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Unit

Biodiversity

Evolution

Page
Pg. 145-149
Pg. 150-151
Pg. 273
Pg. 276
Pg. 387-391

Internal Systems

Pg. 521-525

Plants

Pg. 619-623

Unit
Biodiversity

Evolution

Page
Pg. 145-149
Pg. 150-151
Pg. 273
Pg. 276
Pg. 387-391

Internal Systems

Pg. 521-525

Plants

Pg. 619-623

Unit
Biodiversity

Evolution

Page
Pg. 145-149
Pg. 150-151
Pg. 273
Pg. 276
Pg. 387-391

Internal Systems

Pg. 521-525

Plants

Pg. 619-623

Genetics

Genetics

Genetics

Questions
# 1,7,8,12,22,29
#4,5,7,8,10,11,15
#1-6
#1-4,6,7,9
#1-10,
11,13,14,17,18,22,27,29,31,4547, 51
#1-4, 7, 10, 12, 17, 19, 25b, 28,
30,45,47,50,53
#2-4,7,9,12-15, 19, 21, 22, 27,
48, 55,62,65, 68

Questions
# 1,7,8,12,22,29
#4,5,7,8,10,11,15
#1-6
#1-4,6,7,9
#1-10,
11,13,14,17,18,22,27,29,31,4547, 51
#1-4, 7, 10, 12, 17, 19, 25b, 28,
30,45,47,50,53
#2-4,7,9,12-15, 19, 21, 22, 27,
48, 55,62,65, 68

Questions
# 1,7,8,12,22,29
#4,5,7,8,10,11,15
#1-6
#1-4,6,7,9
#1-10,
11,13,14,17,18,22,27,29,31,4547, 51
#1-4, 7, 10, 12, 17, 19, 25b, 28,
30,45,47,50,53
#2-4,7,9,12-15, 19, 21, 22, 27,
48, 55,62,65, 68

Biodiversity
Pg. 145-149
12.] Genus and Species are the component parts. Example, Homo Sapiens.
22.] Asymmetrical individuals have no symmetry at all (Ex. A sea sponge), radial symmetry means that an organism is
symmetrical at more than one point (Ex. A Jelly fish), and bilateral symmetry means that the organism is only
symmetrical along one point in its body (Ex. A human being, symmetrical straight down the middle)
29.] One characteristic would be how it obtained nutrients. Anything that consumes other organisms is most likely
animal like, anything that produced its own food would most likely be plant like (itd also be green or red due to the
chlorophyll), anything that seems to display the ability to do both would be Fungi like.

Pg. 150-151
11.] During the lysogenic cycle, the virus pauses or goes dormant at one point in the life cycle. After the virus has
attached to a cell, it will embed its viral genetic information into the cell DNA. At this point, it goes dormant. Once a cell
has embedded viral DNA, it is a Provirus. As the cell divides, all of its daughter cells will also carry the viral DNA and be
proviruses as well.
15.] They are both bilateral, with two digestive openings and a developed nervous system. They both contain Coelums
as well.

Evolution
Pg. 387-391
11.] Diversity means that there is a lot of genetic variability within the population. This is important for evolution
because a wider range of genetics means an increased likelihood that members of the population will have favourable
genes if the environment were to change. For example, if a population of bears had members with many different fur
colours, it will be more likely to survive if the environment began to favour a specific fur colour.

13.] Geographical barriers usually separate two populations in to two different ecosystem. There is usually a physical or
climate related barrier that prevents a population from meeting another one (i.e. a highway dividing a jungle in half).
Behavioural barriers do not prevent two populations from inhabiting the same ecosystem, but the way that one
population lives in the environment may be different from the other, preventing them from either meeting or
successfully reproducing (i.e. two birds with different mating calls)

14.] It is less likely to occur in natural selection. There is genetic variability with every generation, some individuals may
be born with undesirable trait in the wild. The difference, however, is that these individuals will most likely die before
they can pass on their genes due to natural selection. With artificial selection however, these individuals may be kept
alive by humans if their traits are considered desirable to humans.

17.] Mimicry is when a population behaves or looks like a different population. This is an adaptation because it may offer
some populations an advantage over others. For example, there are some snakes that have the same color pattern as
venomous snakes. Because of this, predators will leave them alone, therefore they will survive in the wild whereas a
population that cannot mimic a dangerous one will be eaten.

18.] Natural selection influences adaptation by setting the conditions that are necessary to survive. The population will
adapt to those new conditions if they have the correct traits in their gene pool. For example, when the environment
changed in the North, the ground became lighter and whiter as ice began to form. Some populations of bears adapted
when lighter colored members began to thrive since they could blend in with the environment.

22.a] Disruptive
b.] Stabilizing
c.] Disruptive
d.] Directional
e.] Stabilizing
f.] Directional
27a.] Since this species is so spread out, it is much more difficult to pass on different traits or genes since there are very
few individuals in each population. As a result, genetic variability for this population will decrease over time.
b.] Pandas could be allowed to mate with different populations, through some kind of breeding program, to ensure
genes flow from population to population.

