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Universitatea Transilvania Brasov

Inginerie Mecanica
Automotive Engineering

PROJECT
SPEED REDUCER

Grupa 1711-Ae
Student: Ponea Andrei Alexandru
Indrumator: Ing. Alina Eftimie

2013-2014

CONTENT

A. CALCULUS MEMORIUM
1. Structural scheme.. ....pag.2
2. Calculus of the gear.pag.3
2.1. Predimension calculus of the gear... ....pag.3
2.2. Dimension calculus of the gear....pag.8
2.3. Predimension calculus of the shafts....pag.11
2.4. Kinematic scheme of the speed reducer,scale 1:1 ...pag.11
3. Gear forces calculus......pag.11
3.1. Calculating the size of forces..pag.11
3.2. Preparing and establishing meanings scheme forces..pag.12
4. Shafts calculus....pag.12
4.1. Choosing the bearing mountings......pag.12
4.2. Checking the input shaft at compound stresses...........pag.13
5. Choosing and checking the key ring assambley between the dirving wheel
and the output shaft..................................... ..pag.16
6. Choosing and checking bearing mounting of the input shaft............pag.17
7. Choosing and justifying of the lubrication sistem.....pag.19
8. Choosing and justifying of the seal devices..........pag.20
8.1. Calculus of the shaft ends...pag.21
9. Calcululs of the belt transmission..pag.22

10.

Justifying Memorium..
pag.24
11.Safety Rules..pag.24

B. DRAWINGS
1. Assembly drawing of the speed reducer(A1)
2. Detail drawing of the input shaft(A3)

1. Transmision structural scheme:

P, n

ic

ir

1
II

aw

1.1. Determination of the torques and speeds on the shafts:


-motor shaft:
M tm 9,55 10 6

P
7,5
9,55 10 6
10116,5 N mm
n
708

n 708 rot min

-input shaft (I):


M tI TI M tm ic 10116,5 1,23 12443,2 N mm
nI

n 708

575,6 rot min


ic 1,23

- output shaft (II):


M tII TII M tI ir 12443,2 5 62216 N mm
n II

n I 575,6

115,12 rot
ic
5

min

2. Calcululs of the gear


2.1.Predimension calculus of the gear
Table 2.1
1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.

Design Data
Rotation at pinion n1 , rot
Pinion Torque TI , N mm
Gear ratio u dat
Lifetime
Functioning conditions

1.6.
1.7.

Tooth load cicles


The number of load cycles,to tooth
flank in a turn, 1 for
pinion,respectivly
2 for drived wheel
Reference rack profile

1.8.

n1 575,6 rot min


TI 12443,2 N mm

min

u dat 5
Lh 8500ore

car engine electrical motor


asincron
Drived car band transportor
Pulsatory cicles
1, 2 1

For inclined tooth

n 20 , han

1,0 ,

c n 0,25 ,

fn 0,38

2.
2.1.

2.2.

3.

Materials
Choise of two wheels tratments,and
hardness obtained

Limit tension, H lim 1, 2 at contact and


F lim 1, 2 bending, Mpa

Predimension Calculus
4

19 M o C r11 - cementation
r .1, 2 1300Mpa

o 2.1, 2 750Mpa

quality class MQ

H lim1, 2 1500 Mpa

F lim 1, 2 550 Mpa

HRC 58

3.1.

Tooth number for the pinion z1 ,


respectivly z 2 for drived wheel

a
2
2
z1 max w
cos 45
cos12
5 1
mn udat 1
15 tooth
z1 z1 max 18 tooth
z 2 z1 udat 18 5 90 tooth

aw
40...50
mn

for cementate and

hardned wheels
6...14 for hardned wheels
3.2.

Real gear ratio u

z2
90

5,33
z1
18

u
1

u
5,33
1
0.005 u
u dat
5

u 0,03

3.3.
3.3.1.

FACTORS FOR CALCULATING THE CONTACTS


The factors of elasticity of the
materials of the weels z E , Mpa

zE

1
1
1 22

E2
E1
2
1

1
1 0,3
1 0,3 2
3,14

5
2,06 10 2
2,06 10
2

3.3.2.

