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# MATHEMATICS FORMULAS

EXPONENTS

rth

-n

a, p,

things alike

v-I

X '"11

)= X

(X

n things , rat a time

-term = r1Cm X in-rri yni

X rn (x n) Xm"

X

FERMUTATIoN nPr

BINOMIAL THEOREM (X +9)n

P=

. F 77--• CHANGE -)‹ a y To I

Sec,

env)

P1! =-- LINEAR ARRANGEM E NT
01 .-01
CIRCULAR ARRANGENT

Sem, = n(n+1)(ave ex0

()cy)n =_. xn 91.1
S=Vt V= -S— t =-

ri

S! p!cb!

unifovm moti on

COMBINATION nc r
X —* # OF titzS FoR A Jof3

nCe n things , r

1 -4 RATE OF PoItsiG A J06
WORK PRO6Lervig

X
m -11
9 =

X

I_
y t

I

rn

at- 0

C= 2 n - 1 tidings, t n at a time,
pRoebAgiLiTy

9

X MINUTE HAND
FACTORING

+b)(A + 9) = >((n +1,) Jr 9 n b)
(X--(W,(+9) =

t2

CLOCK reo 6 LEM<

HOUR HAND

100h -1- lot + u = The NuMSER

)(2 - y2

#y) 1 = X 2 4-2Xy +92

!co u + lot + h = Pavegszo HutdISER

DIGIT
PUCk3L-EtetS

C

y)1 = x2 -2s9 +92

x'-t- y 3 = (x+y)(x2--xy+92)
y 3 -= (x- 9)( x + %<9 + Y2)

Cen 01+(n-l)cl

d = az - = 03 --02

Sn=12)-(ai+ar,)= n (201-1-(n-oct)

X=

-B
= --A-
c
xi(x2)= AT
X i +x 2

p3,. rtiunt

EXI'LLUS I

lurAER5,40Et-sr purr

ce,

P= P r = nc r

n-r

r_a2

--air n -1

=

Qi oz

.z

- --absinC
=
2

cii'strIBsinC

sn=
1-r

=-0

0

"

axeuM

P 21T)
1Tob • fuig.

151 = 4AC rats owe oco.01

61 > lAC roast cot wszucti
52 < 4,AC rook at iirc4Iwy

ye'

(Oert-tdoeur)

P2 

-BItit31-41AC
2A

P2

AREAS
CXn

Ax e -1-13x +C

-= 171

p

y)( 3+n) = 3x + ay +a), +ay

p

JAPI

Tree

CECTrat,

36o

dz-+V--

2

bh

1E6

A

estnen

D 9(n-3)=--nC2-n
J. SALAzart:(1.

LINeti ACCAS)=AE(A0 A 7-1112 (sr-h) 3 VfoirwnAWaT — 1122 ( 30x7 2-etAges -c. cone.u.e Dcr rAgh.(A + A 2 4-fA A z st-cPE-itgreaceer = rn POI NT X2—Xt SNEtze Ax + E3y + c 3 V — — Tr r 4 Arc A ZANE = 1-9Ase.CAtit 'Meet.94r 9.U1 = rr(X-X0) RANT - = mx+b Ah b INTERCEPT = 9-Y1 Vmarturi =A.E PARALLELOGRAM = 2art3les =_x_f_ 0 bin= dleiz A 7=- bh = a.POLYGOINIt \$11 COO t21) Ni 1 i::S SP OEgicA L TRIGo B go-A c10-13.8' —3 ACZA OE et9LYGON . A7437_ 471r2 2 Tr CASToice.n....rtat4 SICOGIV“ it4C-ENICV_ + (CI 2 -13 cEt4 r 71-2h V —3— Vpiturrwm = 3 3 (Ai+ Az + COUrE)1.3Y crocuANATE_S• A ffrzh ceN TrZQ D OF. ar. C. Lusk J A 2 -1. rh Spb. .412ctS tinett<ECX10 14 of 11-rL AiATERAL 6&0E Ems Ecto“ co_curViceNTEIZ pYRAMID = *SIMILAR ARtA —(n-2)(ige) LINES AX-1-35 +C=0 GEN ERAL Y .. or C. e- G + 3 bz-I-h2) a LActio4c.C =- /n.. z 010.r. = 2-9 /n j.d i sine A As X' Ifv-l'e *SIMILAR VOLUMES lgo v 2_ V 11-rE V X3 54 0 DISTANCE BETWEEN Tuio FoirrT5 VOLUMES IMPORTAkT PRoPEPTIeS CONES of CM:LE OrrEut ec. pr.