29a.] Grizzly and polar bears must be very closely related. Black bears must be more distantly related. This is probably
why Grizzly and Polar bears can mate whereas Black bears cannot.
b.] Yes, they must be the same species since they both produce fertile offspring.
31.] The species may be separated by temporal isolation, perhaps they are in the fruit tree at different times. Since they
are in the same tree, it is not ecological isolation. Also, since they breed when they are in captivity, it must not be
behavioural isolation either.
45.a] Lamarck would say that the rat gets larger legs since each generation uses it so much. With each generation,
continued use would make their legs bigger until they reached their current size. This is the idea of use and disuse
which is no longer accepted as a correct model of evolution.
b.] Darwin would argue that something in the rats environment must have changed millions of years ago. This created
selective pressure where individuals that possessed the correct traits had an advantage, and therefore survived and
passed on their traits. The current population were descendants of successful ancestors.
46.] This is an example of sexual selection, not natural selection. The female is the one selecting the trait, not the
environment.
47.] This is an example of Founder Effect. Since the population was initially so small, the initial gene pool was small as
well. Members of the original population must have had this mutation and passed it on to the current generation. Since
the gene pool was so small, the odds of passing on this mutation was much higher.

51.] There is always genetic variability with every generation. Some members of the population therefore had different
colors, not all of them were tan. Some of them were probably green or greenish in colour. As the environment changed
and became greener, the greener individuals could blend in better than tan individuals. Therefore, the green individuals
survived and pass their genetics on to the next generation. The next generation therefore had more green individuals
than tan. Overtime, if the environment stayed green, many individuals in this population would be green.

Internal Systems
Pg. 521-525
12.] Physical digestion occurs through churning, chemical through pepsin acting on proteins
17.] nasal cavity -> Pharynx -> Glottis -> Larynx -> Bronchiole -> Alveoli
19.] This is accomplished through a slight delay in electrical signals sent from the Sinoatrial node to the Atrioventricular
Node.
25b.] The Chicken, protein is the only nutrient that chemically breaks down in the stomach
28.] This refers to food entering the Larynx rather than the esophagus after it leaves the Pharynx. This is dangerous
because it can lead to blockage of the airway, suffocation, and possibly death.
30.] If there was no delay between contractions, than the ventricle would pump before the atrium could completely fill
it up. This would mean that the heart would be pumping inefficiently. This could lead to inadequate blood flow to the
rest of the body.
45.a.] Salivary Glands
b.] Esophagus
c.] Stomach
d.] Liver
e.] Gall Bladder
f.] Pancreas
g.] Small Intestine
h.] Large Intestine
47.] This would mean that starch would not be as easily digested and broken down into monomers (Glucose). This would
mean that not as many carbohydrates would be absorbed by the body, since the body can only absorb monomers. If the
pancreas was still secreting amylase, than some monomers would still be absorbed.
50.] This is not a good recovery position since they are making it more difficult for their diaphragm to contract and relax,
allowing their lungs to intake oxygen. An ideal position would be to stay upright, to allow the diaphragm a full range of
movement.
53.] They would not be able to digest lipids as well. This would mean less lipids being absorbed and a dietary deficiency
that can lead to health problems.
57.] By being covered in Villi and Microvilli, there is much more space for absorption to occur. This is what allows the
small intestine to have a large surface area.

Plants
Pg. 619-623
12.] Apical Meristem are usually found at the tips of the plant, lateral meristem are found throughout the plant. These
tissue are significant because they allow the plant to grow.

13.] Roots store nutrients, anchor the plant, and absorb water
14.] Seeds are dried first to prevent them from germinating before they are planted. Moisture can cause seeds to begin
germination.
15.] Cuticles are responsible for preventing water loss and therefore retain water. They are not found on roots since this
would prevent the roots from absorbing water.
19.] Seed dispersal can occur through animals, wind, or water
21.] Monocot
22.] Ground tissue has a variety of functions including photosynthesis, support, and storage. Vascular, tissue transports
materials through the plant. Meristematic tissue allows for growth. Dermal tissue covers the outside of the plant and
protects it.
27.] Since the apical meristem is cut, Auxin levels will drop. This will stimulate lateral growth, which makes weeds
bushier and grow sideways.
48.] Trimming the height ensures that the apical meristem are gone and the hedge wont get too tall. It will also
stimulate lateral growth as Auxin levels drop
55.] This supports the Hypothesis since trees at the top are losing water first through transpiration of the leaves. This is
why the tops shrink first, since water is lost there first
56.] The conditions may not have been ideal enough for the seed to germinate, or the seed have been left for too long. If
it was left for too long, the endosperm would be gone, leaving no food source left for the seedling, therefore itll die.
62.] The tree will not survive since all the bark and more importantly, the vascular bundle right underneath the bark will
be gone. This will prevent water from moving up to the leaves, which makes photosynthesis impossible.
65.] Lateral Meristem
68.] The maple leaf in the forest must compete with a large canopy of trees, which means very little sunlight may reach
it. To ensure that it can capture any sunlight that comes towards it, the leaf must be large. However, if the tree were
exposed in an open field, sunlight is not a concern, therefore the leaves do not have to be large. Also, too much sunlight
can cause excessive transpiration and water loss. Having a large leaf in an exposed environment can lead to a plant
dehydrating