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The Forum for Cities in Transition would like to thank Kaduna State and His Excellency Governor Mukhtar

Ramalan Yero,
for hosting and funding the fourth annual Forum for Cities in Transition conference in Kaduna, Nigeria, 4-8 November 2013.
The FCT also thanks Bank of America and the American Ireland Fund for their generous support.
Special thanks to Pastor James Wuye and Imam Ashafa and members of the Kaduna Forum whose indefatigable efforts were
responsible for organizing the Kaduna Forum

http://citiesintransition.net/
Report prepared by the FCT Secretariat: Director, Padraig O’Malley, with Co-Secretariat Nancy Riordan (UMASS Boston), and
Allan Leonard (Northern Ireland Foundation). Special thanks to FCT facilitators Quintin Oliver (Stratagem, Northern Ireland) and
Emanuela Claudia Del Re (EPOS, Italy). FCT rapporteur Candyce Carragher (UMass Boston) and volunteers Brenda Maguire and
Tom Shortland (Northern Ireland).

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
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FCT 2013 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
CONFERENCE PHOTOS
KADUNA CITY PROFILE
FCT BACKGROUND
PROGRAM AGENDA
PANEL DISCUSSION HIGHLIGHTS

APPENDICES:
I. FCT 2013 Outcomes
II. Call to Action - Signatures

FCT 2013 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Kaduna FCT Participants Shehu Musa Yaradua Indoor Hall, Murtala Mohammed Square

“Kaduna State geographically has sometimes
occupied a position of volatility in the history of
ethno-religious tensions in Nigeria, which
includes the ethno-religious divide of the city.
This unfortunate development has far reaching
consequences to even the generation unborn. It
is against this background that we in Kaduna
State whole-heartedly embraced the hosting of
this conference, aimed at promoting peaceful
and harmonious co-existence through
exchanging ideas and promoting understanding,
with the ultimate aim of encouraging resolution
of conflicts through non-violent methods in
order to unify polarized cities in the world. The
activities of this conference are consistent with
our primary and fundamental responsibility,
which is the provision of security and welfare of
the people.”
─ His Excellency Governor Mukhtar Ramalan
Yero, Opening Ceremony 4/11/2013
The fourth annual gathering of the Forum for
Cities in Transition was held in Kaduna, Nigeria,
on the 4-8th of November 2013, hosted by the by
the Kaduna State Government, under the
stewardship of His Excellency Governor Mukhtar
Ramalan Yero, who welcomed delegates in the
opening ceremony in the Murtala Muhammed
Square. The Governor also attended several
conference sessions and participated in workshop
discussions.
Thirteen FCT member cities participated:
Baghdad, Belfast, Derry-Londonderry, Haifa,
Jerusalem, Kirkuk, Mitrovicë/Kosovska Mitrovica,

Mitte, Mostar, Ramallah, Sarajevo, Srebrenica
and Tripoli. Delegates included mayors,
councilors, municipal officers, and
representatives of the business, voluntary and
community sectors. This was the first ever
gathering with an international presence of this
size and scope in Kaduna’s history.
Seven Nigerian cities that experience the highest
level of Muslim-Christian violence also
participated: Maiduguri, Jos, Bauchi, Kano,
Ibadan and Warri. One of the most significant
outcomes of this year’s FCT annual gathering was
their pledge to launch a first ever peace hub in
Kaduna, which will serve to mediate tensions and
build peace among the diverse communities of
these northern Nigerian cities.
Also attending as observers were representatives
from four African countries: Rwanda, Ethiopia,
Kenya and Ghana.
Participants spent twelve-hour days in plenaries
and workshops, covering topics ranging from the
control of light arms and weapons in divided
societies; youth, social media and peacemaking;
reviving the economy and attracting tourism;
reducing religious radicalism; the role of women
in conflict transformation; and reconciliation
across religious and socio-political divides.
On the final day of the FCT gathering, participant
cities announced their collective and individual
projects that will serve to reduce violence,
promote peace and reconciliation, encourage
civic participation of all sectors of society, and

promote economic development and
regeneration. Over 30 pledges were made (see
separate Outcomes section below).
Delegates also spent an afternoon traveling north
to Zaria (Zazzau), Kaduna state, where they were
welcomed at the palace of the Emir of Zazzau,
Alhaji Shehu Idris. That evening all were treated
to a spectacular Gala Night, with traditional
music, signing and dance performances, as well
as the presentation of gifts from His Excellency
Governor Mukhtar Ramalan Yero.

The following event goals were met:

Empowered the city of Kaduna’s selfimage by showing its capacity of hosting
a major international event, putting aside
religious and ethnic divisions and partisan
politics.

Enlarged the network of connections
among FCT member cities.

Established first FCT regional hub:
Brought members from seven Nigerian
cities which experience the highest level
of Muslim-Christian violence: Maiduguri,
Jos, Bauchi, Kano, Ibadan and Warri; this
resulted in a pledge from the Kaduna
Forum for Cities in Transition to launch a
first-ever regional hub in Kaduna, which
will serve to build peace and
reconciliation among their ethnically
diverse communities.

Fostered frank discussions about
delicate/sensitive issues with peers from
other divided cities, including how the
obstacles to negotiation were overcome
and how communities now work to foster
reconciliation at the grass-roots and
political levels.

As at the Derry-Londonderry and Kirkuk
gatherings, there was a comprehensive
discussion of the Northern Ireland Peace
Process; this panel included
representatives from a broad range of
roles: Séan Farren (SDLP Negotiator),
Kathryn Stone (Commissioner for Victims
and Survivors for Northern Ireland), Rev.
Dr. Lesley Carroll (Consultative Group on
Dealing with the Past) and Jim Wells MLA
(Democratic Unionist (DUP) member of
the Northern Ireland Assembly); chaired
by Quintin Oliver (Stratagem Northern
Ireland).

Initiated discussion with Sarajevo,
Srebrenica and Mostar, to form a Balkan
FCT hub.