. A pApto Ac.. et < 4AC e= A og. V +rt A= E 2 .. A .tPse AE G Ax' +Cy't Dx 1.Aael> LA A og.h) 2 + (y -14)2 FFERENTI AL CAW k -e -1) 2-A = r1)( u (v) = u dV + Vd u Vau\-IludV e f** = 4 Aa rAP..4a(x-hY2 cly VOLUME 401 cuRvE.0 --)-(117-71:74 -CT9-1 4c4 ( LENGTH or 0 C xn _re. ..4cF = =E X. maw k+ tvitgl LI CIE Ott.TIVE 2C 4-CD e= 04 = -D 4C A= AO e vrTlydA = 211 . k "r* = Ti rte V1.. c samo sign A h u_ti.se.0 /kg % + px + -1-V.30 2:7b ° .c.:. S v I LR r2cle rye (k. y _ ptc irkiersecheffn cetznaDtp: is = b2 ati )(cIA b 2 +a' + 921 r2 = ( x .-=.Ey + F -=o A 24 Z A 62" ).-5-< A SURFACE AAA : - (y-14V..0114t -TD. CIRCLES A= G Arc z + A y t Px +Ey +F =o k= A= A= e = 4AC geoLA 2rr b2 GR Z AREA eouNDEE) As= 2TT CIS n+I ntI spl4mcAL.4AF cf--4AF INTEGRAL CAL.c.eu. C =e) PARABOLA C cuff si r 14 YPE_ ( 16 - a 2 A x i + Cy'l * Do. = Chow Vt. LUIsit tmetx. stew Ax -1- cz VX + +F 0 EvO -EinC) 9 .Ey +F 0 Cow IC SECTIONS - F o Ax' + Bxy +Cy' + C U RCLE.. 4Ac C d b 2bz = — a at7= 14YPaRBOLA AlDirr.-_±.

..GMC • n coogrpma k aL r EFFECT IVE FARncLE SIZE 7.e k vster PI Ysub tat = + 20 LL .PI 6sc‘4.3 Vv. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING FORMULAS Vv 9\1 SL 2(10n). _ir.) _ .k(i'itr) G 4-e .31 -so UNStitTABLE •• 50+ V= kL SL too a LL - = u. trEAw % CLAY sIzE A Nda R Xdrnox urcivsfuriced = C hu remolded w = Wscat AVR = e .7-7 Duo k k rs - Ocbutfers op=kLa 1 -D2 '060 L ID lb Q_ YzAv = I i-GMC \6/11) emox . = + Pz PaorD zio P17:: x?' obcoluie A =.. vk.ocity ..Y17Y2.MC CI e ysat 1°0e D./r4min = I D e = erva. .?- MC -PL = LL . vv 1- ExcELIENT • o Gc:oo . rns SR = p350a.M c00) rnz Vs vv _ V +e S MC G = n= Ws 9=-G(1-n) +e - )5' + mc e yw FAVR 21PooR • • • • • • ...6...@ 2Ornra 25 blows iA L k= 1+e k ESA tAh FA t.„„ +e Ysvb 1 - SR LL .PL G MC =Se ____ od=_ Ws__ = [Li 1- X. = • 7 I CC— ( 0.c.ermn I KimIn pfd I ‘Xcif6ctx S.

