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HCTL Open Science and Technology Letters (HCTL Open STL)

Edition on Wireless and Wired Networks: Advances and Applications,


Volume 3, November 2013, e-ISSN: 2321-6980
ISBN (Print): 978-1-62951-015-6

Distributed Fibre Optic


Virtual Fencing System
Raj Gaurav Mishra
rajgmishra@hctl.org

Abstract
his paper proposes the idea and concept of a virtual fencing
system using fibre optics as a distributed intrusion detection
sensor system and its potential applications in wildlife and forest protection. In this paper, we have discussed different methods
implemented for intrusion detection and its localization using optical fibre cables. Design and proposed future implementation of a
distributed fibre optic virtual fencing system is discussed.

Keywords
Fibre Optics, Fibre Optic Sensors, Intrusion Detection System, Virtual Fencing
System, Review Interferometric Methods.

Introduction
Forests have direct effect on climate as they regulate the water cycle and play
an important role in the purification of air. With increase in population, need
of land for agriculture, grazing land, construction of houses, roads, railway

Hybrid Computing Technology Labs, India.

Raj Gaurav Mishra


Distributed Fibre Optic Virtual Fencing System.

Page 1 of 15

HCTL Open Science and Technology Letters (HCTL Open STL)


Edition on Wireless and Wired Networks: Advances and Applications,
Volume 3, November 2013, e-ISSN: 2321-6980
ISBN (Print): 978-1-62951-015-6
tracks and industrial developments has often been responsible for deforestation.
Villagers residing near to the forests also are responsible for illegal deforestation
like logging and chopping of trees activities for fuel and sometimes for fodder.
Deforestation is responsible for the shrinkage of the wild habitat and food
resources for the wild animals causing human-animal conflicts. Human-animal
conflict is a major concern for countries like India as natural habitat has been
increasingly diminished by human development. Animals such as Tiger, Leopard, Bear and Elephant venture out of the forest, and cause damage to humans
and their property, resulting in human-animal conflict. Many times animals
such as elephants, tigers etc. being killed by running trains on railway lines
that crosses their natural trails or by the heavy vehicles passing by roads closer
to the protected forests, or wildlife sanctuaries.
The objective of this work is to develop a virtual fence system to fulfil the
following objectives:
1. Detecting the animals such as Tiger, Leopard, Bear and Elephant that
venture out of the forest and cause damage to humans and their properties,
resulting in human-animal conflict. Use of some harmless deterrents such
as loud sounds to drive the animals back from the virtual animal fencing
in case of intrusion and to prevent the animals coming outside the animal
corridor and forest.
2. Preventing animals such as elephants and tigers being killed by running
trains by providing alarms on their trails that crosses the railway lines or
the heavy vehicles passing by the roads closer to the forests.
3. Detecting human intrusion and activities taking place from the wild life
sanctuary periphery to interiors of the forest to avoid illegal deforestation
and poaching.
4. Monitoring the movement of forest guards in order to contact them and
provide necessary security and support to them against poachers, intruders
and wild animals.
5. Identifying other activities such as illegal digging (for laying traps for
poaching related activity) and forest mining within a protected wildlife
sanctuary or a national park.
6. Detecting Forest Fires that rises from grasslands to the woods.
In this paper, we have proposed a conceptual design and configuration of a
virtual fence based on fibre optic sensing system. There are many advantages

Raj Gaurav Mishra


Distributed Fibre Optic Virtual Fencing System.

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HCTL Open Science and Technology Letters (HCTL Open STL)


Edition on Wireless and Wired Networks: Advances and Applications,
Volume 3, November 2013, e-ISSN: 2321-6980
ISBN (Print): 978-1-62951-015-6
of using Fibre Optic cables as sensors, for instance it is an active distributed
sensor that provides a large linear dynamic measurement range for the changes
in strain or temperature directly over the buried fibre, it provides accurate
measurements, a good sensitivity dependent on the deployed fibre cable length,
it provides post signal processing of the analog output for the reduction of
false and nuisance alarm rates, insensitive to electromagnetic (EM) interference
and long deployable life of fibre optic cables makes the system run for a longer
period. It provides intrinsic safety in hazardous environments will be light in
weight and will have ability to optically multiplex with other fibre optic sensors.
The system will work with low drain power supply and almost no restriction of
communication bandwidth.
In this paper, a conceptual design and configuration of a fibre optic sensing system for wildlife & forest protection applications is discussed. This paper
is organized as section 2 presents literature review of optical fibre cable sensors
and different interferometric methods and techniques for distributed Intrusion
detection using optical fibre cable sensors, section 3 presents the proposed
configuration and design of a fibre optic sensing system for wildlife and forest
protection and section 4 presents the conclusion and proposed future work to
implement the system.

