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1.

Circulatory System (The Heart)


a. The function of the circulatory system is distribute nutrients, dispose of metabolic
waste into the excretory system, distribute oxygen to the tissues and transport
carbon dioxide to the lungs.
b. Arteries carry blood away the heart while veins carry blood to the heart. Blood
pressure decreases as blood is carried to the capillaries.
c. Right side of the heart delivers blood to the lungs. Left side of the heart delivers
blood to the rest of the body
d. Diastolic= Atrium contracting while ventricle is relaxing. Systolic=Atrium is
relaxing while ventricle is contracting.
e. Cardiac output=stroke volume*heart beat
f. Two mechanism to increase cardiac output
i. Obviously increases heartbeat.
ii. Another mechanism is the Frank-Starling mechanism, increasing the
amount of blood returning to the heart. There is two ways to do this.
1. Increase the total volume of blood in the circulatory system by
retaining more water urinating less.
2. Contraction of the large veins.
g. Vasodilation increases blood flow through tissues and increases cardiac output.
On the other hand, vasoconstriction decreases blood flow through tissues and
decrease caridiac output. Vasoconstriction=retaining body heat.
Vasodilation=releasing body heat.
h. Cardiac muscles are functional syncytium because the cells cytoplasm can
communicate via gap junctions. Atrium and ventricle are separated. The only way
they can communicate is by the cardiac conduction system.
i. Action potential of the cardiac cycle (pacemaker) starts because of sinoatrial
(SA) node. In Phase 4, depolarization is caused by Na+ leak channels. Then
phase 0, action potential is caused by Ca2+. Finally phase 3 happens as Ca2+
channels close and K+ channels open.
j. Other muscle cells have a different action potential.
k. First, phase 0 has Na+ rushing into the cell.
l. Then in phase 1, Na+ channels inactivate and K+ channels open.
m. Then phase 2 happens and causes a plateau because an influx of Ca2+ will
counterbalance the efflux of K+.
n. In phase 3, Ca2+ channels close and K+ channels leave the cell.
o. Finally phase 4 happens. cell goes back to resting potential dictated by the
Na+/K+ Apase and the K+ leak channels
p. SA node AV node instantaneously immpulse is delayed and passes to the
AV bundle Then to the Purkinje fibers (this contracts first in the ventricle)
q. Vagus nerve innervate the SA node which releases ACh to inhibit depolarization.
Repeated action of the vagus nerve is known as vagal tone.
r. Parasympathetic system controls the heart by inhibit rapid automaticity (vagus
nerve). Sympathetic system increases cardiac output by releasing epinephrine.
s. Baroceptors monitors the heart.
t. P=Q*R P= pressure gradient. Q is the blood flow. R is resistance.
u. We can increase pressure by increasing contraction to increase blood flow.

v. For resistance, remember R=P/Q, which is peripheral resistance. We can


increase it in the arteriolar smooth muscle called, precapillary sphincters.
Increasing resistance constantly is called adrenergic tone.
w. Systolic pressure is recorded when the ventricle contracts. Diastolic pressure is
recorded during diastole (when the atrium contracts).
x. Local autoregulation help with the blood flow. For example, if metabolic waste
builds up in tissues, the smooth muscle of the heart will dilate and blood will flow
to that area to collect the metabolic wastes.
2. The Circulatory System (The Blood)
a. Blood contains plasma (filled with water). 55% of plasma.
b. Buffers reaction CO2+H2O<>H2CO3<>HCO3- + H+
c. Blood proteins, mostly made from liver, are albumin (maintains osmotic
pressure), immunoglobulins (important for immune system), fibrinogen (essential
for blood clotting), and lipoproteins (important for carrying lipids).
d. Erythropoietin, made in the kidneys, stimulates RBC production in the bone
marrow. Aged RBCs are eaten by phagocytes in spleen and liver. RBC makes
ATP from glycolysis.
e. Type AB blood do not form any antibodies for A or B type surface proteins. Thus
it can accept any blood type. On the other hand, Type O blood will form
antibodies since it doesnt have any surface proteins.
f. Platelets help aggregate at the damaged blood vessel wall to form a platelet
plug. Then fibrin holds the platelet plug together. (Fibrinogen is converted into
fibrin by thrombin). Blood clot is a scab circulating in the blood to prevent
excessive bleeding in blood vessels. Calcium is required to activate thrombin and
fibrinogen. Also some proteins require vitamin K.
g. Oxygen binds to RBCs because they have heme. Hemoglobin binds to oxygen
cooperatively because hemoglobins affinity increases as more oxygen binds to
it.
i. Factors that stabilizes the tense hemoglobin and reduces oxygen affinity
are: decreased pH, increased level of CO2 in blood, and increased
temperature (metabolic activity increased). Known as the Bohr Effect.
Allows RBCs to know when to unload oxygen. Graph should have
sigmoidal shape.
h. CO2 is transported 3 ways: CO2 is converted into carbonic acid by carbonic
anhydrase. (very soluble in blood), CO2 binds to hemoglobin, and Co2 is more
water soluble than O2 so some can be soluble in the blood.
i. Capillaries have intercellular clefts that allow nutrients, wastes, and WBCs to
pass through.
j. Fat is packed into chylomicrons in blood vessels.
k. Liver converts metabolic wastes into bile so it can be excreted.
l. Inflammation=capillaries dilateWhite blood cells into tissues, plasma proteins
and water into tissuesedema, which is swelling.
3. The Lymphatic System
a. Lymphatic system acts as a suction pump to retrieve water, proteins, and white
blood cells from tissues. Fluid is called lymph and lymph nodes filter the lymph by
the immune systems white blood cells.
4. The Immune System

a. Innate immunity
i. Skin prevents entry of microorganisms.
ii. Tears, saliva, and blood contains lysozyme that kills bacteria.
iii. Macrophages and neutrophils destroy microorganisms.
iv. Complement system is a group of 20 blood proteins that bind to surface
of foreign cells leading to their destruction.
b. Humoral Immunity
i. Antibodies specially recognize and bind to microorganisms. It binds to
antigens. Depends on the 3-D shape of the protein.
ii. Binding of antibody to antigen can inactivate the antigen, can induce
phagocytosis, and can activate the complement system.
iii. B-cells recognize the antigenplasma cells actively produce and secrete
antibody proteins into the plasma. (Primary immune response) Memory
cells becomes dormant and will reappear if antigen starts showing up
again. (Secondary immune response)
c. Cell-Mediated Immunity and the T-Cell
i. T-helper cells activate B cells, T killer cells, and other cells. It also release
two special hormones called lymphokines and interleukins.
ii. T-killer cells destroy virus-infected host cells, cancer cells, and foreign
cells.
iii. Thymus destroys the self-specific T cells. T cells proliferate after if
stimulated by antigen.
iv. All of our cells have MHC proteins (Their role is to pick up peptides from
inside of cell and display on cell surface) on their surfaces Killer T cells
can activate if a virus protein is displayed for MHC 1.
v. For MHC 2, cells display fragment of antigen after destroying itT helper
cells will bind to it and activate B cells.
d. Other Tissues involved in the Immune Response
i. Spleen filters the blood and destroys aged RBCs.
ii. Thymus is the site for maturation of T cells.
iii. Tonsils and appendix catch patogens.