)-1 -Eo 0.S1DFT STIFF.t 1^1 . AT=APT BIGGER Prnax SOIL BEARING IS SUFFICIENT IT Dm n I KFINItTE 41 s-r-Aett.cos (/3 -4). SAND CLAY ui q t butt = 1.57-n.3 CN D tcb Net +o.t t4 slry8 cp s/6 1(sot tan !!. A FS Ff = /cc Wcace C(A REA AlioNG Ac) Pal l* 0> (WET) := J.570 t-A? Ac' Po takext -CYcrn P X13 = 'sub (e-a) 2 (m+11-2)s+4o EPF = cb =. = cl.3 X6N Y 0 alit" = C N c A TIP 0.t6(11 { X H c.j IC NOT APPLICAI3Le ceepage.3 c Mc.cb.. Y14 arir Nck. '1 YH Or= PAM icArn °( PtYtOkX J + '45bub = Q1-ip t QFwC SOPI cLAy FS 20 ( P I c Pax ( PILE s 17-0 1:7f 414 C 12.6 0 NJ' FeiC 1.) u 14 FS 9) (414.G5 k0.JDAzp gepc11.4. sal. 1.4G n MEDit. ATLP 0.-0 =..A2ARAz .2.) V1.twi GAN( o pf . STIFP CLAY SAID Ctutt Pow O.4 '66 t.g PILE GesOLIP Rvt.1 Cbu I+ 0612000 — Fs Rallow IN/0 f PS = 2fsc.xec) nom AG (s tri 4 cas 1. + ct 2 ct'A C Pk-- — CNIc + KJ % + 0 5 1E\4 t-sziP )I4<4 c.A Fs = F-C t tl.6 Ccsiloti)(NET) == EVALUATE . e -tan 0 n s sub -Lctv geefbige- CAZITICAL.?)/I7C SLoPE stn ie cos. sac:3-ot". Ft .ax = .6) 0E1.g cots FS cbul4 .

17* aoseD-D=-h x.L 2y 1-2/'J STPONGeST /griPreSC y sQuARE bsri L x -3 = 2X MAX-A MIN .V (60/614 .75 D = A1-27y = SAIA2A42 .L Mtts .tio .Mft -P MAXIMA MII.P X= 2/3 4-\$4 mm-cat.sE sine= 1/3 X =raT) L.1IMA RacT A SauARE MAX .V (GwatzA AA) VcyL.L REcT : A SauARE (61‘6-14 ve-eim) 2its_ a/a + x213 L— h SnwN(---ECT / s-nFFECT GYLtuoEizs X= 9 r MAX- A 9 p MAX -V (Gtver4 :As) M I N -As (awel4 v) OPE1.A MIN .7-.6/2 y VV2 MAX . V ArE MAX . As) ct.As (swerl :V) A CuBe RECT(SSUARE WI-Se) MAX -A X MAX -A 49 MAX .-75 X .0.-=-01+6 r2: A MAX .A 2-1-1 Eox BLCCK MAX - 2b MIN h MAX -V -CAST 41vert4 :V MAx.y: atkiEg : coLT cosT( e40s) ( 9="cosr(ckcE)\ MAx -A : PAvABotA b = psmGo 0.os EV 09eN IDP•- m .

