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manual

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Aim of the experiment: To determine the elastic displacement of the curved members experimentally and

verification of the same by theoretical results.

Apparatus required: Various curved members, viz. quadrant of a circle, semicircle with straight arm,

quadrant of a circle with straight arm and circle, dial gauge, weights, scale and etc.

Theory: Castigliano's first theorem is used to find the elastic displacements of curved members. Theorem states

that the partial derivative of the total strain energy of a linearly elastic structure expressed in terms of

displacements with respect to any displacement j at coordinate j is equal to the force Pj at coordinate j. The

theorem may be expressed symbolically as

U

= Pj

Dj

In all cases the horizontal DB,horizontal and vertical deflection DB,vertical due to vertical load W are to be determined.

These deflections are obtained by using Castigliano's first theorem where strain energy due to bending only is

taken into account. The results obtained for the four curved members is given as below a) Quadrant of a circle

Fixed at A and free at B (having radius R) and subjected to a concentrated load W at free end.

B

W

R

A

Figure 1.a

Vertical displacement of load = DB, vertical =

pWR 3

4 EI

WR 3

2 EI

From A to B is a semi circle of radius R, B to C is a straight length of y

W

B

C

y

A

Figure 1.b

D C, vertical =

W

[ 2 y 3 + 3R ( 2py 2 + 8 y R + pR 2 )]

6 EI

WR 2

(py + 2R )

EI

From A to B is a quadrant of a circle of radius R and from B to C, straight length of y.

A

W

R

B

y

C

Figure 1.c

d) Circle of radius R

pWR 3

4 EI

WR 2 y

EI

WR

(R + y) 2

2 EI

W

B

R

A

Figure 1.d

Vertical displacement of loaded point B = DB, vertical

WR 3 2

=

(p - 8)

4pEI

Procedure:

1. Place a load on the hanger to activate the member and treat this as the initial position for measuring

deflections.

2. Fix the dial gauges for measuring horizontal and vertical deflections.

3. Place the additional loads at the steps mentioned in the table below for each case and tabulate the

values of dial gauge reading against the applied loads.

4. Plot the graph load Vs deflection for each case to show that the structure remains within the elastic

limit.

5. Measure the value of R and straight length in each case. Find width and depth of steel section and

calculate the value of I as bd 3/12.

Observations and table:

Width of section (mm) b

=

Depth of section (mm) d

=

bd 3

Least moment of inertia

=

12

2

E (N/mm )

= 2 x 106.

(a)

Quadrant of a circle

Sl.

No.

(b)

Additional

load (kg)

Horizontal

Vertical

direction

direction

Deflection (mm)

Horizontal Vertical

direction

direction

Sl.

No.

Additional

load (kg)

Horizontal

Vertical

direction

direction

Deflection (mm)

Horizontal Vertical

direction

direction

(c)

(d)

Dial gauge reading (mm)

Additional

load (kg)

Horizontal

Vertical

direction

direction

Deflection (mm)

Sl.

No.

Additional

load (kg)

Horizontal

Vertical

direction

direction

Deflection (mm)

Sl.

No.

Horizontal Vertical

direction

direction

Circle

Results:

Horizontal Vertical

direction

direction

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