You are on page 1of 259

This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.

“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s

collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”

Copyright © 2003 Swets & Zeitlinger B.V., Lisse, The Netherlands. Revised edition.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication or the information contained herein may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written prior permission from the publishers.

Although all care is taken to ensure the integrity and quality of this publication and the information herein, no responsibility is assumed by the publishers nor the author for any damage to property or persons as a result of operation or use of this publication and/or the information contained herein.

Published by: A.A. Balkema Publishers, a member of Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers www.balkema.nl and www.szp.swets.nl

ISBN 0-203-97109-4 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 90 5410 423 6 (paperback edition)

192 Hydrometry

structures structures

Drop

x

x

Division

xx

x

x

x

intakes

Small

farm

x

x

x

xx

xx

offtakes

Tertiary

x

x

x

x

x

x

xx

x

x

x

xx

Secondary

offtakes

x

x

x

x

x

x

  • x xx

emergency

structures

Tail and

xx

xx

x

x

x

check structures

Cross regulators

Q<Q<Q FS

xx

x

x

x

x

Cross regulators Q=Q FS check structures

  • Head- works

x

x

x

a 2 b 1,2 a 2 b 1,2

a 1,2 b 1

a 1 a 2 b 1 b 2 a 1 b 1 a 1 b 1 a 2 b 2

a 2 b 2

a 2 b 2 a 1 b 1

Crump-de Gruyter adj. orifice a 2 b 1

a 2 b 1 a 1 b 1 a 1 b 1

Overflow weirs with fixed crest a 1 b 1 Horse shoe/duck bill/Giraudet a 1 b 1

a 1 b 1 a 1 b 1

a 1 b 1

a 1 b 1

Flumes in proportional divisors a 1 b 1

a 1 b 1

a 2 b 1

b 1,2

Combination horse shoe + gate a 1,2

Table 6.2. Irrigation structures. Name of structure overflow underflow modular submerged Adjustable overflow weirs Stoplogs Adjustable undershot gates

Shutter gates Automatic gates Syphon spillways Side weirs Romijn and Butcher weir Constant Head Orifice

Neyrpic Modules Pipe outlets Syphons and small pipes

Crump overflow weir Parshall flume Metergates Sharp-crested weirs

Flash board checks

Adjustable divisors