1'1.. OK! theci Pm..2s-y. tg k 2 (0. p.10. gs fc: rit O ASSUME W4OLE FLANGE IS IN c.14 Prootat. :7. -Fmu2 =.41c(cil. OK.4d .)( t bw( a) = Ac OA (0 ." 4.S5 fe' GREG< + (0.4.1(t)(1.OM9QESSI01.. GIVEN As)1 bc g C =T 0..-p. 0 FIND .• T.4.: IF Ac >A. (6-*) @ mu.BEA .1*. +1VILIZ Mug Mu = (PT(i-i) Mu -. IF fs >fy OK! Goo(d-c) c fs < ft3 stEa. • Pro0.SSW. bf t IF -7Mul kko <t bF C) M u = (1) C (ci 1) 0 2( .)+ oc(d-ti) licAbba04) 0. cs -cAs c.ci)61. < FIN17 . AS IF Ac Af c► < t 0 Ass.165.DESIGN (comPuTE As.Posyn 1c4 d VO.PPet4c) 60t0 ID cam bf Mu. As NEEDS corn?. Ivo% ." 7 -k= use As :v.cces NOT YIGLD(stazom ilk99940 (DCIAEcW.Mu Gii-C2=T 45Asfil (61 - O. T. GIVEN Mu) IANALYSIS (coMPLITE Mu.c5 f'.„.5)ft: t 10.9 (0... a > bf (a)=.As fy FIND As 0. 19 1 b' As-F(3 FtNo:Ac.1) li"){ (a -1) FIND: 004E0 C=T • ass fciab f = Asfy lF tsAu l < mu I SA L4 crsEL(sel. eiss) 0 FIND : a ® Mu = Mu.4.x=0.F a>t 0.75/3.

85cz q Goo f9 N acotc13 Cy .-Mui bd maxi use GIVEN Mu IIF fs 7-1.ss ab s = Goo L cA 0 Tr-Acfs ® Asfs = ()As feab As(600 S1:0-1= ass Cc'(pc-)19 FIND: 0 SOLVE : a a ::/3c.30MPo.41 Mo= fo'ca) bc1 1 (1 -0.'i 30 MPG. 0 .05 Flwo ._ 0.5 q to) 0 o /0 Et FiNo : () As p>A. G ► ver4 Mu) 1 IG1NGLY REIRMRCD IANALYSIS (com puTE ig=.„=". C o.' foiWbclz(1-o. if fb.15 fc.003 . NIn=-T(d1)=c(d-Sn Mu ---- 0.o.ssfzab T=AgCc 0. MU =".BEAMS DESIGN (comPuTE As .-1 X © r" 600+ fy fF4c. p P bC1 DESIG14 AS DOUBLY RE11•1FoRcer)ty fs=RgSs c. GivEN Psi ® 7 16 GOO 1 0.5a co) 0):::/019Ce Mu --A (I) Mn °AO for flexure IF 0. If fc'›./2./.0•X Mu 4.15 Pb max ° Mu = fe briz (1-0.43 5 -0.sct 03) max to = As nr.s5 L ie.

03S fc' -F51= @ acoify j AGC 63 0. Virtz = Asift3(d-1)4.15 :.S5 W c) b 4- P As' (0)0 C-081) C) FIND: says .-_}3c. GIVEN As fl As)1 C c 0.ssCG'ab C = 0 .GOO nowt 0. ss fotab WrIZOXIMATE METHODI Cs 7" " As Cs' fs = Cy 00.0.o./°004xl 04 cln .75 c' ff3 02_91_ f5 . e ‘.?cAGT METHOD1 [pOLIBLY REINFORCU)1 FIKID: 1ANALYS IS (comPLITE Mu . Proctor:6cl As2 As Psify 0. fIRD: -6' Vs --I./1/42ii)(61-c0 ® = Otsiln --1-- EXACT T =-: 015 Cc' Ab Ti +T2 Apprzo- C.B T_AMS 1_. \$ pss.-AsCy As249 .Cs` T =.-.Vgc = Mn c.= o.ssfo'ckb CS =A6'. + MS S = (di) + Ls( - C=-.(a - Mu Zr- c(dl) 0 Cs -I- n As 0 As.E. 425 ab rit-10t (§) Mn= Mn.1:--OSSCoic+1:) (ci -1) ll As iCs' -(31 FIND Mn = -1.3.