FCT 2013 Kaduna was not a conference per se
but a continuation of annual gatherings hosted in
Mitrovicë/Kosovska Mitrovica (2010), DerryLondonderry (2011), and Kirkuk (2012). The
linkages among FCT cities as they move from one
gathering to the next, along with an on-going
review of the implementation of its outcomes,
are the cornerstones of a functioning Forum.
The conference program was a mixture of panel
discussions with experts and practitioners; time
for delegates from FCT countries to intermix in
small groups and often on a one-on-one basis;
and workshops for delegates to discuss issues
raised with regard to Kaduna as well as their own
cities.
In addition to the international guests, panelists
and experts, local officials, NGO and CSO
representatives, there were approximately 200
observers from around Kaduna itself in the
audience every day. This was by far the largest
attendance of any FCT gathering to date.
Likewise, a select group of 50 local Kaduna
students/young leaders from all ethnic groups
volunteered for a range of tasks, including serving
as guides, personal assistants to participants, and
set up and breakdown of the conference venue.
The students in turn were able to learn firsthand
about the FCT, as well as converse and network
with their local leadership and the many
international participants.

Participant Post-Conference Survey
quotes:
“I’m able to look more objectively at our own
situation. It helps to be one step removed
from the pressure cooker that is our local
municipality.”
“Seeing Imam Ashafa and Pastor James
together, gathering so many people ... that
gave a clear message that things can be
achieved in peace.”
“For me, participating in the African gathering
of the FCT was a true privilege, as I found it a
very unique and profound exercise, from
which an immense variety of visible (and also
invisible but nevertheless substantial)
outcomes derive. I always have the feeling
that something has been achieved at the end
of the annual gatherings, which stays and
continues into the future in many different
ways.”
“The African context offered a cultural
differentiation of extraordinary character and
flavour; the induction of other Nigerian and
African cities was inspirational; the Pastor and
the Imam remain beacons of hope and
inspiration for a better world.”

“We [brought] Kaduna to worldwide news as a
city of peace, which managed to host such an
event, and future commitments ... will help in
the development of Kaduna.”
“Forum participants created a context for
representatives from Kaduna to implement
international ‘best practice’ in how to process
elements of peace building between
conflicting groups in a contested space.”

News Coverage
 http://www.globalpost.com/dispatches/globalpost
-blogs/groundtruth/nigeria-christian-muslim-bokoharam-peace
 http://www.globalpost.com/dispatches/globalpost
-blogs/groundtruth/surge-nigerias-communalviolence-punctuates-peace-conference
 http://www.tribune.com.ng/news2013/index.php
/en/features2/item/26856-kaduna,-bridging-thedivide-along-religious-lines.html

His Excellency Governor Mukhtar Ramalan Yero and FCT Director Professor Padraig O’Malley (middle),
with members of the newly formed Nigerian FCT Peace Hub to be housed in Kaduna

Kaduna Forum members:
Pastor James Wuye and Imam Ashafa

His Excellency Governor Mukhtar Ramalan Yero and
FCT Director Professor Padraig O’Malley

Quintin Oliver chairs panel discussion

Baghdad delegates: Nawal al-Araji and Taghreed al-Shammari

Mitrovica delegates:
Ardiana Osmani and Milos Gulobovic

Kaduna youth volunteers

Jerusalem and Haifa delegates: Fathi Marshood,
Khairyeh Khamra , Edna Zaretsky, and Dror Etkes

His Excellency Governor Mukhtar Ramalan Yero, Former
Derry~Londonderry Mayor, Gerard Diver and Kaduna Forum delegates

More photos at: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Forum-for-Cities-in-Transition/262401981078

KADUNA CITY PROFILE
Kaduna State especially its capital city, Kaduna
was the centre of the Northern Regional
Government from 1957-67. Later the state was
known as North Central State 1967-75. In 1976,
when the General Murtala Mohammed
Administration created seven new states in
Nigeria, North Central State, with the capital at
Kaduna, was renamed Kaduna State. It was made
up of the two colonial provinces of Zaria and
Katsina.
Kaduna State is one of the most densely
populated states in the Federation, with a
population of over 6 million (2006 census). There
are 23 local government areas (LGAs) in the state.
Some of the over 60 ethnic groups in the State
include Hausa, Gbagyi, Fulani, Bajju, Ham, Atyap,
Moroa, Ikulu, Akurmi, Gwong, Aegrok, Adara,
Chawai, Ninzo and Numana. Major languages
spoken in the State include Hausa, Fulani, Gbagyi,
Bajju, Atyap, Jaba, Koro, Kaninkon, Adara,
Chawai, Atakar, Gure, Ikulu, Kurama, Kagoma,
Kahugu, Kagoro, Maro’a, Numana, and
Gwandara. Like other parts of Nigeria, English is
spoken as the

official language, while Hausa is widely spoken
which makes it a lingua franca in the State.
The city of Kaduna has an estimated population
of 1.3 million people.
The city is unique for its rapid urbanization, which
has contributed to the diversity and integration
of residents that diverges from the typical
segregation between settler and indigenous
communities that is prevalent in other Nigerian
cities. Nonetheless, the city has been the site of
considerable religious tension between Muslims,
constituting roughly 60 percent of residents and
Christians, constituting roughly 40 percent.
The demographics of Kaduna reflect the broader
picture in Nigeria. Modern day Nigeria is the
product of the British unification of the majority
Muslim north and majority Christian south under
one administrative area in 1914. However, the
south had long benefited from disproportionate
educational and economic development and
opportunity. These imbalances continue to
influence current politics. Nigeria has attempted
to mitigate sectarian politics through multiple
processes of state formation, to give ethnic
groups more autonomy and to group states into
zones that allow the rotation of offices across the
spectrum of ethnic groups.

Economic Reform
The challenge faced by the current government is
to diversify its economy from its petroleum
industry (itself inefficient and mismanaged).

Technology and the Nigerian Military Training
College – the only Nigerian military institute that
trains officers in the Army, Air Force, and Navy.

Also, the economy operates within the context of
religious tensions as well as an uncertain political
future, with the approach of the 2015
presidential elections.

