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KAMPALA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING


TEL 4206: ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS
YEAR FOUR SEMSTER TWO, END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION 2014/15
INSTRUCTIONS:

This Examination contains Five (5) questions.


Attempt any four (4) Questions for full mark.
The first four questions shall be marked if more than five questions are attempted.
All Questions carry equal marks of 25%.
Begin each Question on a fresh page

0 8.854 X 1012 F / m
o 4 X 107 H/m
o 120
c 3 X 108 m / s

Question One (25 Marks)


a)

i) Explain what is meant by load resistance and radiation resistance of an antenna giving
their significance.
(2 Marks)
ii)Account for the losses that occur within the antenna system and state ways of mitigating
such losses
( 3 Marks)
b) i) State three circuit quantities and three space quantities that characterize an antenna ( 3
Marks)
ii) Distinguish between back lobe and side lobe ( 3 Marks)
iii) Stating any valid assumptions made, derive the radiation equation of an antenna and
hence state three conditions that are necessary to create electromagnetic radiation
(4
Marks)
c) Distinguish between Omni directional, isotropic and directional antenna stating where each
antenna finds direct application
( 4 Marks)
d) Define the following in relation to antenna radiation
i)
Radiation lobe ( 2 Marks)
ii)
Radiation pattern ( 2 Marks)
iii)
power pattern ( 2 Marks)
Question Two (25 Marks)

a) With reference to an antenna, explain the following parameters stating the hypothesis where
need be.
i. Input Impedance
( 1 Mark)
ii. Effective area
( 2 Marks)
iii. Radiated power
( 2 Marks)
iv. Radiation Intensity
( 1 Marks)
b) i) Define antenna efficiency and state three factors that affect the efficiency of an antenna. ( 3
Marks)
ii) Distinguish between the Gain and directivity of an antenna and give their mathematical
expressions explaining all the parameters involved
(4 Marks)
iii)What is the fundamental difference between the reactive near field, radiating near field
and far field region of an antenna.
( 3 Marks)
20 V / m
c) An antenna is characterized by E
in far field. At a point in far field,
r
Wav (r )
i.
Average
power
density,
ii.
iii.

( 3 Marks)
Compute the total radiated power
Evaluate the maximum directivity of the antenna

( 3 Marks)
( 3 Marks)

Question Three (25 Marks)


a) i) Define an Antenna Array
( 2 Marks)
ii) Give three reasons for the use of antenna arrays over individual elements
(2 Marks)
iii) Explain five degrees of freedom in the design of an antenna array
( 3 Marks)
b) i) Using illustrations, distinguish between conformal, planar, circular and linear Antenna
arrays
( 2 Marks)
ii. Define standing waves and account for their existence in antenna systems and explain how
they can be minimized
(3 Marks)
c) i. Explain the significance of poyntig vector giving its mathematical expression ( 3 Marks)
ii. State three properties satisfied by the Electric and Magnetic fields in the far field region of
the antenna.
(3 Marks)
d) i)Explain what you understand by the terms Radiation and an antenna clearly stating their
major role in wireless telecommunication systems.
( 4 Marks)
ii) Using illustrations, distinguish between broadside and End fire arrays
( 3 Marks)
Question Four ( 25 Marks)
a) Show that for an N-element uniform array with progressive phase shift ,the normalized
array factor can be written as;


sin N
2

A.F

N
2
Use a neat diagram to explain all the parameters used
(6 Marks)
b) From the expression above of A.F,
i. Derive the requirements for achieving the nulls of the A.F and hence state the necessary
and sufficient conditions for the existence for the nulls of the array factor.
( 3 Marks)
ii. Derive the locations of the maxima of the total radiated field
( 4 Marks)
iii Define beam nulling and beam steering
( 4 Marks)
c) Define the following parameters of an antenna
i) Beam width ( 2 Marks)
ii) HPBW ( 2 Marks)
iii) FNBW ( 2 Marks)
d) Distinguish between Radian and steradian ( 2 Marks)

Question Five (25 Marks)


a) i)Define VSWR and ISWR ( 3 Marks)
ii) Discuss three causes of reflection along the transmission-line antenna system ( 3 Marks)
iii) Discuss three losses that may occur along a transmission line feeding an antenna (3
Marks)
b) i)Define polarization and explain three possible types of polarization (5
marks )
ii) State the main advantages and disadvantages of helical antenna
compared to a reflector antenna. (4 marks)
c) i) Derive the condition to obtain plane waves at points behind the focal
point of a parabolic reflector antenna. (4 marks )
ii) Explain the factors that should be considered in the design of an antenna
feeder and parabolic reflector ( 3 Marks)