. .9014 VLEINIFOtreMMT iS NIEcAa.5 ® ND' As' . gAtzY (see s Mu > Mu As. GIVEN /AU) FiNo © As (Oma bci =. assisclob ®Fodota. MO2. VEZI F1E1) TWAT COMRLES. Goo As k5:111 = C2 As i Ct i As7S1. eri ld-e1-2) --=0.(d—(y) tvluz -r_.4i0AG.0.f90-2) -mu.T=c1 ® SoLve e c Ma.410p.szcio-dl) * FIND As 2 e CHECK: Cc . fy C.BEAMS IDouBLN FeltiFoRcepi 1 DESIGN (comeurE AS ' AS .

qo Mu .1 14. 7 Ma < tf .t5fc' bw + 2 [0.5 Mui = T i (cl .clo u = cpM.0.. C44 tr of cit“(Gwau) INA ux tics Mu (4.4 AS 0k s p.4) cti) c..r.sqw) o.c.„ bd2(1-0-54o.4..A.t) CI -_-+. t4 vmaK:7- ' fcjos. i-o..8.% = A5.titu.G. _ _ PJEK)S COMFIZESCIC>0 (Barb _ MEL.4 wd _ As 01) T =Ag+9 e:"--P6k'04 As ziamio b.7. ss fctab Ca <Af At = bw(c) 41ALYSIS [EXACT METHOD) Sft4GLY REIRFORCED "T=.cc Cs = (Act) 600t p Mu.ssic)-t 6132 OK! M.P45C4C 1. Mu/ Mu: Mu .min 1.Ssfe A bw Tt T BEAMS Pes. — 0•85fcs vest Git4 Mn bf (a) -0 ÷ c(a4) S21 ) b. SS = if5 .85 fc.+Cs 7 Af ecec: Gs C 6d lA n =T(d-1)=r...S5 O•g5 fc1 6co M VeSIGM At.v0. Pmax bd As i ft4 C. 7Pif >tf Ac = A.) Ac. OS L.ppEts) ft 144 .. 4)1'20 - Ac auume oK! satze Mai< M u i M. -.:7 3 * ° 7— I .c1 IL <AC <tc Ac rAikc 0 Mn Mt► Mn !Au J.-)] Cs = A GI fcs w (000 c (Mt4. 72ierotin AmAusests ft C =T Ac RaNcts stew f p /Ina). = 0. +As2 Ej = Asz -F9 CI = AsiTsi :7?-1 .s4t1eeESS4014 Tz-As2 fy c:7-.0)0 CESEGI1/4.c./ 144n= qa = o.. (d-4) ov 4c0 s 7y de 7.4 IMA.= 0 .c(d-'3) / 4)=0.: (1)Mn Mr% T (ci = Arf9 (a-90 cmecK : + cs(d-co mu= cpMn = (19° IM4 =o. t 10'0.\oWD ( velum!? DOUBLY RED4M : tviuy Kt = Ww bc11(t-0. 0..CO-ECK :orD 1 " Mu — Mut C i = (:).C..1 < As ..75 ft -V4 f4 =— -Fc! As ootsax = error.. r AG DOUI3LY REINFORCED ANALIStS Mn = C..-9i7) 1-1 = CI Mu = (I) M Cs <C9STEEL msc of n. GALAzatoz .

7 Vc S max 3 Av Cy 6„ . _ 3V Wu (21 2.SI4tika REINFolWVY15141" 5112Rii Ct) vu fLEXUIZAL Si4E-AGT r.' 6.A -Tv Vc = Vu = ft.8 0= "5 (I) (vc = 0 := 0 " S = A V -Fy N.

PAY PUNCH TIED SPAAL < IG dIrnain S = 4 ac A Oc 4\$3 Otie Yu* = N6 Si4eAk qe•ff +4)gpi< 5 < ""bsii 4 Lead column awienCion spiral in 1 Loop Vol Vol 0.9 tkd 0. II Stri 20 Fc.A z) + .. SS -f-vi (As ..45 of Cove.WAY SLAINC P Gm A bc:12- d .1AL WOE SEAM cgeAre. 11 FG. S P— A9 < As < 0.08 Ag RiN FO RCEMEthrrS z I-IANKtNIRDN'S Foe:4mA vc. Ri = 0. 75 en tarts 0. LAceve J . dved-can of voizti-10 6 &e-ID moven} 50.114.-1 TWO. s.85 [0.3 Gti = - 2 ce PILE CAP TIMBER P t M v Xn + M A .9A uCe4 = n IX1 9 o 0 0 -411 a.y cos '03 .604: 3 Ulu = S I3 (92] [TlErt Cf1e44. fL.COLUMNS EMISGS.AO f A S] pu 0. [o. TtEED Vu GMAL cb eff (wier)(x) WN = 4. g s fc ( (A3. 01 snEAtt TIED golei 2.7 Pn = 0 .dimension offarFing parallel +a1-44.