Sectarian Conflict

37% of Nigeria's population is employed in family
agriculture, compared to 22.1% in nonagricultural self-employment. The largely
subsistence agricultural sector, derailed by past
governments cutting subsidies, cannot support
the rapid population growth, which causes
Nigeria to import much of its food.
Food imports cost $11 billion a year,
approximately a third of the federal budget,
making Nigeria the world's second largest
importer of rice and biggest buyer of U.S. wheat.
Rice imports alone cost the country $7 million a
day.
In response to the unbalanced economy, the
government implemented the Babban Gona, or
"Great Farm," project in the northern Kaduna
State to grow the agricultural sector. With
agriculture as 40% GDP of the economy, Adesina
launched the farming initiative, giving 70%
subsidized fertilizer and seeds to farmers,
compared to 11% under corrupt previous
governments.
The government encourages foreign investors to
help rebuild the country's infrastructure,
receiving some assistance from the World Bank,
the United States, and independent contributors
like Aliko Dangote, the wealthiest man in Africa.
Investment in agriculture will not be a speedy
process, but it will assist the country's economy
by easing it away from dependence on petroleum
and food imports. Agriculture also cuts
unemployment, which fuels the Islamic
insurgency in the north and oil theft in the south.
Kaduna state is home of many important
institutes of higher education, including Kaduna
Polytechnic, Ahmadu Bello University, Kaduna
State University, and Nigerian College of Aviation

In 2000, the city of Kaduna made international
headlines when the state government announced
the proposed introduction of Sharia law, sparking
violent protests between Christians and Muslims
that left 2,000 dead, over 10,000 injured, and
approximately 60,000 displaced in clashes during
February and May of that year. Over 2,000
properties were destroyed, including 170
churches and mosques, and Kaduna city became
bitterly segregated between a Muslim north and
Christian south.
In 2002, Kaduna experienced another bout of
violence, in response to a controversial
newspaper article suggesting that the Prophet
Mohammed would have approved of the planned
Miss World pageant. During the three days of
attacks and reprisal killings that became known
as the “Miss World Riots”, 250 people were killed
and nearly 30,000 fled the city.
As a result of this violence, the Kaduna State
Governor Ahmed Makarfi instituted several
important reforms, known as the Kaduna
Compromise, which has provided a model for
other Nigerian states. Under these reforms, the
Sharia criminal code is applied only to Muslims,
and a tripartite court system of secular,
traditional, and Islamic courts offers judicial
access across the religious spectrum. In addition,
religious and traditional leaders still have
considerable influence in the community and
often assist in mediation efforts. The Kaduna
compromise further ensured that Christians have
state-recognized leaders among their
constituencies to support the facilitation of the
peaceful resolution of conflict.
Boko Haram Spark Violence
Since 2009, the greatest threat to peace in
Kaduna has been from the radical Islamist group
Boko Haram, which has targeted police stations
and other government buildings, churches and
schools, ostensibly in an attempt to trigger

clashes between Christians and Muslims. It has
been especially active around Kaduna and other
cities in North-Eastern Nigeria.
The group also elicited international attention in
2011 when it bombed the United Nations office
in Abuja. Subsequently, the group bombed
several cities across the country in its Christmas
Day attacks and in June bombed a church in
Kaduna, sparking weeks of clashes between
Muslims and Christians across the state.
The state did not fully relax its 24-hour curfew
until August 2012. Boko Haram has reportedly
killed thousands of people since it began its
nationwide insurgency in 2009.
Most recently, the Nigerian and Kaduna
government, as well as concerned regional and
national groups, have initiated peace talks with
certain sects of Boko Haram.

FCT BACKGROUND
In April 2009, five cities – Derry-Londonderry,
Belfast, Nicosia (Greek Cypriot and Turkish
Cypriot communities), Kirkuk and
Mitrovicë/Kosovska Mitrovica were invited to a
conference at the University of Massachusetts
Boston, hosted by the Moakley Chair of Peace
and Reconciliation Professor Padraig O’Malley.
The purpose of the conference was to have the
cities explore, after listening to the narratives of
each other’s conflict, whether they had sufficient
common attributes, experiences and collective
identification that they should form a
collaborative where they would share their
differences and similarities in a more formal and
on-going way, in the hope that learning from
each other would strengthen the social/political
fabric of their respective cities. They drew up a
founding document, “A Call to Action” and
became the founding cities of the Forum for
Cities in Transition. The first annual FCT gathering
was held in Mitrovicë/Kosovska Mitrovica, May
2010; the second in Derry-Londonderry, May
2011; the third in Kirkuk, Iraq October 2012; and
the fourth in Kaduna, Nigeria, November 2013.

That cities on the higher rungs of
transition can assist those on the lower
rungs, a process that is reciprocal
because in serving their sister cities,
those further along in transition are
sharply reminded of where they once
were, where they are now, and where
they hope to go in continuing their own
processes of transition and reconciliation;
no FCT city is labelled “post-conflict.”

That each of these societies is in a
different stage of transition to
“normalcy,” although it might be better
to think of them as societies in
“recovery,” because if they do not
continually address the causes of the
conflict, if the grievances of war remain
unaddressed or inadequately addressed,
if processes to nurture reconciliation are
not promoted (especially at the
community level), if disparities in wealth
and income continue to grow among
competing groups despite legislation
aimed at closing such gaps, if an agreed
history of the past cannot be reconciled,
if the root causes of what resulted in the
conflict cannot be acknowledged by all,
then the residual causes of conflict and
perceived grievances linger and fester,
risking slow accumulation to a critical
mass that sees the outbreak of conflict
again. Thus, there is a need to put in
place mechanisms that minimize this risk.

That people from divided societies share
behavioural, political, social, and
psychological traits, not seen in people in
more normal societies, traits that
predispose them to see things through a
prism that is different than the prism
through which you and I would perceive
the same events.

The Forum for Cities in Transition (FCT) is
premised on O’Malley’s thesis:

That people from divided societies are in
the best position to help people in other
divided societies. Former protagonists
are best equipped to share their difficult
journeys to abandon violence as the
instrument to achieve their political aims
and open the gateways to recovery,
reconstruction, and reconciliation.

