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EXPERIMENT 1

TENSILE TEST

1.0

Objective

i.

ii.

iii.

2.0

behave under uniaxial tensile loading.

To determine the stress-strain relationship and compare mechanical/material

properties of various materials and cross section.

To obtain the mechanical properties: the modulus of elasticity, the yield stress, the

ultimate stress, the fracture stress and the ductility ratio.

Introduction

The tensile test is the most commonly performed and is the simplest among of all the

mechanical tests. In this experiment, a specimen is subjected to a gradually increasing uniaxial

load until failure occurs. The typical testing procedure is to deform or stretch the material at a

constant speed. A circular and rectangular cross section will be use as tested specimen which is

made of steel and copper or aluminum. The load-deformation data is recorded during the

experiment so this data can be plotted once the procedure is complete. The student will learn

how to properly conduct a tensile test and obtain the relevant material properties from the

results. Further, the student will discover how different materials as well as different cross

section behave under similar loading conditions.

3.0

Background

materials (i.e: modulus of elasticity, Poisson`s ratio, ultimate strength, yield strength, fracture

strength, resilience, toughness, % reduction in area, and % elongation) as well as in developing

new materials and in controlling the quality of materials for use in design and construction.

Most of these engineering values are found by graphing the stress and strain values from testing.

A number of experimental techniques are developed for mechanical testing of engineering

materials subjected to tension, compression, bending and torsion loading.

Ductile materials will neck down through the plastic range before rupture (Figure 1a). Brittle

materials do not neck down significantly (Figure 1b). Instead they fail sharply and abruptly at

the maximum load because brittle materials do not exhibit much plasticity.

5

When a specimen is loaded so that the resultant force passes through the centroid of the

specimen cross section, the loading is called as axial and can be either tensile or compressive.

The test measures force and change of length of the specimen which are used to calculate

nominal stress and nominal strain. The term nominal (or engineering) is used to indicate that

the stress is based on the original test specimen cross section area and the strain is based on the

original gage length as shown in Figure 4. Stress is a measure of the intensity of an internal

force. Stress is defined as the force P per unit area A:

Stress, =

P

(SI unit; N/m2)

A

Strain is a measure of the deformation that has occurred in a material. In the case where the

magnitude of deformation is the same over the entire length of a body, strain is defined as:

Strain, =

where:

L f Lo

Lo

(m/m-i.e. dimensionless)

L f = final length

A typical stress-strain diagram from a tensile test for structural steel is shown in Figure 2. The

particular properties are designated on the Figure 2 and are described as below:

1. Young`s Modulus (Modulus of elasticity), E

Young`s Modulus is the ratio of stress to strain for the initial straight line portion of the stressstrain curve (slope of the straight line). Determined by:

p

p

where:

2. Proportional limit

Proportional limit is the value of engineering stress (the load is divided by the initial crosssectional area) at the point where the straight-line portion of the stress-strain curves ends.

3. Yield point

Yield point is a point on the stress-strain curve, after which there is a significant increase in

strain with little or no increase in stress. The corresponding stress is called the Yield

strength/Stress of the material. For materials that do not possess well-defined yield point, offset

method is used to determine it.

4. Elastic limit

Elastic limit is the value of stress on the stress-strain curve after which the material deforms

plastically (maximum stress for which stress will be directly proportional to strain).

5. Ultimate strength

Ultimate strength is the highest value of apparent stress on the stress-strain curve. It is also

known as the tensile (or compressive) strength.

6. Fracture strength

Fracture strength is the value of stress at the point of final fracture on the stress-strain curve.

7. Percent elongation

Percent elongation is the measure of the deformation at the point of final fracture. Determined

by:

%elongation =

L f Lo

Lo

x100

Percent reduction of area is the measure of the fracture ductility. Determined by:

% RA =

where;

Ao A f

Ao

x100

A 0 = the initial cross-sectional area

9. Ductility

Ductility is the characteristic of a material where the material can undergo large plastic

deformations before fracture, especially in tension. Ductility of materials is measured by

ductility ratio;

ductility, =

where;

u

y

y = the yield strain

4.0

Apparatus

Universal testing machine, vernier caliper, steel ruler, two or three test specimens (steel,

aluminum and brass)

LO

Lf

5.0

Brief Procedure

1.

Measure the dimensions of the each test specimen before and after test and fill in the

table 1. Mark the gauge length on the test specimen.

Switch on the machine.

Mount the test specimen in the grips of the machine.

Apply and record load and the corresponding deformation

Repeat steps (1) to (4) for various type of the test specimen.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Note:

Important!! Step by step procedure to run the machine and experiments should be followed the

instructions as stated on the machine.

6.0

Result

1.

2.

6.

The experimental data should be filled or can be printed from the machine.

Complete the tables as provided in the worksheet by using the appropriate equations

and experimental data. Find the reference values for the tested material of the specimen.

Plot the graph of load versus deformation and stress versus strain with suitable scales

for each tested specimen. (Stress on Y axis and Strain on X axis). Mark and label the

elastic limit, upper yield point, lower yield point, yield stress, ultimate stress and

fracture stress on curve.

Plot 0.2% offset line on the graph so that 0.2% offset yield stress can be determined.

Calculate the slope of the graph on the elastic limit region which is Modulus of

Elasticity.

Sketch the final condition of the specimen and showing the location of failure.

7.0

Discussion

1.

Compare and discuss the results in table 4 to reference values and comment on the

possible reasons for discrepancies obtained for a tested specimen.

Compare and discuss the similarities and differences in mechanical/material properties

for the materials tested.

Distinguish between yield point and yield strength on a stress-strain curve. Which gives

the more accurate indication of a material`s fitness for a particular tensile application?

Distinguish between the proportional limit and the elastic limit for each material. Which

is the more important indicator of a material`s mechanical behaviour?

What are the advantages of stress-strain diagram over a load-deformation diagram for

showing the results of a test?

3.

4.

5.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Table 1: Dimension of the appropriate tested specimen

Material: Steel/copper/aluminum

Initial (unit: mm)

Material

AO

LO

dO

bO

(mm2)

Steel

hO

Type: rectangular/round

Final (unit: mm)

Af

Lf

df

bf

(mm2)

Copper

Aluminum

d = diameter; b = width; h = height(thickness); L = length; A = area

No

Force (N)

Elongation (mm)

10

Stress (Pa)

Strain

hf

Table 3: Determine the following observation load for the tested specimen

Material

Load at Elastic

Limit (N)

Load at Upper

Yield Point (N)

Load at Lower

Yield Point (N)

Ultimate

Load (N)

Breaking Load

(N)

Steel

Copper

Aluminum

Material

Proportional

Limit Stress

(Pa)

Nominal

Fracture Stress

(Pa)

Actual

Fracture Stress

(Pa)

%

Reduction

in Area

Strain

%

Elongati

on

Ductility

Steel

Copper

Aluminum

Material

Steel

Properties

Modulus of Elasticity

(Pa)

Stress (Pa)

Yield Stress

(Pa)

Experimental

Reference

% Difference

Copper

Experimental

Reference

% Difference

Aluminum

Experimental

Reference

% Difference

Note:

Yield stress = Yield load@Upper yield load / initial cross-sectional area

Ultimate stress = Ultimate load / initial cross-sectional area

Nominal fracture stress = Breaking load / initial cross-sectional area

Actual fracture stress = Breaking load / final cross-sectional area

11

Ultimate Stress

(Pa)

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