A9 Pv 1. _ v- Rix FS 1=1-%41C-41 L 0. C.is srgess 14 A LA 0.QALAZAil:12 ./riL IS ono V14 = ( I) oi tiow.bigger end moment t C . P -= j(1)43„-i.c15d d II r 1.75 Fy cAsa. .a bl e a)ciat load VS4 \$ =- AiSc Os. ONE kINGED 130-rvt ENIX itiNGED e"cls on spoon 7 NiorAent Fot -13- Iy wet) (write) a use: Fc2./ (P&3 + Pm y) WELD o..35 Cc' T 33-fIsfy < o.7 L ot.L 4 cc r - ry Pm % = Pm 2 (x 2 9 2) 9 2 R x n Sire-cc gtvErs unvec tr-ccn red 0.berci ► rig Et.B ( M i /tv11)2 EON 04m FIXED I.Pm x).F.w rixED.3 0 M.(4e Ml . Fe )(-0 UN3CRFEI.AttiLier) sst SrEEL. C.-AtAS VarrIkine Gordon T-EIZINAC OF `f b (.o 121 <1.15 tAGE : Iy cla.4. Cot4c.7o7it = 0.7.:nct.35 full conioot = o.C.iPtv.90 1-v3%1 covrer-hon • 94.4cv ctiLomN f3IGGER.1 F1XE-1).q5c1 C. 1.0 -Fa CaYI C1/ -Fa F .-1 Pm).nler FortruA la O< LVY) P = g irds res-tva.)1 1 F9 j Fs 2 372 Fa = - 11-112'E 23 (Kt-A/Y.85 Cc' Ac (ki-ly) 0.Meteit4eD AXIAL Bet.Z yNeci to/ Sstortt. c-0 *Icvvy0 s}40410 ► -as DI.AartiEt) EisT ST EEL g.cafocA oC opvInerioY M rx (x'-+-y2) t Fi492 PA Pa As.S it E 13.40 = o ' a 1.85 = I + (1-./N/6) +0.Pmx) 2.5 2• OF. 2 Pfyt = Pet. 1„.+ Py.ot.2 Ana coNIR.2 67d 3 t Ray)2 F6cvir4 = J.WeL1 P yawl.„. LL el' STEEL t.p) 2Lby +0.0 fet r 0.1400SS SMALt.0 + COLUMNIC Co=124. . -= t.0 2301-10/1. 0. -smatter end moment 1. StkOizt cowtAr4 As -F9 2 4g = 60. euo oS ( M. Fat - hoLES + eA9E PLATE 6. oNE KEE 1.75 4< 2.i.ER stes.. 0 -1- 9 / cc>vicveie yr tz.61urrt vactluS of gyrot-ic>r = 0.0 A = ><9 2-L.19 e(cor.5 L 0.1_/.C-o y Fij = r aiin. 2. sk LL c.beovivIg avec% 6. 2 Fa= -L e =i3 Fbearir Lk.G.3o'FL.)2 Ceri I Dvslak t.2Linx -4-a8ob.cc ilCre Vt.1\11/M]) 2 0.0 Simply sapporka rnorAtn+ 'FAL -iw- = CRITIC-AL A 2 .4 : EXPRESS X 12-Trze Cxiiicol ratio X =.4c' P49 p M Yu "Ix= EL/L2 -t-x 2 + 9 2 1 M rx 21(114-x1i-91) A.. 0.