That cities which are or were at the
epicenter of the conflicts in their
countries are in a special position to
assist each other because they are often
a micro-representation of their society’s
fault lines.

That securing the initially established
peace can be fostered by citizens of
divided cities working together.

PROGRAM AGENDA
(Every Panel Discussion was followed by a
Breakaway Session, where individual rapporteurs
reported back to the reassembled delegates
before the next Panel Discussion.)

DAY ONE: Monday, 4 November 2013
0900-1300: Opening Ceremony
His Excellency Governor Mukhtar Ramalan Yero,
local dignitaries and Professor Padraig O’Malley
deliver welcoming speeches to delegates in the
Murtala Muhammed Square.

1530-1630: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“Kaduna City: History, Culture, Challenges &
Prospects”
Chair: Haj. Bilikisu Yusuf (mni)
Panelists: Chairman, Kaduna North Local
Government Council; Chairman, Kaduna South
Local Government Council; Chairman, Igabi Local
Government Council; Chairman, Chikun Local
Government Council; Director, Arewa House
Center for Historical Documentation
1745-1845: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“How Peace was Negotiated in Northern
Ireland”

1045-1145: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“Reducing Religious Radicalism in Nigeria:
Interfaith Mediation Centre as a Model”
Chair: Dr Joseph Golwak (Director General,
Institute of Peace and Conflict Resolution, IPCR
Abuja)
Panelists: Pastor Dr James Wuye; Imam (Dr) M.N.
Ashafa; Permanent Secretaries Bureau for
Religious Affairs (Islamic & Christian Matters)
1445-1545: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“Mitrovica & Kaduna Cities Getting Youth
Engagement in the Peace & Reconciliation
Process”
Chair: Nancy Riordan (FCT Secretariat Boston)
Panelists: Ardiana Osmani and Milos Golubovic
(FCT Mitrovica/Kosovska Mitrovicë); Hayatu
Ashafa and Joan Wuye (FCT Kaduna)
1645-1745: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“The Role of Women in Bridge Building across
Segregated Communities”
Chair: Dr Lydia Umar
Panelists: Prof. Emanuela Del Re; Lesley Carroll;
FOMWAN; BAOBAB; WOWICAN; Minister of
Women Affairs & Social Development

DAY THREE: Wednesday, 6 November

Chair: Quintin Oliver (Stratagem Northern
Ireland). Panelists: Sean Farren; Kathryn
Stone (Commissioner, Commission for
Victims & Survivors); Jim Wells MLA

0830-0930: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“Divisions that Give Rise to Conflict: The African
Experience”

DAY TWO: Tuesday, 5 November

Chair: His Excellency, Ambassador of Rwanda to
Nigeria
Panelists: Kenya; Rwanda; Ethiopia; South Africa

0830-0930: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“Baghdad: Sectarian Violence & the Future of
Iraq”
Chair: Professor Padraig O’Malley
Panelists: Mohammed Al-Hanzah; Ali Al-Gburi;
Nadwal Al-Araji; Taghfeed Al-Shammari; Nazin
Razoky

1045-1145: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“KADCIMMA: Reviving the Economy and
Tourism Potential of a Divided City”
Chair: Alhaji Yahaya Aminu (Chief of Staff, Kaduna
State)
Presenter: Dr Alimi Bello (President KADCIMMA)
Panelists: KADCIMMA/LOC
1330-1430: Film Shows

1430-1530: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“Degraded Land & Human Security”
Chair: Prof. Abdulkadir Adamu (Department of
History, ABU Zaira)
Panelists: Hon. Commissioner, Ministry of
Agriculture; Hon. Commissioner, Ministry of
Environment; Executive Director, FORE; Pastoral
Resolves, Kaduna
1645-1745: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“Control of Small Arms & Light Weapons within
Divided Cities”
Chair: Commissioner of Police
Panelists: Barry Pollin (Police Service of Northern
Ireland); Toufic Allouche; GOC; DSS; Coordinator,
Operation Yaki
1900-2000: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“Kaduna Youth, Social Media and Peacemaking”
Chair: Professor Barnabas Williams Qurix (VC
KASU)
Panelists: Kaduna Youth Council; National Union
of Journalists, Kaduna Chapter); Kaduna Youth
Early Warning & Early Response Network

DAY FOUR: Thursday, 7 November
0830-0930: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“Insurgency and Ethno-Religious Conflict in
Nigeria”
Chair: Senator Ahmed M. Makarfi
Panelists: Dr Bashir Akanji; Alh Mustapha Kyari;
Dr Onuoha Austine; Barrister Timot; Dr Bakut T.
Bakut
1045-1400: HISTORICAL TOURS/LUNCH (LOC)
 Royal Palace of the Emir of Zazzau
 National Museum for Arts and Culture
1545-1645: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“From Belfast and Tripoli: The Challenge of
Bringing Healing and Reconciliation across
Religious and Socio-Political Divides”
Chair: Allan Leonard (FCT Secretariat)
Panelists: Toufic Allouche; Bilal Ayoubi; Laura
McNamee; Sean Brennan; Tim Attwood

1800-1900: PANEL DISCUSSION:
“The Role of Faith-Based Organisations in
Promoting Peaceful Co-Existence in Kaduna City”
Chair: Prof. Inuwa Dikko
Panelists: Darren Kew (UMass Boston); Imam
Ashafa and Pastor James (Interfaith Mediation
Centre); CAN; JNI; Women Interfaith Council
(WIC)

DAY FIVE: Friday, 8 November
0830-0930: REVIEW OF 2012 COMMITMENTS &
ANNOUNCEMENT OF 5TH ANNUAL FCT
CONFERENCE 2014
Chairs: Professor Padraig O’Malley (FCT Director);
Nancy Riordan (FCT Secretariat); Allan Leonard
(FCT Secretariat)
1015-1045: FCT Secretariat/FCT Cities Meeting
Chair: Professor Padraig O’Malley (FCT Director)
1045-1115: PRESS CONFERENCE on outcome of
FCT 2013 Conference Kaduna (Announcement of
Nigerian Forum for Cities in Transition)
1115-1145: OFFICIAL DECLARATION of FCT 2013
Conference Kaduna Close by His Excellency, The
Executive Governor of Kaduna State
1900-2100: Gala Night (The Banquet Hall,
General Hassan Usman, Katsina House, Kawo,
Kaduna)

PANEL DISCUSSION HIGHLIGHTS
“Kaduna City: History, Culture, Challenges and
Prospects”

“How Peace was Negotiated in Northern
Ireland”

The panelists described how throughout Nigeria’s
history, many people intermingled and its
composition was varied -- there are 250 different
ethnic groups in Nigeria. In the 1980s, dissension
emerged in parts of the state. The crises of 1992
and 2000 accelerated the segregation of Kaduna
city along ethno-religious lines. Segregated
neighbourhoods have become comfort zones.

