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Kimberly CAPEDING

BSMS Civil Engineering

De La Salle University

Manila, Philippines

Kristian CARINGAL

BSMS Civil Engineering

De La Salle University,

Manila, Philippines

kimberlycapeding@yahoo.com

kristian_caringal@yahoo.com

engineering major. She is

particularly interested in studies

about Structural Health

Monitoring.

of the Civil Engineering Society.

He was recently recognized as the

Most Outstanding Civil

Engineering Student by the

Philippine Institute of Civil

Engineers.

Summary

A damage identification method is presented for the detection of storey damage. The proposed

method utilizes the dynamic properties of the system, particularly the natural frequencies and the

mode shapes. A residual force method is introduced and described to locate the damaged floor in the

structure. The validity of the method is demonstrated by the identification of the damaged story of a

structure with known properties using its measured natural frequency. The proposed method

showed success in determining the location of the damaged storey.

Keywords: damage detection, damage identification, structural health monitoring, inverse

engineering problem

1. Introduction

Buildings are man-made vertical structures that are constructed to provide support or shelter to an

intended occupancy. In the span of its service life, it is subjected to different loads which in turn

introduce different forms of stresses to the structure. While buildings are designed to be able to

resist all of these stresses when they occur, overtime the strength capacity of a structure decreases

due to service wear and aging. Old buildings become more susceptible to damage, especially during

catastrophic events such as earthquakes, typhoons, tsunamis, or other cases when the building is

subjected to extreme loading.

Over the past two decades, the health monitoring of old structures have been the subject of many

research studies. This is owing to the realization that an early condition assessment of a structure

can enhance the overall safety and reliability of a structure, thus extending its service life. Detecting

structural damages that can compromise a structures performance is of great interest in the field of

civil engineering.

Damage is defined as any change in the physical and geometric properties of a structure from its

original characteristics. To this respect, the detection of damage requires a comparison between the

healthy undamaged state of a system to its damaged condition. This case study addresses the use of

a structures dynamic properties to identify and locate damaged storeys. Following the logic that the

dynamic properties (period, natural frequencies, mode shapes) are a function of the physical

characteristics of the building (mass, damping, and stiffness), any change in the physical properties

will manifest in the detectable and measurable building dynamic response.

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a process aimed at increasing safety, maintainability, and

reliability of structures by identifying, locating, and quantifying damages using measured building

responses. The damage information is then used to assess and monitor the health and performance

of a structure.

The amount of literature related to damage detection using shifts in resonant frequencies is quite

large. Salawu [1] presents an excellent review on the use of modal frequency changes for damage

diagnostics. The observation that changes in structural properties cause changes in vibration

frequencies was the impetus for using modal methods for damage identification and health

monitoring. A procedure of matrix optimization using measured modal data was proposed by

Baruch [2], and Berman and Nagy [3], to solve for the least change in their values when damage

occurred. Cawley and Adams [4] proposed a sensitivity based method to detect and estimate

damage using only the measured frequencies of the damaged structure. To locate the damage,

theoretical frequency change ratios of two dierent modes were calculated by introducing damage

at selected positions on a nite element model.

Su. et. al. [5] located damaged storeys in a shear building using its sub-structural frequencies. An

autoregressive with exogenous input model of the building substructure in healthy and unhealthy

condition is established from the substructural dynamic responses. Using a wavelet transform, the

substructural natural frequencies were obtained and were compared to determine the damaged

storey.

There are many existing methods on damage detection that utilize the systems dynamic properties

to come up with damage information. However, these methodologies require extensive

computations that lead to longer processing time. The study reduces the amount of computation

needed by analyzing the study as a lumped mass model. The method is tested by applying the

procedure to detect damage in a 2d steel frame.

2. Damage Detection

In locating where damage is present in the structure, an equation of motion for an undamped case

given n Degree of Freedom (DOF) is given by

M u + Ku=F (t )

(1)

where M and K are the n x n mass and stiffness matrices, and u and u are the n x 1 acceleration

and displacement vectors, respectively, F(t) is the n x 1 excitation force vector. Under free vibration

(i.e., F(t) = 0), a characteristic equation can be derived from Eq. (1) and written as

( K i M ) i=0

(2)

Where

and

is the

Eq. (2) can be used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure and it

forms the basis for many damage detection methods that make use of modal properties in damage

detection and identification. A residual force method used by Ge and Lui [6] is applied to locate

2

damage. The method is based on identifying the difference in modal properties between the original

(undamaged) and damaged structures. A subscript d is used to denote the damaged structure and Eq.

(2) becomes

( K d di M d ) v =0

(3)

The local damage in the structure will cause a change in the stiffness and mass matrices,

M . This will result into two equations for the damaged matrices expressed as

K d =K u + K

(4a)

M d=M u + M

(4b)

and

By substituting Eq. (4a) and (4b) to Eq(2), an equation can be obtained in the form of

K di di M di =(K u + di M u ) di

(5)

The left hand side of the equation is defined as the residual force vector for mode i as:

Ri= K di di M di

(6)

Eq. (5) can be rewritten as

Ri=(K u + di M u ) di

(7)

A close inspection of Ri reveals that if the measured frequencies and mode shapes are uncorrupted

by noise, the value of Ri will be zero if none of the elements associated with the floor is damaged,

but it will assume a non-zero value if any element is associated with this degree-of-freedom is

damaged. This observation can be readily deduced from Eq. (6).

