Constants
6.6.3 Exact Analysis?
6.6.4 Adapting the Formulas for the Case of CE Amplifiers
6.6.5 The Situation When Rsig is Low
6.7 The Common-Base and Common-Gate Amplifiers with Active Loads
6.7.1 The Common-Gate Amplifier
6.7.2 The Common-Base Amplifier
6.7.3 A Concluding Remark
6.8 The Cascode Amplifier
6.8.1 The MOS Cascode
6.8.2 Frequency Response of the MOS Cascode
6.8.3 The BJT Cascode
6.8.4 A Cascode Current Source?
6.8.5 Double Cascoding?
6.8.6 The Folded Cascode?
6.8.7 BiCMOS Cascode?
6.9 The CS and CE Amplifier with Source (Emitter) Degeneration
6.9.1 The CS Amplifier with a Source Resistance
6.9.2 The CE Amplifier with an Emitter Resistance
6.10
The Source and Emitter Followers
6.10.1
The Source Follower
6.10.2
The Frequency Response of a Source Follower
6.10.3
The Emitter Follower
6.11
Some Useful Transistor Pairings
6.11.1
The CD CS, CC CE, CD CE Configurations
6.11.2
The Darlington Configuration
6.11.3
The CC CB and CD CG Configurations
6.12
Current-Mirror Circuits with Improved Performance
6.12.1
Cascode MOS Mirrors
6.12.2
A Bipolar Mirror with Base-Current Compensation
6.12.3
The Wilson Current Mirror
6.12.4
The Wilson MOS Mirror
6.12.5
The Widlar Current Source
6.13
SPICE Simulation Examples

CHAPTER 7

## 7.1 The MOS Differential Pair

7.1.1
Operation with a Common-Mode Input Voltage
7.1.2
Operation with a Differential Input Voltage
14

## Proposed Syllabus for Electronics

7.1.3

Large-Signal Operation
7.2 Small-Signal Operation of the MOS Differential Pair
7.2.1
Differential Gain
7.2.2
Common-Mode Gain and Common-Mode Refection Ratio (CMRR)
7.3 The BJT Differential Pair
7.3.1
Basic Operation
7.3.2
Large-Signal Operation
7.3.3
Small-Signal Operation
7.4 Other Non-ideal Characteristics of the Differential Amplifier
7.4.1
Input Offset Voltage of the MOS Differential Pair
7.4.2
Input Offset Voltage of the Bipolar Differential Pair
7.4.3
Input Bias and Offset Currents of the Bipolar Pair
7.4.4
Input Common-Mode Range
7.5 The Differential Amplifier with Active Load?
7.5.1
Differential to Single-Ended Conversion
7.5.2
The Active Loaded MOS Differential Pair
7.5.3
Differential Gain of the Active-Loaded MOS Pair
7.5.4
Common-Mode Gain and the CMRR
7.5.5
The Bipolar Differential Pair with Active Load
7.6 Frequency Response of the Differential Amplifier
7.6.1
Analysis of the Resistively Loaded MOS Amplifier
7.6.2
Analysis of the Active-Loaded MOS Amplifier?
7.7 Multistage Amplifiers
7.7.1
A Two-Stage MOS Op Amp
7.7.2
A Bipolar Op Amp
7.8 Spice Simulation Example
Revision 8.8 8.11
CHAPTER 9 OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER AND DATA-CONVERTOR CIRCUITS
9.1 Two-Stage CMOS Op-Amp
The Two-Stage CMOS Op Amp
Input Common-Mode Range and Output Swing
Voltage Gain
Frequency Response
Slew Rate (SR)
9.2 The Folded Cascode CMOS Op Amp?
9.2.1
The Circuit
9.2.2
Input Common-Mode Range and Output Voltage Swing
9.2.3
Voltage Gain
9.2.4
Frequency Respose
9.2.5
Slew Rate
9.2.6
Increasing the Input Common-Mode Range: Rail-to-Rail Input Operation
9.3 The 741 OP AMP Circuit?
9.3.1
Bias Circuit
9.3.2
Short-Circuit Protection Circuitry
9.3.3
The Input Stage
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
9.1.4
9.1.5

15

9.3.4
9.3.5
9.3.6

## The Second Stage

The Output Stage
Device Parameters
9.4 DC Analysis of 741?
9.4.1
Reference Bias Current
9.4.2
Input-Stage Bias
9.4.3
Input Bias and Offset Currents
9.4.4
Input Offset Voltage
9.4.5
Input Common-Mode Range
9.4.6
Second-Stage Bias
9.4.7
Output-Stage Bias
9.5 Small-Signal Analysis of 741?
9.5.1
The Input Stage
9.5.2
The Second Stage
9.5.3
The Output Stage
9.6
Gain, Frequency Response and Slew Rate of 741?
9.6.1
Small-Signal Gain
9.6.2
Frequency Response
9.6.3
A Simplified Model
9.6.4
Slew Rate
9.6.5
Relationship Between fT and SR
CHAPTER 12 FILTERS AND TUNED AMPLIFIERS
Or 9.7 9.9 Data Converters Ch: 12 RAM, ROM Logic Families
12.1

## 12.2The Filter Transfer Function

12.3Butterworth and Chebyshev Filters
12.4 First-Order and Second-Order Filter Functions
12.5The Second Order LCR Resonator
12.6
Second-Order Active Filter Based on Inductor Replacement
12.7 Second-Order Active Filter Based on the Two-Integrator-Loop Topology
12.8
10.1
10.2

16