. =_ p tAssi. FLUID MECANICS AND HYDRAULICS UNIT WT.note. hf DISTANCES Z DETERMINE FLOv.F3 I bar PARALLEL Qr=Q.„/ 2 E = — zg 0 RESERVOIRS I -00ATIC-4`1.‘ = v = .6 133.416 MERcuaY ADDED.03 StA wAlEc:Z 5• R ( 0.ssn z L inceiee e=A Vt = 2F-1 by 13ElawouLL1 \ii z f hf pqz to. OF WATER GVAV I rATto NAL ACCELESATioNt ci. Lbstft 3 G.) 1. (06 (ALI + AC2) CA Q 0. h= Q= Av -4( _ Cf. .1E-S 10.IC4+LNG PIPES Q.013 Q.111." I g/crns 1 oco kg/m5 M 13110YAWr FORGE LAW OF CONTINIULTY OF KOLL j3ERwouLLI's — /09 fi_ +z 2g y ..[29 ÷ +h) = G. BF Ne(f V41 0 WETTED r FEIZINETER X2 1c.= Qz +6)3 i3eAt. i4EA °LOSS FORMULAS Q =-.Pcx OUTPUT IN PUT ORIFIce . Pat' s BY R7G G 13 TL1 R E --)10614110F l.10=-4 — r90.z q L- t V a g4 612 Ce"S°.-/UNIT WT. e 3 FIcIENc..71 Q = CA . 4 0.-4ab3 HL = A t4 O=4R As CAr.-.2c q . •••nn••n• • R buf SAES j J cu pvtats R ?sacs& 1C44171 101.GRAVITY Flu t 1.:( = 1.1 m/s . km Zg LOCATE G SPECIFIC. 12. AEsSoLUIE Pizessucza PAW EGL s .2785 CD 2 '" 5°"" 1Tr4 Te. gC) OIL HEAD PUMP 13. GIVE GwE 100° 74C bar 7(0 mmHg hfi=l1f2. 4 1.G1 c.+Qz4Q3.3 kPo.104 1.) D1Recnot-I5 HEAD EXTRACTED.0826 L fQ CA .25 ..2 ft/s2 DENSITY OF WATER Oewstrf. = Q z = QZ SERtES P=QWE h p Inf r =-_ 1 f 1 + -1-11..* 32.si kw/m3 (02.29 4— x J.st kv•Vm3 FMcv.CA\4 HYPROSTAT IC PRESSURE h P ti att F Y 71 A 0.. CONNECT G TO L.43.912 1 2 A  i Acz (T.572. Cm" ." 4:97 10: 0 4 tv.. v4wER AMPS AND TuR1311. SuFpcgs 2g t.126.

. 1+ zNe kgt2-togt. i• + cos-0 2i "- AOC + .1 (Lt_ .1 cos 2 COS(— sicoc -* VEVIATOR/ADDIrioNAL/R_LNGEP. eo Cv Ctn ANGLE Of NTERNAL -FQICTiON . CHAMBER PRESSURE RADIAL SCRESS CELL PRESSURE LATERAL PRESSURE . T k -rnAvcmicr3turii Trk(1-1-1-‘.) Ln R2/RI Nf SWAPE FACTOR Na Fizessucze DEED PP co = P Xi4(EFfECTWe ► EAV ) = cb= ArzivciAw welts F "1436 De AH ay )(ta H t _t_L Log L11-1.-SS 6t4 NOtZNIAL EFFECTNE STRESS 1— Sind) C hwp 1< is. S1 WESS ay MI WotZ PRIKOPAL S1ZESS COS 20 CONFINING. e ANGLE OF SHEAR FAILURE 1-1 cl r Tv Pr -Pt = ACTT NCB bN tt 2 PE = PT = AREA O 3 PRESS URE PIAGRAM H Cs 6. Si KFCS AT F-AILURE l + stna.to%) Cs =-- of CC e 63 11— Po k_ MAJOR pgq4OPIAL STRESS /AXIAL STRESS 7-0 I — Sind) cogl. P PW=Xwh 460 -icos 2 COS COS CO ds 64keAP..„h PT PE + RN) CF-NTROIP OF AREA Co.00. RZESSUCZE . PcL i Cc pf_ " Po "I eo "J I C = Nd I A14.cos CP CO 24. e DID Pway = - OCR = kp - Pe k A 4SInd) 0.ve VOL cOMPrLE IA I L rTY liNt) AULIc al4DUCTIVni k my cv C R MAXIMUM SHEAR SIRE. 614 ocNcl@ F01 1( cb = H LIE57f<2 Nivcien4 sure-liAra6e H Li42 Ca = My C.Ay In R2/r-zi 21rkt(b2-1-1.ne/Ap +eo. =_ H +eo L69 Na [14 sot t.2) G GP.