Factor of the contact area z H

3.3.3.

Coverage factor

z H 2,49 cos 2,49 cos 12 2,462

1
1

0,845

1,4

1,4

inclined teeth

3.3.4.
Inclined teeth factor

3.4.

189,8 Mpa

cos

FACTORS FOR CALCULATING TO BENDING

cos 12 0,989

3.4.1.

3.4.2.
3.4.3.

Tooth number of the equivalent


wheel z n 1, 2

z1, 2

zn 1, 2

cos3
z1
18
zn1

18.822 tooth
3
cos cos3 12
z2
90
zn 2

93,208 tooth
3
cos cos3 12

Coeficients of traveled profile in


normal plane x n 1, 2
Tooth form factors YFa 1, 2

x n 1, 2 0

YFa 1, 2 YFa 1, 2 z n 1, 2 , x n 1, 2
YFa 1 YFa (18,822 , 0) 2,95
YFa 2 YFa (93,21, 0) 2,23

3.4.4.

YSa 1, 2 YSa ( z n 1, 2 , x n 1, 2 )

Corection factors of the tension


at the base of the tooth YSa 1, 2

YSa 1 YSa (18,822 ,0) 1,525


YSa 2 YSa (93,21 ,0) 1,775

3.4.5.

Coverage factor

Y 0,25

0,75
cos 2

0,75
cos 2 12 0,763
1,4
1,4 for inclined teeth, 12

0,25

3.4.6.

Inclined teeth factor

3.5.
3.5.1.

LOAD CORECTION FACTORS


Functionating factor K A

3.5.2.
3.5.3.

Dinamic factor K
Uneven distribution factors
pregnancy on the width of teeth,
K H for contact load and
K F for bending load

3.5.4.

3.6.

Y 1

12
1
0,9
120
120
K A 1,35
K 1,1

K H 1,4
K F 1,3

,
For hardened steels,or nitread
surfaces

Uneven distribution factors


pregnancy frontal, K H for
contact load and K F for bending
load
Tensile load, HP 1, 2
for contact load,
respectively FP 1, 2 for inflection
load, n Mpa

1,4

2
cos cos 2 12
1,463 1,4

K H K F

for inclined teeth

HP 1

H lim Z N 1
ZLZvZRZwZ x
S H min

1500 1,18
1 1 1 1437,5 Mpa
1,2
H lim Z N 2

ZLZvZR ZwZ x
S H min

HP 2

1500 1,3
1 1 1 1625 Mpa
1,2

HP min( HP1 , HP 2 ) 1437,5 Mpa


6

3.6.1.
3.6.2.
3.6.3.
3.6.4.
3.6.5.
3.6.6.
3.6.7.

Predimensions factors
Z L Z v Z R 1,0 for rectified gears
Lubrication factor Z L
,
Speed factor Z v
cu Ra 0,4m
Roughness factor Z R
Z w 1,0
Torque factors materials Z w
Z x 1,0
Size factor Z x
Durability factors requests contact N L1 60n1 Lh 1 60 575,6 8500 1
293,5 10 6
the pinion and wheel driven

N L1 60n 2 Lh 2 60 115,12 8500 1

58,71 10 6

3.6.8.
3.6.9.

Z N 1 1,18 Z N 2 1,3
S h min 1,2

Minimum safety factor contact


request S h min
Tensile load for request by
inflection FP1 and
FP 2 in Mpa

F lim 1Y ST Y N 1
Y 1Y R1Y X
S F min
550 2 1,05

1 1 1 770 MPa
1,5

Y Y
FP 2 F lim 2 ST N 2 Y 2 Y R 2 Y X
S F min
550 2 1,1

1 1 1 807 MPa
1,5
FP1

3.6.10. Predimension factor for calculus


Correction factor of the tension at
flexure
The relative sensitivity factor of
the tension concentrator at
foot for sprocket tooth
wheel
Relative roughness factor
The connection area at the bottom
of
for tooth pinion and wheel
Size factor

3.7.
3.7.1.