In 30 years of violence in Northern Ireland, many
people were brutally killed. People were forced
to abandon their homes, churches were
destroyed, and economic life was seriously
disrupted.

As discussant chairman Haj. Bilikisu Yusuf
remarked:

A panelist described the current, improved
situation as one representative of an agreement
of peace -- or political non-violence -- but that
there remains much work to ensure there is no
regression.

“People [commute] from the south to work in the
north every morning ... Traffic always reminds me
that I live in a segregated city. You grow up here
in a cosmopolitan city, with an upbringing in
schools that are not segregated, and suddenly
you become segregated. Trust had been built
over centuries; so hard to build, but so easy to
tear down.”

Furthermore, it was argued that dealing with the
legacy of the past is necessary, in order to
become a more healthy (and reconciled) society.

Meanwhile, some local community leaders work
with youth and women, irrespective of religion or
ethnicity, who otherwise may be exploited by
politicians.

The political institutions of the Northern Ireland
government have three key aspects:

Key Issues:

Need for economic activities across the
social divide

Lack of basic amenities and infrastructure

Lack of institutional mediation; interfaith
mediation is insufficient; a Commission
should be created

Difficulty of collecting taxes, which would
enable the provision of better public
services

Northern Ireland has benefitted from the
transformation of its police service -- no longer a
‘police force’. The PSNI is a singular service,
composed of all sections of society.

1. Complete commitment to non-violence in
attainment of political objectives
2. Adhere to any future change to the
constitutional status of Northern Ireland
3. Both (British) unionist and (Irish)
nationalist sections of society will be
represented in the Northern Ireland
Government (Executive)
Key Issues:

Reconciliation -- how victims and
survivors can be included, not
marginalised

Prevalence of segregation in education
and residential living

Contentious nature of parading and
display of flags and other symbols of
cultural identity

“Baghdad: Sectarian Violence & the Future of
Iraq”

“Insurgency and Ethno-Religious Conflict in
Nigeria”

Unfortunately, the panellists made a point of
avoiding discussion of sectarian violence in Iraq.

The panelists identified several causes of the
conflict: economic, ethnic/tribal, religious, and
territorial.

While sectarian violence is rampant and has led
the country back towards civil war between the
Sunni minority and the Shia majority. President
Nouri Al Malaki has largely shut out Sunni
participation in governance while the country is
sucked into the neighboring Syrian war dividing
the country further between forces loyal to
Bashar Assad, moderate rebels and the growing
extremist Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).
Furthermore, since gathering in Kaduna the
forces of Al Qaeda have overtaken parts of the
Anbar Province, Fallujah and Ramadi.
“Restoration of Degraded Land and Human
Security”
Access to land is one of the most important
issues today. If people do not have access to land,
it can become a flashpoint and can lead to crises.
Chemicals, over farming, and the operation of
industry (oil) affect the quality of land and leads
to pollution, disease and other health issues.
There are territorial conflicts between crop
farmers versus cattle herders (when herders
encroach onto farms, and vice versa), requiring
the intervention of local community leaders.
Key Issues:

Non-implementation of the Land Use Act

Need to educate farmers on how to keep
soil productive (without fertiliser)

Use of firewood to clear land, as well as
invariable forest fires

Encroachment of desert; arable land
become more scarce

Over reliance on wood for fuel, with
subsequent deforestation

A brief history of Boko Horam was given, how it
began as a religious movement in 2003, seeking
the prohibition of Western education and the
implementation of Sharia Law. In addition to
military efforts to defeat the organisation, there
have been mainstream media commercials and
the distribution of printed flyers, showing the
dangers of Boko Horam’s methods.
An important point was made that violence has
affected both Christians and Muslims.
It was argued that the conflict is not a theological
one. Rather, other regional issues play a
significant role, e.g. high unemployment and
trade of arms in Chad, as well as the civil war in
Libya.
A panelist described how the Interfaith Mediation
Center has worked on an early-warning system,
to prevent smaller conflicts from escalating into
major ones. This was the result of organising
community dialogue among six municipalities in
Kaduna state, after the 2011 elections. Projects
include training on conflict resolution and the
development of self-initiated local projects.
Key Issues:

Lack of education and economic
opportunities

Guns and self-made weapons

Drug addition and substance abuse

Contested claims between (mainly
Muslim) Hausa and Yoruba groups
(indigenous/settlers), morphing into a
religious conflict

Inflammatory reporting by the media

“Mitrovica & Kaduna Cities Getting Youth
Engagement in the Peace & Reconciliation
Process”

Pastor James and Imam Ashafa outlined their 17
models of engagement in the interfaith peace
process:

The panelists reported on the inaugural Youth
Forum for Cities in Transition conference, an
offspring of the Forum for Cities in Transition
(FCT) 23rd-27th September, hosted in
Mitrovice/Kosovska Mirovica.

1. Interfaith-based Peace Education in
formal and informal institutions,
including integration in school curriculum

Over 50 youth delegates -- from Belfast, DerryLondonderry, Jerusalem, Kaduna, Kirkuk,
Ramallah, Tripoli and host city
Mitrovice/Kosovska Mitrovica -- shared and
explored how their local experiences resonate
with each other.

3. African Traditions Equality Dispute
Resolution Mechanism -- a form of selfcritical review

Through this engagement process, delegates
gained invaluable and practical knowledge, which
they will use to build sustainable cooperative
relationships within and across their communities
and cities.