VAIY N R 2000 PERIM E TER Fit = F0 2' viCo.S4 L ( H + hv) 3/2 _ hv3/21 ' moor --P2DL _2r V WtIRS F = PDL a= —ivr -4F2 €w Nye 1c 64 PRESSURE VESSELS Cry A R.44E2 (- S = HL L R =LI p = LAVilt1AR T-tOW 2. = 9 Q =-. MEG 6 a b = 0= * = FL2 i4. 5 C L /C) A V 2. tuE0c.1 -side la? ALTEPNA-re STFGES OF PLDW V MYcx cift = > I = Ci„x 3 ')-1( /1-TIAN GW I L /SueciZfr lcv4eR STAGE/ RAPtO/SuFERca-ir d = uotz.S ide-S C1-7rItticci-e3 controc-Fcci o.1 g 6t.4-.11. -T I WEIR.. LOT t FL.41-x INCL1 µ !O vs/ 'Fo gray UPPER STAGE 'forte B exact E 3 = 1 .10t.5 Cr.1 C.ET‘CA-L f MANNING Na • 64411.ITY JUMP LIP SIZE Peoe A d i +d2 I 1/4-4 2 z c ISALAZAR iz .-41 CHANNELS Fp = V= G 0.2 2 .I1ENIT FLOW NR1 uce Pvcoci PD 2.S 411: FIV2 Q R=2 L N F< NF Cie o.. Rt‘(1.4(021-: 5/2 MOST E FFIOIEKT SECTION.DRAG FORCE OPE.t formula Q 3 = \/6‘2 2g G = 1.c.1>r4744_ f 0.SSets A 12.80 A S 2T PI) = c 1274 L 3: Q = 1.000 11.Qrect czy Q I VAIEW e =X10° Q tyi .P1 k4LAimEet. f A\12 = O. 100 1± 2Y) 9 WYDRAut_c < to4 HS/2 S c- GI V icArte — C( V NCIS FOIUMLA ‘4)14 CN C IS N oT G IVEN fl d=0.4 H " AcrELERATiNG ve.. — P NF C:3 61 =C o2.25ci L1-13i2 if1:11.

MODULUS OF ia. INsTAWAsecoC acct.Te-/.0 Pizf:CCuriE -t - n..Su tZFAC-e..AC- T►crry (ewe JAL-0 c ei l+ T cl 1 NON -21WD Et OF 1nANEL TG_ o • . .! vx ...0°(14x0) = 140' (1-15) e - WATER HAMMER ILITY E ea. h n .V":' TC PrzeccurzE c4-40.4..UNIT WT.. %)S I 0 t4 ..4/„1.5) (N/rn) NETTING ANGLE 9..i* MAs SMEAR STIC : (OPEN CHANNELS) =SRS fe'r*As ..0 7x 10 9 (44..ph = 2 1. (.1ZiGto = Es SIALIc rAOCULIAg EIALTICITY (Pa) PIPE .iff.AoLoss fbe ogiFtce .• TG( 2% 7-Y0 e. czAe to acivee gwv3 ctosLuze CD p c v =pc V .PEW trY rwiCKt4m cp Ea= 2. . I) 2g Cv Dwitesstow /Rise: 149 h = 40ecosA 1451C/1+T of pEentisE YD .