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ABSTRACT:-A comparative study of the production, cost of production &

returns associated with soybean crop cultivation using traditional method


and Scientific method. Primary data was collected by actual cultivation of
soybean in controlled environment in 1 acre/each for traditional method and
scientific method at Dhondaygao village Taluka girnaray distric Nashik .
Descriptive statistics,
gross margin and production function were used in analyzing the data.
Introduction:- Recent food production research in many countries has
focused more on the use of land, labour, indigenous technology and
appropriate mechanism to improve crop yield and profitability to farmer.
technology is the systematic application of scientific knowledge for practical
purposes. It includes inventions, innovations, techniques, practices and
materials. The components of improved crop production technology high
yielding varieties, pesticides,
improved cultural practices and planning.
In view of this, successful transfer and adoption of new technologies in the
traditional farming system depend largely on prior identification of the
attributes of the system one is attempting to change. These technologies
should be acceptable to and adoptable by farmers so as to enable them
achieve higher productivity on the farms. The transformation of agriculture
from the use of traditional inputs (low productivity) to modern inputs (high
productivity) is
the most serious problem hindering agricultural production for small farmers,
due to which contribution of agriculture to the nations economy over the
years has continued to decline.
Traditional Agriculture:
Agriculture is the back bone of the Indian Economy.Agricultural development
is central to economic of the country.It is primary sector of economy. It
provides food to mankind andraw material to industry.
Traditional farming is a farming which is carried on with the factors of
production used for generations. The countries, dependent upon traditional
agriculture, are poor and these countries spend much of their income on
food.
traditional agriculture is primarily peasant farming characterised by back
word primitive
and labour intensive agriculture, with low productivity. These are generally
small sized farms and in the absence of alternative avenues of employment,
labour force employed per farm is much higher as compared to high income

countries. Resource allocation is perfect and rational in these developing


countries. The land and labour are the principal inputs of traditional
agriculture. Capital exists in traditional agriculture in the form of crude tools
and implements, bullocks etc. which have very low productivity. In short,
traditional agriculture tends to be characterised by low level of utilisation of
resources, low levels of productivity and relatively high levels of efficiency in
combining resources and enterprises. These three factors are interrelated.
Collectively they suggest little scope for rapidly increasing either total
production of productivity per unit of the resources within the context of a
traditional agriculture, but very great scope of increasing total production
and resource productivity through technological change.
Modern agriculture:- Traditional agriculture can be transformed in modern
agriculture by Using following factors
a. New factors of production.
b. Availability and price of non traditional (modern) agricultural inputs.
c. Modern material inputs.
d. Farm people with modern approach .
e. Investment in human capital.
For soybean differences in land are least important, as Soya bean can be
grown in almost all types of soil, differences in the quality of material capital
are of great importance and differences in the capabilities of farm people are
most important in explaining the differences in the amount and rate of
increase in farm production. modern agricultural inputs must be available at
reasonable rate. That will lead to investment in agricultural profitable.
Sampling Procedure:- . Primary data was collected by actual cultivation of
soybean in controlled environment in 1 acre/each for traditional method and
modern method at Dhondaygao village Taluka girnaray distric Nashik
METHODOLOGY:
Traditional :1.Field Preparation & Seed sowing:- The land should be prepared
thoroughly by ploughing and harrowing to a fine tilth. Care should be taken
to provide drains or a gentle slope for good drainage. It requires a good
seedbed with a reasonable fine texture and not too many clods. Land should

be well-levelled and be free from crop stubbles. One deep ploughing with
mould board plough followed by two harrowing or two ploughings with local
plough is sufficient. There should be optimum moisture in the field at the
time of sowing.
Spacing and method of showing:- Dropping seeds behind the plough is
a traditional method of sowing in or throwing the seed in the field.
Fertilizer Management:Modern :-

Seed Variety:1)
2)
3)
4)

JS-335
JS-9305
TMS-9805
TMS-9305

Germination Test:- Take 100 seeds which has to be sown put them in a wet
cloth for 24-48 hrs and see out of 100 how many seeds are germinated And
calculate the Percentage of germination of seeds .Germination test helps to
decide the quantity of the seeds to be sown per acre.
Sr.no
1.
2.
3.

