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This PPT helps how to design a Butterworth filter

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Butterworth Filter

Lecture by

R. Sivarajan, Assistant Professor

Adhiparasakthi Engineering College

Magnitude Response

The magnitude function of the butterworth low pass filter is

given by

---------------(1)

where, N is the order of the filter, and

c is the cut off frequency.

Magnitude Response

Magnitude Response

As shown in the figure above, the function is monotonically

decreasing, where the maximum response is unity at =0.

The ideal response is shown by dashed line.

It can be seen that the magnitude response approaches the

ideal low pass characteristics as the order N increases.

For values <c, H(j) =1, For values >c, the values

of H(j) decreases.

At =c, the curve pass through 0.707 which corresponds

to -3 dB point.

From equation (1), we can get the magnitude square function

of a normalized butterworth filter as (

c=1 rad/sec)

----------------------(1a)

Let us derive the transfer function of a stable filter. For this

purpose, substituting =s/j, we can write

The above equation tells us that this function has poles in the

LHS as well as in RHS because of the presence of two factor

H(s) and H(-s).

If H(s) has roots in the LHS, then the H(-s) has corresponding

roots in the RHS.

These roots we can get by equating denominator to zero, i.e.,

For N odd,

-------------------(2)

Lecture by R. Sivarajan, AP/ECE/APEC

For N odd,

------------------(3)

We know that for N odd, the roots can be obtained from

equation (2).

For N = 3,

All the poles are located in the s plane as shown in the figure

below.

It is found that the angular separation between the poles is

given by 360/2N, which in this case is equal to 60o and all the

poles lie on the circle.

To ensure stability, considering only the poles that lie in the

left half of the s plane, we can write the denominator of the

transfer function H(s) as

Therefore the transfer function of a third order butterworth

filter for cut off frequency c=1 rad/sec is

---------------(4)

Lecture by R. Sivarajan, AP/ECE/APEC

As we interested on a poles that lie in the left half of the s

plane, the same can be found by using

where

----------(5)

Now for N=3,

Hence the denominator of the transfer function is

So, the transfer function for normalized butterworth filter is

Hence the denominator of the transfer function is

butterworth filter for any order of a filter as shown in table

below.

Lecture by R. Sivarajan, AP/ECE/APEC

N

Denominator of H(s)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Lecture by R. Sivarajan, AP/ECE/APEC

Equation 5 gives us the pole locations of butterworth filter for

c= 1 rad/ sec and are known as normalized poles.

In general, the unnormalized poles are given by

---------------------(6)

The transfer function of such butterworth filter can be obtained

by substituting s s/

c in the transfer function of the

butterworth filter shown in table above.

In equation (1a), the filter was restricted to -3 dB attenuation at

c .

Now let the maximum pass band attenuation in positive dB

is p (<3 dB) at pass band frequency p and s is the

minimum stop band attenuation in positive dB at the stop

band frequency s.

Now the magnitude function can be written as

Lecture by R. Sivarajan, AP/ECE/APEC

From the figure above, we can find that at =p, the

attenuation is equal to p,

--------------(7)

Lecture by R. Sivarajan, AP/ECE/APEC

Referring to the above figure, at =s,

Lecture by R. Sivarajan, AP/ECE/APEC

Taking log on both side,

-------------------(8)

value, we therefore round off to the next highest value.

--------------------(9)

Lecture by R. Sivarajan, AP/ECE/APEC

where,

and

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