Optical Fibre Cable Distributed Sensors


In the recent years, development of fibre optic cable sensors, related instrumentation and techniques in the applications of real-time fibre optic perimeter
intrusion detection systems has attracted greater interest [1]-[3].
There are different possible methods/techniques of setting up an intrusion
detection system using ordinary optical fibre cables and measurement instruments. Table 1 refers the different methods/techniques used by many researchers
in their previous research work.
Interferometers are capable of sensing a variety of physical parameters such as
displacement, strain, temperature, pressure, vibration etc. Laser source shown
in the figures generates highly coherent (1550 nm) laser light. An interferometer
divides a coherent laser light into its two arms and measures the changes in the
velocity, intensity, phase, etc of the light in the first arm with reference to the
second one.

Raj Gaurav Mishra


Distributed Fibre Optic Virtual Fencing System.

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Techniques/Methods
Using Optical Fibre Sagnac
Interferometry
(Refer Figure 1)
Using Mach-Zehnder
Interferometry
(Refer Figure 2)
Using Michelson Interferometry
(Refer Figure 3)
Using Sagnac-Michelson
(merged) Interferometry
(Refer Figure 4)
Using other
Interferometric methods
Using -OTDRs
(Phase-sensitivity using
Optical Time-Domain Analysis)
(Refer Figure 5)
Using CC-OTDRs
(Complementary Correlation using
Optical Time Domain Analysis)
(Refer Figure 6)
Using B-OTDRs
(Brillouin Optical
Time Domain Analysis)
(Refer Figure 7)
Using P-OTDRs
(Detecting Polarization
changes in the fibre)
(Refer Figure 8)
Using Custom
Processors & Instrumentation

References
Je Bush et al. [4], M. Szustakowski et al. [5],
Nian Fang et al. [6], Peilin Tao et al. [24],
Eric Udd [25]
Kyoo Nam Choi et al. [13],
S. S. Mahmoud et al. [16] and [22],
Tian Lan et al. [23], Li Wang et al. [26],
N. M. S. Jahed et al. [27]
John P. F. Wooler et al. [20],
Huaifei Xing et al. [21],
Roger I. Crickmore et al. [28]
A.A. Chtcherbakov et al. [29],
S. J. Spammer et al. [30]
Nian Fang et al. [10],
G. B. Cogdell et al. [18], W. J. Bock et al. [30],
Alan D. Kersey [32], Yuan Libo [33]
J. C. Juarez et al. [11, 12],
Kyoo Nam Choi et al. [14],
C. K. Madsen et al. [15]
Yannian Wang et al. [7],
M. Nazarathy et al. [34]

Marc Nikles [8], D. Inaudi et al. [35],


K. Hotate [36], T. Kurashima et al. [37],
T. Horiguchi et al. [38, 39],
D. Garcus et al. [40], Ning Hua Zhu et al. [41]
J. P. Hazan et al. [9],
B. Huttner et al. [42],
A. Rogers et al. [43],
M. Wuilpart et al. [44]
C. Bryson et al. [17],
Tian Lan et al. [23]

Table 1: Techniques/methods for intrusion detection using optical fibre cables

Raj Gaurav Mishra


Distributed Fibre Optic Virtual Fencing System.

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ISBN (Print): 978-1-62951-015-6
The Sagnac interferometer [4]-[6], [24]-[25] fibre optic system is shown in
the figure 1. The interferometer has a 3 dB coupler and a Faraday rotator
mirror (FRM). The sensor system uses a fibre cable instead of a complex loops
structure, and therefore is simple in structure, low in cost and stronger in
environmental adaptability. FFT method can be used to calculate the phase
angle of the reflected signal to determine the intrusion. Its limitation is to
determine the crossing point (localization) of the intrusion. To remove this
problem a Sagnac interferometer can be combined with other interferometers.
Sagnac-Michelson Interferometric method [29]-[30] for intrusion detection and
localization is shown in the figure 4.

Figure 1: Optical Fibre Sagnac Interferometry [4]-[6], [24]-[25]

A Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometry [13]-[16], [22]-[23], [26]-[27] is an old


technique of optical measurements and an MZ interferometer can be formed
using two couplers connected with two arms of different optical lengths. The
light is divided in two arms of the input coupler of the MZ interferometer and
they are later merged at the output coupler, connecting two different photodetectors and a signal processing system to observe the relative phase-shift, as
shown in figure 2.
Figure 3 shows the intrusion detection system using a Michelson Interferometer [20]-[21], [28], consisting of a pulsed laser source, one coupler and two
arms of different optical lengths. The Michelson interferometer produces and
divides the optical pulses to both of the arms. Photo-detector circuitry by doing
suitable signal processing measures and correlates the light reflected back from
both the arms.
The optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) injects laser to one end of

Raj Gaurav Mishra


Distributed Fibre Optic Virtual Fencing System.