Y ST 2.0

Y 1, 2 1

YR1, 2 1,0
pentru

Ra 3.2

YX 1
Y N 1 1,05

Durability factors
inflection request for
driven sprocket wheel
Minimum safety factor
at the request of inflection
Axe distances at predimension
Width coefficients a , d

Y N 2 1,1

S F min 1.5

a 0,35
u 1
5 1
d
a
0,35 1,05
2
2

3.7.2.

Wheelbase of condition
Resistance to contact

aWH (u 1)3
(5 1)3

T1 K A K V K H K H
2 a u

2
HP

(Z E Z H Z Z ) 2

12443,2 1,35 1,1 1,4 1,463

2 0,35 5 1437,5 2

104,16 mm
HP min( HP1 ; HP 2 ) 1437,5 Mpa

3.7.3.

Wheelbase of condition
resistance to
by inflection

aWF 3

Y Y
T1 z1 (u 1)
K A K V K F K F Y Y Fa Sa
2a cos
FP

53,75mm
Y Y
YFa YSa
Y Y
max Fa1 Sa1 ; Fa 2 Sa 2
FP
FP 2
FP1
max(5,84 10 3 ; 4,9 10 3 ) 5,84 10 3

3.7.4.
3.7.5.

aW max(aWH ; aWF ) max(104,16;53,75)

Adopting the distance between


the axes at
predimensioning a w , mm
Preliminary wheel widths

104,16 Mpa

It takes from STAS 6055

aW 125mm

b2 a a w 0,31 125 38,75 mm

Se adopt b2 39 mm

b1, 2 , mm

b1 b2 b 41 mm
b 2 mm

3.8.

Teeth modulus

mn , mm

mn

2a w
cos mmin
z1 z 2

mmin 2,0 mm for cementation


2 125
mn
cos 12 2,78mm
12 76

see STAS 822 it takes

steel

mn 3 mm

2.2. Calculul de dimensionare i geometric al angrenajului


Table 2.2
Date de intrare
Denumirea parametrului

Simbol i unitate de
8

Date de

msur

proiectare

Date de intrare
P , kW
Puterea de transmis
7,5
Lh , ore
Durata de funcionare
8500
KA
Factorul regimului de funcionare
1,35
Tipul motorului
Electric asincron
Caracterul sarcinii
Pulsatoriu
n1 , rot / min
Turaia pinionului
575,6
a w , mm
Distana dintre axe
125

,
grade
Unghiul de nclinare a danturii
12

Coeficientul de lime
0,30
a
z1
Numrul de dini ai pinionului
18
z2
Numrul de dini ai roii conduse
90
Materiale preliminare
Tipul oelului
Oeluri de cementare, cementate
Marca oelului
17MnCr10
Duritatea superficial
HRC
47
Duritatea miezului
HB
260
Tensiunea limit recomandat la contact
MPa
1500
H lim1, 2 , MPa
Tensiunea limit aleas la contact
1500
Tensiunea limit recomandat la nconvoiere
MPa
550
F lim1, 2 ,MPa
Tensiunea limit aleas la nconvoiere
550
Date privind prelucrarea danturii
Rugozitatea flancului
1,6
R
,

m
Rugozitatea zonei de racordare
<3,2
a
Condiii impuse in exploatare
Se admit un numr de ciupituri
Coeficienii minimi de siguran
S H min
Pentru solicitarea de contact
1,1
S F min
Pentru solicitarea de nconvoiere
1,5

Tabelul 2.3
Rezultatele calculului de rezisten i geometric
Denumirea parametrului care s-a calculat