Thus any residual force value that return a non-zero value is said to be damaged. This determines

the part of the matrix where damage is located.

3. Numerical Study

3.1

Methodology

There were two sets of calculations done in the case study in determining the location of damage in

the structure. The first part is a confirmation of the damage location model with the residual force

vector. As an example, a steel shear building as shown in figure 1 was analyzed with a lump massed

model having 3 degrees of freedom (DOF) shown in figure 2. The methodology is presented in

figure 3.

3.2

Input Calculations

The properties of the undamaged structure are listed in Table 1. The lumped masses at the first,

second, and third level are taken as 2.2 x 106, 2.0 x 106, and 1.8 x 106 in kilograms.

Table 1: Properties of Undamaged Structure

Properties

Section

I (mm4)

A (mm2)

L (mm)

K (N/m)

Ground

W360x110

331000000

14100

3000

58844444

Storey

2nd

W360x101

301000000

12900

3000

53511111

3rd

W310x79

177000000

10100

3000

31466667

Using these properties, the stiffness and mass matrices Ku and Mu of the structure are obtained.

4

k 1+ k 2 k 2

0

Ku= k 2 k 2+k 3 k 3

0

k 3

+k3

M1 0

0

Ku= 0

M2 0

0

0

M3

(8)

(9)

Three different variations of local damage are applied to the undamaged structure. The simulated

damage scenarios were:

Case 1:10% stiffness reduction in member 1

Case 2:40% stiffness reduction in member 1

Case 3:90% stiffness reduction in member 1

Table 2: Summary of stiffness values

Stiffness, k

Undamaged Case

(N/m)

58844444

Ground

10%

55902222

Damaged Cases

40%

47075556

90%

32364444

Second

53511111

53511111

53511111

53511111

Third

31466667

31466667

31466667

31466667

and

the parameters of the damaged state from the undamaged state. This change is quantified as the

damage imposed to the structure. The summary of the stiffness values k x per story x in several

damage cases is written in Table 2.

Using these properties, Eq. (2) is used to compute for the three eigenvalues and eigenvectors

corresponding to the 3 dofs per model.

Table 3: Summary of mode shapes for each damage scenario

Mode

1

2

3

Undamaged

eigenvalues

5.423084946

30.85697845

74.76101287

10% stiffness

Damaged eigenvalues

40% stiffness

90% stiffness

reduction

5.288666084

30.33584982

74.07917517

reduction

4.831296316

28.71327576

72.14701672

reduction

3.838544184

25.86672974

69.29944965

The residual force vector was then calculated using Eq (6). The summary of results is shown in

Table 4. All of the cases showed that there are no values in the vector R value for rows 2 and 3

5

reflecting that there are no damage present in storey 2 and storey 3. The non-zero R value in the

first row shows that the damage is present in storey 1. The method successfully identified which is

the damaged storey in the 2d frame. However localization of the damage or knowing which specific

member is subjected to damage cannot be determined through the model since a lumped mass

approach was used.

Damaged Case

Mode

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

3.3

R in kN

2942

0

0

11769

0

0

26480

0

0

Validation of Method

The second set of calculations is done with an objective of determining the location of damage

using the same residual force vector given only the eigenvalue and eigenvector parameters of the

damaged state and the stiffness and mass matrices of the undamaged state. The methodology is

presented in Fig 4.

The same dynamic properties of the damaged structure from the first part of the methodology were

used as an input for calculating the residual force vector using Eq (7). In this case, it is assumed that

the input values are obtained from a measured response and not from a local damage application.

The summary of results is shown in table 2. The results are exactly the same showing that either

forms of equation 5 can be used in locating the damage in a structure.

Case

1

2

3

4.

Mode

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

R in kN

2942

0

0

11769

0

0

26480

0

0

Conclusions

It was presented in this paper that knowing the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the damaged

structure through a measured response along with the structural properties of the undamaged state

such as stiffness and mass parameters can easily determine the location of damage in a structure by

its storey using the residual force vector equation.

The researchers found out that the rows in which R-values are present is the corresponding story

location of the damage in the structure. In a case that there would be two R-values present, the

negative values should be neglected, as it is just a result of the formation of the stiffness matrix of a

lumped mass model.

It was identified through the calculations that residual force equation alone will not be enough to

locate the damage in a localized aspect because the matrices were formed in a lumped mass

approach.

The researcher recommends a modification of the study that addresses the localization of damaged

member for future researches.

5.

[1]

[2]

References

SALAWU O.S., Detection of Structural Damage Through Changes in Frequency: A

Review, Engineering Structures, Vol. 19, No. 9, 1997, pp. 718-723.

BARUCH M., Optimal correction of mass and stiffness matrices using measured modes,

Am Inst AeronautAstronaut J, Vol. 20, No.11, 1982, pp. 16231636.

7

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

Inst Aeronaut Astronaut J, Vol. 21, No.8, 1983, pp. 11681173.

CAWLEY P, ADAMS R.D. The predicted and experimental natural modes of free-free

CFRP plates, J Compos Mater, Vol. 12, 1978, pp. 336347.

SU W.C., et. al. Locating damaged storeys in a shear building based on its sub-structural

natural frequencies, Engineering Structures, Vol. 39, 2012, pp. 126-138

GE M., LUI E.M. Structural damage identification using system dynamic properties,

Computers and Structures Vol. 83, 2005, pp. 2185-2196.

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