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ISBN (Print): 978-1-62951-015-6

Figure 2: Mach-Zehnder Interferometry [13]-[16], [22]-[23], [26]-[27]

Figure 3: Michelson Interferometry [20]-[21], [28]

a fibre, and measure the reflected Rayleigh back-scattered light using a Photodetector. The received signals of back-scattered light with respect to time
help OTDR to identify the disturbances and the damages within the fibre. In
Phase-sensitive Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (-OTDR) [11]-[12], [14][15], phase changes are measured by comparing the fresh signal trace from the
sensing fibre with the previous few traces stored in the memory. Also, by using
single frequency pulsed laser with a very narrow line-width, localization of the
disturbance in the optical fibre is possible. Figure 5 shows the intrusion detection system using an -OTDR. Similarly, Complementary Correlation Optical
Time-Domain Reflectometry (CC-OTDR) [7], [34], correlates the transmitted
light beam with the Rayleigh back-scattered light using a signal processing
system. Figure 6 shows the intrusion detection system using a CC-OTDR.
Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (B-OTDR) [8], [35]-[41] works
on the measurement of Brillouin frequency shift, which is a built-in parameter
of the optical fibre cable. Brillouin frequency shift defines the local information

Raj Gaurav Mishra


Distributed Fibre Optic Virtual Fencing System.

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ISBN (Print): 978-1-62951-015-6

Figure 4: Sagnac-Michelson (merged) Interferometry [29]-[30]

Figure 5: Phase-sensitive Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (-OTDR) [11][12], [14]-[15]

of strain and temperature for optical fibre cable. Figure 7 shows the intrusion
detection system using a B-OTDR.
Polarization Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (P-OTDR) [9], [42]-[44] is
based on the measurement of the States of Polarization (SOP) and Polarization
Mode Dispersion (PMD) of an optical fibre cable. In an optical fibre polarization
state changes, with the change in stress level over the fibre cables. P-OTDR
connects to only one end of the optical fibre cable and is very suitable for field
measurements with optical fiber cables. Figure 8 shows the intrusion detection
system using a P-OTDR.

Raj Gaurav Mishra


Distributed Fibre Optic Virtual Fencing System.

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Figure 6: Complementary Correlation Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (CCOTDR) [7], [34]

Figure 7: Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (B-OTDR) [8], [35]-[41]

Figure 8: Polarization Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (P-OTDR) [9], [42]-[44]

Raj Gaurav Mishra


Distributed Fibre Optic Virtual Fencing System.

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Configuration, Design and Instrumentation


In this section, the idea, concept and design of a virtual fencing system based on
distributed fibre optic sensing is discussed and presented. As shown in the figure 9, a sensing cable connected to a laser source and the photo-detector/image
sensor using a coupler forms an Interferometer. The back-scattered light from
the fibre cable to the detector holds a signature of the event (stress, ground
borne vibrations and rise in temperature) nearby the buried fibre cable sensor, in
terms of change in wavelength, frequency, phase, intensity etc. Photo-detector
is proposed to be connected with a custom made processing unit based on
FPGA or a Digital Signal Processor, making the module capable of performing
signal processing techniques on the reflected back signals, capable of identifying
the events and finally transmitting the final results to the connected wireless
module (in case of positive detection of an event).
For events classification, neural networks are proposed to be implemented
on FPGA/DSP based processors. Event signatures could be identified, captured
and stored in database during lab based and in-situ outdoor testing of the sensor
system. A pre-trained neural network classifier based on the neural network
training provided on the database of event signatures, is to be implemented
on FPGA/DSP based processing unit. The processing unit will be responsible
for pre-signal processing, implementation of signal processing/event detection
algorithms, classification of events (in case of positive detection) using neural
network classifier and then connecting the results to the wireless module/node.

Figure 9: Design of a Virtual Fencing System based on Distributed Fibre Optic Sensing

Raj Gaurav Mishra


Distributed Fibre Optic Virtual Fencing System.

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References

Conclusion and Future Work


The idea, concept and design of a virtual fencing system based on distributed
fibre optic sensing for forest and wildlife protection is presented. Initial setup
and testing of the design will be first planned in the indoor and then in outdoor
environment. During the lab and in situ based setup, various Interferometric
methods will be tested and compared to get the clear and detectable signal signatures for the events like stress, ground borne vibrations and rise in temperature
over or nearby the buried fibre cable sensor. The design and implementation of
custom made processing unit based either on FPGA based or a digital signal
processor, signal processing techniques and algorithm for event detection, neural
network design and algorithm for event classification is pro-posed as a future
work. Interfacing fibre optic based virtual fencing system with the wireless
modules, setting up and testing the wireless sensor network in indoor and
outdoor environment, designing and development of a deterrent fence for animal
divert-back system and its interfacing with the virtual fencing system is also
proposed as a future work.

Acknowledgement
This research paper is made possible through the help and support from everyone,
including my parents, teachers, family, friends, and in essence, all sentient beings.
Especially, please allow me to dedicate my acknowledgment of gratitude toward
Prof. M. Radhakrishna (Division of Microelectronics, IIIT-Allahabad, India)
and Mr. J. K. Chhabra (Ex-Scientist, CSIO, India) for providing their significant
suggestions and critical reviews in writing this article.

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References
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References
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References
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Functional Verification of Serial Communication Protocols (SPI and I2C)
on FPGAs, HCTL Open International Journal of Technology Innovations
and Research, Volume 4, July 2013, Pages 72-81, ISSN: 2321-1814, ISBN:
978-1-62776-132-1.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License (http:
//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
c
2013
by the Authors. Sponsored and Licensed by HCTL Open, India.

Raj Gaurav Mishra


Distributed Fibre Optic Virtual Fencing System.

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