5. Media Engagement

Delegates identified current challenges to
develop conflict transformation, and collectively
formed creative and practical solutions.

8. Town Hall Meetings, for the community
to come together to discuss issues

Key Issues:

Lack of education and economic
opportunities

Youth dialogue/engagement with city
officials and politicians

Requested continued support from FCT
members cities to help sustain and
develop the Youth FCT as part of their
outcome projects

“Reducing Religious Radicalism in Nigeria:
Interfaith Mediation Center as a Model”

2. Peer Mediation in colleges, to deal with
bullying, abuse, and religious conflict

4. Track II Diplomacy, as an alternative
means to build peace outside
government institutions

6. Interfaith Peace Clubs in schools, with
individual “Ambassadors of Peace”
7. Mediation Tents, among the trees and
under the trees

9. Peace Gates at flash points, as safe places
for the community to meet
10. Faith-based Technology, used at the
workplace
11. Early-Response Warning System, so any
sign of conflict can be reported
immediately
12. Peace Match, based on the UN interfaith
model
13. Policy Advocacy, especially in regards to
laws inherent to peace
14. Peace Declarations, where joint
statements are made by different groups
in the community, to affirm solidarity

The Interfaith Mediation Center (IMC) focuses its
efforts on preventing and de-radicalising young
people in Nigeria, including the application of
Holy Scriptures from both Islam and Christianity.

15. De-Programming / Re-Programming
militants/extremists

The IMC has received financial support from
NGOs as well as the Government, but is seeking
further public policy changes to be even more
effective.

17. Publications of peace resource materials

16. Documentary Films to highlight success
stories

“KADCIMMA: Reviving the Economy and
Tourism Potential of a Divided City”

“The Role of Women in Bridge-Building across
Segregated Communities”

The economy of Nigeria is reliant on the natural
resource of oil, while farming and the textile
industry have been traditionally important.
Sometimes the development of the oil industry is
detrimental to farming; one panelist argued for a
change in legislation towards non-oil production
economic opportunities.

A panelist remarked that both men and women
do not know what women have to do with
conflict resolution.

In this regard, the Nigeria Government is
developing policies on sustainable economic
development. Access to affordable commercial
finance is a major issue, and private investors are
used to set up factories and house building.
A panelist wasn’t certain whether Nigerians
understood the concept of social
entrepreneurship, but remarked that younger
people are very enterprising.
Key Issues:

Commercial bank lending rates of 20-25%
Interest

Travel visa, security and environmental
issues curtailing development of tourism

Need to empower women and youth, to
reduce unemployment

The panel acknowledged that women are half the
population of every society, and they must be
included; their expertise, experiences and
capacities add value to peace processes:
“Peace building is about relationships, and you
can’t build relationships by leaving out half of the
society.”
There is also the perspective of women as
mothers of children that join a conflict.
The panel concluded that it is not sufficient to
just say women and men need to work together
in peace building, but to actually been seen as
working together.
Key Issues:

Under-representation in government
bodies, e.g. only 2 out of 30 women on
local planning committees

Need to educate women about politics
and conflict, e.g. significance of UN
Security Council Resolution 1325

“Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons
within Divided Cities”
The perspectives of three FCT cities were
presented: Tripoli, Derry-Londonderry and
Kaduna.
Tripoli was described as a community divided by
the Alewite and Sunni (with the former
supported by Hezbollah). Any firearms are illegal
without a permit, and it was claimed that the
distribution of permits is not transparent.
A panelist explained how some militia leaders
and sheiks (using their religious titles) arm
children and get them to use them against each
other:
“We try to open their eyes ... They think the
other kids are the enemy, but if they get together
they might see that they are not so different.”

In Kaduna, it is illegal to bear arms unless you
have a license, which is difficult to obtain (and is
primary for gaming purposes).
Arms proliferation in Nigeria accelerated with the
civil conflict -- more firearms became more
accessible to the wrong people. The Government
has attempted to deal with this through
individual arrest and prosecution, but if there is a
suspicion of a large amount of firearms, then
there are neighbourhood search and destroy
operations. There have also been amnesty
programmes, where surrendered firearms are
destroyed with compensation.
The way forward is by being proactive, the
panelist said, to nip in the bud the menace of
small arms and non-state actors. This will be
achieved through the police partnering with the
community, as a joint responsibility:
“Security is everybody’s business.”

His organisation has been trying to provide
alternatives for these youth for the past three
years.
Another panelist explained the situation of
firearms in Derry-Londonderry, from a policing
perspective.
Globally, he said that there are about 875 million
items in circulation that can cause catastrophic
human damage; the majority of these are in the
possession of (non-state) individuals.
He also stated that over 1,000 companies in 100
countries produce 8 million small firearms every
year.
Based on a fact that where a population trusts
the government, the need to self-arm diminishes,
he argued that there should be an obligation for
states to provide security as a core responsibility.
Yet where citizens do not feel safe, then projects
that attempt to bring in illegal weapons will not
work; he cited his experience in Kosovo.
Relatedly, where a police service is in harmony
with society, there is a baseline that better
enables individual police officers to use less than
lethal options, in order to more quickly reduce
tensions and resolve conflict.

Key Issues:

The transfer of firearms from
paramilitary organisations to criminals

The fashion by wealthier nations to have
the latest weapons -- an arms race at
every level

Need for leadership within policing, to
encourage development of community
cooperation

Ensure a police service that is not biased
or corrupted by any political party or
section of society; have best practices of
hiring and firing police officers and
managers

Creating a means to exchange facts and
knowledge in regards to the international
exchange of firearms

“Kaduna Youth, Social Media and Peacemaking”
Social media has taken firm root in Kaduna’s
youth and communities.
The lead panelist defined three categories of
young people in Kaduna city:
1. Youths that are unemployed and
unemployable
2. Employable but are not employed

“Presentation from Belfast and Tripoli: The
Challenge of Bringing Healing and Reconciliation
across Religious and Socio-Political Divides”
Identity plays a major role in Belfast and the rest
of Northern Ireland. One panelist described how
the punk music genre provides a sufficient
distraction for some young people, transcending
the ethno-national divide. Meanwhile, there is
the long-running joke of any Jew/atheist/Chinese
getting asked, “But are you a Protestant or
Catholic Jew/atheist/Chinese?”