Treapta I
Pinion

ELEMENTELE ANGRENAJULUI
Distana dintre axe
Distana dintre axe de referin

Roat
a w 125 mm

a 124,214 mm

Modulul normal al danturii


Unghiul de nclinare a danturii
Unghiul de nclinare a danturii pe
cilindrul de baz
Unghiul de presiune n plan frontal
Ungiul real de
frontal
angrenare n plan
normal
Suma coeficienilor deplasrilor de profil,
n plan normal
Gradul
n plan frontal
de
suplimentar
acoperire
total
Viteza pe cercul de divizare
Treapta de precizie de execuie
Vscozitatea lubrifiantului
Rugozitatea
flancului activ
zonei de racordare
ELEMENTELE ROILOR DINATE
Diametrele cercurilor de cap
Diametrele cercurilor de picior
Diametrele cercurilor de divizare
Diametrele cercurilor de rostogolire
Diametrele cercurilor de baz
Numerele de dini
Limile roilor
Coeficientul deplasrii de profil, n
plan normal
Coeficientul minim al deplasrii de profil,
n plan normal

mn 2,25 mm
12

b 11,267
t 20,410
wt 21,357
wn 20,926
x sn 0,357

1,45
1,10
2,55
v 2m/ s

50 270 cSt
Ra 0,8 m
Ra 1,6 m
d a1 40,994 mm

d a 2 217,971 mm

d f 1 30,904 mm

d f 2 207,881 mm

d1 34,504 mm

d 2 213,925 mm

d w1 34,722 mm

d w 2 215,277 mm

d b1 32,337 mm

d b 2 200,494 mm

z1 15 dini
b1 38 mm

z 2 93 dini
b2 36 mm

x n1 0,45

x n 2 0,093

x n min1 0,062

x n min 2 4,815

Table2.3 (c)
Grosimea dintelui pe cercul de cap,
san1 1,00 mm
n plan normal
Grosimea minim a dintelui pe cercul de cap,
san min1 0,9 mm
n plan normal
ELEMENTELE ANGRENAJULUI ECHIVALENT
z n1 15,94
Numerele de dini
d n1 35,873 mm
Diametrele cercurilor de divizare
d bn1 33,709 mm
Diametrele cercurilor de baz
10

san 2 1,85 mm
san min 2 0,9 mm

z n1 98,85
d n 2 222,414 mm
d bn 2 209,001 mm

Diametrele cercurilor de cap


Distana dintre axe
Gradul de acoperire
FACTORI DE CALCUL
Factorul regimului de funcionare
Factorul dinamic
Factorii de repartizare a sarcinii pe
limea danturii
Factorii de repartizare a sarcinii n plan
frontal
Factorul de elasticitate al materialelor roilor
Factorul zonei de contact
Factorii nclinrii danturii
Factorii de form ai dinilor
Factorii de corecie a tensiunilor de
nconvoiere
Factorul de lubrifiere
Factorul de vitez
Factorii de rugozitate
Factorii relativi de sensibilitate

d an1 42,363 mm

d an 2 226,461 mm

a wn 129,925 mm
n 1,51

K A 1,35
K v 1,06
K H 1,33

K F 1,28

K H 1,45

K F 1,45

Z E 189,8
Z H 2,39

Z 0,99

Y 0,90

Y Fa1 2,27

YSa1 1,75

Z L 1,07
Z v 0,96

Z R 0,97

YR 1

Y 1 1,00

YFa 2 2,22

YSa 2 1,77

Y 2 0,998

Factorii de durabilitate
Coeficienii minimi de siguran

Z N 1 1,04

Y N 1 1,00

Z N 2 1,15

Y N 2 1,00

S H min 1,10

S F min 1,50

2.3. Predimensioning calculation of input and output shafts


Input shaft
d1 3

M t1
12443,2
3
16,06 mm
0,2 at
0,2 15
at 15 MPa

Output shaft
d2 3

M t2
62216
3
19,04 mm
at
0,2 45
at 45 MPa
11

d1 16mm

will take :

d 2 19mm

2.4. Drawing cinematic scheme of gear, 1:1(annex1)


3.2. Establishing meaning force

4. Shafts calculus
4.1. Choosing assemblies with bearings for the input and output shafts
d rul1 d1 (2.....7) 16 2 14mm
d rul 2 d 2 (1....7) 19 1 18mm