Germination % of seeds
90
80
70

Quantity/acer
20
25
30

Field Preparation:-The land should be prepared thoroughly by ploughing


and harrowing to a fine tilt. Care should be taken to provide drains or a
gentle slope for good drainage. It requires a good seedbed with a reasonable
fine texture and not too many clods. Land should be well-levelled and be free
from crop stubbles. One deep ploughing with mould board plough followed
by two harrowing or two ploughings with local plough is sufficient.

Spacing and method of showing: sowing technique is used make 1.5ft


distance Column is made and in each Column at the distance of 6 inch a
soybean seed is sown. Due to the distance between seeds the crop got
enough sunlight and air which resulted into number branches and pods.
Cluster of pods was also larger than the traditional method.

Treatment of the seed :To reduce the fungal attack the seed should be
treated prior to sowing with fungicides like Thiram at the rate of 4.5g per Kg
of seed. For efficient biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen it is essential
that soybean seeds should be inoculated with suitable strain of Rhizobium
japonicum. Peat base Rhizobium culture is best for this purpose. This should
be used at the rate of 0.5kg per 70kg seed. Moist the seed with water and
mix the culture uniformly in shade just before sowing. Always use fresh
Rhizobium culture. In case of virgin field where soybean has not been growth
earlier the rate of culture should be five or ten times than the normal dose.
:Weed Control: Soybean is very sensitive to early weed competition. Weed Infestation in soybean field may
reduce yield by 40-45 per cent depending upon the intensity, nature, and the duration of weed competition. The
annual grasses, leaved weed are the major problems in soybean fields.
To avoid competition during the early growth stages, soybean field should be kept free of weed for the first 30-40
days after sowing. The weeds that emerge 30-40 days after sowing are smothered by the crop. Mechanical as well
as chemical methods are adopted for control of weeds in soybean field.The mechanical methods include use of
khurpi, spade hand hoe etc. Two manual weeding 20 and 40-45 days after sowing are generally sufficient for
control of weed. Manual weeding accomplished the job effectively, but it is a time consuming job and on a large
scale it becomes difficult to control the weed in time. Another problem is that during rainy season due to
continuous rains weed control operation is not completed at the right time. Under such circumstances use of
herbicides have been found very effective. Following herbicides can be used in soybean fields:
Pendimethalin: It is used as pre-emergence selective herbicide and is effective for controlling most of the annual
grasses and broad-leaved weed in soybean fields. The herbicide should be applied at the rate of 1.5Liter in 300-400
liter of water per acer before the emergence of weed and the crop. Sufficient moisture in the upper soil surface is
required for the activation of this herbicide.
The above mentioned herbicides have no residual toxicity. Spraying should be uniform and no area should be
repeated sprayed.

Fertilizers

:-

Urea
90kg super phosphate
15kgmurate of potash

Per acer
For obtaining good yields of soybean apply 15-20 tonnes of farms yard manure or compost per hectare. A good
crop of soybean yielding about 30 quintals per hectare will remove about 300 kg nitrogen per hectare from the soil.
But soybean being a legume crop has the ability to supply their own nitrogen needs provided they have been
inoculated and there is efficient nodulation in the plant. An applications of 20-30 kg nitrogen per hectare as a
starter dose will be sufficient to meet the nitrogen requirement of the crop in the initial stage in low fertility soils
having poor organic matter.
Soybean requires relatively large amounts of phosphorus than other crops. Phosphorus is taken up by soybean
plant throughout the growing season. The period of great demand starts just before the pods begin to form and
continues until about ten days before the seeds are fully developed. The soil should be tested for the availability
status of phosphorus. In the absence of soil test apply 70-80 kg P2O5 per hectare to meet the requirement of the
crop. With the application of phosphorus the number and density of nodules are stimulated and the bacteria
become more mobile.
Soybean also requires a relatively large amount of potassium than other crops. A crop of soybean yielding 30
quintals per hectare will remove about 100 kg potassium from the soil. The rate of potassium uptake climbs to a
peak during the period of rapid vegetative growth then slows down about the time the bean begins to form. Soil
test is the best guide for the application of potash in the soil. In the absence of soil test apply 50-60 kg KO per
hectare. The fertilizers should preferably be placed, at sowing time; about 5-7 centimeters away from the seed at a
depth of 5-7 centimeter from seed level.

Water management

Diseases control :-

Table-1: Costs and returns Associated with Improved and traditional Soybean
Farming