3. Employable and employed
He argued that the leaders of the third category
should be used to engage and develop young
people of the second category.
(Whether any young person should be described
as “unemployable” was debated in the
subsequent roundtable discussion.)
This panelist also highlighted the role of youth
access to the Internet and social media.
Positively, this has increased their awareness of
events; negatively, at times of a disaster some
will take images with their phones instead of
trying to assist.

Both Belfast panelists discussed the shortcomings
of dealing with the past and addressing the needs
of victims and survivors:
“The victims want peace and reconciliation, but
politics gets in the way.”
“We had a dirty war, and we’ll have a dirty peace
if we don’t deal with the truth; all sides have to
tell the truth between ex-combatants and
politicians.”

His Excellency Governor Mukhtar Ramalan Yero
was praised for his encouragement of young
people to work for peace.

The positive contribution to municipal policy by
the Good Relations Partnership in Belfast City
Council was explained. This partnership is made
up of half elected representatives (councillors
across the broad spectrum of political parties)
and half of individuals from voluntary and
community organisations.

Key Issues:

Key Issues (Belfast):

Using new technologies (mobile
phones/Internet/social media) in
constructive ways
Educating young people of basic
journalism standards

Repainting paramilitary murals with more
positive messages (Re-Imaging Project)

Encouraging young people to stay in
school and achieve qualifications

Developing integrated education
(currently 8% enrolment)

Desegregating public housing estates

Removing interface barriers (“peace
walls”), over 50 in Belfast.

Tripoli: In the neighbourhood Bab al-Tabbaneh
(mainly Alewite), in Tripoli, most children drop
out of school at age 12; one school has a 0%
graduation rate. Furthermore, there is 85%
unemployment and a complete lack of operating
businesses.
There are hundreds of churches and mosques,
but no basketball courts or other common spaces
(arguing that some religious leaders prefer this,
for greater social control).
He spoke positively about the Mediation and
Advocacy Project, which includes campaign
training. Specifically, 100 people across the city’s
four zones will receive 16 hours of mediation
training; 30 of them will proceed to advanced
mediation training, with 6 further advancing to a
professional qualification.
Another initiative is “The Coalition”, which is a
strategic network of NGOs in Tripoli, and serves
as a platform for coordinated activities. For
example, after recent explosions in the city, they
started a campaign to rehabilitate 200 shops,
working with the Office of Transitional
Assistance. They achieved a 99% success rate,
with shop owners telling them that otherwise
they would have never re-opened but gone
bankrupt.
They were also successful in using hip-hop music
to mobilise young people, who created a music
video.
During summer 2013, they were able to offer
help to 100 young pupils, with 40 succeeding in
their exams:
“Next year we will do 1,000 kids.”

A theme that resonates with The Coalition is, “My
voice is staying and the sound of your guns is
going”.
Key Issues (Tripoli):

School attendance and achievement

High unemployment and lack of
economic opportunities

Blaming the poor for social problems

Corruption among politicians and power
exerted by local gangs

APPENDICES
OUTCOMES
The Forum for Cities in Transition is explicitly
grounded in there being tangible outcomes at the
close of each conference, a commitment made by
each city to carrying out a project that will further
transition, reconciliation, and development in its
own city and/or to help one of its sister cities
where its expertise in a particular area can be of
significant benefit. Commitments are designed so
that cities on the higher rungs of transition assist
those on the lower rungs. They are embodied in
the principle that divided cities collectively can do
together what they cannot do separately.
The process is reciprocal because in serving their
sister cities, those further along in transition are
sharply reminded of where they once were,
where they are now, and where they hope to go
in continuing their own processes of transition
and reconciliation.
In accordance with the mission statement of the
FCT, the emphasis is the realization of practical
outcomes that would assist participating cities
improve the daily lives of their citizens, and
enhance engagement between officials, NGOs,
and residents.
As a result of the extensive one to one
networking, bilateral and multilateral
deliberations that took place among city
delegations in Kaduna, both in formal and
informal sessions, the following projects were
pledged as the outcomes of the 2013 Forum for
Cities in Transition gathering:
NEW FCT MEMBERS: Nigerian cities to join the
Forum for Cities in Transition and to form a
Nigerian Forum, headquartered in Kaduna:





Bauchi (Bauchi State)
Ibadan (Oyo State)
Jos (Planteau State)
Kano (Kano State)
Maiduguri (Borno State)
Warri (Delta State)

Kaduna:
Begin work on establishing a regional forum for
FCT in Nigeria and Africa
Kirkuk:

Baghdad:
 Investors in agriculture to visit Nigeria
and share best practice
 Delegates from other cities and governor
of Kaduna invited to visit Baghdad



General pledge to work together to
promote values of co-operation
Continue to support the ongoing
construction of the hospital
Support children, women and people in
need
Support education

Belfast:

Develop a twinning with Kirkuk and
Tripoli focusing on women and youth
Develop a peace and reconciliation
conference with Queens University in
2015
TEDx in Stormont video link to enable
cities to participate and share ideas (16
April 2014)
Host 2014 FCT – aiming for a dynamic,
interactive conference focusing on
sharing successes, challenges and ideas
which can be shared and implemented in
each of the cities

Derry-Londonderry:
 Invitation to Mitrovica youth to join the
youth football tournament (Foyle Cup)
 Mediation, Peace and Reconciliation
Group to share mediation training
programs with Tripoli
 Governor accepted invitation to visit
Derry Londonderry
 Youth bank connection to Kaduna via St.
Columbs Park (Brian Dougherty)
Haifa:

Invitation to a group of women from
Kaduna to Haifa to have a seminar in
Haifa to build understanding and enable
empowerment – 2 week knowledge
exchange proposed
Exchange project with Israeli experts
(Kaduna to Haifa / Haifa to Kaduna) to
share agricultural best practice