Choise of bearings

15

62

16

14

17.25 14
12

Cr

Table 4.1
Simbol

0.37

47.5

1.6

30206A

d
II 20

Rs min

Cr

Cor

Table 4.2
Speed limit Simbol

72

17

1,1

25,5

13,7

9000

6207

4.2. Checking the input shaft at compoused stresses

The establishment schemes of the load forces on the input shaft


two planes, horizontal and vertical

Determination reatiunilor the camps for two perpendicular planes

In horizontal plane
M A 0 Fa1

HB

Fa1

dw
l
Fr1 H B l 0
2
2

dw
l
36,4
Fr1
852,7
1740,21 78
2
2
2
957,29 N
l
78

13

M B 0 H A l Fa1

HA

Fa1

dw
l
Fr1 0
2
2

dw
l
36,4
78
Fr1
852,7
1740,21
2
2
2
2 559,8 N
l
78

In vertical plane
M A 0 VB l Ft1

VB

l
78
5015,9
2
2 2186,4 N
l
78

Ft1

M B 0 V A l Ft1

VA

l
0
2

l
0
2

l
78
5015,9
2
2 2186,4 N
l
78

Ft1

Determine the reactions of the two camps


RB

H B2 V B2

957,29 2 2186,4 2 2386,79 N

RA

H A2 V A2

559,8 2 2186,4 2 2256,93 N

Draw the diagram of bendin moments in the two planes

14

M i max H A

d
l
78
36,36
Fa1 w1 559,8
852,7
37334 Nmm
2
2
2
2

M i max V A

l
78
2186,4
85269 Nmm
2
2

Determine the total maximum bending moments


2

M i M iV M iH2 85269 2 37334 2 93083Nmm

Identify stresses

- Compression by

Fa1

4 Fa1
4 852,7

1,05 MPa
2
d t1 3,14 32,14 2

t1

16T1
16 91189

14MPa
3
d t1 3,14 32,14 3

32T1
32 91189

28 MPa
3
d t1 3,14 32,14 3

- torsion

- bending

15

l1 c2 4( t1 ) 2 1,05 2 4(0,27 14) 2 7,6 MPa

ai II
90

0,27
ai I
330

l 1 7,6 MPa ai II 90 MPa

5. Selection and verification of the wheel assembly to be folded parallel run and
output shaft

Determine length calculus

16

4T
F 4TII 1
1
4 410351

as l c II

47,86mm
A
d II fl c
d II as h 35,72 120 8

l 47,68 10 57,86mm

will take
Because

l b2

it takes 2 keyrings A8 x10 x32 STAS 1004-8 1


f

l STAS 63mm

2T II
as
l c bd II

2 410354
48MPa as 100MPa
35,72 10 47,86

6. Election and installation verification of the input shaft bearings

Checking the bearing montage


Choosing the type of the bearings
- Choose mounting angular contact bearings, tapered roller in a row in X type
- Scheme montage with bearings in X type

17

Check bearings assembly for dynamic load capacity


Establishing additional axial forces
FrA
559,8
0,5
174,93 N
Y
1,6
F
957,29
0,5 rB 0,5
299,15 N
Y
1,6

'
FaA
0,5

FaB'

- Camp B
FaA 852,7

17,76
C0r
48
FaB
299,15

0,31
FrB
957,29

Dinamic load equivalent


PB f P (V P X FrB Y FaA ) 1,16(1 0,4 957,29 1,6 1740) 3673,6 N

VP 1

- interior ring is spining

Bearing lifetime
L

60 nI Ln 60 1152 8500

552,96mil. rot .
106
106

18

- Dynamic load capacity required


C r nec B PB P L 36733 552,96 3015248,46 N

- Durability ensured by revolving


C
L r
PB

3015248,46

3673,6

820,78mil.rot .

- Lifetime certified
Lf

106 L 106 552,96

8500hours
60n
60 1152

7. Choice and justification of the lubrication system


The wheel is immersed in the oil bath and grease the pinion gear.
Due to high rpm bearings are lubricated by balbotaj.
8. Choice and justification of the seals

Select two cuffs : A28x40 i A38x52 STAS 7950/2-72


19

Tabelul 8.1

Nr
I
II

dm

28
38

h
10
10

D
50
50

Due to the high speeds choose cuff seal rotation.