Jerusalem:
 Work across Muslim and Christian divides
 Pledged commitment to values,
principles and values of FCT

Mitrovica:
 Support next youth conference, providing
advice, support and guidance based on
their experiences this year
 Also support the youth delegates to
implement and fulfil their commitments
 Send youth football team to youth
football tournament (Foyle Cup) in Derry
Londonderry
 Mitrovica Rock School plan to visit Tripoli
as part of the outcomes from FCT Youth
Conference
 Proposed Jerusalem / Haifa / Palestine /
Mitrovica youth exchange
Mitte:

School to bring pupils from DerryLondonderry and Cyprus to Mitte to
begin to understand the different
cultures, a 1 week radio workshop
(“crossing barriers and understanding
each other”) is suggested as part of this
exchange
Support a training workshop on
Procurement – this would be open to
delegates from any cities who wish to
participate, develop skills to counteract
corruption

Mostar:
 Exchange with Mitte on women’s
projects
 Develop a forum on women in the post
conflict environment with Srebrenica and
Sarajevo
Ramallah:
 Microfinance knowledge exchange to
share experiences about soft loans, share
with Baghdad
 Summer camp – targeted youth program

Sarajevo:
 Support peace and reconciliation work,
support youth work in Balkans
 Aim to host youth forum in Balkans
region in the next few years
Srebrenica:
 Support ideas and initiatives and
collaborate with Sarajevo and Mostar

implementation but ultimately, responsibility for
and action towards project implementation
belongs to the cities themselves.
In accordance with the mission statement of the
FCT, the emphasis of the Kaduna 2103 gathering
was on the realization of practical outcomes that
would assist Kaduna and the participating cities
improve the daily lives of their citizens, and
enhance engagement between officials, NGOs,
and residents.

Tripoli:





Continuation of ongoing activities
relating to non-violence campaign
Mediation commitment, “Mercy Corps,”
support for developing advocacy skills
Continuation of Hip-Hop revolution
through Coalition against violence “Cross
Arts project”
Kaduna twinning to work together on
women’s projects
Provide youth group attendees to future
youth conferences
Ramallah / Mitrovica / Tripoli youth
exchange
1000 students to participate in remedial
learning projects

FCT Secretariat:
 Assist the Kaduna Forum in establishing
the Nigeria FCT regional peace hub in
Kaduna
 Work with FCT cities to provide a rich
information source for global
peacemakers, via FCT website and social
media channels
 Identify and share appropriate contacts
for the purpose of economic
development in all FCT cities
 Provide printed and other material to
members for fundraising on behalf of the
Forum for Cities in Transition

The effectiveness of the FCT depends on the
above outcomes being translated into action. The
FCT Secretariat will monitor outcome pledges and
follow up on every outcome agreed to ensure

Each year the Forum for Cities in Transition (FCT)
participants are reminded that the FCT only
works if those attending carry out the
commitments they made at the close of the
previous year’s gathering. Each gathering is a
continuation of the work of the previous year. At
the end of the Kaduna 2013 gathering each city
once again committed itself at the final plenary
session to implement a project(s) before the
2014 Belfast gathering.
In this sense, the Kaduna gathering was not a
conference per se but a continuation of the
proceedings that began in Mitrovicë/Kosovska
Mitrovica in May 2010, again in DerryLondonderry in 2011, Kirkuk 2012 and
demonstrates a commitment to work together
in the interim when they reconvene in Belfast,
Northern Ireland in 2014.
The Forum for Cities in Transition (FCT) is
explicitly grounded in there being tangible
outcomes at the close of each gathering, a
commitment made by each city to carry out a
project that will further transition,
reconciliation, and development in its own city
and/or to help one of its sister cities where its
expertise in a particular area can be of
significant benefit. Commitments are designed
so that cities on the higher rungs of transition
assist those on the lower rungs. They are
embodied in the principle that divided cities
collectively can do together what they cannot do
separately.

CALL TO ACTION
The Forum for Cities in Transition -- whose members comprise four cities (Derry-Londonderry, Kirkuk,
Mitrovice/Kosovska Mitrovca, and Nicosia) -- meeting in Boston, April 14-16, 2009, affirmed its
commitment to promoting understanding between member cities with the aim of encouraging mutual
learning, dialogue, and the resolution of conflict through non-violent methods.
Even though we face different problems, challenges, and contexts, cities in transition can both learn
from, and offer lessons to, each other. We believe that this learning should be shared, so that cities in
transition can use resources and knowledge of others to address these challenges.
People from societies in transition are in the best position to help people in other societies in transition.
Basic Principles
The Forum identified basic principles upon which such positive outcomes can be achieved. We call on
leaders to uphold and apply these principles in policymaking and service delivery, and to measure
progress against them:
1. Respect for the dignity of every individual
2. Respect for the value of leadership in building trust and confidence across and within
communities
3. Respect for human rights, equality, fairness, and adherence to the rule of law, including fair
treatment of minorities
4. Respect for the value of dialogue between conflicting parties, according to context
Agreement
The participating cities affirmed:
1. That city-to-city workshops of this sort are effective, productive, and valuable
2. That learning from each other’s successes and challenges is immensely empowering
3. That some external actors can act as an obstacle and a barrier to promoting joint working
and problem solving
4. That they create a Forum for Cities in Transition, with those present becoming founding
members
5. That the Forum’s purpose shall be to address common problems through expanding the pool
of knowledge from which to draw practical lessons
6. To develop and maintain an active network of individuals and cities present for mutual
benefit
7. To deepen and broaden the network by taking ownership of the Forum’s future, the
individual signing here agree to take steps to explore how each of the cities involved can
plan to host future Forum annual events in their own territories, in conjunction with civil
society and educational institutions
8. That the Secretariat for the Forum shall initially be provided by the Moakley Chair and the
Northern Ireland Foundation

The following delegates of the FCT 2013 annual gathering signed the Call to Action pledge; a full list
of signatories since 2009 is available at http://citiesintransition.net

FCTCaIItoActlOn

KIrkuk 2012

Tripoli

MohamadChamseen

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