8.1 Calculus of shafts end

d aI , II d mI , II ( 4....6)

Table 8.1
Nr d (mm)
I
24
II 28
a

l
36
42

b
8
10

20

9. Calculation of narrow V-belt transmission


9.1

Computing power to the driveshaft:

Pe 7,5 Kw

9.2

Speed pulley driven :


n2 115,12rot / min

9.3

Transmission ratio :
ic 5

9.4 Belt type :


- We will choose type SPA
9.5

Primitive small wheel diameter :


din STAS 1162-67
Primitive big wheel diameter :

D p1 100mm

9.6

D p 2 i D p1 5 100 500mm

9.7

Primitive medium diameter:


D pm

9.8

D p1 D p 2
2

100 500
300mm
2

Distance between axes :


I.

PRELIMINAR

0,7 ( D p1 D p 2 ) A 2 ( D p1 D p 2 )
0,7 (100 500) A 2 (100 500)
420 A 1200
A 750

II. DEFINITIVE

( 1 D p1 2 D p 2 ) 900
(174,2 100 185,73 1125)
360
360
A

749,03mm
1
174,2
2 sin
2 sin
2
2
A 750mm
Lp

9.9

The angle between branches belt:


57

D p 2 D p1
A

57

130 100
6,84
250

9.10 Winding wheel angle than belt :


1 180 180 6,84 173,16

9.11 Angle of winding the big wheel belt :


2 180 180 6,84 186,84

9.12 Primitive belt length:


21

( 1 D p1 2 D p 2 )
2
360
173,16

2 250 sin

(173,16 100 186,84 130) 862,96mm


2
360
L p 2 A sin

- we will take L p 900mm


9.13 Periferic Speed :
v

D p 2 n2
60 1000

130 1107 ,7
7,54m / s
60 1000

9.14 Functioning coeficient :


c f 1,2

9.15 Length coeficient :


cl 0,83

9.16 Winding coeficient :


c 0,99

9.17 Nominal power transited by one belt :


P0 7,5 Kw

9.18 Belts number :


I. Preliminar
z0

c f Pe

cL c P0

1,2 13,5
1,79
0,83 0,99 7,5

z 0 1,79

1,89
cz
0,95

c z 0,95
z2

9.19 Belts coeficient:

z 0 1,79 c z 0,95

9.20 Wheels number :


x=2
9.21 Frequency sag belt :
f 10 3 x

v
7,54
10 3 2
16,75 Hz
Lp
900

9.22 Periferic force transmited :


F 102

Pe
7,5
102
179 N
v
7,54

9.23 Belt stretching force:


S a (1,5.....2) F 1,75 179 313 N

9.24 Shares change the distance between axes:


x 0,03 L p x 0,03 900 x 27 x 30

y 0,015 L p y 0,015 900 y 13,5 y 15

22

10 JUSTIFY MEMORIUM
23

Roll-reducing gear mechanism are mounted in sealed enclosures and used for
speed reduction, while the amplification of the torque transmitted. The need for
reduction gears in mechanical transmission, resulting from economic conditions, by
using reducers can choose high speed engines have reduced clearance.
In the design, an important role is the choice of materials both in terms of cost
price and strength, a slight processing and interchangeability with other machine
parts.
Wherever possible and ensure fasteners will correspond manufacturing
technique STAS, observing mechanical characteristics.
Use asynchronous electric motor with a power of 7.5 KW running at speed 708
rev / min.
Pinion shaft runs our body with the necessary means for attachment to a tree.
The steel execute 17MnCr10 mark the cementation and thermal treatment.
The gear is fastened to the shaft by parallel keys made of OL60 STAS 1004-81.
Housings and covers will be made of Fe-250 STAS 1004-75 is a cast iron with
lamellar graphite, with a tensile strength of 250 N/mm2.
11 DATA SECURITY STANDARDS WORK
At work or operation of the gearbox will have to take into account the following
provisions on occupational safety rules technique.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Reducer is screwed on the bench.


Do not use reducers lacking parts and components.
Do not change the oil during operation.
Do not check the oil during operation.
Worn or defective parts will be replaced with more appropriate.
There are adjustment of bearing play during operation.
Observe the oil change intervals and bearings.
It is envisaged not to exceed the hours of operation to gear.

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